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Agreement: A bibliography
Carole Tiberius, Greville Corbett, Julia Barron
Surrey Morphology Group
Department of Linguistic, Cultural and International Studies
University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey, GU2 7XH, UK.
This bibliography is produced as part of an ESRC project on Agreement (grant number R000238228). This support is gratefully acknowledged.
This bibliography comprises collections and special issues devoted to agreement (section A), monograph-length studies of agreement , mainly studies of agreement in particular languages (section B), articles and book chapters devoted to agreement (section C). There is a good deal of material on agreement in the Slavonic languages which is given a separate section (D).
This bibliography does not in general include works which may refer to agreement morphology in connection with language acquisition, language reconstruction or sign language.
This is a draft bibliography, which will be updated at intervals. We welcome additional items (to firstname.lastname@example.org), whether just the bibliographical entry or with a brief abstract (please give specific permission for us to use the abstract). We would be grateful for hard copies of items omitted (please send to the address at the top of the bibliography).
Section A: Collections and special issues
Alvarez, Gloria, Brodie, Belinda & McCoy, Terry (eds.) 1984. ESCOL ’84: Proceedings of the First Eastern States Conference on Linguistics. Columbus, Ohio: Ohio State University.
Barlow, Michael & Ferguson, Charles A. (eds.) 1988. Agreement in Natural Language: Approaches, Theories, Descriptions. Stanford, Center for the Study of Language and Information, Stanford University.
Bobaljik, Jonathan D. & Phillips, Colin (eds.) 1993. Papers on Case and Agreement. I (=MIT Working Papers in Linguistics 18). Cambridge, MA.: Department of Linguistics, MIT.
Brentari, Diane; Larson, Gary N. and MacLeod, Lynn A. (eds.) 1988. CLS 24: Papers from the 24th Annual Regional Meeting of the Chicago Linguistic Society: Part II: Parasession on Agreement in Grammatical Theory. Chicago: Chicago Linguistic Society.
Note: This is a collection of papers on aspects of agreement given at the 24th Annual Regional Meeting of the Chicago Linguistic Society.
Corbett, Greville (ed.) 1999. Folia Linguistica XXXIII/2 Special Issue on Agreement.
Danon-Boileau, Laurent, Morel, Mary-Annick & Tamba, Irène (eds.) 1996. L’Accord (Faits de langues 8). Paris: Ophrys.
Phillips, Colin (ed.) 1993. Papers on Case and Agreement. II (=MIT Working Papers in Linguistics 19). Cambridge, MA.: Department of Linguistics, MIT.
Plank, Frans (ed.) 1995. Double case: agreement by Suffixaufnahme. New York: Oxford University Press.
Section B: Monographs
(Monographs on Slavonic languages are included in Section D. These are Corbett (1979, 1983a), Crockett (1976), Grappin (1950), Iomdin (1990), Leko (1986), Mathiassen (1965), Megaard (1976), Mučnik (1971), Mullen (1967), Neidle (1988), Panov (1968), Patton (1969), Pesetsky (1982), Rozental’ (1960), Sand (1971), Schmidt (1995), Senkevič (1964), Skoblikova (1971), Stanojčić (1967), Suprun (1959, 1961, 1969), Vanek (1970).)
Alexander 1990. Agreement Configurations: Grammatical Relations in Modular Grammar. PhD dissertation, MIT.
Barlow, Michael 1988. A situated theory of agreement. Doctoral dissertation, Stanford University, Stanford. Published 1992, New York: Garland.
Topic: The nature and definition of agreement.
Note: The author makes the claim that agreement is not a redundant feature-copying morphosyntactic phenomenon, but that it is a non-directional feature-merging phenomenon in which information distributed throughout the sentence is unified. A Discourse-Linking Theory of agreement is presented in which it is claimed that agreement can only be understood as a situated phenomenon associated with information present in discourse situations and the communication of information between speaker and hearer.
Belnap, R. Kirk 1991. Grammatical agreement variation in Cairene Arabic (Arabic). PhD dissertation, University of Pennsylvania. [Distributed by University Microfilms International 1992, reference NIR92-00311.]
Benmamoun, Elabbas. 2000. The Feature Structure of Functional Categories: A Comparative Study of Arabic Dialects (Oxford Studies in Comparative Syntax). New York: Oxford University Press.
Bessler, Paul Robert 1994. Une Analyse morphosyntaxique de l'accord grammatical en français. PhD Dissertation. University of Toronto. [Dissertation Abstracts International, A: The Humanities and Social Sciences, 1995, 55, 12, June, 3828-A. Order No DANN 92607.]
Blinkenberg, Andreas 1950. Le Problème de l’accord en français moderne: essai d’un typologie. Copenhagen: Munksgaard.
Bok-Bennema, Reineke 1991. Case and Agreement in Inuit. Berlin: Foris.
Bosch, Peter 1983. Agreement and anaphora: a study of the role of pronouns in syntax and discourse. London: Academic Press.
Topic: Pronouns and anaphora
Note: This book explores the role of pronouns in syntax and discourse. It examines the accounts proposed to explain how pronouns refer and the constraints on their interpretation.
Chung, Sandra L. 1998. The Design of Agreement: Evidence from Chamorro. Chicago: University of Chicago Press
Cornish, Francis 1986. Anaphoric relations in English and French: A Discourse Perspective. London: Croom Helm.
Davies, William D. 1986. Choctaw verb agreement and universal grammar (Studies in Natural Language and Linguistic Theory). Dordrecht: Kluwer.
Dobrin, Lise M. 1999. Phonological form, morphological class, and syntactic gender: the noun class systems of Papua New Guinea Arapeshan. Unpublished PhD dissertation, University of Chicago.
Enrique, Andrés 1997. The Grammaticalization of Object Agreement in Spanish. PhD Dissertation. University of Southern California. [Dissertation Abstracts International, A: The Humanities and Social Sciences, 1998, 58, 11, May, 4253-A. Order No. DA9816021.]
Everett, Daniel 1996. Why there are no Clitics. An alternative perspective on pronominal allomorphy. SIL, Arlington.
Fabri, Ray 1987. An analysis of grammatical agreement in Maltese. Unpublished MA thesis, University of Düsseldorf.
Fabri, Ray 1993. Kongruenz und die Grammatik des Maltesischen (Linguistische Arbeiten 292). Tübingen: Niemeyer.
Findreng, Årne 1976. Zur Kongruenz in Person und Numerus zwischen Subjekt und finitem Verb im modernen Deutsch. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget.
Fisher, Ulla T. 1985. The Sweet Sound of Concord: A Study of Swedish Learners’ Concord Problems in English (Lund Studies in English 73). Malmö: CWK Gleerup.
Gelderen, Elly van. 1997. Verbal agreement and the grammar behind its breakdown: Minimalist feature checking (Linguistische Arbeiten 364). Tübingen: Max Niemeyer Verlag.
Topic: lack of agreement
Note: This book is about what the lack of agreement indicates about the structure of language. Van Gelderen shows that instances where agreement is deficient are not due to psychological factors, but to grammatical ones. She gives the following reasons: (a) Lack of Spec-Head agreement. For example, in Dutch, you get a breakdown of agreement when the subject follows the verb as in veeg jij je voeten (‘wipe your feet’) versus jij veegt je voeten (‘you wipe your feet’); (b) C/overt movement and expletives. Movement may result in features being checked by the wrong element, an expletive. Van Gelderen defines an expletive as an element ‘deficient’ in features. For example, ‘het’ in Dutch is specified for person and gender, but unspecified for number; (c) Impact from grammaticalising processes. Certain elements start out as lexical items, specific in meaning, but acquire a much more general lexical meaning and/or a more grammatical function. That is, they lose phi-features and change categorial features. For example, is ‘with’ a preposition or a conjunction; (d) Structural configurations/ambiguous structures. Certain complex structures are intransparent and only part of the structure might decide agreement. For example, coordinate structures. The book focuses on the discussion of Verb Subject, Verb Object, and Verb-wh agreement structures.
Hoyt, Frederick M. L. 2000. Agreement, specificity effects, and phrase structure in rural Palestinian Arabic existential constructions. MA thesis, Cornell University.
Høybye, Poul 1944. L'Accord en français contemporain: essai de grammaire descriptive. Copenhagen: Høst & Søns Forlag.
Jaeger, Christoph 1992. Probleme der syntaktischen Kongruenz: Theorie und Normvergleich im Deutschen (Reihe Germanistische Linguistik 132). Tübingen: Max Niemeyer.
Källström, Roger 1993. Kongruens i svenskan (Nordistica Gothoburgensia 16). Göteborg: Acta Universitatis Gothoburgensis.
Kathman, David Joseph 1994. The Morphosyntax of Complex Verb Agreement. PhD dissertation. The University of Chicago. [Dissertation Abstracts International, A: The Humanities and Social Sciences, 1995, 55, 12, June, 3829-A. Order No DA 9513992.]
Lambrecht, Knud. 1981. Topic, Antitopic and Verb Agreement in Non-Standard French. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Lapointe, Steven G.1980. A theory of grammatical agreement. Outstanding dissertations in linguistics. New York. Garland.
Levin, Magnus. 2001. Agreement with Collective Nouns in English (Lund Studies in English 103). Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell.
Note: This thesis concerns agreement with collective nouns in American, British and Australian English. It is based on material from newspaper corpora and spoken corpora. The findings suggest that dialectal, stylistic, diachronic, syntactic and semantic factors interact in the selection of singular and plural agreement. It was shown that there are differences between regional varieties, between speech and writing and between written and spoken genres. Syntactic influence on agreement was seen in the increased likelihood of plural agreement with increased distance between the noun (the controller) and its agreement-carrying words (the targets). This was observed both in the number of intervening words between a controller and its targets and in the difference between verbs, which are fairly close to their controllers, and pronouns. This trend was found in both speech and writing. These findings suggest that targets acquire more independence of the form of their controllers the further they are away. Semantic factors were also found to be important in British English. The noun itself plays a crucial role in the choice of agreement. A noun such as government very rarely takes singular verb agreement, whereas family takes either singular or plural agreement, and couple generally prefers the plural. A few verbs were found to require singular agreement with collective nouns (e.g. consist, be set up, increase), but other verb categories (e.g. think, say, work) were not found to influence agreement decisively. These and other features described indicate that a wide range of functional factors influence variation in agreement patterns. (author abstract)
Newman, Michael (1997) Epicene pronouns : the linguistics of a prescriptive problem NY: Garland Publishing (Outstanding Dissertations in Linguistics)
Pelletier, Rosanne Helen 1994. Aspects of the Syntax and Morphology of Telugu: Agreement and Negation in Verbal Projections. PhD dissertation. Yale University. [Dissertation Abstracts International, A: The Humanities and Social Sciences, 1994, 55, 6, Dec, 1547-A. Order No DA 9428303.]
Perry, Thomas A. 1975. Problems in Subject-Verb Agreement. PhD dissertation, Indiana University. [Distributed by University Microfilms, Ann Arbor, 76-11376.]
Roberts, Taylor 2000. Clitics and agreement. PhD dissertation MIT. Distributed as MIT Working Papers in Linguistics. Cambridge, MA.
Russell, Dale William. 1987. Cheyenne verb agreement in GPSG. PhD dissertation. University of Illinois. [Distributed by University Microfilms International. Ann Arbor. Oder No 8721749.]
Scancarelli, Janine 1987. Grammatical relations and verb agreement in Cherokee. PhD dissertation, University of Californian, Los Angeles. [Distributed by University Microforms International reference 8803692.]
Schütze, Carson T. 1997. INFL in Child and Adult Language: Agreement, Case, and Licensing. PhD dissertation, MIT.
Singer, Kora 1999. Agreement: Cross-linguistic variation and acquisition. PhD dissertation University of Chicago.
Note: This thesis concentrates on verb-argument agreement in OT.
Steele, Susan 1990. Agreement and Anti-Agreement: A Syntax of Luiseño (Studies in Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 17), Dordrecht: Kluwer.
Stefanescu, Ioana 1997. The Syntax of Agreement in Romanian. PhD dissertation, City University of New York. Distributed as MIT Occasional Papers in Linguistics no. 14. Cambridge, MA: MIT Working Papers in Linguistics, MIT, Department of Linguistics.
Tuite, Kevin 1998. Kartvelian morphosyntax: Number agreement and morphosyntactic orientation in the south Caucasian languages. Munich: Lincom Europa.
Vikner, Sten 1994. Verb movement and expletive subjects in the Germanic languages. Oxford University Press.
Watanabe, Akira 1996. Case absorption and WH-agreement (Studies in Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 37). Dordrecht: Kluwer.
Section C: Articles
Aikhenvald, Alexandra Y. 1994. Classifiers in Tariana. Anthropological.Linguistics 36 no 4. 407-465.
Aissen, Judith L. 1984. Surrogate Agreement in Tzotzil. In Alvarez, Gloria, Brodie, Belinda & McCoy, Terry (eds.) ESCOL ’84: Proceedings of the First Eastern States Conference on Linguistics. Columbus, Ohio: Ohio State University. 1-12.
Aissen, Judith L. 1988. Extensions of Brother-in-Law Agreement. In Michael Barlow and Charles A. Ferguson (eds.) Agreement in Natural Language: Approaches, Theories, Descriptions. Stanford: CSLI Publications. 219-235.
Topic: Non-regular controllers of agreement
Note: By making a distinction between Primary Agreement Controllers and Secondary Agreement Controllers, the author offers an account of agreement in constructions with non-regular controllers which is an extension of the ‘brother-in-law’ agreement of Relational Grammar. Secondary Agreement controllers (i.e. non-final terms) are allowed to control agreement on b if they head an arc which is overrun by an arc headed by a Primary Agreement Controller for b.
Aissen, Judith L. 1989. Agreement controllers and Tzotzil comitatives. Language 65. 518-536.
Aissen, Judith L. 1990. Towards a Theory of Agreement Controllers. In Postal, Paul M. and Brian D. Joseph (eds.) Studies in Relational Grammar 3. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 279-320.
Topic: Possible controllers of predicate agreement
Note: The author offers an account of the phenomenon by which agreement facts require reference to non-final grammatical relations. Agreement controllers may thus contain inherent features and features which are ‘acquired’ from noun phrases which they have ‘overrun’ in the course of the phrasal derivation, i.e. when they have assumed a grammatical function previously held by another noun phrase. Language specific rules will decide whether inherent or acquired agreement features are referred to in a particular domain.
Alexiadou, A. & Anagnostopoulou, E. 1998. Parametrizing Agr: word order, V-movement and EPP-checking. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 16. 491-539.
Allen, Barbara J., Donald G. Frantz, Donna B. Gardiner, David M. Perlmutter 1990. Verb Agreement, Possessor Ascension, and Multistratal Representation in Southern Tiwa. In Postal, Paul M. and Brian D. Joseph (eds.) Studies in Relational Grammar 3. Chicago. University of Chicago Press. 321-383.
Topic: Verbal agreement in possessive constructions
Note: In this paper the authors examine a set of apparently disparate constructions – possessor ascension, goal to 1 advancement, passive and 3-2 advancement - which exhibit the same verbal agreement prefix. The agreement prefixes are complex, providing information about final subjects and objects in a cumulative exponent. They argue that Southern Tiwa shares its basic clause structure with other languages, but that there is an additional agreement rule in the language which references the initial Absolutive relation. The apparently confusing agreement morphology can be explained by the interaction of this rule with the syntactic rules of advancement and ascension.
Allerton, David 1992. Problems of Modern English grammar II: Disagreement about agreement: Findings. English Studies: A Journal of English Language and Literature 73. No 5. Swets & Zeitlinger. 458-468.
Topic: English subject predicate agreement.
Note: The author tests a number of copular sentences in English to explore both the nature of subject predicate agreement and means of identifying the grammatical subject of such clauses. A number of conclusions are drawn regarding the relationship between epithet nouns and entity nouns and the preferences for agreement with each. It is illustrated that English seems to have a rigid subject-verb-predicative order in declarative sentences and that factors other than notions like heads and phrases have a role in determining agreement in English.
Almor, Amit, Maryellen C. MacDonald, Daniel Kempler, Elaine S. Andersen, and Lorraine K. Tyler. 2001. Comprehension of long distance number agreement in probable Alzheimer’s disease. Language and Cognitive Processes 16(1). 35-63.
Topic: number agreement and Alzheimer’s disease
Note: Patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) have difficulty comprehending spoken language. This difficulty is apparent in their conversational interaction as well as in their performance in many laboratory tasks. The origins of this difficulty, however, are not well understood. This paper describes research that was undertaken to investigate the role of working memory in processing dependencies of different types and different lengths by examining the effect of intervening material on AD patients and healthy normal controls’ on-line processing of grammatical (i.e. subject-verb) and discourse (i.e. antecedent-anaphor) number agreement.
Anderson, John 1982. A Disagreeable Note on Grammatical Relations. In René Dirven and Günter Radden (eds.) Issues in the Theory of Universal Grammar. Tübingen : G. Narr. 125-143.
Topic: Agreement controllers
Note: The author presents arguments in favour of a Relational Grammar theory of agreement controllers which states that agreement is conditional on termhood, rather than a requirement that only subjects can trigger agreement or that there is an agreement hierarchy such that indirect object agreement implies direct object agreement.
Anderson, John 1995. The Possessed. In F.R. Palmer (ed.) Grammar and Meaning: Essays in Honour of Sir John Lyons. England: Cambridge University Press. 162-174.
Anderson, Stephen R. 1974. On dis-agreement rules. Linguistic Inquiry 5. 445-451.
Anderson, Stephen R. 1984. On representations in morphology: case, agreement and inversion in Georgian. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 2.157-218.
Anderson, Stephen R. 1992. A-Morphous Morphology (Cambridge Studies in Linguistics 62). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (95-100, 103-118, 137-79).
Anderson, Stephen R. 1997. Remarks on Agreement and Incorporation Phenomena. In Lizanne Kaiser, ed., Studies in the Morphosyntax of Clitics, 29-44. (Y.A.L.E. working papers, vol. 1, 1997).
Andrews, Avery D. 1971. Case agreement of predicate modifiers in Ancient Greek. Linguistic Inquiry 2. 127-152.
Andrews, Avery D. 1973. Agreement and deletion. In Claudia Corum, T., Cedric Smith-Stark, Ann Weiser (eds.) CLS 9: Papers from the ninth regional meeting of the Chicago Linguistic Society. Chicago: Chicago Linguistic Society. 23-33.
Androutsopoulou, Antonia 2001. Adjectival Determiners in Albanian and Greek. In María Luisa Rivero and Angela Ralli (eds.) Comparative Syntax of the Balkan Languages. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 161– 199.
Note: Contains (somewhat limited) discussion of the agreement between the ‘genitive case’ particles and the possessor in possessive constructions. (This is discussed in somewhat more detail in Morgan 1984.)
Anward, Jan. 1988. Verb-Verb agreement in Swedish. McGill Working Papers in Linguistics: Special Issue on Comparative Germanic Syntax, May 1988. 1-33.
Aoun, Joseph, Benmamoun, Elabbas and Sportiche, Dominique 1994. Agreement, word order and conjunction in some varieties of Arabic. Linguistic Inquiry 25. 195-220.
Aoun, Joseph & Benmamoun, Elabbas. 1999. Gapping, PF merger and patterns of partial agreement. In Shalom Lappin & Elabbas Benmamoun (eds.) Fragments: Studies in Ellipsis and Gapping. New York: Oxford University Press. 175-192.
Aoun, Joseph; Benmamoun, Elabbas & Sportiche, Dominique. 1999. Further remarks on first conjunct agreement. Linguistic Inquiry 30. 669- 681.
Asyik, Abdul Gani 1983. The Agreement System in Acehnese. Mon-Khmer Studies XI. 1-33
Topic: The agreement system of Acehnese
Note: The author provides a description of the agreement system of Acehnese. Agreement is found with verbal and adjectival predicates. It is marked by affixes, the controller of which is the subject or some kind of agent (either animate or inanimate).
Avgustinova, Tania and Hans Uszkoreit forthcoming. Towards a Typology of Agreement Phenomena. In William Griffin (ed.) "The Role of Agreement in Natural Language": Proceedings of the 2001 Texas Linguistic Society Conference. Austin, Texas. 2-4 March 2001.
Topic: typology of agreement relations
Note: Agreement phenomena are instances of co-variation of linguistic forms which is typically realised as feature congruity, i.e. compatibility of values of identical grammatical categories of syntactically combined linguistic items. This paper focuses on the nature of the relations holding between the "agreeing" items. The main hypothesis is that systematic relations motivate shared patterns of variation cross-linguistically as well as across constructions resulting in a typology. A multidimensional taxonomy is proposed. The descriptive power of this taxonomy is demonstrated with examples from several Slavic languages.
Bailey, Guy, Maynor, Natalie and Cukor-Avila, Patricia 1989. Variation in subject-verb concord in Early Modern English. Language Variation and Change 1. 285-300.
Baker, Brett J. forthcoming. How referential is agreement? The interpretation of polysynthetic dis-agreement in Nglakgan. In Nicholas Evans and Hans-Jürgen Sasse (eds.) Problems of polysynthesis. Berlin: Akademie Verlag.
Topic: verbal markers
Note: With respect to argument affixes in polysynthetic languages, authors (e.g. Jelinek 1984, M. Baker 1996, Simpson 1991) have generally taken one of two positions. Either these affixes should be regarded as agreement markers, or as pronominal arguments (‘anaphors’). That is, these affixes are either arguments of the verb, or they merely agree with the nominal arguments, which may be covert. In this paper, Baker argues that this view is not correct and that there is a three-way division in the morphosyntactic and referential behaviour of argument prefixes in Ngalakgan: bound anaphoric pronouns, agreement suffixes, and a third category which cannot be properly characterised either as an agreement marker nor as an anaphor, which he calls ‘pronominal generic affixes’. Referentially, these generic suffixes have affinities with incorporated generic nouns, and need not agree with a coreferential argument.
Balari, S. 1992. Two types of agreement. Catalan Working Papers in Linguistics 1992. Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona. 1-43.
Topic: The definition of agreement
Note: The author proposes that, as a theory of agreement cannot be either purely semantic or purely syntactic, an approach in which agreement is understood as two separate but related phenomena is better motivated. He argues for two levels of agreement involving the introduction of a new feature infl in the head features of signs. Morphosyntactic agreement (e.g. subject-verb agreement in French) will be at the infl level, while agreement with predicative adjectives is semantic and will be at the index level in content. The two types of agreement relations are ‘Morphosyntactic Identification’ found in NP-internal configurations, where the infl value of the functor is structure-shared with the infl value of the argument, and ‘Index Identification’ found in subject-predicate agreement, which is the idenfication of the index which is the value of some role in the content of verbs. Other apparent agreement phenomena are reanalysed as instances of government.
Barbu, Cǎtǎlina, Evans, Richard and Mitkov, Ruslan. 2002. A corpus based investigation of morphological disagreement in anaphoric relations. In: Manuel González Rodríguez and Carmen Paz Suárez Araujo (eds) LREC2002: Third International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation: Proceedings: VI, Paris: European Language Resources Association. 1995-1999.
Barlow, Michael 1991. The Agreement Hierarchy and grammatical theory. In Laurel A. Sutton, Christopher Johnson and Ruth Shields (eds.) Proceedings of the Seventeenth Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society, February 15--18, 1991: General Session and Parasession on the Grammar of Event Structure. Berkeley: Berkeley Linguistics Society, University of California. 30-40.
Barlow, Michael 1993. Accommodating the Agreement Hierarchy in Linguistic Theories. Ms.
Topic: The definition of agreement
Note: The author explores the problems associated with incorporating the predictions of the Agreement Hierarchy (Corbett 1979, 1983, 1988) into contemporary theories of agreement (Bresnan and Mchombo 1987 and Zwicky 1987). He concludes that a clear distinction between syntactic and semantic agreement cannot be accommodated in either approach and that in fact the distinction is spurious. The Agreement Hierarchy could be considered to be a description of differences among agreement targets with respect to feature identity versus feature conflict with controllers. He proposes a solution within Discourse Linking Theory (Barlow 1992) which has a property-based account of agreement. Both nouns and agreement morphemes introduce discourse referents. The hierarchy can be restated as the increasing likelihood of the introduction of new properties as you move to the right of the hierarchy.
Barlow, Michael 1999. Agreement as a Discourse Phenomenon. In G. Corbett (ed.) Folia Linguistica XXXIII/2. Special Issue on Agreement. 187-210.
Note: Agreement is widely considered to be the prime example of a relation based on linguistic form in which the morphosyntactic specification of one category, such as a subject noun phrase, is redundantly expressed on a separate category such as a verb. In this paper, I discuss the problems inherent in such morphosyntactic accounts of agreement and argue that the consideration of a range of attested agreement patterns leads naturally to an account in which agreement relations are seen as links between discourse information structures. Taking a discourse perspective avoids the descriptive problems associated with current syntactic approaches to agreement and leads to a revealing reconsideration of the nature of agreement relations. (author abstract)
Bartos, Huba 1997. On ‘Subjective’ and ‘Objective’ Agreement in Hungarian. Acta Linguistica Hungarica, Vol. 44 (3-4). 363-384.
Topic: Object agreement in Hungarian
Note: The author examines the two verbal conjugations in Hungarian, ‘subjective’ and ‘objective’ and presents arguments against proposed analyses of conjugation choice as relating to object agreement in terms of number/person, definiteness or specificity. Instead an account is offered in which objects nominals are divided into two types – those with a DP layer, and those without. Conjugation choice is dependent upon Case checking at an object agreement functional projection. [An earlier version of this paper was published as ‘Object Agreement Licensing in Hungarian’. Working Papers in the Theory of Grammar, Vol 4. No3. Research Institute for Linguistics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences. Budapest.]
Bayer, J. 1984. Towards an explanation of certain that-t phenomena: The COMP-node in Bavarian. In W. de Geest and Y. Putseys (eds.) Sentential Complementation. Dordrecht: Foris. 23-32.
Belletti, A. 2001. Agreement Projections. In Mark Baltin and Chris Collins (eds.) The Handbook of Contempory Syntactic Theory. Oxford: Blackwell. 483-510.
Belnap, R. Kirk 1993. The meaning of deflected/strict agreement variation in Cairene Arabic. In Eid, Mushira and Clive Holes (eds.) Perspectives on Arabic Linguistics V: Papers from the Fifth Annual Symposium on Arabic Linguistics. (Amsterdam Studies in the Theory and Histroy of Linguistic Science. Vol 101.) Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 97-117.
Topic: Variability in agreement.
Note: A study is described in which agreement data were collected and analysed to examine variability between ‘strict’ and ‘deflected’ (feature mismatch) agreement with human and non-human head nouns. Various factors including social class, age/sex and distance between controller and target were assessed for variability. In addition a pyscholinguistic experiment is described. The author concludes that agreement variability is used by speakers to signal their perception of the referents so as to classify it more narrowly.
Belnap, R. Kirk 1999. A New Perspective on the History of Arabic Variation in Marking Agreement with Plural Heads. In G. Corbett (ed.) Folia Linguistica XXXIII/2. Special Issue on Agreement. 169-185.
Note: This paper examines variation in marking agreement in Arabic. In particular, the investigation focuses on the variation between plural and feminine singular agreement with plural head nouns. Tape-recorded naturalistic speech from sociolinguistic interviews conducted in Cairo constitute the data for the study of agreement in New Arabic. These results are compared to agreement patterns found in a corpus of Old Arabic texts. Some have suggested that the agreement variation found in New and Old Arabic varieties is random and meaningless. However, multivariate analysis of the Cairene and the Old Arabic patterns indicate both are systematic and that the two are similar in many respects. The agreement patterns in question appear to be a resource which speakers exploit to classify referents. It is generally agreed that the language contact situation resulting from the spread of Islam had a profound effect on the development of vernacular varieties of Arabic. Some have argued that the process of language shift to Arabic was rapid, resulting in deep-reaching changes in spoken varieties of Arabic. On the other hand, the formal variety of Arabic that came to be Classical Arabic is touted as having changed little. This study suggests that Classical Arabic, too, appears to be the result of some contact induced change and that the agreement system of Cairene is, in some ways, closer to that of early Old Arabic than is that of its standardized cousin, Modern Standard Arabic. From the standpoint of agreement, it would appear that varieties such as Cairene have changed less and that Classical Arabic changed more than one might suppose. These findings suggest that a re-examination of the history of Arabic is in order. (author abstract)
Benmamoun, Elabbas 1996. Agreement asymmetries and the PF interface. SOAS Working Papers in Linguistics 6. 106-128.
Bentley, Mayrene 1997. Variation in Bantu verbal agreement. In. Robert K. Herbert (ed.) African Linguistics at the Crossroads: Papers from Kwaluseni, 1st World Congress of African Linguistics, Swaziland, 18-22.7.1994. Cologne: Rüdiger Köppe. 239-250.
Berg, Helma van den 1999. Gender and person agreement in Akusha Dargi. In G. Corbett (ed.) Folia Linguistica XXXIII/2. Special Issue on Agreement. 153-168.
Note: Most Daghestanian languages show gender agreement between nouns and a broad set of targets, like verbs, adjectives, and local expressions. Dargi differs from other Daghestanian languages, among others, in that it shows person agreement in the verb as well. For that reason examples from the written standard are sometimes adduced in general linguistic literature. This article presents partly new data from the dialect of Akusha. An attempt will be made to find an adequate explanation for the presence of both ergative-absolutive and nominative-accusative patterns of agreement. (author abstract)
Bickel, Balthasar, 1995. In the vestibule of meaning: Transitivity inversion as a morphological phenomenon. Studies in Language 19. 73-127.
Bickel, Balthasar. 2000. On the syntax of agreement in Tibeto-Burman. Studies in Language 24. 583-609.
Bickel, Balthasar, Walter Bisang and Yogendra P. Yadava 1999. Face vs. empathy: the social foundation of Maithili verb agreement. Linguistics 37.3. 481 -518.
Bickel, Balthasar and Yogendra P. Yadava 2000. A fresh look at grammatical relations in Indo-Aryan. Lingua 110. 343-373.
Blevins, James P. 2000. Markedness and agreement. Transactions of the Philological Society. Volume 98:2. Blackwell Publishers. 233-262.
Bobaljik, Jonathan David 1997. If the Head Fits...: On the Morphological Determination of Germanic Syntax. Linguistics 35. 6(352). 1029-1055.
Bobaljik, Jonathan David. 1998. Pseudo-ergativity in Chukotko-Kamchatkan Agreement Systems. In Léa Nash (ed.) Recherches Linguistiques de Vincennes. Volume 27. Special volume on Ergativity.
Bobaljik, Jonathan D. 1999 Implications of Itelmen agreement asymmetries. In Steve S. Chang, Lily Liaw & Josef Ruppenhofer. Proceedings of the Twenty-Fifth Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society, February 12-15, 1999: General Session and Parasession on Loan Word Phenomena. Berkeley: Berkeley Linguistics Society, University of California. 299-310.
Bobaljik, Jonathan David. 2001. The implications of rich agreement: Why morphology doesn’t drive syntax. In: Karine Megerdoomian & Leora Anne Bar-el (eds) WCCFL 20: Proceedings of the 20th West Coast Conference on Formal Linguistics, Somerville: Cascadilla Press. 82-95.
Bobaljik, Jonathan D. and Susi Wurmbrand 1997. Preliminary notes on agreement in Itelmen. In B. Bruening, Y. Kang and M. McGinnis (eds.) PF: Papers at the interface. MIT Working Papers in Linguistics. Vol 30. 395-423. [Also published in Linguistic Discovery. Volume 1. Issue 1. 2002. URL: http://linguistic-discovery.dartmouth.edu/WebObjects/Linguistics]
Bock, Kathryn & J. Cooper Cutting 1992. Regulating mental energy: Performance units in language production. Journal of Memory and Language 31. 99-127
Bock, Kathryn & Kathleen M. Eberhard 1993. Meaning, sound and syntax in English number agreement. Language and Cognitive Processes 8. 57-99
Bock, Kathryn & Carol A. Miller 1991. Broken agreement. Cognitive Psychology 23. 45-93
Bock, Kathryn, Janet Nicol & J. Cooper Cutting 1999. The ties that bind: Creating number agreement in speech. Journal of Memory and Language 40. 3. 330-346
Boeckx, Cedric 2000. Quirky agreement. Studia Linguistica 54. 354-380.
Bokamba, Eyamba G. 1985. Verbal Agreement as a Noncyclic Rule in Bantu. In Didier L. Goyvaerts (ed.) African Linguistics: Essays in Memory of M.W.K. Semikenke (Studies in the Sciences of Language Series Vol 6). John Benjamins Publishing Company. Amsterdam/Philadelphia. 9-54.
Bokamba, Eyamba G. 1993. Language Variation and Change in Pervasively Multilingual Societies: Bantu Languages. In Salikoko S. Mufwene & Lioba Moshi (eds.) Topics in African Linguistics (Current Issues in Linguistic Theory 100), 207-252. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: John Benjamins Publishing Company.
Bonet, Eulalia 1994. The Person-Case Constraint: A Morphological Approach. MIT Working Papers in Linguistics. 22, July. 33-52.
Borer, Hagit. 1989. Anaphoric AGR. In Osvaldo Jaeggli & Kenneth J. Safir (eds.) The Null Subject Parameter (Studies in Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 15). Dordrecht: Kluwer. 69-109.
Börjars, Kersti, Nigel Vincent and Carol Chapman. 1997. Paradigms, periphrases and pronominal inflection: a feature-based account. In Geert Booij and Jaap van Marle (eds.) Yearbook of Morphology 1996. Kluwer Academic Publishers. 155-180.
Börjars, Kersti & Chapman, Carol. 1998. Agreement and pro-drop in some dialects of English. Linguistics 36. 71-98.
Branigan, Phil & MacKenzie, Marguerite. 2001. How much syntax can you fit into a word? Late insertion and verbal agreement in Innu-aimûn. In Suzanne Gessner Oh & Kayono Shiobara (eds.) Proceedings of WSCLA 5: UBC Working Papers in Linguistics 5.37-52.
Branigan, Phil & MacKenzie, Marguerite. 2002. Altruism, Ā-movement, and object agreement in Innu-aimûn. Linguistic Inquiry 22. 385-407
Bresnan, Joan and Sam A. Mchombo 1986. Grammatical and anaphoric agreement. In Papers from the Parasession on Pragmatics and Grammatical Theory at the Twenty-Second Annual Regional Meeting of the Chicago Linguistic Society. 278-297.
Bresnan, Joan and Sam A. Mchombo 1987. Topic, pronoun and agreement in Chichewa. Language 63. 741-782.
Topic: Pronominal agreement
Note: The authors illustrate the observation that ‘person, number and gender are precisely the pronominal categories which universally show agreement in anaphoric relations’ and claim that the asymmetrical behaviour of subject and object agreement markers in Chichewa, a head-marking language, is indicative of their different status. Object markers are seen to behave as incorporated pronouns, bearing person, number, gender and pred features. They may be anaphorically linked to a floating topic NP in the sentence. They cannot occur with an overt object and if a free pronoun is present it must be for reasons of contrastive focus or to introduce a new topic. Subject markers, on the other hand, have a dual function. They may behave as incorporated pronouns, however they may also be simply grammatical agreement markers. In the latter case, they lack the pred feature in their f-structure. The features are otherwise identical.
Bresnan, Joan & Moshi, Lioba. 1990. Object asymmetries in comparative Bantu syntax. Linguistic Inquiry 21. 147-185.
Brewer, Jeutonne 1973. Subject Concord of BE in Early Black English. American Speech, 48(1-2). 5-21.
Brown, Dunstan 1998. Defining 'Subgender': Virile and Devirilized Nouns in Polish. Lingua 104. 3-4. 187-233.
Butt, Miriam 1993 . Object specificity and agreement in Hindi/Urdu. In Katharine Beals et al. (eds.) CLS 29: Papers from the 29th Regional Meeting of the Chicago Linguistic Society. Chicago: Chicago Linguistic Society. 89-103.
Byarushengo, Ernest Rugwa and Sarah Tenenbaum 1976. Agreement and Word Order: A Case for pragmatics in Haya. In Proceedings of the Second Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society. 2. 89-99.
Cameron, Richard 1993. Ambiguous agreement, functional compensation, and nonspecific tú in the Spanish of San Juan, Puerto Rico, and Madrid, Spain. Language Variation and Change 5. 305-334.
Carmack, Stanford 1997. Blocking in Georgian Verb Morphology. Language 73, 2 June. 314-338.
Carstens, Vicki 2000. Concord in Minimalist Theory. Linguistic Inquiry 31. 319-355.
Chafe, Wallace L. 1977. The evolution of third person verb agreement in the Iroquoian languages. In Charles N. Li (ed.) Mechanisms of Syntactic Change. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. 493-524.
Chung, Sandra 1994. Wh-Agreement and "Referentiality" in Chamorro. Linguistic Inquiry 25, 1, winter. 1-44.
Chung, Sandra and Carol Georgopoulos. 1988. Agreement with Gaps in Chamorro and Palauan. In Michael Barlow and Charles A. Ferguson (eds.) Agreement in natural language: approaches, theories, descriptions. Stanford: CSLI Publications. 251-267.
Note: The authors argue that Chamorro and Palauan illustrate the logical extension of the claim by Keenan (1974) that functions may agree with their arguments in that they exhibit WH-agreement. The verb of a relative clause or a constituent question may agree in grammatical function with the gap controlled by the head NP or the displaced interrogative phrase. In these languages the morphology which normally distinguishes realis/irrealis mood is co-opted to signal agreement with the grammatical function of a gap.
Clahsen, Harald. 1986. Verb inflections in German child language: acquisition of agreement markings and the functions they encode. Linguistics 24. 79-121.
Clahsen, Harald & Penke, Martina 1992. The acquisition of agreement morphology and its syntactic consequences: New evidence on German child language from the Simone-corpus. In J. Meisel (ed.) The Acquisition of Verb Placement: Functional Categories and V2 Phenomena in Language Acquisition. Dordrecht: Kluwer. 181-223.
Comrie, Bernard 1975. Polite plurals and predicate agreement. Language 51. 406-418.
Comrie, Bernard 1980. Agreement, animacy and voice. In Gunter Brettschneider and Christian Lehmann (eds.) Wege zur Universalienforschung: Sprachwissenschaftliche Beiträge zum 60. Geburtstag von Hansjakob Seiler (Tübinger Beiträge zur Linguistik 145). Tübingen: Narr. 229–234.
Comrie, Bernard 1982. Verb agreement in Ket. In H. I. Aronson and B. J. Darden (eds.) Papers from the Second Conference on the Non-Slavic Languages of the USSR. Folia Slavica 5:1-3. Columbus, Ohio: Slavica. 115-127.
Comrie, Bernard 1984a. Agreement as a Research Tool. In Proceedings of the First Eastern States Conference on Linguistics. The Ohio State University. September 28-30. 13-26.
Comrie, Bernard 1984b. Reflections on verb agreement in Hindi and related languages. Linguistics 22. 857-864.
Comrie, Bernard. 1985. Reply to Saksena: Further reflections on verb agreement in Hindi. Linguistics 23. 143-145.
Comrie, Bernard. 1997. The typology of predicate case marking. In Joan Bybee, John Haiman and Sandra A. Thompson (eds.) Essays on language function and language type. Dedicated to T. Givón. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Co. 39-50.
Topic: Case marking of predicate nominals in copular constructions
Note: The author argues that there are two possibilities for case assignment to predicate nominals in copular constructions: case can be assigned by government (by the copula) which manifests itself as a difference between the case of the subject and that of the predicate nominal; case can also be assigned by agreement, where the case of the nominal predicate co-varies with that of the subject. Such an analysis would have to include case as a possible agreement feature.
Contini-Morava, Ellen. 1996. Things in a Noun-Class Language. Semantic Functions of Agreement in Swahili. In E. Andrews and Y. Tobin (eds.) Toward a Calculus of Meaning. Studies in Markedness, Distinctive Features and Deixis. Amsterdam, Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 251-290.
Corbett, Greville G. 1979. The agreement hierarchy. Journal of Linguistics 15. 203-224.
Corbett, Greville G. and Mtenje, Alfred D. 1987. Gender agreement in Chichewa. Studies in African Linguistics 18. 1-38.
Corbett, Greville G. 1995. Agreement. In Jacobs, Joachim, von Stechow, Arnim, Sternefeld, Wolfgang, and Vennemann, Theo (eds.) Syntax: ein internationales Handbuch zeitgenössischer Forschung. (An International Handbook of Contemporary Research) Vol. 2. Berlin. Walter de Gruyter. 1235-1244.
Corbett, Greville G. 1998. Morphology and Agreement . In Andrew Spencer and Arnold M. Zwicky (eds.) The Handbook of Morphology. Blackwell Publisher. 191-205.
Corbett, Greville G. 1999. The place of agreement features in a specification of possible agreement systems. In G. Corbett (ed.) Folia Linguistica XXXIII/2. Special Issue on Agreement. 211-223.
Note: Agreement features introduce greater complexity into agreement systems than is generally recognized. They may determine the agreement domain (Dargi) and certain combinations of feature values can rule out particular sentence types (Tsakhur). Feature interactions show three levels of complexity: just the target may be involved (German), or a computation of controller feature values may be required (Slovene), or computation may involve a covert feature (Miya). (author abstract)
Corbett, Greville G. forthcoming a. Agreement: Terms and boundaries. In William Griffin (ed.) "The Role of Agreement in Natural Language": Proceedings of the 2001 Texas Linguistic Society Conference. Austin, Texas. 2-4 March 2001.
Corbett, Greville G. forthcoming b. Agreement: Canonical instances and the extent of the phenomenon. In Janet DeCesaris, Geert Booij, Angela Ralli & Sergio Scalise (eds.) Proceedings of the Third Mediterranean Morphology Meeting, Barcelona 2001.
Cornish, Francis. 2000. L’accord, l’anaphore et la référence: quelques enjeux. In Martine Coene, Walter De Mulder, Patrick Dendale & Yves D’Hulst (eds.) Traiani Augusti vestigia pressa sequamur: Studia lingvistica in honorem Lilianae Tasmowski. Padova: Unipress. 509-533.
Costa, João. 2001. Postverbal subjects and agreement in unaccusative contexts in European Portuguese. The Linguistic Review 18. Walter de Gruyter. 1-17.
Topic: postverbal subject agreement in unaccusative contexts
Note: This article discusses cases of subject-predicate agreement of postverbal subjects of unaccusative verbs with the verb in colloquial European Portuguese. Subjects of unaccusatives in European Portuguese are different from subjects of transitives and intransitives in two respects. They are the only allowed postverbal subjects in sentence-focus contexts (i.e. contexts in which all elements of a sentence convey new information), and leaving aside coordinated subjects, they are the only postverbal subjects that allow a not fully agreeing verb, that is, in colloquial speech, it is possible for plural subjects of unaccusative verbs in postverbal position to trigger 3rd person singular verb agreement. In this paper, Costa proposes an analysis of the behavior of subjects of unaccusative verbs in terms of Case. It is proposed that in colloquial European Portuguese, the argument of unaccusatives is not obligatorily assigned nominative case. This proposal is formalised.
Croft, William 1988. Agreement vs. Case Marking and Direct Objects. In Michael Barlow and Charles A. Ferguson (eds.) Agreement in Natural Language: Approaches, Theories, Descriptions. Stanford: CSLI Publications. 159-179.
Topic: Markedness of direct objects.
Note: The author examines the problem of characterising the behaviour of direct objects with respect to agreement and case-marking. In the light of contradictory views as to the marked/unmarked status of definite/animate direct objects, the author proposes an account based on the notion of relative markedness. Agreement, which serves to cross-reference salient arguments, will always align itself with high animacy, high definiteness and core grammatical relations. Case marking typically denotes non-obvious grammatical relations. Thus the presence of agreement with a direct object implies that the entity is less marked, while case marking is associated with the lower end of the case hierarchy, so the presence of case marking on a direct object implies that the entity is more marked. The natural correlation of direct objects is with low animacy, low definiteness and highly affected objects.
Culy, Christopher. 1996. Agreement and Fula Pronouns. Studies in African Linguistics Volume 25, Number 1. 1-27.
Topic: agreement patterns of pronouns in Fula
Note: This paper is concerned with agreement patterns exhibited by pronouns in five varieties of Fula, a West Atlantic language of Niger Congo. It focusses in particular on un unusual type of agreement which is exhibited by some pronouns in Fula, i.e. agreement in pronominality. Like pronouns in general, the class of pronouns which refers to the 3rd person singular human class, agrees in number, person, and noun class with the elements they cospecify with. However, in Fula, these pronouns can only cospecify with another pronoun of that class; they cannot cospecify with a full NP in the same clause. Thus, if two such pronouns occur within the same clause, they can be coreferent or they can pick up their reference external to the clause as normal pronominals.
Dalmi, Gréte 1998. On Object Agreement in Hungarian. Working Papers in the Theory of Grammar, Vol 5. No 2. Research Institute for Linguistics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences. Budapest.
Topic: Object agreement in Hungarian
Note: The author examines ‘subjective’ vs. ‘objective’ choice in verbal conjunctions and offers an alternative account to that proposed by Bartos (1996) [See Bartos (1997) in this bibliography]. The proposal is that the choice of agreement conjugation is motivated by differences in movement distance of the verbal head. Definite Object Agreement involves Short Head Movement, while Indefinite Object Agreement involves Long Head Movement.
Dalrymple, Mary & Kaplan, Ronald M. 2000. Feature indeterminacy and feature resolution. Language 76. 759-798.
Delisle, Gilles L. 1973. Non-Standard Concord and the Marking Hypothesis. Working Papers on Language Universals, No 11, April 1973. Stanford University. 85-138.
Demuth, Katherine A. 1988. Noun Classes and Agreement in Sesotho Acquisition. In Michael Barlow and Charles A. Ferguson (eds.) Agreement in Natural Language: Approaches, Theories, Descriptions. Stanford: CSLI Publications. 305-321.
Topic: The acquisition of agreement marking.
Note: The author presents the results of a study into the acquisition of agreement in 4 children aged 2- 4½. It appeared that the children used nominal-modifier agreement before the systematic marking of nouns, but did not have most of the anticipated problems of acquisition, such as overgeneralization. The author speculates that children appeared to focus not simply on the nouns themselves but on the entire nominal or verbal phrase with its agreement information so that in Sosotho nouns are learned in conjunction with their gender class features, not in isolation. This is helped by the phonological transparency of class features within phrases.
Demuth, Katherine and Mark Johnson 1989. Interaction between Discourse Functions and Agreement in Setawana. Journal of African Languages and Linguistics 11: 21-35.
Deutsch, Avital and Shlomo Bentin 2001. Syntactic and Semnatic Factors in Processing Gender Agreement in Hebrew: Evidence from ERPs and Eye Movements. Journal of Memory and Language 45. 200-224.
Topic: gender agreement
Note: This paper discusses the interrelation between syntactic analysis of agreement and semantic processing by recording eye-movement and event-related potentials (ERPs). They test the hypothesis that if the processing of agreement is sensitive to semantic factors, then the interference effect induced by the violation of agreement should be greater for sentences in which the sentential subject is animate than for thoses sentences in which it is inanimate. The results of the experiments support this.
Dikken, Marcel den 1999. On the structural representation of possession and agreement: the case of (anti-)agreement in Hungarian possessed nominal phrases. In István Kenesei (ed.) Crossing Boundaries: Advances in the Theory of Central and Eastern European Languages (=Amsterdam Studies in the Theory and History of Linguistic Science, Series IV, Current Issues in Linguistic Theory volume 182), Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 137-178.
Dikken, Marcel den. 2001. Pluringulars, pronouns and quirky agreement. Linguistic Review 18. 19-41.
Dingwall, William, O. 1969. Government, Concord and Feature-Change Rules. Glossa 3:2. 210-240.
Dixon, R.M.W. 1977. Semantic Neutralization for Phonological Reasons. Linguistic Inquiry. Vol 8. No 3. 599-602.
Topic: lack of agreement in English
Note: This squib discusses cases where agreement is suspended in colloquial English. For example, plural nouns in English must select the copula form are (‘re) in preference to is. However, in a where-sentence the reduced copula ’s can also be used as an alternative to ’re/are because ’re/are would be phonologically disharmonious with the preceding question word where. An analogous case concerns the use of are instead of am before n’t in sentences like Aren’t I silly.
Dobrin, Lise M. 1995. Theoretical consequences of literal alliterative concord. In Audra Dainora, Rachel Hemphill, Barbara Luka, Barbara Need and Sheri Pargman (eds.) CLS 31: Papers from the 31st Regional Meeting of the Chicago Linguistic Society: I: The Main Session. Chicago: Chicago Linguistic Society. 127-142.
Dobrin, Lise M. 1998. The morphosyntactic reality of phonological form. In: Geert Booij & Jaap van Marle (eds.) Yearbook of Morphology 1997. Dordrecht: Kluwer. 59-81.
Donohue, Mark 1998. A note on verbal agreement in Maung. Australian Journal of Linguistics 18. 73-89.
Dorel, Martine & Sezer, Engin 1981. Discourse conditions and gender smearing in French. In William Cressey and Donna Jo Napoli (eds.) Linguistic Symposium on Romance Languages: 9. Washington DC: Georgetown University Press. 197-215.
Doron, Edit. 1988. On the Complementarity of Subject and Subject-Verb Agreement. In Michael Barlow and Charles A. Ferguson (eds.) Agreement in Natural Language: Approaches, Theories, Descriptions. Stanford: CSLI Publications. 201-218.
Topic: Null subjects and pro-drop.
Note: The author explores the null subject phenomena in the languages cited above. In Irish person and number inflection is incompatible with a lexical subject, in Welsh such inflection is incompatible with non-pronominal NPs, while in Chamorro it is incompatible with overt pronouns. Hebrew patterns like Chamorro. The author presents data in support of the claim that the null subject in Hebrew obtains only when the pronoun is in a ‘clitic configuration’, a particular configuration where the features of the complement are all contained in the features of the head. In a clitic configuration, Case is assigned to the clitic on the head and thus the head’s features are phonetically realised, not the complement’s features. Thus a phonetically overt pronoun complement would violate the Case Filter. In Celtic languages, on the other hand, the complementarity of inflection and overt subjects is due to their having incorporated subject pronouns. They are not null-subject languages.
Dowty, David and Pauline Jacobson 1988. Agreement as a Semantic Phenomenon. In Joyce Powers and Kenneth de Jong (eds.) Proceedings of the Fifth Eastern States Conference on Linguistics. Ohio State University. 95-108.
Dressler, Wolfgang U. and Doleschal, Ursula. 1990-91. Gender agreement via derivational morphology. Acta Linguistica Hungarica 40. 115-137.
Driem, George van 1991. Tangut verbal agreement and the patient category in Tibeto-Burman. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 54. 520-534.
Driem, George van 1993. The Proto-Tibeto-Burman verbal agreement system. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 56. 292-334.
Eberhard, Kathleen M. 1997. The marked effect of number on subject-verb agreement. Journal of Memory and Language 36. 2. 147-164.
Eid, Mushira. 1992. Pronouns, Questions and Agreement. In Ellen Broselow, Mushira Eid, and John McCarthy Perspectives on Arabic Linguistics IV. Papers from the Fourth Annual Symposium on Arabic Linguistics. 107-141.
England, John 1976. ‘Dixo Rachel E Vidas’: Subject-Verb Agreement in Old Spanish. The Modern Language Review. Vol 71. No 4. 812-826.
Enrique-Arias, Andrés. 2002. Accounting for the position of verbal agreement morphology with psycholinguistic and diachronic explanatory factors. Studies in Language 26.1-31.
Evans, Nicholas. 1999. Why argument affixes in polysynthetic languages are not pronouns: evidence from Bininj Gun-wok. Sprachtypologie und Universalienforschung. Berlin 52, 3/4. 255-281.
Topic: the status of verbal markers
Note: In this paper, Nicholas Evans argues that accounts of polysynthetic structure which simply see polysynthetic languages as verbs whose arguments are directly represented on the verb are inaccurate, and will be driven to forced and unnatural accounts for a whole range of construction types in which object affixes do not correspond to free personal pronouns. With examples from Bininj Gun-wok, he illustrates that argument prefixes can be used to represent objects in a range of circumstances where free personal pronouns would be inappropriate, such as generic objects, indefinite and certain non-referential objects
Faarlund, Jan Terje 1977. Embedded clause reduction and Scandinavian gender agreement. Journal of Linguistics 13. 239-257.
Fabri, Ray 1993. The Subject Agreement Paradigm in Classical Arabic. Theorie des Lexikons, Arbeiten des Sonderforschungsbereich 282, No 38. Heinrich Heine Universität, Düsseldorf. 1-32.
Farkas, Donka & Ojeda, Almerindo 1983. Agreement and coordinate NPs. Linguistics 21. 659–673.
Farkas, Donka F. and Zec, Draga 1995. Agreement and pronominal reference. In Guglielmo Cinque and Giuliana Giusti (eds.) Advances in Roumanian Linguistics (Linguistik Aktuell 10), Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 83-101.
Fassi Fehri, Abdelkader 1981. Théorie lexicale-fonctionnelle, contrôle et accord en arabe moderne. Arabica 28. 299-332.
Fassi Fehri, Abdelkader 1988. Agreement in Arabic, Binding and Coherence. In Michael Barlow and Charles A. Ferguson (eds.) Agreement in Natural Language: Approaches, Theories, Descriptions. Stanford: CSLI Publications. 107-158.
Topic: Possible agreement systems
Note: The author discusses three hypotheses of agreement systems arising from approaches to the nature of the verbal affix in pro drop languages: the agreement hypothesis, the incorporation hypothesis and the non-pronominal theory. He rejects the GB characterisation of pro drop as involving strict feature matching between AGR and pro. Affixes in Arabic can be pronominal or nonpronominal and so some have two lexical entries, depending upon whether they occur with non-pronominal NPs or with pronouns. He distinguishes 3 types of agreement which are defined in terms of their domains at f-structure: Type I "internal" agreement, where the agreement domain is the f-structure containing a predicate and its subcategorised functions; Type II agreement, where the f-structure is a larger domain and agreement with modifiers and adjuncts is possible; and Type III "external agreement" in which the controller is external to the f-structure of the target. The author then illustrates the different binding relations associated with each type.
Fauconnier, Gilles. 1973. Cyclic attraction into networks of coreference. Language 49. 1-18.
Fayol, Michel, Largy, Pierre & Lemaire, Patrick 1994. Cognitive overload and orthographic errors: when cognitive overload enhances subject-verb agreement errors: a study in French written language. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 47A. 437-464.
Ferguson, Charles A. 1996. Variation and drift: loss of agreement in Germanic. In Gregory R. Guy et al. (eds.) Towards a social science of language: Papers in honor of William Labov: Vol 1, Variation and change in language and society. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 173-198.
Frajzyngier, Zygmunt 1985. Ergativity, number, and agreement. In Mary Niepokuj, Mary VanClay, Vassiliki Nikiforidou, and Deborah Feder (eds.) Proceedings of the Eleventh Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistic Society. Berkeley, California. 96-106.
Frajzyngier, Zygmunt 1997. Pronouns and agreement: systems interaction in the coding of reference. In Hans Bennis, Pierre Pica and Johan Rooryck (eds.) Atomism and Binding. Dordrecht: Foris. 115-140.
Francis, W.N. 1968. Proximity concord in English. Journal of English Linguistics 19. 309-318.
Frascarelli, Mara 1999. Subject, nominative case, agreement and focus. In Lunella Mereu (ed.) Boundaries of morphology and syntax (Series: Current Issues in Linguistic Theory 180). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 195-215.
Friedman, Victor A. 1996. Gender, Class, and Age in the Daghestanian Highlands: Towards a Unified Account of the Morphology of Agreement in Lak. In Howard I. Aronson (ed.) NSL.8: Linguistic Studies in the Non-Slavic Languages of the Commonwealth of Independent States and the Baltic Republics. Chicago: Chicago Linguistic Society. 187-199.
Gair, James W. & Wali, Kashi. 1989. Hindi agreement as anaphor. Linguistics 27. 45-70.
Gallmann, Peter 1990. Kategoriell komplexe Wortformen. Das Zusammanwirken von Morphologie und Syntax bei der Flexion von Nomen und Adjektiv. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer Verlag.
Note:Includes information about (non) agreement of nouns with their modifiers, and the (non) agreement of nouns in apposition/juxtaposition to other nouns. (See also Lindauer 1995, Schachtl 1989).
Galves, Charlotte 1998. Topics, Subjects, Pronouns and Agreement in Brazilian Portuguese (Original Title: Topicos, sujeitos, pronomes e concordancia no Portugues Brasileiro) Cadernos de Estudos Linguisticos 34. Jan-June. 19-31.
Gavarró, Anna. 2002. Failure to agree in agrammatism. In Elisabetta Fava Clinical Linguistics: Theory and Applications in Speech Pathology and Therapy. (Series: Current Issues in Linguistic Theory 227). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 267-278.
Gelderen, Elly van 1992. Arguments without number: the case of it and het. Linguistics 30. 381-387.
Georgopoulos, Carol. 1991. A and A' agreement. Lingua 85. 135-169.
Gil, David 2001. Noun-phrase types and the number marking of anaphors. Sprachtypologie und Universalienforschung 54. 3-25.
Givón, Talmy. 1970. The resolution of gender conflicts in Bantu conjunction: When syntax and semantics clash. Papers from the Sixth Regional Meeting, Chicago Linguistic Society, Chicago: Chicago Linguistic Society. 250-261.
Givón, Talmy. 1976. Topic, pronoun and grammatical agreement. In Charles N. Li (ed.) Subject and topic, 149–88. New York: Academic Press.
Green, Georgia M. 1984. Why Agreement Must be Stipulated for There-Insertion. In Alvarez, Gloria, Brodie, Belinda & McCoy, Terry (eds.) ESCOL ’84: Proceedings of the First Eastern States Conference on Linguistics. Columbus, Ohio: Ohio State University. 27-34.
Gross, Maurice. 1974. A remark about plural agreement between determiner and noun. Linguistic Inquiry 5. 620-622.
Hall, Katherine 1984. Split-Ergativity in the De’kwana (Carib) Pronominal Agreement System. In Alvarez, Gloria, Brodie, Belinda & McCoy, Terry (eds.) ESCOL ’84: Proceedings of the First Eastern States Conference on Linguistics. Columbus, Ohio: Ohio State University. 35-45.
Hallman, Peter. 2000. The structure of agreement failure in Lebanese Arabic. In: Roger Billerey and Brook Danielle Lillehaugen (eds) WCCFL 19: Proceedings of the 19th West Coast Conference on Formal Linguistics. Somerville: Cascadilla Press. 178-190.
Harris, Alice. 1978. Number agreement in Modern Georgian. In Bernard Comrie (ed.) Classification of grammatical categories (=International Review of Slavic Linguistics 3, 1-2), Edmonton: Linguistic Research Inc. 75-98.
Harris, Alice C. 1994. Ergative-to-nominative shift in agreement: Tabassaran. In Howard I. Aronson (ed.) NSL 7: Linguistic Studies in the Non-Slavic Languages of the Commonwealth of Independent States and the Baltic Republics. Chicago: Chicago Linguistic Society. 113-131.
Harris, Alice C. 1981 .N-agreement: in Old Georgian.. In: Bernard Comrie (ed.), Studies in the Languages of the USSR. Edmonston: Linguistic Research. [Reprinted 1983 in: Papers in Linguistics 16.121-146.]
Harris, Alice C. 1984 .Case marking, verb agreement:, and inversion in Udi. In: David M. Perlmutter and Carol G. Rosen (eds) Studies in Relational Grammar, II, 243-258. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Harris, James W. 1987. Disagreement rules, referral rules and the Spanish feminine article el. Journal of Linguistics 23. 177-183.
Haspelmath, Martin 1999. Long distance agreement in Godoberi (Daghestanian) complement clauses. In G. Corbett (ed.) Folia Linguistica XXXIII/2. Special Issue on Agreement. 131-151.
Note: The term long distance agreement is used here for a construction in which the complement-taking verb agrees with an argument of its complement clause. Long distance agreement in gender occurs with certain complement-taking verbs in Godoberi, a Nakh-Daghestanian language. This kind of agreement is quite unusual cross-linguistically, and unexpected also from the point of view of current theories of agreement. While Daghestanian agreement syntax is unusual in several other respects as well, I show in this paper that long-distance agreement in Godoberi is not as "exotic" as it appears at first sight. The complement-taking verbs with which it occurs are those that commonly occur in clause-union constructions in other languages, and a similar analysis is proposed for Godoberi here. In this perspective, long distance agreement can be taken as one symptom of incipient grammaticalization of the complement-taking verbs. I cite parallels from other languages and end with a brief general discussion of the role of grammaticalization in the diachronic spread of agreement to new targets. (author abstract)
Hayward, Richard J. 1998. The origins of the North Ometo verb agreement systems. Journal of African Languages and Linguistics 19. Walter de Gruyter. 93-111.
Hazen, Kirk (2000) Subject-Verb Concord in a Postinsular Dialect. Journal of English Linguistics, Vol. 28, No. 2. 127-144.
Topic: Diachronic language change
Note: The paper describes a survey of subject-verb agreement in18 ancestral islanders of Ocracoke. It describes the superstratum and substratum dialects – 18th century British English and 18th century Scots-Irish English respectively. The use of nonstandard 3rd singular concord with plural subjects is attributed to a two major factors: coordinated NP subjects and proximity to subject, while inflectional –s was rarely found with plural pronouns. This behaviour is attributed to dialect contact in 17th and 18th centuries and a persistence of the substrate dialect in modern speakers.
Heath, Jeffrey G. 1997. Lost wax: abrupt replacement of key morphemes in Australian agreement complexes. Diachronica 14. 2. fall. 197-232.
Heine, Bernd. 2000. Grammaticalization chains across languages: An example from Khoisan. In: Spike Gildea (ed.) Reconstructing Grammar: Comparative linguistics and grammaticalization, 177-199. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. [Published version of: Heine, Bernd. 1997. On gender agreement in Central Khoisan (Khoisan Forum at the Institut für Afrikanistik, University of Cologne, Germany, Working paper 4). Cologne: Institut für Afrikanistik, Universität. zu Köln.]
Helmbrecht, J. 1996. The syntax of person agreement in East Caucasian languages Sprachtypologie und Universalienforschung 49. 127-148.
Hetzron, Robert 1967. Agaw numerals and incongruence in Semitic. Journal of Semitic Studies. Vol 12. No 2. 169-197.
Hetzron, Robert 1972. Phonology in Syntax. Journal of Linguistics 8. 251-265.
Hetzron, Robert 1973. Conjoining and comitativization in Hungarian - a study of rule ordering. Foundations of Language 10. 493-507.
Hetzron, Robert 1974. Extrinsic Ordering in Classical Arabic. In Robert Hetzron and Santa Barbara (eds.) Afriasiatic Linguistics. Vol 1. Issue 3. (Monographic Journals of the Near East). Udena Publications. 1-20.
Hetzron, Robert 1995. Genitival Agreement in Awngi: Variation on an Afroasiatic Theme. In Frans Plank (ed.) Double case: agreement by Suffixaufnahme. New York, NY: Oxford U Press Inc., 1995, 325-335.
Hewitt, Steve 2002. The impersonal in Breton. Journal of Celtic Linguistics 7. 1-39.
Hoeksema, Jack 1986. Some theoretical consequences of Dutch complementizer agreement. In Vassiliki Nikiforidou, Mary VanClay and Mary Niepokij, Deborah Feder (eds.) Proceedings of the Twelfth Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society. 147-158.
Holmberg, Anders. 2001. Expletives and Agreement in Scandinavian Passives. Journal of Comparative Germanic Linguistics 4. 85-128.
Hongkai, Sun 1995. A further discussion on verb agreement in Tibeto-Burman languages. In Yoshio Nishi, James A. Matisoff, &Yasuhiko Nagano (eds.). New Horizons in Tibeto-Burman Morphosyntax (Senri Ethnological Studies 41), 17-29. Osaka: National Museum of Ethnology.
Hook, Peter Edwin and Dayashankar M. Joshi 1991. Concordant Adverbs and Postpositions in Gujarati. Indian Linguistics 52. 1-14.
Hoyt, Frederick. 2002. Impersonal agreement as a specificity effect in rural Palestinian Arabic. In: Delworth B. Parkinson & Elabbas Benmamoun (eds.) Perspectives on Arabic Linguistics XIII-XIV: Papers from the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Annual Symposia on Arabic Linguistics (Current Issues in Linguistic Theory 230). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 111-141.
Hudson, Richard 1999. Subject-verb agreement in English. English Language and Linguistics 3. 173-207.
Hulk, Aafke and Tellier, Christine 1999. Conflictual agreement in Romance nominals. In J.-Marc Authier, Barbara E. Bullock & Lisa Reed (eds.) Formal Perspectives on Romance Linguistics: Selected papers from the 28th Linguistic Symposium on Romance Languages (LSRL XXVIII), University Park, 16-19 April 1998 (Current Issues in Linguistic Theory 185). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 179-195.
Iatridou, Sabine 1990. About AgrP. Linguistic Inquiry 21. 551-577.
Ingham, Richard 1998. Tense Without Agreement in Early Clause Structure. Language Acquisition 7(1).51-81.
Jacobssen, Bengt 1990. Subject-verb concord in equative sentences in English. Studia Linguistica 44. 30-58.
Jake, Janice L. 1980. Object Verb Agreement in Tigre. In Kisseberth, Charles W., Braj B. Kachru and Jerry L. Morgan (eds.) Studies in the Linguistic Sciences. Vol. 10. No 1. Urbana, Illinois: Department of Linguistics, University of Illinois. 71-84.
Janda, Richard D. & Varela-García, Fabiola. 1991. On lateral hermaphroditism and other variation in Spanish "feminine" el. In Lise M. Dobrin, Lynn Nichols & Rosa M. Rodríguez. (eds) CLS 27: Papers from the 27th Regional Meeting of the Chicago Linguistic Society 1991: Part I The General Session, 276-290. Chicago: Chicago Linguistic Society.
Janda, Richard D. 1995. From Agreement Affix to Subject "Clitic"– and Bound Root: -mos > -nos vs. (-)nos(-) and nos-otros in New Mexican and other Regional Spanish Dialects. In Audra Dainora, Rachel Hemphill, Barbara Luka, Barbara Need & Sheri Pargman (eds.) CLS 31: Papers from the 31st Regional Meeting of the Chicago Linguistic Society: Volume II: The Parasession on Clitics. Chicago: Chicago Linguistic Society. 118-139.
Johns, Alana 1996. The Occasional Absence of Anaphoric Agreement in Labrador Inuttut. In J. Black and V. Motapanyane (eds.) Microparametric Syntax and Dialect Variation. Current Issues in Linguistic Theory. Series IV. Vol. 139. John Benjamins. Amsterdam-Philadelphia. 121-143.
Kail, Michèle and Dominique Bassano 1997. Verb Agreement Processing in French: A Study Of On-line Grammaticality Judgments. Language and Speech. 40(1). 25-46.
Kaiser, Georg A. 1994. More about INFL-ection and Agreement: The Acquisition of Clitic Pronouns in French. In Jürgen M. Meisel (ed.) Bilingual First Language Acquisition; French and German Grammatical Development. Language Acquisition and Language Disorders Vol. 7. John Benjamins. Amsterdam-Philadelphia. 131-159.
Källström, Roger 1977. Agreement Rules for Swedish Noun Phrases. In Östen Dahl (ed.) Logic, Pragmatics and Grammar. University of Göteborg. 267-295.
Källström, Roger 1995. Language universals, linguistic typology, and Nordic agreement. In Allwood, Jens et al. (eds.) Proceedings of the Joint Conference of the Nordic Languages and Modern Linguistics & the Scandinavian Conference of Linguistics. General session, vol. 1.187-201.
Kathman, David 1995. Verb Agreement and Grammatical Relations. In Burgess, Clifford S., Dziwirek, Katarzyna, & Gerdts, Donna (eds.) Grammatical Relations: Theoretical Approaches to Empirical Questions. Stanford, CA: Center Study Language & Information. 153-170.
Kathol, Andreas 1999. Agreement and the Syntax-Morphology Interface in HPSG. In Robert Levine and Georgia Green (eds.) Studies in Contemporary Phrase Structure Grammar. Cambridge University Press. 223-274.
Kayne, Richard 1995. Agreement in three English dialects. In H. Haider, S. Olsen & S. Vikner (eds.) Studies in Comparative Germanic Syntax. Dordrecht: Kluwer. 159-165.
Kazenin, Konstantin I. 1999. Licnoe soglasovanie v lakskom jazyke: markirovannost´ i nejtralizacija. In Ekaterina V. Raxilina & Jakov G. Testelec (eds.). Tipologija i teorija jazyka: Ot opisanija k ob´´jasneniju: K 60-letiju Aleksandra Evgen´evica Kibrika. Moscow: Jazyki russkoj kul´tury. 383-399.
Keach Camillia N. 1995. Subject and Object Markers as Agreement and Pronoun Incorporation in Swahili. In Akinbuyi Akinlabi (ed.) Theoretical Approaches to African Linguistics (Trends in African Linguistics 1). Trenton NJ: Africa World Press. 109-116.
Topic: pronominal affixes
Note: Keach investigates the functions of subject and object marking in Swahili drawing on work by Bresnan and Mchombo (1987) on Chichewa. Keach concludes that Swahili and Chichewa’s SM (subject marker) have identical functions, that of PI (Incorporated Pronoun) and agreement. However, the languages depart with respect to the behavior of their OMs (object marker), which is far more complicated in Swahili. Swahili allocates the PI and agreement function to animate objects and reserves for inanimate objects the unambiguous PI function. The OM is obligatory for animate objects and optional for inanimates. In the case of inanimates the OM permits a definite or specific interpretation of the inanimate NP.
Keenan, Edward L. 1978. On Surface Form and Logical Form. In Braj B. Kachru (ed.) Linguistics in the Seventies: Directions and Prospects. Forum Lextures Presented at the 1978 Linguistic Institute of the Linguistic Society of America. (Special issue of Studies in the Linguistic Sciences Vol 8. No 2. Fall 1978. Department of Linguistics. University of Illinois. 163-203.
Keeney, Terrence J. & Wolfe, Jean. 1972. The acquisition of agreement in English. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 11. 698-705.
Kerke, Simon van de 1996. Agreement in Quechua: Evidence against Distributed Morphology. In Cremers, Crit, & Den Dikken, Marcel (eds.) Linguistics in the Netherlands 1996. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 121-131.
Kibrik, Aleksandr E. 1977. O sootnošenii ponjatija sintaksiceskogo podcinenija s ponjatijami soglasovanija, upravlenija i primykanija. In Problemy teoreticeskoj i cksperimental´noj lingvistiki: Sbornik statej (Publikacii otdelenija strukturnoj i prikladnoj lingvistiki, under the general editorship of V. A. Zvegincev, vyp. 8), 161-179. Slightly amended version in Aleksandr E. Kibrik 1992. Ocerki po obšcim i prikladnym voprosam jazykoznanija (universal´noe, tipovoe i specificnoe v jazyke). Moscow: Izdatel´stvo Moskovskogo universiteta. 102-123.
Kibrik, Aleksandr E. 1985. Toward a typology of ergativity. In Johanna Nichols & Anthony C. Woodbury (eds.) Grammar inside and outside the clause. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 268-323.
Kibrik, Aleksandr E. 1995. Direct-Oblique Agreement of Attributes in Daghestanian. In Frans Plank (ed.) Double case: agreement by Suffixaufnahme. New York, NY: Oxford U Press Inc. 216-229.
Killean, Carolyn G. 1968. Interesting features of gender-number concord in Modern Literary Arabic. CLS 4. 40-49.
Koizumi, Masatoshi 1993. Object Agreement Phrases and the Split VP Hypothesis. In Jonathan D. Bobaljik and Colin Phillips Papers on Case and Agreement. I (=MIT Working Papers in Linguistics 18). Cambridge, MA.: Department of Linguistics, MIT.
Kulikov, Leonid. 1999. Agreement patterns in Abkhaz masdar forms. In Helma van den Berg (ed.) Studies in Caucasian Linguistics: Selected Papers of the Eighth Caucasian Colloquium. Leiden: Research School CNWS, Universiteit Leiden. 209-221.
Lapointe, Steven G.1983. A comparison of two recent theories of agreement. In John F. Richardson, Mitchell Marks & Amy Chukerman (eds.) Papers from the Parasession on the Interplay of Phonology, Morphology and Syntax, 122-134. Chicago: Chicago Linguistic Society.
Lapointe, Steven G. 1984. Cooccurrence and Agreement in Norwegian Noun Phrases. In Alvarez, Gloria, Brodie, Belinda & McCoy, Terry (eds.) ESCOL ’84: Proceedings of the First Eastern States Conference on Linguistics. Columbus, Ohio: Ohio State University. 46-57.
Lapointe, Steven G. 1988. Toward a Unified Theory of Agreement. In Michael Barlow and Charles A. Ferguson (eds.) Agreement in natural language: approaches, theories, descriptions. Stanford: CSLI Publications. 67-87.
Topic: The definition of agreement
Note: The author presents a theory of agreement which updates that offered in Lapointe (1980, 1981). Using a modified version of the Barwise and Cooper (1981) logic for generalised quantifiers, the author explores the mechanisms by which agreeing elements are linked to each other in syntactic structures.
Lapointe, Steven G. 1996. Review article on ‘Agreement and anti-agreement: A syntax of Luiseño. By Susan Steele. Dordrecht: Kluwer, 1990. Pp. xi, 446. Language 72. 372-379.
Lawler, John M. 1975. On coming to terms in Achenese: The function of verbal disagreement. In Robin E. Grossman, L. James San, Timothy J. Vance. CLS 1975. Papers from the Parasession on Functionalism. 398-408.
Lawler, John M. 1977. A agrees with B in Achenese: a problem for relational grammar. In P. Cole & J. L. Morgan (eds.) Syntax and Semantics 8: Grammatical Relations, 219-248. New York: Academic Press.
Legate, Julie Anne 1999. The Morphosyntax of Irish Agreement.In Karlos Arregi, Benjamin Bruening, Cornelia Krause, and Vivian Lin (eds.) MITWPL 33, Papers on Morphology and Syntax, Cycle One. Cambridge MA.
Note: Uses Distributed Morphology to analyse why agreement morphology and overt arguments are in complementary distribution in Irish. Key proposals are: (i) Vocabulary insertion proceeds top-down and root-out, (ii) the Invisibility Condition--features unrealized by a Vocabulary item are deleted.) (author abstract from website)
Lehmann, Christian 1982 Universal and typological aspects of agreement. In Hansjakob Seiler/Franz Joseph Stachowiak (eds.) Apprehension: Das sprachliche Erfassen von Gegenständen Teil 2 Die Techniken und ihr Zusammenhang in Einzelsprachen. 201-267.
Lehmann, Christian 1988. On the Function of Agreement. In Michael Barlow and Charles A. Ferguson (eds.) Agreement in natural language: approaches, theories, descriptions. Stanford: CSLI Publications. 55-65.
Topic: The function of agreement.
Note: The author examines the role of agreement in language. His basic thesis is that agreement is referential in nature. Its primary function is to identify or reidentify referents by giving information about the grammatical properties of its referent. The author distinguishes between two different types of agreement - ‘internal agreement’ and ‘external agreement.’ Internal agreement is adnominal agreement (including determiners, adjectives, numerals, possessive pronouns) and may involve the category of case but never of person. It expresses ‘coreference’ of the agreeing word with other words belonging to the same NP. External agreement (e.g. argument-verb agreement and possessor-possessum agreement) involves the category of person, but not of case and expresses ‘reference’ to an NP which specifies the meaning of the agreeing word.
Lehmann, Christian. 1993. Kongruenz. In Jacobs, Joachim et al. (eds.), Syntax. Ein internationales Handbuch. Berlin: W. de Gruyter (Handbücher der Sprach- und Kommunikationswissenschaft, 9). 722-729.
Lindauer, Thomas 1995. Genitivattribute. Eine morphosyntaktische Untersuchung zum deutschen DP/NP-System. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer Verlag.
Note: Specialist study within the framework of Gallmann 1990 on genitive case marked NPs, including some discussion of (non)agreement of modifiers and nouns in apposition/juxtaposition. (See also Schachtl 1989).
Lorenzo, Guillermo 1997. On the Exceptional Placement of AgrO Morphology in Machiguenga: A Short Note on Baker's Polysynthesis Parameter. Linguistics. 35. 5(351). 929-938.
Luraghi, Silvia 1993. La modificazione nominale nelle lingue anatoliche. Archivio Glottologico Italiano 78/2. 144-166.
Luraghi, Silvia 1994. Suffix copying and related phenomena: A prototype approach. Linguistics 32. 1095-1108
Lyons, Christopher 1990. An agreement approach to clitic doubling. Transactions of the Philological Society 88. 1-57.
Mahajan, Anoop Kumar 1989. Agreement and Agreement Phrases. In Laka Maftajan (ed.) MIT Working Papers in Linguistics. Vol 10. 217-252.
Mahfoudhi, Abdessatar. 2002. Agreement lost: agreement regained: A minimalist account of word order and agreement variation in Arabic. California Linguistic Notes 27, no. 2.1-28.
Mallen, Enrique 1997. A Minimalist Approach to Concord in Noun Phrases. Theoretical Linguistics. 23. 1-2. 49-77.
Mallén, Enrique. 1997. Agreement and null subjects in Germanic and Romance. In: Irmengard Rauch & Gerald F. Carr (eds.) Insights in Germanic Linguistics II: Classic and Contemporary (Trends in Linguistics, Studies and Monographs 94), Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 155-174.
Marantz, Alec 1984. Predicting Ergative Agreement with Transitive Auxiliaries. In Alvarez, Gloria, Brodie, Belinda & McCoy, Terry (eds.) 1984. ESCOL ’84: Proceedings of the First Eastern States Conference on Linguistics. Columbus, Ohio: Ohio State University. 58-68.
Marchese, Lynell 1988. Noun Classes and Agreement Systems in Kru: A Historical Approach. In Michael Barlow and Charles A. Ferguson (eds.) Agreement in natural language: approaches, theories, descriptions. Stanford: CSLI Publications. 323-341.
Topic: The development of class and agreement marking in Kru.
Note: The author attempts to reconstruct the noun class suffixes of the proto language. The synchronic variation between the agreement systems is examined and it is observed that while external (anaphoric) agreement is maintained, internal agreement is being lost in stages. The author observes that Godié (E.Kru) appears to be in the process of reinventing class markers through reanalysis of pronouns via definiteness markers which are suffixed to the noun.
McCloskey, James 1991. There, It and Agreement. Linguistic Inquiry Vol 22. No 3. 563-567.
Topic: agreement in expletive-argument structures
Note: This squib discusses differences in agreement in expletive-argument structures with there and it. Expletive-NP chains headed by there regularly exhibit agreement between the verb and the postverbal argument, whereas expletive it never exhibits such agreement, even in conditions in which the semantic condition governing plural agreement with clauses is otherwise met, i.e. the conjoined propositions are contradictory or incompatible. Therefore, the author concludes that there is no expletive-argument link in constructions that contain an it pleonastic.
Meisel, Jürgen M. 1994. Getting FAT: Finiteness, Agreement and Tense in Early Grammars. In Jürgen M. Meisel (ed.) Bilingual First Language Acquisition. Language Acquisition and Language Disorders. Vol 7. 89-129.
Mel’čuk, Igor 1993. Agreement, Government and Congruence. Lingvisticae Investigationes XVII:2 307-373
Mereu, Lunella 1997. For a lexical-functional representation of agreement affixes and clitics. In Miriam Butt and Tracy Holloway King (eds.) Proceedings of the LFG’97 Conference. CSLI Publications.
Topic: Pronominal agreement
Note: The author treats pronominal clitics and inflectional affixes as members of the same category CL/AFF. She distinguishes between 3 functions of CL/AFF: (a) AGR forms (eg. personal endings in Italian); (b) pronominal forms (eg. pronominal clitics in Italian or French or personal endings in synthetic verb forms in Irish); (c) ambiguous between the two (eg. subject markers in Chichewa). She uses three diagnostic tests to determine which of the three functions the CL/AFF has in different languages: (i) cooccurrence with lexical NPs; (ii) obligatory vs. optional use; (iii) use of resumptive pronouns in long-distance relative clauses. Her conclusion is in line with Bresnan and Mchombo’s (1987) distinction between grammatical and anaphoric agreement with the addition to the typology of CL/AFFs behaving exclusively as subject AGR forms.
Mereu, Lunella 1999. Agreement, pronominalization and word order in pragmatically-oriented languages. In Lunella Mereu (ed.) Boundaries of morphology and syntax (Current Issues in Linguistic Theory 180). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 231-250.
Meyerhoff, Miriam. 2000. The emergence of creole subject–verb agreement and the licensing of null subjects. Language Variation and Change 12. 203-230.
Mitchell, T. F. 1973. Aspects of Concord Revisited with Special Reference to Sindhi and Cairene Arabic. Archivum Linguisticum 4. 27-50.
Mitchell, Erika 1994. When AgrO Is Fused to AgrS: What Morphology can tell us about the Functional Categories. MIT Working Papers in Linguistics, 1994, 22, July, 111-130.
Mithun, Marianne. 1985. Disagreement: the case of pronominal affixes and nouns. In Deborah Tannen & James E. Alatis (eds.) Georgetown Round Table on Languages and Linguistics 1985: Languages and Linguistics: The Interdependence of Theory, Data, and Application. Washington DC: Georgetown University Press. 50-66.
Mohammad, M. A. 1990. The problem of subject-verb agreement in Arabic: Towards a solution. In Eid, Mushira (ed.). Perspectives on Arabic linguistics 1. Amsterdam: Benjamins. 95-125.
Moravcsik, Edith A. 1974. Object-verb agreement. Working Papers on Language Universals 13. 25-140.
Moravcsik, Edith A. 1978a. Agreement. In Joseph H Greenberg (ed.) Universals of Human Language: IV: Syntax. Stanford University Press. Stanford California. 331-374.
Topic: grammatical agreement
Note: The purpose of this paper is to present some crosslinguistically valid informal generalisations concerning grammatical agreement. Agreement in this paper is defined as: a grammatical constituent A is said to agree with a grammatical constituent B in properties C in language L if C is a set of meaning-related properties of A and there is no covariance relationship between C and some phonological properties of a constituent B1 across some subset of the sentences of language L, where constituent B1 is adjacent to constituent B and the only meaning-related non-categorial properties of constituent B1 are the properties C. In this definition, A and B are the agreeing constituents; constituent B1 is called the agreement marker; and the properties C are calles the agreement features. The paper focusses on the following questions: given the set of sentences in a language that has agreement, what are the meaning-related and form-related properties of those constituents that are in agreement relation with each other as opposed to those that are not, and what are the properties with respect to which they agree – that is to say, what are the agreement features? On the basis of this working definition and these two questions, a crosslinguistic survey of three types of agreement features – gender, number, and person – is presented followed by some crosslinguistic generalisations about agreeing constituents. Discussion centers on those instances only where the agrees-with constituent is a nominal or a noun phrase. The theory according to which agreement markers and anaphoric pronouns are grammatically derived by the same types of rules is informally shown to be predictive of some of the restrictions observed both in respect to agreement features and agreeing constituents.
Moravcsik, Edith A. 1978b. On the distribution of ergative and accusative patterns. Lingua 45. 233-279.
Moravcsik, Edith A. 1988. Agreement and Markedness. In Michael Barlow and Charles A. Ferguson (eds.) Agreement in Natural Language: Approaches, Theories, Descriptions. Stanford: CSLI Publications. 89-106.
Topic: agreement and markedness
Note: The author draws on the concept of agreement from Lehmann (1982) and considers how it interacts with Greenberg’s (1966) theory of markedness. Agreement can be seen to involve increased structure – a symptom of markedness. Markedness theory makes five predictions: (a) the controllers of agreement should be the more marked; (b) unmarked terms should preferentially agree over marked ones; (c) in competition the unmarked feature should prevail; (d) markers that represent a more marked category value should be more complex in form; (e) agreement should be more likely to occur in construction types that are marked. The author concludes that the predictions of markedness theory do hold for agreement, though she presents several examples which run counter to its predictions and calls for a more refined version of the theory.
Morgan, Jerry L. 1972. Verb agreement as a rule of English. In Paul M. Peranteau, Judith N. Levi, and Gloria C. Phares (eds.) Papers from the Eighth Regional Meeting of the Chicago Linguistic Society. Chicago: Chicago Linguistic Society. 278-286.
Morgan, Jerry L. 1984. Some problems of agreement in English and Albanian. In C. Brugman et al (eds.) Proceedings of the tenth annual meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society. Vol 10. Berkeley: Berkeley Linguistics Society. 233-247.
Morgan, Jerry L. 1984. Some Problems of Determination in English Number Agreement. In Alvarez, Gloria, Brodie, Belinda & McCoy, Terry (eds.) ESCOL ’84: Proceedings of the First Eastern States Conference on Linguistics. Columbus, Ohio: Ohio State University. 69-78.
Munn, Alan 1999. First Conjunct Agreement: Against a Clausal Analysis. Linguistic Inquiry 30.4. 421-446.
Munro, Pamela 1980. Types of Agreement in Mojave. Occasional Papers on Linguistics. Southern Illinois University. Vol 7. 1-14.
Murphy, M. Lynne 1997. Agreement as non-directional: an approach to Bantu concord. In Robert K. Herbert (ed.) African Linguistics at the Crossroads: Papers from Kwaluseni, 1st World Congress of African Linguistics, Swaziland, 18-22.7.1994. Cologne: Rüdiger Köppe. 221-237.
Napoli, Donna Jo. 1975. A global agreement phenomenon. Linguistic Inquiry 6. 413-435.
Naro, Anthony Julius 1981. The social and structural dimensions of a syntactic change. Language 57. 63-98
Naro, Anthony Julius & Maria Marta Pereira Scherre 2000. Variable Concord in Portuguese: the situation in Brazil and Portugal. In Language Change and Language Contact in Pidgins and Creoles, livro organizado por John McWhorter. Amsterdam: Benjamins. 236-255.
Nathan, Geoffrey S. 1981. What’s These Facts About? Linguistic Inquiry. Vol 12 No 1. 151-153.
Topic: lack of agreement in English
Note: This squib is a follow-up on Dixon’s (1977) squib. Nathan points out that the phenomenon discussed by Dixon is far more wide-spread. ’s for are/’re can even be used in where-sentences when there is material between the wh-word and the verb, and it can also be used with other wh-words (e.g. how). Nathan gives the following analysis: "the contracted form of the verb be may be used in singular when the subject is in the plural, but only when in a wh-question, and only when the verb in question is the copula, not when it is an auxiliary".
Newman, Michael 1998. What can pronouns tell us? A case study of English epicenes Studies. In Language v 22 no2 353-89.
Note:An oral corpus-based study of epicene pronominal constructions in English. These constructions involve pronouns coreferent with singular antecedents and referring to referents of indeterminate sex. According to the study, "they" is used in 60 percent of the tokens, "he" in 25 percent, and other forms minimally. Variation corresponds to three semantic factors: perceived sex stereotypes associated with the referent, notional number, and (surprisingly) degree of individuation. These findings corroborate accounts of the importance of agreement as a discourse-level phenomenon and of pronouns as elements whose informational content goes beyond mere denotation. (author abstract)
Nichols Johanna 1985. The directionality of agreement. In M. Niepokuj, M. VanClay, V. Nikiforidou and D. Feder (eds.) Proceedings of the Eleventh Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society, February 16--18, 1985. Berkeley: Berkeley Linguistics Society, University of California. 273-286.
Nichols, Johanna 1986. Head marking and dependent marking grammar. Language 62. 56-119.
Nicol, J. L., Forster, K.I. and Veres, C. 1997 Subject-Verb Agreement Processes in Comprehension. Journal of Memory and Language. Vol 36. No 4. 569-587.
Nikolaeva, Irina 1999 Object Agreement, Grammatical Relations, and Information Structure. Studies in Language 23:2. 377-407.
Topic: Object asymmetries with regard to agreement.
Note: The author examines the phenomenon of optional object agreement in Nothern Ostyak, a language which has subjective and objective conjugations in common with some other Uralic languages. She analyses the grammatical behaviour of two types of object, those that trigger agreement on the verb and those that do not. Comparing the properties of the two, and contrasting their behaviour with that found in Chichewa ‘anaphoric’ object agreement, according to Bresnan and Mchombo’s (1987) analysis, she concludes that the difference between the two objects in Ostyak is not due to differing semantics, argument status or grammatical relations, but rather is due to their information structure status. Information structure is an independent parallel level of representation. The object that does not trigger agreement bears the focus function, and systematically corresponds to the focus position in the syntax.
Nocentini Alberto. 1999. Topical Constraints in the verbal agreement of spoken Italian (Tuscan Variety). Rivista di Linguistica 11.2. 315-339.
Topic: verbal agreement in spoken Italian
Note: This paper illustrates the constraints that control verbal agreement in Italian, focussing on the spoken Tuscan variety. Subjects are characterised by four properties in written standard Italian: (i) it governs verbal agreement (government = G); (ii) it is placed before the verb (position = P); (iii) it plays the pragmatic role of Topic (or Theme) (topic = T); (iv) it plays the semantic role of Agent (agent = A).These properties form a hierarchy controlling verbal agreement in written Standard Italian, viz. G > (P&T) > A with G being the dominant property. In Tuscan Italian, one extra property can be added to the list of properties that characterise the subject, the property F (for first). F combines the properties of morphological unmarkedness and syntactic indispensability and defines the subject as the obligatory unmarked argument implied by the verb or simply as the first argument. e.g. il mange chaque jour une dizaine de personnes dans ce restaurant. This property F is the dominant property controlling verbal agreement in Tuscan Italian. That is, the morpho-syntactic relation between Subject and (verbal) Predicate depends on the pragmatic pattern Topic-Comment (or Theme-Rheme) which governs verbal agreement.
Ormazabal, Javier. 2000. A Conspiracy Theory of Case and Agreement. In: Roger Martin, David Michaels and Juan Uriagereka (eds) Step by Step: Essays on Minimalist Syntax in Honor of Howard Lasnik. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. 235-260.
Ortmann, Albert 2000. Where plural refuses to agree: feature unification and morphological economy. Acta Linguistica Hungarica 47.249-288.
Ostrowski, Manfred 1982. Zum Konzept der Kongruenz. In Hansjakob Seiler and Christian Lehmann (eds.) Apprehension: Das sprachliche Erfassen von Gegenständen.Teil I: Bereich und Ordnung der Phänomene. Tübingen: Narr. 252-269.
Ouhalla, Jamal 1993. Subject-Extraction, Negation and the Anti-Agreement Effect. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 11. 477-518.
Payne, John R. 1995. Inflecting Postpositions in Indic and Kashmiri. In Frans Plank (ed.) Double case: agreement by Suffixaufnahme. New York, NY: Oxford U Press Inc. 283-298.
Pensalfini, Rob 1999. Optional disagreement and the case for feature hierarchies. In Sabrina J. Billings, John P. Boyk, Aaron M. Griffith (eds.) CLS 1999: Papers from the 35th Annual Regional Meeting of the Chicago Linguistic Society. Chicago: Chicago Linguistic Society. 167-178
Perlmutter, David M. 1972. A note on syntactic and semantic number in English. Linguistic Inquiry 3. 243-246.
Perlmutter, David. 1983. Personal vs. impersonal constructions. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 1.141-200.
Perrot, Jean 1996-1997. Some Propositions Regarding "Agreement" in Answer to Questions.(Original Title: Quelques propositions sur "l'accord" en reponse au questionnaire) Faits de Langues. 1996-1997. 8. 161-164.
Perry, T. A. 1975. A note on the role of agreement in the grammar of English. Foundations of Language 13.579-589.
Peterson, Peter, G. 1986. Establishing Verb Agreement with Disjunctively Conjoined Subjects: Strategies Vs Principles. Australian Journal of Linguistics. Vol 6. No 2. 231-250.
Phillips, Colin 1993. Conditions on Agreement in Yimas. In Jonathan D. Bobaljik and Colin Phillips Papers on Case and Agreement. I (=MIT Working Papers in Linguistics 18). Cambridge, MA.: Department of Linguistics, MIT.
Pieroni, Silvia 1998. Remarks on iconicity and agreement. Indogermanische Forschungen, 103.
Topic: Agreement and iconicity
Note: The author examines the phenomena of ‘case agreement’ in relative pronouns and inalienable possessive relations and argues that agreement may be a semantically meaningful relation, concluding that: the more two entities are semantically related, the higher is the possibility for the nouns that refer to them to show agreement; the more the information is pragmatically presupposed and known, the lower the frequency of occurrence of independent case-marking.(The examples are not given a morpheme-by-morpheme gloss.)
Pishwa, Hanna 1989. Erwerb der deutschen Kongruenzregel Arbeitspapiere zur Linguistik = Working papers in linguistics. [Special issue] ; 23 Berlin : Institut fur Linguistik der Technischen Universitat Berlin PD- 209 p ; 21 cm IS- 3798312680
Plank, Frans 1984. Romance disagreements: phonology interfering with syntax. Linguistics 20. 329-349.
Plank, Frans 1993. Peculiarities of Passives of Reflexives in German. Studies in Language 17-1. 135-167.
Platzack, Christer 1996. Null Subjects, Weak Agr and Syntactic Differences in Scandinavian. In Thrainsson, Hoskuldur, Epstein, Samuel David, & Peter, Steve (eds.) Studies in Comparative Germanic Syntax. Vol II. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer. 180-196.
Polinsky, Maria 1992. Verb agreement and object marking in Sel’kup: interaction of morphology and syntax. In Costas P. Canakis, Grace P. Chan, and Jeannette Marshall Denton (eds.) Papers from the 28th Regional Meeting of the Chicago Linguistic Society. Vol.1: The Main Session. 412-425.
Polinsky, Maria and Bernard Comrie 1999. Agreement in Tsez. In G. Corbett (ed.) Folia Linguistica XXXIII/2. Special Issue on Agreement. 109-151.
Note: Tsez, like most languages of the Nakh-Daghestanian language family to which it belongs, has agreement in terms of noun class. Tsez distinguishes four classes in the singular, but these are collapsed to two in the plural; agreement is shown on most vowel-initial verbs, on some vowel-initial adjectives and adverbs, on some vowel-initial particles, and on some pronouns and numerals. After presenting the basic system, we investigate a number of more complex instances. Under conjunction, Tsez sometimes uses a resolution rule, sometimes adjacency, with interesting differences between ‘and’- and ‘or’-conjunction. Personification in Tsez does not lead to change in noun class, even in cases of agreement with first or second person pronouns. Finally, Tsez allows the possibility of long distance agreement, whereby certain matrix verbs can agree with a noun phrase in a lower clause. We show that this phenomenon is intimately connected with the information structure of the clause, in particular that long distance agreement is required when the noun phrase in the lower clause is topic of that clause; indeed, under certain circumstances long distance agreement can serve distinctively to mark the topic status of a noun phrase in the lower clause. (author abstract)
Polinsky, Maria & Potsdam, Eric. 2001. Long-distance agreement and topic in Tsez. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 19. 583-646.
Pollard, Carl and Ivan A. Sag 1988. An information-based theory of agreement. In Brentari, Diane, Gary N. Larson, Lynn A. MacLeod (eds.) CLS24: Papers from the 24th Annual Regional Meeting of the Chicago Linguistic Society: Part II: Parasession on Agreement in Grammatical Theory. 236-257.
Posner, Rebecca 1985. Non-agreement on Romance disagreements. Journal of Linguistics 21. 437-451.
Postma, Gertjan 1996-1997. Anti-Agreement and Analogy-Two Interface Requirements on the Verbal Paradigm in Latin. Faits de Langues. 1996-1997. 8. 103-112.
Pullum, Geoffrey K. 1984. How Complex Could an Agreement System be? In Alvarez, Gloria, Brodie, Belinda & McCoy, Terry (eds.) Proceedings of the First Eastern States Conference on Linguistics. Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. 79-103.
Pullum, Geoffrey K. and Arnold M. Zwicky 1986. Phonological resolution of syntactic feature conflict. Language 62: 751 - 773.
Reid, Wallis 1984. Verb Agreement as a Case of Semantic Redundancy. In Alvarez, Gloria, Brodie, Belinda & McCoy, Terry (eds.) ESCOL ’84: Proceedings of the First Eastern States Conference on Linguistics. Columbus, Ohio: Ohio State University. 104-115.
Rice, Keren; Saxon, Leslie 1994. The Subject Positions in Athapaskan Languages. MIT Working Papers in Linguistics. 22 July. 173-195.
Rispoli, Matthew 1999. Case and agreement in English language development. Journal of Child Language 26.357-372.
Rizzi, Luigi. 1990. On the anaphor-agreement effect. Rivista di Linguistica 2. 27-42.
Roberts, Ian G. 1985. Agreement parameters and the development of English modal auxiliaries. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 3. 21-58.
Roberts, Ian & Ur Shlonsky 1996. Pronominal enclisis in VSO languages. In Robert D. Borsley & Ian Roberts (eds.) The syntax of the Celtic languages: a comparative perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 171-200.
Rohrbacher, Bernhard 1995. Explaining the Syntactic Consequences of "Rich" Agreement Morphology: On the Licensing of V-to-AgrS Raising and pro. In Aranovich, Raul, Byrne, William, Preuss, Susanne, & Senturia, Martha (eds.) The Proceedings of the Thirteenth West Coast Conference On Formal Linguistics Stanford, CA: Center for the Study of Language and Information. 350-364.
Romero, Juan 1999. The Case of Agreement. In Karlos Arregi, Benjamin Bruening, Cornelia Krause, and Vivian Lin Papers on Morphology and Syntax, Cycle One. MIT Working Papers in Linguistics No 33.
Rouveret, Alain 1991. Functional categories and agreement. The Linguistic Review 8. 353-387.
Russell, Robert A. 1984. Historical Aspects of Subject-Verb Agreement in Arabic. In Alvarez, Gloria, Belinda Brodie and Terry McCoy (eds.) ESCOL ’84: Proceedings of the First Eastern States Conference on Linguistics. Columbus. Ohio: Ohio State University. 116-127.
Sadler, Louise. To Appear. Coordination and Asymmetric Agreement in Welsh. In Miriam Butt and Tracy Holloway King (eds.) Nominals: Inside and Out. CSLI Publications, 2003. Also available at:http://privatewww.essex.ac.uk/~louisa/newpapers/
Sadock, Jerrold M. 1994. Remarks on a West Greenlandic Verbal Paradigm Acta Linguistica Hafniensia 27. 2. 427-431.
Sankoff, Gillian 1994. An historical and evolutionary approach to variation in the Tok Pisin verb phrase. In Papers from the 30th Regional Meeting of the Chicago Linguistic Society. Vol 2: The Parasession on Variation in Linguistic Theory. 293-320.
Saksena, Anuradha 1981. Verb agreement in Hindi. Linguistics 19. 467-474.
Saksena, Anuradha 1985. Verb agreement in Hindi, part II: A critique of Comrie’s analysis. Linguistics 23. 137-142.
Saxon, Leslie 1984. Control and Agreement in Dogrib. In Alvarez, Gloria, Belinda Brodie and Terry McCoy (eds.) ESCOL ’84: Proceedings of the First Eastern States Conference on Linguistics. Columbus, Ohio: Ohio State University. 128-139.
Schachtl, Stefanie 1989. Morphological case and abstract case: evidence from the German genitive construction. In Christa Bhatt, Elisabeth Löbel and Claudia Schmidt (eds.) Syntactic Phrase Structure Phenomena in Noun Phrases and Sentences, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company. 99—111.
Note: Discusses examples in German in which even an unambiguously case-marked noun (Gen. Sg.) is ungrammatical without a determiner/modifier to agree with it. (See also Gallman 1990, Lindauer 1995).
Scherre, Maria Marta Pereira & Anthony Julius Naro 1998. Sobre a concordância de número no português falado do Brasil. In Dialettologia, geolinguistica, sociolinguistica, organizado por Giovanni Ruffino, 5:509-523. Centro di Studi Filologici e Linguistici Siciliani, Universitá di Palermo. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer Verlag.
Schmidt, Peter 2000. Agreement domain universals: Semantically-based proposals and their problems. In L. A. Kuz´min (ed.) Jazyk, glagol, predloženie: K 70-letiju Georgija Georgievica Sil´nickogo (Festschrift for Professor Georgij Silnitskij), Smolensk. STPU. 227-245.
Topic: semantically-based proposals for GA
Note: This paper discusses two proposals that have been put forward as absolute universal principles governing grammatical agreement (GA), viz Keenan’s (1974) Functional (Dependency) Principle and the Agreement-as-Morphologized-Anaphor approach (Lapointe 1980).The paper considers the empirical testability of both approaches and shows that there exist potential counterexamples to both principles, which may invalidate them as absolute universals.
Schneider-Zioga, Patricia 1995. Specifier/Head Agreement in Kinande. Cahiers linguistiques d'Ottawa 23. Aug. 67-96.
Schneider-Zioga, Patricia 1996. An Argument in Favor of Agreement Phrase. In
Virginia Montapayne and Anthony D. Green (eds.) Proceeding
from the Eastern States Conference on Linguistics 1996, Cornell
Schneider-Zioga, Patricia 2000. Anti-agreement and the Finite Structure of
the Left Periphery. University
of California Irvine Working Papers in Linguistics,
Schneider-Zioga, Patricia 2002. The Case of Anti-Agreement. MIT WPIL AFLA 8 Proceedings, MIT, Cambridge, MA 2002
Schreiber, Peter A. 1978. There-insertion and number agreement. Linguistic Inquiry 9. 318-325.
Schroeder, Christoph. 1999. Number (non) Agreement. In Schroeder, C. (ed.) The Turkish nominal phrase in spoken discourse. (Turcologica 40). Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz. 111-125.
Schütze, Carson T. 1999. English Expeltive Constructions Are Not Infected. Linguistic Inquiry 30.3. 467-484.
Schwartz, Linda 1988. Asymmetric Feature Distribution in Pronominal ‘Coordinations’. In Michael Barlow and Charles A. Ferguson (eds.) Agreement in Natural Language: Approaches, Theories, Descriptions. Stanford: CSLI Publications. 237-249.
Topic: Plural pronoun constructions
Note: The author investigates those constructions in which an initial pronoun in a coordination is morphologically plural without necesssarily having a plural referent. The initial pronoun is considered to be the head of the coordination, which is marked with the case and number of the dominating node. In addition, verb-coded coordinations are discussed, where the verb appears to agree with a missing NP in a coordination.
Seidl, Amanda & Dimitriadis, Alexis 1997. The discourse function of object marking in Swahili. In Kora Singer, Randall Eggert & Gregory Anderson (eds.) CLS 33: Papers from the Main Session, April 17-19, 1997. Chicago: Chicago Linguistic Society. 373-387.
Siewierska, Anna 1996. Word order type and alignment type. Sprachtypologie und Universalienforschung 49. 149-176.
Siewierska, Anna 1999. From anaphoric pronoun to grammatical agreement marker: Why objects don’t make it. In G. Corbett (ed.) Folia Linguistica XXXIII/2. Special Issue on Agreement. 225-251.
Topic: Types of pronominal agreement.
Note: The endpoint of the historical evolution of agreement marker from anaphoric person pronoun is the loss of referentiality on the part of the person marker and the obligatory presence of the nominal argument with which it agrees. Contrary to what might be supposed, such agreement, which I, inspired by Bresnan & Mchombo (1986, 1987), have termed grammatical, as opposed to anaphoric or ambiguous (grammatical and anaphoric) agreement, is cross-linguistically very rare. Moreover, among the attested instances of grammatical person agreement none involve object as compared to subject agreement. The present paper considers the distribution and formal realization of anaphoric, ambiguous and grammatical agreement markers in a sample of 272 languages and offers some tentative explanations for the existing asymmetry in regard to grammatical agreement. It is suggested that grammatical object agreement does not arise since ambiguous agreement, from which grammatical agreement evolves, is less common with objects than with subjects, and two of the potential sources of grammatical agreement, adherence to a verb-second constraint and phonological attrition are more likely to involve subjects rather than objects. (author abstract)
Siewierska, Anna forthcoming. On the discourse basis of person agreement marking, In T. Viryanen (ed.) Discourse Approaches to Cognition. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Siewierska, Anna and Dik Bakker. 1996. The Distribution of Subject and Object Agreement and Word Order Type. Studies in Language. 20:1. 115-161.
Topic: Subject and Object agreement and word order
Note: This article examines the distribution and formal realization of Subject and Object agreement markers in different word order types (V3 (SOV,OSV), V2 (SVO, OVS), V1 (VOS,VSO), free, and split) relative to the Universal Suffixing Preference, the Head Ordering Principle, and the Diachronic Syntax Hypothesis on the basis of a sample of 237 languages. The Universal Suffixing Preference is based on the assumption that suffixing is easier to process than prefixing. The Head Ordering Principle takes inflectional affixes to be heads of their respective lexical categories and thus predicts that affixes should be suffixes in OV languages and prefixes in VO languages. The Diachronic Syntax Hypothesis defines a preference for morphemes to be located in the positions of the separate words which gave rise to them. The investigation shows that there is a statistically significant correlation between agreement and word order type, and that the coupling of the Diachronic Syntax Hypothesis with the Universal Suffixing Preference provides the best account for the data. Only 6% of the agreement markers in the sample do not fall out from the combination of these 2 hypotheses. By comparing the results stemming from the 237 language sample with those of other samples the paper seeks to draw the attention to how areal biases in samples may affect cross-linguistic generalisations.
Simon, Horst J. forthcoming. From pragmatics to grammar: tracing the development of ‘respect’ in the history of the German pronouns of address. In Andreas H. Jucker & Irma Taavitsainen (eds.) Origin and Development of Address Terms in European Languages. Amsterdam: John Benjamins
Simpson, Andrew and Wu, Zoe. 2000. The development and licensing of agreement as a functional projection. In: Roger Billerey and Brook Danielle Lillehaugen (eds) WCCFL 19: Proceedings of the 19th West Coast Conference on Formal Linguistics, Somerville: Cascadilla Press. 479-492.
Smith, John C. 1995. Perceptual factors and the disappearance of agreement between part participle and direct object in Romance. In John C. Smith & Martin Maiden (eds.) Linguistic Theory and the Romance Languages (Current Issues in Linguistic Theory 122). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 161-180.
Sobin, Nicholas 1997. Agreement, default rules, and grammatical viruses. Linguistic Inquiry 28. 318-343.
Song, Jae Jung. 1994. The verb-object bonding principle and the pronominal system: with special reference to Nuclear Micronesian languages. Oceanic Linguistics 33. 517-565.
Sparks, Randall B. 1984. Here’s a few more facts. Linguistic Inquiry 15.179-183.
Spencer, Andrew. 2000. Agreement morphology in Chukotkan. In Wolfgang U. Dressler, Oskar E. Pfeiffer, Markus A. Pöchtrager & John R. Rennison (eds.) Morphological Analysis in Comparison (Current Issues in Linguistic Theory 201). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 191-222.
Topic: verbal agreement in Chukchee and Koryak
Note: This paper presents an analysis of verbal agreement in the ergative languages Chukchee and Koryak showing that certain aspects of the system pose a problem for current versions of Distributed Morphology.
Steele, Susan 1988. ‘Agreement’ and Syntactic Composition: The Luiseño Single-Possessive Condition. In Michael Barlow and Charles A. Ferguson (eds.) Agreement in Natural Language: Approaches, Theories, Descriptions. Stanford: CSLI Publications. 269-286.
Topic: Agreement typology
Note: The author describes the Luiseño word as a compatible combination of Left-occurring String and Right Boundary Effect. The restricted number of possible Argument Structures in the language determine that there is never more than one obligatorily Possessive-marked element per argument structure.
Stump, Gregory 1984. Agreement vs. incorporation in Breton. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 2. 289-348.
Suñer, Margarita. 1988. The role of agreement in clitic-doubled constructions. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 6. 391-434.
Suñer, Margarita 1992. Subject Clitics in the Northern Italian Vernaculars and the Matching Hypothesis. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory. 10. 641-672.
Szamosi, Michael. 1974. Verb-object agreement in Hungarian. In Michael W. La Galy, Robert A. Fox, Anthony Bruck (eds.) CLS 10: Papers from the tenth Regional Meeting of the Chicago Linguistic Society. Chicago: Chicago Linguistic Society. 701-711.
Taraldsen, Knut Tarald 1996. Reflexives, pronouns, and subject/verb agreement in Icelandic and Faroese. In James R. Black & Virginia Motapanyane (eds.) Microparametric syntax and dialect variation (Current Issues in Linguistic Theory 139), Amsterdam: Benjamins. 189-211.
Timberlake, Alan. 1988. Case Agreement in Lithuanian. In Michael Barlow and Charles A. Ferguson (eds.) Agreement in Natural Language: Approaches, Theories, Descriptions. Stanford: CSLI Publications. 181-199.
Topic: Case agreement
Note: The author gives an account of agreement in case between a predicate nominal and its controller. It is suggested that the predicate carries the morphological features of its complements, both arguments and complements.
Toivonen, Ida. 2000. The morphosyntax of Finnish possessives. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 18. 579-609.
Trail, A. 1974. Agreement systems in !xõ. LIMI 2.12-27.
Troike R C 1981. Subject-object concord in Coahuilteco. Language 57. 658-73.
Tsunoda, Tasaku. 1981 Interaction of phonological, grammatical, and semantic factors: an Australian example. Oceanic Linguistics 20.45-92.
Tuite, Kevin 1984. Case Attraction and Case Agreement. In Alvarez, Gloria, Brodie, Belinda & McCoy, Terry (eds.) ESCOL ’84: Proceedings of the First Eastern States Conference on Linguistics. Columbus, Ohio: Ohio State University. 140-151.
Urjupina, Ol´ga M. 2001. Osobennosti glagol´nogo soglasovanija po cislu v okeanijskix jazykax. In Vladimir A. Plungjan (ed.) Issledovanija po teorii grammatiki: I: Glagol´nye kategorii. Moscow: Russkie slovari. 228-261.
Urmančieva, Anna Ju. 2001. Ličnoe soglasovanie glagola: tak li vse prosto?.. In Vladimir A. Plungjan (ed.)Issledovanija po teorii grammatiki: I: Glagol´nye kategorii. Moscow: Russkie slovari. 209-227.
Velázquez-Castillo, Maura 1991. The semantics of Guarani agreement markers. In Laurel A. Sutton, Christopher Johnson and Ruth Shields (eds.) Proceedings of the Seventeenth Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society, February 15-18, 1991: General Session and Parasession on the Grammar of Event Structure. Berkeley: Berkeley Linguistics Society. 324-335.
Verschuur, Leon. 1993. Semantic agreement of anaphors and extended type theory. In Andreas Kathol and Michael Bernstein (eds.) ESCOL ’93: Proceedings of the Tenth Eastern States Conference on Linguistics. Ithaca: Cornell University, Department of Modern Languages and Linguistics. 348-359.
Vigliocco, Gabriella and Janet Nicol 1998. Separating hierarchical relations and word order in language production: is proximity concord syntactic or linear. Cognition 68. 13-29.
Vigliocco, Gabriella & Franck, Julie. 2001. When Sex affects Syntax: Contextual Influences in Sentence Production. Journal of Memory and Language 45. No 3. 368-390.
Vigliocco, Gabriella; Franck, Julie; Antón-Méndez, Inés & Collina, Simona. forthcoming. The interplay between syntax and form in sentence production. Language and Cognitive Processes.
Voeltz, Erhard F. K. 1971. Surface constraints and agreement resolution: some evidence from Xhosa. Studies in Aftrican Linguistics 2. 37-60.
Wechsler, Stephen 1999. Gender Resolution in Coordinate Structures. In C. Smith (ed.) Proceedings of the Workshop on the Structure of Spoken and Written Texts. Texas Linguistic Forum. University of Texas at Austin. 1-22.
Note: an extended version of this paper is to appear: Stephen Wechsler, to appear. Elsewhere in Gender Resolution. In Kristin Hanson and Sharon Inkelas (eds.) The Nature of the Word— Essays in Honor of Paul Kiparsky. MIT Press.
Wechsler, Stephen and Larisa Zlatić 1999. Agreement in Discourse. Proceedings of the Conference on the Structure of Non-Narrative Texts, University if Texas, Austin. February 1998.
Wechsler, Stephen and Larisa Zlatić 2001. A Theory of Agreement and its Application toSerbo-Croatian. Language 76.4. 799-832.
Wheeler, Max W. 1995. ‘Underspecification’ and ‘misagreement’ in Catalan lexical specifiers. In John Charles Smith and Martin Maiden (eds.) Linguistic Theory and the Romance Languages. Current Issues in Linguistic Theory. Vol 122. John Benjamins Publishing Company. Amsterdam/Philadelphia. 201-229.
Woolford, Ellen 2000. Object agreement in Palauan: Specificity, Humanness, Economy and Optimality. In I. Paul, V. Phillips, L.Travis (eds.) Formal Issues in Austronesian Linguistics. Studies in Natural Language and Linguistic Theory. Vol. 49. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers. 215-245.
Topic: object agreement in Palauan
Note: Palauan exhibits a complex pattern of object agreement and preposition insertion, conditioned by aspect, specificity, number, and humanness. Objects must be either [+human] and/or [+specific, +singular] to trigger object agreement in a perfective clause or preposition insertion in an imperfective clause. Woolford gives an account of these facts based on a small number of economy and exclusion principles which are not unique to Palauan. Palauan manifests two exclusion principles and two economy principles. These are:(a) Exclusion principles: (a1) Specificity Exclusion Principle (Palauan variant), i.e. NPs inside the VP, governed by V cannot be [+specific,+singular]; (a2) Humanness Exclusion Principle, i.e. NPs inside the VP, governed by V cannot be [+human]; (b) Economy principles, i.e. Avoid Movement and Avoid Insertion. In order to get the appropriate output, these principles are ranked. In imperfective constructions the ranking is Exclusion principles >> Avoid Movement >> Avoid Insertion; in perfective constructions the ranking is Avoid Insertion >> Exclusion Principles >> Avoid Movement. In Palauan, the ranking in the imperfect is assumed to be the default ranking (only Avoid Insertion needs to be changed from lowest to highest in the perfect).
Wright, Martha 1990. Verb Agreement Parameters. In Ken deJong and Yongkyoon No (eds.) ESCOL ’89 Proceedings of the Sixth Eastern States Conference on Linguistics. 277-288.
Wunderlich, Dieter 1994. Towards a lexicon-based theory of agreement. Theoretical Linguistics Vol 20. No 1. 1-35.
Wurmbrand, Susi. 2001. AGREE: The other VP-internal subject hypothesis. In: Karine Megerdoomian & Leora Anne Bar-el (eds) WCCFL 20: Proceedings of the 20th West Coast Conference on Formal Linguistics, Somerville: Cascadilla Press. 635-648.
Yādava, Yogendra Prasad 1996. Verb agreement in Maithili. Journal of Nepalese Studies 1. 109-121.
Zaring, Laurie 1984. Person/Number Inflection in S, NP and PP: A Parametric Approach. In Alvarez, Gloria, Brodie, Belinda & McCoy, Terry (eds.) ESCOL ’84: Proceedings of the First Eastern States Conference on Linguistics. Columbus, Ohio: Ohio State University. 152-164.
Zwart, Jan-Wouter 1993a. Clues from dialect syntax: complementizer agreement. In Werner Abraham & Josef Bayer (eds.) Dialektsyntax (Linguistische Berichte, special issue 5), 246-70.
Zwart, Jan-Wouter 1993b. Verb Movement and Complementizer Agreement. In Jonathan D. Bobaljik and Colin Phillips Papers on Case and Agreement. I (=MIT Working Papers in Linguistics 18). Cambridge, MA.: Department of Linguistics, MIT.
Zwicky, Arnold M. 1986a. Agreement features: layers or tags? Ohio State University Working Papers in Linguistics 32. 146-8.
Zwicky, Arnold M. 1986b. German adjective agreement in GPSG. Linguistics 24. 957-90.
Zwicky, Arnold M. 1991. Systematic versus accidental phonological identity. In Frans Plank (ed.) Paradigms: the economy of inflection. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 113-131.
Zwicky, Arnold M. 1992. Jottings on Adpositions, Case Inflections, Government, and Agreement. In Diane Brentari, Gary N. Larson and Lynn A. Macleod (eds.) The Joy of Grammar: A Festschrift in Honor of James D. McCawley. John Benjamins Publishing Company. Amsterdam/Philadelphia. 369-383.
Zwicky, Arnold M. and Geoffrey K. Pullum 1983. Phonology in Syntax: The Somali Optional Agreement Rule. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 1(3). 385-402.
Wunderlich, Dieter 2001. Grammatical agreement. In Neil J. Smelser and Paul B. Baltes (eds.) International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences: IX. Amsterdam: Elsevier.6330-6334.
Section D: Agreement in the Slavonic Languages
Akopdžanjan, A. A. 1962a. Soglasovanie skazuemogo s podležaščim, vyražennym neopredelenno-količestvennym suščestvitel´nym v socetanii s suščestvitel´nym v roditel´nym padeže (Podležaščee tipa "bol´šinstvo zritelej"). Elabužskij gosudarstvennyj pedagogičeskij institut: Učenye zapiski: serija istorii i filologii13. 32-84.
Akopdžanjan, A. A. 1962b. Značenie predikativnogo glagola v predloženijax s podležaščim tipa "bol´šinstvo zritelej": leksičeskoe značenie glagola. Elabužskij gosudarstvennyj pedagogičeskij institut: Učenye zapiski: serija istorii i filologii13. 85-94.
Akopdžanjan, A. A. 1962c. Soglasovanie skazuemogo s podležaščim, vyražennym suščestvitel´nym "čislo" v sočetanii s roditel´nym padežom množestvennogo čisla. Elabužskij gosudarstvennyj pedagogičeskij institut: Učenye zapiski: serija istorii i filologii.13. 332-336.
Akopdžanjan, A. A. 1962d. Soglasovanie skazuemogo s podležaščim, vyražennym suščestvitel´nym "čast'" v sočetanii s sušcestvitel´nym v roditel´nom padeže množestvennogo čisla. InVoprosy teorii i metodiki izučenija russkogo jazyka vyp. 2 (čeboksary, čuvašskij gosudarstvennyj pedagogičeskij institut), 150-165.
Akopdžanjan, A. A. 1965a. O vidax svjazi glagola-skazuemogo s podležaščim-količestvenno-imennym sočetaniem. Elabužskij gosudarstvennyj pedagogičeskij institut: Učenye zapiski15. 122-132.
Akopdžanjan, A. A. 1965b. O forme čisla glagola-skazuemogo v predloženijax s količestvennym podležaščim: Forma glagola–skazuemogo v predloženijax s podležaščim tipa "tri čeloveka". Voprosy teorii i metodiki izučenija russkogo jazyka (Iževsk) vyp. 4. 104-113.
Andrejčin, Lj. 1968. Săglasuvane na otnositelnoto mestoimenie čijto.Ezik i literatura 18. 66-67. Reprinted in Părvev (1971, 150-151).]
Apresjan, Ju. D. 1982. O vozmožnosti opredelenija lingvističeskix ponjatij.Russian Linguistics 6. 175-196.
Babby, Leonard H. 1973. A note on agreement in Russian. Glossa. 7. 253-264.
Babby, Leonard H. 1985. Noun phrase internal case agreement in Russian. Russian Linguistics 9. 1-15. [Reprinted in Barlow and Ferguson (1988, 287-304).]
Babby, Leonard H. 1987. Case, prequantifiers, and discontinuous agreement in Russian. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 5. 91-138.
Babby, Leonard H. 1988. Noun Phrase Internal Case Agreement in Russian. In Michael Barlow and Charles A. Ferguson (eds.) Agreement in Natural Language: Approaches, Theories, Descriptions. Stanford: CSLI Publications. 287-304.
Topic: Case agreement
Note: The author uses evidence from the behaviour of quantifier phrases in Russian to argue that the head noun of a noun phrase does not control the case marking of its modifiers, but that case is assigned to the noun’s maximal projection where it percolates down to the available lexical and phrasal categories. Case assignment appears to follow a (possibly universal) Syntactic Case Hierarchy in Russian where lexical case takes precedence over all other types of case assignment.
Babić, Stjepan 1973. Sročnost (kongruencija) u suvremenom hrvatskom književnom jeziku. Zbornik Zagrebačke slavističke školeI, part 1. 199-218.
Babić, Stjepan 1984-85a. O sročnosti općenito.Jezik 32, 1. 1-5.
Babić, Stjepan 1984-85b. Sročnost s više subjekata.Jezik 32, 2. 43–49.
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Topic: The specification of the characteristics of agreement.
Note: The author highlights the difficulties encountered in attaining an adequate description of agreement by examining data from Slavonic languages. He examining in turn problems with identifying agreement controllers, targets and features. He then considers the factors which determine agreement in those cases where there exist different options. Such factors include animacy (of the controller) and precedence (in the syntax). As regards target factors, the author refers to the agreement hierarchy (Corbett 1983).
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