Professor Russell Gwilliam

Professor

Email:
Phone: Work: 01483 68 9845
Room no: 16 NC 00

Further information

Publications

Highlights

  • Smith AJ, Gwilliam RM, Stolojan V, Knights AP, Coleman PG, Kallis A, Yeong SH. (2009) 'Enhancement of phosphorus activation in vacancy engineered thin silicon-on-insulator substrates'. AMER INST PHYSICS JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS, 106 (10) Article number ARTN 103514
  • Slotte J, Rummukainen M, Tuomisto F, Markevich VP, Peaker AR, Jeynes C, Gwilliam RM. (2008) 'Evolution of vacancy-related defects upon annealing of ion-implanted germanium'. AMER PHYSICAL SOC PHYSICAL REVIEW B, 78 (8) Article number ARTN 085202
  • Lourenco MA, Gwilliam RM, Homewood KP. (2007) 'Extraordinary optical gain from silicon implanted with erbium'. AMER INST PHYSICS APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 91 (14) Article number ARTN 141122

Journal articles

  • Razali MA, Gwilliam RM, Secchi M, Bersani M. (2014) 'Point defect engineering study of phosphorus ion implanted germanium'. Physica Status Solidi (C) Current Topics in Solid State Physics, 11 (1), pp. 9-11.
  • Dudeck KJ, Botton GA, Huante-Ceron E, Knights AP, Gwilliam RM. (2013) 'Direct observation of indium precipitates in silicon following high dose ion implantation'. Semiconductor Science and Technology, 28 (12)
  • Finch P, O'Driscoll I, Blood P, Smowton PM, Sobiesierski A, Gwilliam RM. (2013) 'Femtosecond pulse generation in passively mode locked InAs quantum dot lasers'. Applied Physics Letters, 103 (13)
  • Lourenço MA, Mustafa Z, Ludurczak W, Wong L, Gwilliam RM, Homewood KP. (2013) 'High temperature luminescence of Dy in crystalline silicon in the optical communication and eye-safe spectral regions'. Optics Letters, 38 (18), pp. 3669-3672.
  • Dudeck KJ, Botton GA, Marqués LA, Knights AP, Gwilliam RM. (2013) 'Sub-ångstrom experimental validation of molecular dynamics for predictive modeling of extended defect structures in Si'. Physical Review Letters, 110 (16)
  • Hughes MA, Gwilliam RM, Homewood K, Curry RJ, Gholipour B, Hewak DW, Lee T-H, Elliott SR, Suzuki T, Ohishi Y, Kohoutek T. (2013) 'On the analogy between photoluminescence and carrier-type reversal in Bi-and Pb-doped glasses'. Optics Express, 21 (7), pp. 8101-8115.

    Abstract

    Reaction order in Bi-doped oxide glasses depends on the optical basicity of the glass host. Red and NIR photoluminescence (PL) bands result from Bi2+ and Bin clusters, respectively. Very similar centers are present in Bi-and Pb-doped oxide and chalcogenide glasses. Bi-implanted and Bi melt-doped chalcogenide glasses display new PL bands, indicating that new Bi centers are formed. Bi-related PL bands have been observed in glasses with very similar compositions to those in which carrier-type reversal has been observed, indicating that these phenomena are related to the same Bi centers, which we suggest are interstitial Bi2+ and Bi clusters. © 2013 Optical Society of America.

  • Crowe IF, Papachristodoulou N, Halsall MP, Hylton NP, Hulko O, Knights AP, Yang P, Gwilliam RM, Shah M, Kenyon AJ. (2013) 'Donor ionization in size controlled silicon nanocrystals: The transition from defect passivation to free electron generation'. Journal of Applied Physics, 113 (2)
  • Yang P, Gwilliam RM, Crowe IF, Papachristodoulou N, Halsall MP, Hylton NP, Hulko O, Knights AP, Shah M, Kenyon AJ. (2013) 'Size limit on the phosphorous doped silicon nanocrystals for dopant activation'. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms,
  • Razali MA, Gwilliam RM, Secchi M, Bersani M. (2013) 'Point defect engineering study of phosphorus ion implanted germanium'. Physica Status Solidi (C) Current Topics in Solid State Physics, 2 (12)
  • Finch P, O'Driscoll I, Blood P, Smowton PM, Sobiesierski A, Gwilliam R. (2013) 'Femtosecond pulse generation in proton bombarded passively mode locked InAs quantum dot lasers'. CLEO: Science and Innovations, CLEO_SI 2013,
  • Yang P, Gwilliam RM, Crowe IF, Papachristodoulou N, Halsall MP, Hylton NP, Hulko O, Knights AP, Shah M, Kenyon AJ. (2013) 'Size limit on the phosphorous doped silicon nanocrystals for dopant activation'. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, 307, pp. 456-458.
  • Ishii M, Crowe IF, Halsall MP, Hamilton B, Knights AP, Gwilliam RM. (2012) 'Investigation of the thermal charge "trapping-detrapping" in silicon nanocrystals: Correlation of the optical properties with complex impedance spectra'. Applied Physics Letters, 101 (24)
  • Graham C, Seeds A, Gwilliam R. (2012) 'Nitrogen ion implanted InP based photo-switch'. Optics Express, 20 (24), pp. 26696-26703.
  • Berhanuddin DD, Lourenço MA, Jeynes C, Milosavljević M, Gwilliam RM, Homewood KP. (2012) 'Structural analysis of silicon co-implanted with carbon and high energy proton for the formation of the lasing G-centre'. Journal of Applied Physics, 112 (10)
  • Berhanuddin DD, Lourenco MA, Gwilliam RM, Homewood KP. (2012) 'Co-Implantation of Carbon and Protons: An Integrated Silicon Device Technology Compatible Method to Generate the Lasing G-Center'. WILEY-V C H VERLAG GMBH ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, 22 (13), pp. 2709-2712.
  • O'Driscoll I, Blood P, Smowton PM, Sobiesierski A, Gwilliam R. (2012) 'Effect of proton bombardment on InAs dots and wetting layer in laser structures'. AMER INST PHYSICS APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 100 (26) Article number ARTN 261105
  • Sandall I, Tan CH, Smith A, Gwilliam R. (2012) 'Planar InAs photodiodes fabricated using He ion implantation'. Optics Express, 20 (8), pp. 8575-8583.
  • Antwis L, Gwilliam R, Smith A, Jeynes C, Homewood K. (2012) 'Characterization of a-FeSi /c-Si heterojunctions for photovoltaic applications'. Semiconductor Science and Technology, 27 (3)
  • O'Driscoll I, Blood P, Sobiesierski A, Smowton PM, Gwilliam R. (2012) 'Evaluating InAs QD lasers for space borne applications'. Conference Digest - IEEE International Semiconductor Laser Conference, , pp. 94-95.
  • Giubertoni D, Demenev E, Jestin Y, Meirer F, Gennaro S, Iacob E, Pepponi G, Pucker G, Bersani M, Gupta S, Saraswat KC, Gwilliam RM, Jeynes C, Colaux JL. (2012) 'Solid phase epitaxial re-growth of Sn ion implanted germanium thin films'. AIP Conference Proceedings, 1496, pp. 103-106.

    Abstract

    Doping of Ge with Sn atoms by ion implantation and annealing by solid phase epitaxial re-growth process was investigated as a possible way to create GeSn layers. Ion implantation was carried out at liquid nitrogen to avoid nano-void formation and three implant doses were tested: 5×10, 1×10 and 5×10 at/cm, respectively. Implant energy was set to 45 keV and implants were carried out through an 11 nm SiNO film to prevent Sn out-diffusion upon annealing. This was only partially effective. Samples were then annealed in inert atmosphere either at 350°C varying anneal time or for 100 s varying temperature from 300 to 500°C. SPER was effective to anneal damage without Sn diffusion at 350° for samples implanted at medium and low fluences whereas the 5×10 at/cm samples remained with a ∼15 nm amorphous layer even when applying the highest thermal budget. © 2012 American Institute of Physics.

  • Antwis L, Gwilliam R, Smith A, Jeynes C, Homewood K. (2012) 'Characterization of a-FeSi /c-Si heterojunctions for photovoltaic applications'. Semiconductor Science and Technology, 27 (3)
  • Scapellato GG, Bruno E, Mirabella S, Priolo F, Napolitani E, De Salvador D, Mastromatteo M, Carnera A, Smith AJ, Gwilliam R. (2012) 'Role of self-interstitials on B diffusion in Ge'. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, 282, pp. 8-11.
  • Mazzucato S, Royall B, Ketlhwaafetse R, Balkan N, Salmi J, Puustinen J, Guina M, Smith A, Gwilliam R. (2012) 'Dilute nitride and GaAs n-i-p-i solar cells'. Nanoscale Research Letters, 7
  • England J, Phaneuf MW, Laquerre A, Smith A, Gwilliam R. (2012) 'Ion beam assisted crystallization of amorphous silicon layers using high current density Gallium beams'. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, 272, pp. 409-413.
  • Coleman PG, Edwardson CJ, Knights AP, Gwilliam RM. (2012) 'Vacancy-type defects created by single-shot and chain ion implantation of silicon'. New Journal of Physics, 14
  • Halsall MP, Crowe IF, Southern R, Yang P, Gwilliam RM. (2012) 'Broadband near-infrared emission from bismuth doped silicon oxide films prepared by ion-implantation'. Conference on Optoelectronic and Microelectronic Materials and Devices, Proceedings, COMMAD, , pp. 23-24.
  • Milosavljevic M, Lourenco MA, Gwilliam RM, Homewood KP. (2011) 'Role of heavy ion co-implantation and thermal spikes on the development of dislocation loops in nanoengineered silicon light emitting diodes'. AMER INST PHYSICS JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS, 110 (3) Article number ARTN 033508
  • Scapellato GG, Boninelli S, Napolitani E, Bruno E, Smith AJ, Mirabella S, Mastromatteo M, De Salvador D, Gwilliam R, Spinella C, Carnera A, Priolo F. (2011) 'Self-interstitials injection in crystalline Ge induced by GeO2 nanoclusters'. AMER PHYSICAL SOC PHYSICAL REVIEW B, 84 (2) Article number ARTN 024104
  • Coleman PG, Nash D, Edwardson CJ, Knights AP, Gwilliam RM. (2011) 'The evolution of vacancy-type defects in silicon-on-insulator structures studied by positron annihilation spectroscopy'. AMER INST PHYSICS JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS, 110 (1) Article number ARTN 016104
  • Loiacono R, Reed GT, Mashanovich GZ, Gwilliam R, Henley SJ, Hu YF, Feldesh R, Jones R. (2011) 'Laser erasable implanted gratings for integrated silicon photonics'. Optical Society of America Optics Express, 19 (11), pp. 10728-10734.

    Abstract

    In this work we experimentally demonstrate laser erasable germanium implanted Bragg gratings in SOI. Bragg gratings are formed in a silicon waveguide by ion implantation induced amorphization, and are subsequently erased by a contained laser thermal treatment process. An extinction ratio up to 24dB has been demonstrated in transmission for the fabricated implanted Bragg gratings with lengths up to 1000 mu m. Results are also presented, demonstrating that the gratings can be selectively removed by UV pulsed laser annealing, enabling a new concept of laser erasable devices for integrated photonics.

  • Crowe IF, Halsall MP, Hulko O, Knights AP, Gwilliam RM, Wojdak M, Kenyon AJ. (2011) 'Probing the phonon confinement in ultrasmall silicon nanocrystals reveals a size-dependent surface energy'. AMER INST PHYSICS JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS, 109 (8) Article number ARTN 083534
  • Lourenço M, Gwilliam R, Homewood K. (2011) 'Eye-safe 2 μm luminescence from thulium-doped silicon.'. Optical Society of America Opt Lett, United States: 36 (2), pp. 169-171.

    Abstract

    We report on photoluminescence in the 1.7-2.1 μm range of silicon doped with thulium. This is achieved by the implantation of Tm into silicon that has been codoped with boron to reduce the thermal quenching. At least six strong lines can be distinguished at 80 K; at 300 K, the spectrum is dominated by the main emission at 2 μm. These emissions are attributed to the trivalent Tm(3+) internal transitions between the first excited state and the ground state.

  • Scapellato GG, Bruno E, Smith AJ, Napolitani E, De Salvador D, Mirabella S, Mastromatteo M, Carnera A, Gwilliam R, Priolo F. (2011) 'Role of self-interstitials on B diffusion in Ge'. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms,
  • Knights AP, Bradley JDB, Hulko O, Stevanovic DV, Edwards CJ, Kallis A, Coleman PG, Crowe IF, Halsall MP, Gwilliam RM. (2011) 'Probing the formation of silicon nano-crystals (Si-ncs) using variable energy positron annihilation spectroscopy'. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 262 (1)
  • England J, Phaneuf MW, Laquerre A, Smith A, Gwilliam R. (2011) 'Ion beam assisted crystallization of amorphous silicon layers using high current density Gallium beams'. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms,
  • Crowe IF, Kashtiban RJ, Sherliker B, Bangert U, Halsall MP, Knights AP, Gwilliam RM. (2010) 'Spatially correlated erbium and Si nanocrystals in coimplanted SiO2 after a single high temperature anneal'. AMER INST PHYSICS JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS, 107 (4) Article number ARTN 044316
  • Doylend JK, Knights AP, Luff BJ, Shafiiha R, Asghari M, Gwilliam RM. (2010) 'Modifying functionality of variable optical attenuator to signal monitoring through defect engineering'. INST ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY-IET ELECTRONICS LETTERS, 46 (3), pp. 234-235.
  • Homewood KP, Lourenco MA, Gwilliam RM. (2010) 'Nano-engineered silicon light emitting diodes and optically active waveguides'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV OPTICAL MATERIALS, Herceg Novi, MONTENEGRO: 32 (12), pp. 1601-1605.
  • Collart EJH, Teel R, Free C, Wan Z, Kopalidis P, Razali MA, Gwilliam R, Smith A, Tsidilkovski E, Karpowicz T. (2010) 'Process characterization of low temperature ion implantation using ribbon beam and spot beam on the AIBT iPulsar high current'. AIP Conference Proceedings, 1321, pp. 49-52.
  • Lourenco MA, Opoku C, Gwilliam RM, Homewood KP. (2010) 'Photoluminescence study of thulium-doped silicon substrates for light emitting diodes'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV OPTICAL MATERIALS, Herceg Novi, MONTENEGRO: 32 (12), pp. 1597-1600.
  • Loiacono R, Reed GT, Gwilliam R, Mashanovich GZ, O'Faolain L, Krauss T, Lulli G, Jeynes C, Jones R, Kubby JA, Reed GT. (2010) 'Germanium implanted Bragg gratings in Silicon on Insulator waveguides'. SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING SILICON PHOTONICS V, San Francisco, CA: 7606 Article number ARTN 76060G
  • Wright NM, Smith AJ, Litvinenko K, Gwilliam R, Mashanovich G, Reed GT, Kubby JA, Reed GT. (2010) 'Effects of annealing silicon ion irradiated rib waveguides with respect to free carrier lifetime'. SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING SILICON PHOTONICS V, San Francisco, CA: 7606 Article number ARTN 76060H
  • Kashtiban RJ, Bangert U, Crowe I, Halsall P, Sherliker B, Harvey J, Eccles J, Knights AP, Gwilliam R, Gass M. (2010) 'Structural and compositional study of Erbium-doped silicon nanocrystals by HAADF, EELS and HRTEM techniques in an aberration corrected STEM'. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 209
  • Halsall MP, Crowe IF, Hylton NP, Hulko O, Knights AP, Ruffell S, Gwilliam RM, Wojdak M, Kenyon AJ. (2010) 'Novel processing for Si-nanocrystal based photonic materials'. ECS Transactions, 28 (3), pp. 3-13.
  • Smith AJ, Gwilliam RM, Stolojan V, Knights AP, Coleman PG, Kallis A, Yeong SH. (2009) 'Enhancement of phosphorus activation in vacancy engineered thin silicon-on-insulator substrates'. AMER INST PHYSICS JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS, 106 (10) Article number ARTN 103514
  • Rudawski NG, Jones KS, Gwilliam R. (2009) 'Stressed solid-phase epitaxial growth of (011) Si'. MATERIALS RESEARCH SOC JOURNAL OF MATERIALS RESEARCH, 24 (2), pp. 305-309.
  • Ali-Boucetta H, Bensalem R, Alleg S, Smith A, Gwilliam R, Sealy B. (2009) 'Simulation of electrical properties in ion implanted GaAs'. Physics Procedia, 2 (3), pp. 797-801.
  • Roschuk T, Wilson PRJ, Li J, Dunn KA, Wojcik J, Crowe IF, Gwilliam RM, Halsall MP, Knights AP, Mascher P. (2009) 'Structure and luminescence of rare earth-doped silicon oxides studied through XANES and XEOL'. ECS Transactions, 25 (9), pp. 213-222.
  • Wright NM, Thomson DJ, Litvinenko KL, Headley WR, Smith AJ, Knights AP, Deane JHB, Gardes FY, Mashanovich GZ, Gwilliam R, Reed GT, Kubby JA, Reed GT. (2009) 'Free carrier lifetime modification in silicon'. SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING SILICON PHOTONICS IV, San Jose, CA: 7220 Article number ARTN 722006
  • Bennett NS, Cowern NEB, Smith AJ, Kah M, Gwilliam RM, Sealy BJ, Noakes TCQ, Bailey P, Giubertoni D, Bersani M. (2008) 'Differential Hall characterisation of ultrashallow doping in advanced Si-based materials'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING B-ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL SOLID-STATE MATERIALS, Strasbourg, FRANCE: 154, pp. 229-233.
  • Wright NM, Thomson DJ, Litvinenko KL, Headley WR, Smith AJ, Knights AP, Deane JHB, Gardes FY, Mashanovich GZ, Gwilliam R, Reed GT. (2008) 'Free carrier lifetime modification for silicon waveguide based devices'. OPTICAL SOC AMER OPT EXPRESS, 16 (24), pp. 19779-19784.

    Abstract

    We investigate the effect of silicon ion irradiation on free carrier lifetime in silicon waveguides, and thus its ability to reduce the density of two-photon-absorption (TPA) generated free carriers. Our experimental results show that free carrier lifetime can be reduced significantly by silicon ion implantation. Associated excess optical absorption from the implanted ions can be reduced to an acceptable level if irradiation energy and dose are correctly chosen. Simulations of Raman scattering suggest that net gain can be achieved in certain cases without the need for an integrated diode in reverse bias to remove the photo-generated free carriers. (c) 2008 Optical Society of America

  • Bennett NS, Radamson HH, Beer CS, Smith AJ, Gwilliam RM, Cowern NEB, Sealy BJ. (2008) 'Enhanced n-type dopant solubility in tensile-strained Si'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA THIN SOLID FILMS, 517 (1), pp. 331-333.
  • Slotte J, Rummukainen M, Tuomisto F, Markevich VP, Peaker AR, Jeynes C, Gwilliam RM. (2008) 'Evolution of vacancy-related defects upon annealing of ion-implanted germanium'. AMER PHYSICAL SOC PHYSICAL REVIEW B, 78 (8) Article number ARTN 085202
  • Rudawski NG, Jones KS, Gwilliam R. (2008) 'Dopant-stress synergy in Si solid-phase epitaxy'. AMER INST PHYSICS APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 92 (23) Article number ARTN 232110
  • O'Reilly L, Horan K, McNally PJ, Bennett NS, Cowern NEB, Lankinen A, Sealy BJ, Gwilliam RM, Noakes TCQ, Bailey P. (2008) 'Constraints on micro-Raman strain metrology for highly doped strained Si materials'. AMER INST PHYSICS APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 92 (23) Article number ARTN 233506
  • Rudawski NG, Jones KS, Gwilliam R. (2008) 'Stressed solid-phase epitaxial growth of ion-implanted amorphous silicon'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA MATERIALS SCIENCE & ENGINEERING R-REPORTS, 61 (1-6), pp. 40-58.
  • Rudawski NG, Jones KS, Gwilliam R. (2008) 'Kinetics and morphological instabilities of stressed solid-solid phase transformations'. AMER PHYSICAL SOC PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS, 100 (16) Article number ARTN 165501
  • Lourenco MA, Gwilliam RM, Homewood KP. (2008) 'Silicon light emitting diodes emitting over the 1.2-1.4 mu m wavelength region in the extended optical communication band'. AMER INST PHYSICS APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 92 (16) Article number ARTN 161108
  • Knights AP, Bulk MP, Jessop PE, Waugh P, Loiacono R, Mashanovich GZ, Reed GT, Gwilliam RM. (2008) 'Optical filters utilizing ion implanted Bragg gratings in SOI waveguides'. Hindawi Publishing Corporation Advances in Optical Technologies, 2008 Article number 276165

    Abstract

    The refractive index modulation associated with the implantation of oxygen or silicon into waveguides formed in silicon-on- insulator (SOI) has been investigated to determine the feasibility of producing planar, implantation induced Bragg grating optical filters. A two-dimensional coupled mode theory-based simulation suggests that relatively short grating lengths, on the order of a thousand microns, can exhibit sufficient wavelength suppression, of > 10 dB, using the implantation technique. Fabricated planar implanted slab-guided SOI waveguides demonstrated an extinction of −10 dB for TE modes and −6 dB for TM modes for the case of oxygen implantation. Extinctions of −5 dB and −2 dB have been demonstrated with silicon implantation.

  • Bennett NS, Smith AJ, Gwilliam RM, Webb RP, Sealy BJ, Cowern NEB, O'Reilly L, McNally PJ. (2008) 'Antimony for n-type metal oxide semiconductor ultrashallow junctions in strained Si: A superior dopant to arsenic?'. A V S AMER INST PHYSICS JOURNAL OF VACUUM SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY B, Napa, CA: 26 (1), pp. 391-395.
  • Kah M, Smith AJ, Hamilton JJ, Sharp J, Yeong SH, Colombeau B, Gwilliam R, Webb RP, Kirkby KJ. (2008) 'Interaction of the end of range defect band with the upper buried oxide interface for B and BF2 implants in Si and silicon on insulator with and without preamorphizing implant'. A V S AMER INST PHYSICS JOURNAL OF VACUUM SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY B, Napa, CA: 26 (1), pp. 347-350.
  • Bennett NS, Cowern NEB, Smith AJ, Kah M, Gwilliam RM, Sealy BJ, Noakes TCQ, Bailey P, Giubertoni D, Bersani M. (2008) 'Differential Hall characterisation of ultrashallow doping in advanced Si-based materials'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING B-ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL SOLID-STATE MATERIALS, Strasbourg, FRANCE: 154, pp. 229-233.
  • Cowern NEB, Smith AJ, Bennett N, Sealy BJ, Gwilliam R, Webb RP, Colombeau B, Paul S, Lerch W, Pakfar A. (2008) 'Vacancy engineering - An ultra-low thermal budget method for high-concentration 'diffusionless' implantation doping'. Materials Science Forum, 573-574, pp. 295-304.
  • Renaud CC, Pantouvaki M, Gregoire S, Lealman I, Cannard P, Cole S, Moore R, Gwilliam R, Seeds AJ. (2007) 'A monolithic MQW InP-InGaAsP-Based optical comb generator'. IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC IEEE JOURNAL OF QUANTUM ELECTRONICS, 43 (11-12), pp. 998-1005.
  • Rudawski NG, Jones KS, Gwilliam R. (2007) 'Solid phase epitaxy in uniaxially stressed (001) Si'. AMER INST PHYSICS APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 91 (17) Article number ARTN 172103
  • Milgram JN, Knights AP, Homewood KP, Gwilliam RM. (2007) 'Considerations for interpretation of luminescence from silicon-on-insulator light emitting structures'. IOP PUBLISHING LTD SEMICONDUCTOR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, 22 (10), pp. 1104-1110.
  • Lourenco MA, Gwilliam RM, Homewood KP. (2007) 'Extraordinary optical gain from silicon implanted with erbium'. AMER INST PHYSICS APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 91 (14) Article number ARTN 141122
  • Pantouvaki M, Renaud CC, Cannard P, Robertson MJ, Gwilliam R, Seeds AJ. (2007) 'Fast tuneable InGaAsP DBR laser using quantum-confined stark-effect-induced refractive index change'. IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC IEEE JOURNAL OF SELECTED TOPICS IN QUANTUM ELECTRONICS, 13 (5), pp. 1112-1121.
  • Gwilliam R, Sealy B, Smith AJ, Cowern NEB, Colombeau B. (2007) 'Vacancy engineering for ultra-shallow junction formation'. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, 261 (1-2 SPEC. ISS.), pp. 600-603.
  • Seeds AJ, Renaud CC, Pantouvaki M, Robertson M, Lealman I, Rogers D, Firth R, Cannard PJ, Moore R, Gwilliam R. (2007) 'Photonic synthesis of THz signals'. Proceedings of the 36th European Microwave Conference, EuMC 2006, , pp. 1107-1110.
  • Reed GT, Yang PY, Headley WR, Waugh PM, Mashanovich GZ, Thomson D, Gwilliam RM, Teo EJ, Blackwood DJ, Breese MBH, Bettiol AA, Kubby JA, Reed GT. (2007) 'Novel fabrication techniques for silicon photonics'. SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING SILICON PHOTONICS II, San Jose, CA: 6477 Article number ARTN 64770E
  • Zavada JM, Nepal N, Lin JY, Jiang HX, Brown E, Hommerich U, Hite J, Thaler GT, Abernathy CR, Pearton SJ, Gwilliam R. (2006) 'Ultraviolet photoluminescence from Gd-implanted AlN epilayers'. AMER INST PHYSICS APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 89 (15) Article number ARTN 152107
  • Jeynes C, Peng N, Barradas NP, Gwilliam RM. (2006) 'Quality assurance in an implantation laboratory by high accuracy RBS'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS, Seville, SPAIN: 249, pp. 482-485.
  • Webb M, Jeynes C, Gwilliam R, Royle A, Sealy B. (2006) 'Characterising ion-cut in GaAs by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS, Seville, SPAIN: 249, pp. 429-431.
  • Milosavljevic M, Lourenco MA, Shao G, Gwilliam RM, Homewood KP. (2006) 'Optimising dislocation-engineered silicon light-emitting diodes'. SPRINGER APPLIED PHYSICS B-LASERS AND OPTICS, 83 (2), pp. 289-294.
  • Burr E, Pantouvaki M, Fice M, Gwilliam R, Krysa A, Roberts J, Seeds A. (2006) 'Signal stability in periodically amplified fiber transmission systems using multiple quantum well saturable absorbers for regeneration'. IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC JOURNAL OF LIGHTWAVE TECHNOLOGY, 24 (2), pp. 747-754.
  • Han SY, Hite J, Thaler GT, Frazier RM, Abernathy CR, Pearton SJ, Choi HK, Lee WO, Park YD, Zavada JM, Gwilliam R. (2006) 'Effect of Gd implantation on the structural and magnetic properties of GaN and AlN'. AMER INST PHYSICS APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 88 (4) Article number ARTN 042102
  • Bennett NS, Smith AJ, Gwilliam R, Cowern NEB, Sealy BJ, Beer CS, O'Reilly L, McNally PJ, Colombeau B, Dilliway GD, Harper R. (2006) 'Enhanced antimony activation for ultra-shallow junctions in strained silicon'. Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings, 912, pp. 59-64.
  • Pantouvaki M, Kong SF, Fice MJ, Seeds AJ, Gwilliam RM, Cannard P. (2006) '10 Gb/s noise suppression using an ion implanted waveguide saturable absorber'. Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics and 2006 Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference, CLEO/QELS 2006,
  • Pantouvaki M, Liu CP, Renaud CC, Seeds AJ, Cole S, Robertson M, Gwilliam R. (2006) 'Monolithically integrated QCSE-tuned InGaAsP MQW ridge waveguide DBR laser'. Conference Proceedings - International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials, 2006, pp. 72-74.
  • Sealy BJ, Smith AJ, Bennett N, Li L, Jeynes C, Emerson NG, Gwilliam RM, Cowern NEB, Alzanki T, Colombeau B, Collart EJH. (2006) 'Shallow junctions in silicon via low thermal budget processing'. Extended Abstracts of the Sixth International Workshop on Junction Technology, IWJT '06, , pp. 10-15.
  • Smith AJ, Cowern NEB, Gwilliam R, Sealy BJ, Colombeau B, Collart EJH, Gennaro S, Giubertoni D, Bersani M, Barozzi M. (2006) 'Vacancy-engineering implants for high boron activation in silicon on insulator'. Applied Physics Letters, 88 (8)

    Abstract

    The formation of boron interstitial clusters is a key limiting factor for the fabrication of highly conductive ultrashallow doped regions in future silicon-based device technology. Optimized vacancy engineering strongly reduces boron clustering, enabling low-temperature electrical activation to levels rivalling what can be achieved with conventional preamorphization and solid-phase epitaxial regrowth. An optimized 160 keV silicon implant in a 55145 nm silicon-on-insulator structure enables stable activation of a 500 eV boron implant to a concentration ∼5× 1020 cm-3. © 2006 American Institute of Physics.

  • Peaker AR, Markevich VP, Capan I, Dobaczewski L, Slotte J, Rummukainen M, Pivac B, Gwilliam R, Jeynes C. (2006) 'Understanding ion implantation defects in germanium'. ECS Transactions, 3 (2), pp. 67-76.
  • Gwilliam RM, Cowern NEB, Colombeau B, Sealy B, Smith AJ, Hadzievski L, Marinkovic BP, Simonovic NS. (2006) 'Ultra-shallow junction formation in SOI using vacancy engineering'. AMER INST PHYSICS Physics of Ionized Gases, Natl Park Kopaonik, SERBIA: 876, pp. 181-190.
  • Smith AJ, Cowern NEB, Gwilliam R, Sealy BJ, Colombeau B, Collart EJH, Gennaro S, Giubertoni D, Bersani M, Barozzi M. (2006) 'Junction stability of B doped layers in SOI formed with optimized vacancy engineering implants'. AIP Conference Proceedings, 866, pp. 84-87.
  • Renaud CC, Pantouvaki M, Gregoire S, Seeds AJ, Lealman I, Cannard P, Gwilliam R. (2006) 'A monolithic MQW InP/InGaAsP-based comb generator'. 2006 International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics, MWP,
  • Gennaro S, Giubertoni D, Bersani M, Anderle M, Foggiato J, Yoo WS, Gwilliam R. (2006) 'The effect of flash annealing on the electrical properties of indium/carbon Co-implants in silicon'. AIP Conference Proceedings, 866, pp. 113-116.
  • Bennett NS, O'Reilly L, Smith AJ, Gwilliam RM, McNally PJ, Cowern NEB, Sealy BJ, Kirkby KJ, Chivers D, Gwilliam R, Smith A. (2006) 'Strain-enhanced activation of Sb ultrashallow junctions'. AMER INST PHYSICS Ion Implantation Technology, Marseille, FRANCE: 866, pp. 54-57.
  • Bennett NS, Cowern NEB, Smith AJ, Gwilliam RM, Sealy BJ, O'Reilly L, McNally PJ, Cooke G, Kheyrandish H. (2006) 'Highly conductive Sb-doped layers in strained Si'. AMER INST PHYSICS APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 89 (18) Article number ARTN 182122
  • White N, Chen J, Mulcahy C, Biswas S, Gwilliam R. (2006) 'Chicane deceleration - An innovative energy contamination control technique in low energy ion implantation'. AIP Conference Proceedings, 866, pp. 335-339.
  • Milosavljevic M, Shao G, Lourenco MA, Gwilliam RM, Homewood KP, Edwards SP, Valizadeh R, Colligon JS. (2005) 'Transition from amorphous to crystalline beta phase in co-sputtered FeSi2 films as a function of temperature'. AMER INST PHYSICS JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS, 98 (12) Article number ARTN 123506
  • Homewood KP, Lourenco MA, Milosavljevic M, Shao G, Gwilliam RM. (2005) 'Dislocation engineered silicon for light emission'. IEEE 2005 IEEE LEOS Annual Meeting Conference Proceedings (LEOS), Sydney, AUSTRALIA: , pp. 608-609.

Conference papers

  • Sandall I, Tan CH, Smith A, Gwilliam R. (2012) 'Planar InAs photodiodes fabricated using He ion implantation'. 2012 IEEE Photonics Conference, IPC 2012, , pp. 165-166.
  • Peng N, Jeynes C, Gwilliam RM, Webb RP, Pan F, Chen X. (2012) 'On fabrication of high concentration Mn doped Si by ion implantation: problem and challenge'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV 18TH INTERNATIONAL VACUUM CONGRESS (IVC-18), Beijing, PEOPLES R CHINA: 18th International Vacuum Congress (IVC)/International Conference on Nanoscience and Technology (ICNT)/14th International Conference on Surfaces Science (ICSS)/Vacuum and Surface Sciences Conference of Asia and Australia (VASSCAA) 32, pp. 408-411.
  • Razali MA, Smith AJ, Jeynes C, Gwilliam RM, Pelaz L, Santos I, Duffy R, Torregrosa F, Bourdelle K. (2012) 'Temperature-Dependant Study Of Phosphorus Ion Implantation In Germanium'. AMER INST PHYSICS ION IMPLANTATION TECHNOLOGY 2012, Valladolid, SPAIN: 19th International Conference on Ion Implantation Technology (IIT) 1496, pp. 193-196.
  • Loiacono R, Topley R, Nakyobe A, Mashanovich G, Gwilliam R, Lulli G, Feldesh R, Jones R, Reed G. (2011) 'Very low energy implanted Bragg gratings in SOI for wafer scale testing applications'. IEEE Proceedings of 8th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics, London, UK: 8th IEEE GFP, pp. 51-53.
  • Loiacono R, Reed GT, Mashanovich GZ, Gwilliam RM, Lulli G, Feldesh R, Jones R. (2011) 'Low energy silicon on insulator ion implanted gratings for optical wafer scale testing'. SPIE Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering, San Francisco, USA: Silicon Photonics VI 7943

    Abstract

    Silicon photonics shows tremendous potential for the development of the next generation of ultra fast telecommunication, tera-scale computing, and integrated sensing applications. One of the challenges that must be addressed when integrating a "photonic layer" onto a silicon microelectronic circuit is the development of a wafer scale optical testing technique, similar to that employed today in integrated electronics industrial manufacturing. This represents a critical step for the advancement of silicon photonics to large scale production technology with reduced costs. In this work we propose the fabrication and testing of ion implanted gratings in sub micrometer SOI waveguides, which could be applied to the implementation of optical wafer scale testing strategies. An extinction ratio of over 25dB has been demonstrated for ion implanted Bragg gratings fabricated by low energy implants in submicron SOI rib waveguides with lengths up to 1mm. Furthermore, the possibility of employing the proposed implanted gratings for an optical wafer scale testing scheme is discussed in this work.

  • Lourenço MA, Wong L, Gwilliam RM, Homewood KP. (2010) 'Luminescence of Tm3+in dislocation engineered silicon substrates'. Proceedings of 7th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics, Beijing, China: 7th IEEE GFP, pp. 159-161.
  • Homewood KP, Lourenço MA, Gwilliam RM. (2010) '1.1 to 1.6 μm silicon light emitting diodes and optical gain'. Proceedings of IEEE 7th International Conference on Group IV Photonics GFP, Beijing, China: 7th IEEE GFP, pp. 302-304.
  • Antwis L, Wong L, Smith A, Homewood K, Jeynes C, Gwilliam R. (2010) 'Optimization and characterisation of amorphous iron disilicide formed by ion beam mixing of Fe/Si multilayer structures for photovoltaic applications'. AIP Conference Proceedings, Kyoto, Japan: Ion Implantation Technology 2101: 18th International Conference on Ion Implantation Technology IIT 2010 1321, pp. 278-281.
  • Bailey MJ, Jeynes C, Sealy BJ, Webb RP, Gwilliam RM. (2010) 'On artefacts in the secondary ion mass spectrometry profiling of high fluence H+ implants in GaAs'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS, Univ Cambridge, Cambridge, ENGLAND: 19th International Conference on Ion Beam Analysis 268 (11-12), pp. 2051-2055.
  • Crowe IF, Hulko O, Knights AP, Hylton NP, Halsall MP, Ruffell S, Gwilliam RM. (2010) 'Formation of Si-nanocrystals in SiO2 via ion implantation and rapid thermal processing'. Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering, San Francisco, USA: Silicon Photonics V 7606
  • Hylton NP, Crowe IF, Knights AP, Halsall MP, Ruffell S, Gwilliam RM. (2010) 'Optical spectroscopy of Er doped Si-nanocrystals on sapphire substrates fabricated by ion implantation into SiO2'. Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering, San Francisco, USA: Silicon Photonics V 7606
  • Knights AP, Milgrarn JN, Wojcik J, Mascher P, Crowe I, Sherliker B, Halsall MP, Gwilliam RM. (2009) 'Observation of non-radiative de-excitation processes in silicon nanocrystals'. WILEY-BLACKWELL PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI A-APPLICATIONS AND MATERIALS SCIENCE, Edmonton, CANADA: 3rd International Conference on Optical, Optoelectronic and Photonic Materials and Applications 206 (5), pp. 969-972.
  • Reed GT, Mashanovich G, Gardes FY, Gwilliam RM, Wright NM, Thomson DJ, Timotijevic BD, Litvinenko KL, Headley WR, Smith AJ, Knights AP, Jessop PE, Tarr NG, Deane JHB. (2009) 'Silicon photonics at the University of Surrey'. Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering, Dresden, Germany: Photonic Materials, Devices, and Applications III 7366, pp. 736602.1-736602.12.
  • Vassilevski K, Nikitina I, Horsfall A, Wright N, O'Neill AG, Gwilliam R, Johnson CM, PerezTomas A, Godignon P, Vellvehi M, Brosselard P. (2009) 'Silicon Carbide Static Induction Transistor with Implanted Buried Gate'. TRANS TECH PUBLICATIONS LTD SILICON CARBIDE AND RELATED MATERIALS 2008, Barcelona, SPAIN: 7th European Conference on Silicon Carbide and Related Materials 615-617, pp. 735-738.
  • Bennett NS, Cowern NEB, Kheyrandish H, Paul S, Lerch W, Smith AJ, Gwilliam R, Sealy BJ. (2008) 'Vacancy engineering for highly activated 'diffusionless' boron doping in bulk silicon'. Proceedings of the 38th European Solid-State Device Research Conference, Edinburgh, UK: ESSDERC 2008, pp. 290-293.
  • Logan DF, Jessop PE, Knights AP, Gwilliam RM, Halsall MP. (2008) 'The effect of doping type and concentration on optical absorption via implantation induced defects in silicon-on-insulator waveguides'. Proceedings of Conference on Optoelectronic and Microelectronic Materials and Devices, Proceedings, COMMAD, Sydney, Australia: COMMAD 2008, pp. 152-155.
  • Seeds AJ, Pozzi F, Renaud CC, Fice MJ, Ponnampalam L, Rogers DC, Lealman IF, Gwilliam R. (2008) 'Microwave photonics: Opportunities for photonic integration'. Proceedings of the 14th European Conference on Integrated Optics and Technical Exhibition, Eindhoven, The Netherlands: ECIO'08, pp. 123-132.
  • Milosavljevic M, Lourenco MA, Shao G, Gwilliam RM, Homewood KP. (2008) 'Formation of dislocation loops in silicon by ion irradiation for silicon light emitting diodes'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS, Florence, ITALY: 9th European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology 266 (10), pp. 2470-2474.
  • Kah M, Smith AJ, Hamilton JJ, Yeong SH, Columbeau B, Gwilliam R, Webb RP, Kirkby KJ, Seebauer EG, Kondratenko YV, Felch SB, Jain A. (2008) 'A Comparative Study of Interaction of End of Range (EOR) Defect Band with Upper Buried Oxide (BOX) Interface for B and BF(2) Implants in SOI and Bulk Silicon with Pre-Amorphizing Implant'. AMER INST PHYSICS ION IMPLANTATION TECHNOLOGY 2008, Monterey, CA: 17th International Conference on Ion Implantation Technology 1066, pp. 51-54.
  • Wright NM, Thomson DJ, Litvinenko KL, Headley WR, Smith AJ, Knights AP, Gardes FY, Mashanovich GZ, Gwilliam R, Reed GT. (2008) 'Free carrier lifetime modification for silicon waveguide based devices'. IEEE Proceedings of 5th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics, Cardiff, UK: 5th IEEE GFP, pp. 122-124.
  • Smith AJ, Antwis LD, Yeong SH, Knights AP, Colombeau B, Sealy BJ, Gwilliam RM, Seebauer EG, Kondratenko YV, Felch SB, Jain A. (2008) 'Junction Leakage Analysis of Vacancy Engineered Ultra-Shallow p-type Layers'. AMER INST PHYSICS ION IMPLANTATION TECHNOLOGY 2008, Monterey, CA: 17th International Conference on Ion Implantation Technology 1066, pp. 22-25.
  • Smith AJ, Yeong SH, Colombeau B, Sealy BJ, Gwilliam RM, Seebauer EG, Kondratenko YV, Felch SB, Jain A. (2008) 'The Formation of Ultra-Shallow Phosphorous Doped Layers Using Vacancy Engineering'. AMER INST PHYSICS ION IMPLANTATION TECHNOLOGY 2008, Monterey, CA: 17th International Conference on Ion Implantation Technology 1066, pp. 38-41.
  • Peng N, Jeynes C, Gwilliam RM, Kirkby KJ, Webb RP. (2007) 'Depth profile analysis for MgB2 thin films, formed by B implantation in Mg ribbons using energetic ion backscatterings'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV PHYSICA C-SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND ITS APPLICATIONS, Dresden, GERMANY: 8th International Conference on Materials and Mechanisms of Superconductivity and High Temperature Superconductors 460, pp. 600-601.
  • Lourenco MA, Milosavljevic M, Shao G, Gwilliam RM, Homewood KP. (2007) 'Dislocation engineered silicon light emitting devices'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA THIN SOLID FILMS, Kyoto, JAPAN: Asia-Pacific Conference on Semiconducting Silicides 515 (22), pp. 8113-8117.
  • Mistry P, Gomez-Morilla I, Smith RC, Thomson D, Grime GW, Webb RP, Gwilliam R, Jeynes C, Cansell A, Merchant M, Kirkby KJ. (2007) 'Maskless proton beam writing in gallium arsenide'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS, Singapore, SINGAPORE: 10th International Conference on Nuclear Microprobe Technology and Applications held in Conjunction with the 2nd International Workshop on Proton Beam Writing 260 (1), pp. 437-441.
  • Ishibashi Y, Kobayashi T, Prins AD, Nakahara J, Lourenco MA, Gwilliam RM, Homewood KP. (2007) 'Excitation and pressure effects on photoluminescence from dislocation engineered silicon material'. WILEY-V C H VERLAG GMBH PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI B-BASIC SOLID STATE PHYSICS, Barcelona, SPAIN: 12th International Conference on High Pressure Semiconductor Physics (HPSP-12) 244 (1), pp. 402-406.
  • Lourenco MA, Milosavljevic M, Shao G, Gwilliam RM, Homewood KP. (2006) 'Boron engineered dislocation loops for efficient room temperature silicon light emitting diodes'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA THIN SOLID FILMS, Singapore, SINGAPORE: 3rd International Conference on Materials for Advanced Technologies/9th International Conference on Advanced Materials 504 (1-2), pp. 36-40.
  • Auret FD, Peaker AR, Markevich VP, Dobaczewski L, Gwilliam RM. (2006) 'High-resolution DLTS of vacancy-donor pairs in P-, As- and Sb-doped silicon'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV PHYSICA B-CONDENSED MATTER, Awaji Isl, JAPAN: 23rd International Conference on Defects in Semiconductors 376, pp. 73-76.
  • Gennaro S, Giubertoni D, Bersani M, Foggiato J, Yoo WS, Gwilliam R. (2006) 'Nonconventional flash annealing on shallow indium implants in silicon'. A V S AMER INST PHYSICS JOURNAL OF VACUUM SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY B, Daytona Beach, FL: 8th International Workshop on Fabrication, Characterization, and Modeling of Ultra-Shallow Doping Profiles in Semiconductors 24 (1), pp. 473-477.
  • Alzanki T, Gwilliam R, Emerson N, Smith A, Webb R, Sealy BJ. (2006) 'Electrical profiles of 20 nm junctions in Sb implanted silicon'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS, Pacific Grove, CA: 14th International Conference on Ion Beam Modification of Materials (IBMM 2004) 242 (1-2), pp. 693-695.
  • Mistry P, Gomez-Morilla I, Grime GW, Webb R, Jeynes C, Gwilliarn R, Cansell A, Merchant M, Kirkby KJ. (2006) 'Proton beam lithography at the University of Surrey's Ion Beam Centre'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS, Pacific Grove, CA: 14th International Conference on Ion Beam Modification of Materials (IBMM 2004) 242 (1-2), pp. 387-389.
  • Cowern NEB, Smith AJ, Colombeau B, Gwilliam R, Sealy BJ, Collart EJH. (2005) 'Understanding, modeling and optimizing vacancy engineering for stable highly boron-doped ultrashallow junctions'. IEEE IEEE INTERNATIONAL ELECTRON DEVICES MEETING 2005, TECHNICAL DIGEST, Washington, DC: IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting, pp. 989-992.

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