Academic Profiles

Research Interests

His research interest encompass a wide range of activities. Nano-Electronics and renewables being two themes that are very important to the whole effort.
In addition to Nano-Electronics, the characterisation, growth and processing of novel semiconductor materials for large area electronic applications is central to the group activity. Novel device structures & physic of carbon nanotubes and photovoltaics based on polymer/nanotube composites, electron field emission from amorphous materials and modelling of the emission, photovoltaics, electroluminescent cells, electronic doping of amorphous carbon, Excimer laser annealing and ablation, disordered (amorphous and n-C) GaN for optoelectronic applications, band gap modulated superlattice structures, diamond and SiC thin film deposition, the use of ion implantation for electronic doping and synthesis of novel materials are some of his other interests.
Research is progressing rapidly on growth kinetics of low temperature carbon nanotubes.

Research Collaborations

Research collaborations are in progress with national and international partners both from academia and industry. We are also part of the 40 member international consortium on Nano-bio sensors under the EU Framework 6 programme Sensation. We are also part of the 10 member UK academic network on Carbon Based Electronics National Consortium sponsored by EPSRC.

Contact Me

E-mail:
Phone: 01483 68 9825

Find me on campus
Room: 20 ATI 01

Publications

Highlights

  • Beliatis MJ, Gandhi KK, Rozanski LJ, Rhodes R, McCafferty L, Alenezi MR, Alshammari AS, Mills CA, Jayawardena KD, Henley SJ, Silva SR. (2014) 'Hybrid graphene-metal oxide solution processed electron transport layers for large area high-performance organic photovoltaics.'. Adv Mater, Germany: 26 (13), pp. 2078-2083.
  • Alenezi MR, Henley SJ, Emerson NG, Silva SR. (2013) 'From 1D and 2D ZnO nanostructures to 3D hierarchical structures with enhanced gas sensing properties.'. Nanoscale, England: 6 (1), pp. 235-247.
  • Giusca CE, Stolojan V, Sloan J, Börrnert F, Shiozawa H, Sader K, Rümmeli MH, Büchner B, Silva SR. (2013) 'Confined crystals of the smallest phase-change material.'. Nano Lett, United States: 13 (9), pp. 4020-4027.

    Abstract

    The demand for high-density memory in tandem with limitations imposed by the minimum feature size of current storage devices has created a need for new materials that can store information in smaller volumes than currently possible. Successfully employed in commercial optical data storage products, phase-change materials, that can reversibly and rapidly change from an amorphous phase to a crystalline phase when subject to heating or cooling have been identified for the development of the next generation electronic memories. There are limitations to the miniaturization of these devices due to current synthesis and theoretical considerations that place a lower limit of 2 nm on the minimum bit size, below which the material does not transform in the structural phase. We show here that by using carbon nanotubes of less than 2 nm diameter as templates phase-change nanowires confined to their smallest conceivable scale are obtained. Contrary to previous experimental evidence and theoretical expectations, the nanowires are found to crystallize at this scale and display amorphous-to-crystalline phase changes, fulfilling an important prerequisite of a memory element. We show evidence for the smallest phase-change material, extending thus the size limit to explore phase-change memory devices at extreme scales.

  • Jayawardena KDGI, Rozanski LJ, Mills CA, Beliatis MJ, Nismy NA, Silva SRP. (2013) '‘Inorganics - in - Organics’: Recent Developments and Outlook for 4G Polymer Solar Cells'. Royal Society of Chemistry Nanoscale, 5 (18), pp. 8411-8427.
  • Shiozawa H, Bachmatiuk A, Stangl A, Cox DC, Silva SRP, Ruemmeli MH, Pichler T. (2013) 'Microscopic insight into the bilateral formation of carbon spirals from a symmetric iron core'. NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP SCIENTIFIC REPORTS, 3 Article number ARTN 1840
  • Ahmad M, Anguita JV, Stolojan V, Carey JD, Silva SRP. (2013) 'Efficient coupling of optical energy for rapid catalyzed nanomaterial growth: High-quality carbon nanotube synthesis at low substrate temperatures'. ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, 5 (9), pp. 3861-3866.

    Abstract

    The synthesis of high-quality nanomaterials depends on the efficiency of the catalyst and the growth temperature. To produce high-quality material, high-growth temperatures (often up to 1000 C) are regularly required and this can limit possible applications, especially where temperature sensitive substrates or tight thermal budgets are present. In this study, we show that high-quality catalyzed nanomaterial growth at low substrate temperatures is possible by efficient coupling of energy directly into the catalyst particles by an optical method. We demonstrate that using this photothermal-based chemical vapor deposition method that rapid growth (under 4 min, which includes catalyst pretreatment time) of high-density carbon nanotubes can be grown at substrate temperatures as low as 415 C with proper catalyst heat treatment. The growth process results in nanotubes that are high quality, as judged by a range of structural, Raman, and electrical characterization techniques, and are compatible with the requirements for interconnect technology. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  • Anguita JV, Cox DC, Ahmad M, Tan YY, Allam J, Silva SRP. (2013) 'Highly Transmissive Carbon Nanotube Forests Grown at Low Substrate Temperature'. Advanced Functional Materials, 10 (6)
  • Tan YY, Jayawardena KDGI, Adikaari AADT, Tan LW, Anguita JV, Henley SJ, Stolojan V, Carey JD, Silva SRP. (2012) 'Photo-thermal chemical vapor deposition growth of graphene'. Elsevier Carbon, 50 (2), pp. 668-673.

    Abstract

    The growth of graphene on Ni using a photo-thermal chemical vapor deposition (PT-CVD) technique is reported. The non-thermal equilibrium nature of PT-CVD process resulted in a much shorter duration in both heating up and cooling down stages, thus allowing for a reduction in the overall growth time. Despite the reduced time for synthesis compared to standard thermal chemical vapor deposition (T-CVD), there was no decrease in the quality of the graphene film produced. Furthermore, the graphene formation under PT-CVD is much less sensitive to cooling rate than that observed for T-CVD process. Growth on Ni also allows for the alleviation of hydrogen blister damage that is commonly encountered during growth on Cu substrates and a lower processing temperature. To characterize the film’s electrical and optical properties, we further report the use of pristine PT-CVD grown graphene as the transparent electrode material in an organic photovoltaic device (OPV) with poly(3-hexyl)thiophene (P3HT)/phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) as the active layer where the power conversion efficiency of the OPV cell is found to be comparable to that reported using pristine graphene prepared by conventional CVD.

  • Chen GY, Jensen B, Stolojan V, Silva SRP. (2011) 'Growth of carbon nanotubes at temperatures compatible with integrated circuit technologies'. PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD CARBON, 49 (1), pp. 280-285.
  • Nismy NA, Jayawardena KD, Adikaari AA, Silva SR. (2011) 'Photoluminescence Quenching in Carbon Nanotube-Polymer/Fullerene Films: Carbon Nanotubes as Exciton Dissociation Centres in Organic Photovoltaics.'. Wiley Advanced Materials, 23 (33), pp. 3796-3800.
  • Heister E, Lamprecht C, Neves V, Tilmaciu C, Datas L, Flahaut E, Soula B, Hinterdorfer P, Coley HM, Silva SRP, McFadden J. (2010) 'Higher Dispersion Efficacy of Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes in Chemical and Biological Environments'. AMER CHEMICAL SOC ACS NANO, 4 (5), pp. 2615-2626.
  • Giusca CE, Tison Y, Silva SRP. (2008) 'Evidence for Metal-Semiconductor Transitions in Twisted and Collapsed Double-Walled Carbon Nanotubes by Scanning Tunneling Microscopy'. AMER CHEMICAL SOC NANO LETTERS, 8 (10), pp. 3350-3356.
  • Guo X, Silva SRP. (2008) 'Engineering - High-performance transistors by design'. AMER ASSOC ADVANCEMENT SCIENCE SCIENCE, 320 (5876), pp. 618-619.
  • Adikaari AADT, Dissanayake DMNM, Silva SRP. (2008) 'Organic-Inorganic Solar Cells: Recent Developments and Outlook'. IEEE IEEE Journal on Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, 16 (6), pp. 1595-1606.
  • Hatton RA, Miller AJ, Silva SRP. (2008) 'Carbon nanotubes: a multi-functional material for organic optoelectronics'. ROYAL SOC CHEMISTRY JOURNAL OF MATERIALS CHEMISTRY, 18 (11), pp. 1183-1192.
  • Bhattacharyya S, Henley SJ, Mendoza E, Gomez-Rojas L, Allam J, Silva SRP. (2006) 'Resonant tunnelling and fast switching in amorphous-carbon quantum-well structures'. NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP NATURE MATERIALS, 5 (1), pp. 19-22.
  • Boskovic BO, Stolojan V, Khan RUA, Haq S, Silva SRP. (2002) 'Large-area synthesis of carbon nanofibres at room temperature'. NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP NATURE MATERIALS, 1 (3), pp. 165-168.
  • Silva SRP, Robertson J, Amaratunga GAJ, Rafferty B, Brown LM, Schwan J, Franceschini DF, Mariotto G. (1997) 'Nitrogen modification of hydrogenated amorphous carbon films'. AMER INST PHYSICS JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS, 81 (6), pp. 2626-2634.
  • Schwan J, Ulrich S, Batori V, Ehrhardt H, Silva SRP. (1996) 'Raman spectroscopy on amorphous carbon films'. AMER INST PHYSICS JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS, 80 (1), pp. 440-447.
  • Okano K, Koizumi S, Silva SRP, Amaratunga GAJ. (1996) 'Low-threshold cold cathodes made of nitrogen-doped chemical-vapour-deposited diamond'. MACMILLAN MAGAZINES LTD NATURE, 381 (6578), pp. 140-141.
  • Amaratunga GAJ, Silva SRP. (1996) 'Nitrogen containing hydrogenated amorphous carbon for thin-film field emission cathodes'. AMER INST PHYSICS APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 68 (18), pp. 2529-2531.
  • Silva SRP, Rafferty B, Amaratunga GAJ, Schwan J, Franceschini DF, Brown LM. (1996) 'Nitrogenated amorphous carbon as a semiconductor'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA LAUSANNE DIAMOND AND RELATED MATERIALS, BARCELONA, SPAIN: 6th European Conference on Diamond, Diamond-like and Related Materials (Diamond Films 95) 5 (3-5), pp. 401-404.
  • CHAN KK, SILVA SRP, AMARATUNGA GAJ. (1992) 'ELECTRONIC-PROPERTIES OF SEMICONDUCTING DIAMOND-LIKE CARBON DIAMOND'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA LAUSANNE THIN SOLID FILMS, AUBURN UNIV, AUBURN, AL: CONF ON APPLIED DIAMOND 212 (1-2), pp. 232-239.

Journal articles

  • Sam FLM, Razali MA, Jayawardena KDGI, Mills CA, Rozanski LJ, Beliatis MJ, Silva SRP. (2014) 'Silver Grid Transparent Conducting Electrodes for Organic Light Emitting Diodes'. Elsevier Organic Electronics, 15 (12), pp. 3492-3500.
  • Mahmoudi T, Rho W-Y, Yang H-Y, Hahn Y-B, Silva SRP. (2014) 'Highly conductive and dispersible graphene and its application in P3HT-based solar cells'. Chemical Communications, 50 (63), pp. 8705-8708.
  • Smith CTG, Rhodes RW, Beliatis MJ, Jayawardena KDGI, Rozanski LJ, Mills CA, Silva SRP. (2014) 'Graphene oxide hole transport layers for large area, high efficiency organic solar cells'. American Institute of Physics Applied Physics Letters, 105 (7) Article number 073304
  • Pozegic TR, Anguita JV, Tang W, Silva SRP, Hamerton I, Ballocchi P, Jenkins P. (2014) 'Low temperature growth of carbon nanotubes on carbon fibre to create a highly networked fuzzy fibre reinforced composite with superior electrical conductivity'. Carbon, 74, pp. 319-328.
  • Sam FLM, Dabera GDMR, Lai KT, Mills CA, Rozanski LJ, Silva SRP. (2014) 'Hybrid metal grid-polymer-carbon nanotubes electrodes for high luminance organic light emitting diodes'. Institute of Physics Nanotechnology, 25 (34) Article number 345202
  • Alenezi MR, Alshammari AS, Jarowski P, Henley SJ, Silva SRP, Alzanki TH. (2014) 'ZnO nanodisk based UV detectors with printed electrodes'. Langmuir, 30 (13), pp. 3913-3921.
  • Beliatis MJ, Gandhi KK, Rozanski LJ, Rhodes R, McCafferty L, Alenezi MR, Alshammari AS, Mills CA, Jayawardena KDGI, Henley SJ, Silva SRP. (2014) 'Hybrid graphene-metal oxide solution processed electron transport layers for large area high-performance organic photovoltaics'. Advanced Materials, 26 (13), pp. 2078-2083.
  • Alshammari AS, Shkunov M, Silva SRP. (2014) 'Correlation between wetting properties and electrical performance of solution processed PEDOT:PSS/CNT nano-composite thin films'. Colloid and Polymer Science, 292 (3), pp. 661-668.
  • Alshammari AS, Shkunov M, Silva SRP. (2014) 'Inkjet printed PEDOT: PSS/MWCNT nano-composites with aligned carbon nanotubes and enhanced conductivity'. Physica Status Solidi - Rapid Research Letters, 8 (2), pp. 150-153.
  • Beliatis MJ, Gandhi KK, Rozanski LJ, Rhodes R, McCafferty L, Alenezi MR, Alshammari AS, Mills CA, Jayawardena KD, Henley SJ, Silva SR. (2014) 'Hybrid graphene-metal oxide solution processed electron transport layers for large area high-performance organic photovoltaics.'. Adv Mater, Germany: 26 (13), pp. 2078-2083.
  • Sporea RA, Trainor MJ, Young ND, Shannon JM, Silva SR. (2014) 'Source-gated transistors for order-of-magnitude performance improvements in thin-film digital circuits.'. Sci Rep, England: 4
  • Pozegic TR, Anguita JV, Tang W, Silva SRP, Hamerton I, Ballocchi P, Jenkins P. (2014) 'Low temperature growth of carbon nanotubes on carbon fibre to create a highly networked fuzzy fibre reinforced composite with superior electrical conductivity'. Carbon,
  • Shiozawa H, Puchegger S, Pichler T, Silva SRP. (2013) 'Structural properties of mirrored carbon spirals as revealed by scanning electron microscopy and micro-raman spectroscopy'. Physica Status Solidi (B) Basic Research, 250 (12), pp. 2737-2740.
  • Zhang W, Stolojan V, Silva SR, Wu CW. (2013) 'Raman, EELS and XPS studies of maghemite decorated multi-walled carbon nanotubes.'. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc, England: 121, pp. 715-718.
  • Sam FLM, Mills CA, Rozanski LJ, Silva SRP. (2013) 'Thin film hexagonal gold grids as transparent conducting electrodes in organic light emitting diodes'. Wiley Laser and Photonics Reviews, 8 (1), pp. 172-179.
  • Alshammari AS, Shkunov M, Silva SRP. (2013) 'Correlation between wetting properties and electrical performance of solution processed PEDOT:PSS/CNT nano-composite thin films'. Colloid and Polymer Science, , pp. 1-8.

    Abstract

    Nano-composite thin films of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(styrene-sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) with different loading concentrations of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) were deposited on glass substrates using inkjet printing and spin coating techniques. The surface energy of the substrate was modified using an oxygen plasma to achieve different degrees of wetting by the composite solution. We show that the electrical properties strongly depend on the wetting of the substrate and by controlling the wettability, the conductivity of the nano-composite samples can be improved. Based on polymer conductivity, the electrical conductivity of the composite film can be improved or degraded by orders of magnitude with the incorporation of the same concentration of MWCNT. Moreover, electrical measurements show strong correlation between the conductivity of the carbon nanotube network and the resulting nano-composite films. The dependence of electrical properties on the wettability and the conductivity of the composite components could explain the diversity in the electrical behaviour reported in the literature for PEDOT:PSS/MWCNT nano-composite thin films. [Figure not available: see fulltext.] © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  • Mills CA, Sam FLM, Alshammari AS, Rozanski LJ, Emerson NG, Silva SRP. (2013) 'Storage Lifetime of Polymer-Carbon Nanotube Inks for Use as Charge Transport Layers in Organic Light Emitting Diodes'. IEEE IEEE/OSA Journal of display technology, 10 (2), pp. 125-131.

    Abstract

    The long-term stability of multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) mixed with the hole-transport polymer Poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) has been examined. These surfactant stabilised solutions, used as transport layers in organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs), are shown to be stable for periods of up to fifteen months, and show no signs of degrading soon after this time. In comparison, non-stabilised aqueous MWCNT solutions have been shown to aggregate within 30 minutes of production, and, although these aggregates can be re-dispersed, the solution displays an increase in smaller aggregates over time which cannot subsequently be re-dispersed by manual agitation. The stable MWCNT/PEDOT:PSS solutions have been used in ink-jet printing and as composite MWCNT/PEDOT:PSS films suitable as charge transport layers in spin coated organic light emitting diodes.

  • Alenezi MR, Henley SJ, Emerson NG, Silva SR. (2013) 'From 1D and 2D ZnO nanostructures to 3D hierarchical structures with enhanced gas sensing properties.'. Nanoscale, England: 6 (1), pp. 235-247.
  • Jayawardena KDGI, Rhodes R, Gandhi KK, Prabhath MRR, Dabera GDMR, Beliatis MJ, Rozanski LJ, Henley SJ, Silva SRP. (2013) 'Solution processed reduced graphene oxide/metal oxide hybrid electron transport layers for highly efficient polymer solar cells'. Royal Society of Chemistry Journal of Materials Chemistry A, 1 (34), pp. 9922-9927.

    Abstract

    We report new solution processable electron transport layers for organic photovoltaic devices based on composites of metal oxides and reduced graphene oxides. Low bandgap polymer cells fabricated using these nanohybrid transport layers display power conversion efficiencies in the range of 7.4-7.5% which is observed to be an improvement over conventional metal oxide or thermally evaporated electron transport layers. This efficiency enhancement is driven mainly by improvements in the short circuit current (from ∼14.8 to ∼15.0 mA cm) as well as the fill factor (∼65% to ∼68%) upon the inclusion of reduced graphene oxide with the metal oxides. This is attributed to the reduced graphene oxide providing charge transfer pathways between the metal oxide nanoparticles. In addition, the metal oxide/reduced graphene oxide nanohybrids also lead to more balanced electron and hole mobilities which assist in the improvement of the fill factor of the device. The versatile nature of these nanohybrids is increased due to the wrapping of the graphene layers around the metal oxide nanoparticles, which leads to very smooth films with surface roughness of ∼3 nm. The improvement observed in this study upon the incorporation of RGO as well as the solution processable nature of the interfacial layers brings the organic photovoltaic technology a step closer towards realising an all solution processed solar cell. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  • Giusca CE, Stolojan V, Sloan J, Börrnert F, Shiozawa H, Sader K, Rümmeli MH, Büchner B, Silva SR. (2013) 'Confined crystals of the smallest phase-change material.'. Nano Lett, United States: 13 (9), pp. 4020-4027.

    Abstract

    The demand for high-density memory in tandem with limitations imposed by the minimum feature size of current storage devices has created a need for new materials that can store information in smaller volumes than currently possible. Successfully employed in commercial optical data storage products, phase-change materials, that can reversibly and rapidly change from an amorphous phase to a crystalline phase when subject to heating or cooling have been identified for the development of the next generation electronic memories. There are limitations to the miniaturization of these devices due to current synthesis and theoretical considerations that place a lower limit of 2 nm on the minimum bit size, below which the material does not transform in the structural phase. We show here that by using carbon nanotubes of less than 2 nm diameter as templates phase-change nanowires confined to their smallest conceivable scale are obtained. Contrary to previous experimental evidence and theoretical expectations, the nanowires are found to crystallize at this scale and display amorphous-to-crystalline phase changes, fulfilling an important prerequisite of a memory element. We show evidence for the smallest phase-change material, extending thus the size limit to explore phase-change memory devices at extreme scales.

  • Alenezi MR, Alshammari AS, Jayawardena KDGI, Beliatis MJ, Henley SJ, Silva SRP. (2013) 'Role of the exposed polar facets in the performance of thermally and UV activated ZnO nanostructured gas sensors'. Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 117 (34), pp. 17850-17858.

    Abstract

    ZnO nanostructures with different morphologies (nanowires, nanodisks, and nanostars) were synthesized hydrothermally. Gas sensing properties of the as-grown nanostructures were investigated under thermal and UV activation. The performance of the ZnO nanodisk gas sensor was found to be superior to that of other nanostructures (S ∼ 3700% to 300 ppm ethanol and response time and recovery time of 8 and 13 s). The enhancement in sensitivity is attributed to the surface polarities of the different structures on the nanoscale. Furthermore, the selectivity of the gas sensors can be achieved by controlling the UV intensity used to activate these sensors. The highest sensitivity value for ethanol, isopropanol, acetone, and toluene are recorded at the optimal UV intensity of 1.6, 2.4, 3.2, and 4 mW/cm, respectively. Finally, the UV activation mechanism for metal oxide gas sensors is compared with the thermal activation process. The UV activation of analytes based on solution processed ZnO structures pave the way for better quality gas sensors. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  • Jayawardena KDGI, Rozanski LJ, Mills CA, Beliatis MJ, Nismy NA, Silva SRP. (2013) '‘Inorganics - in - Organics’: Recent Developments and Outlook for 4G Polymer Solar Cells'. Royal Society of Chemistry Nanoscale, 5 (18), pp. 8411-8427.
  • Hamerton I, Tang W, Anguita JV, Silva SRP. (2013) 'Towards the rational design of polymers using molecular simulation: predicting the effects of cure schedule on thermomechanical properties for a cycloaliphatic amine-cured epoxy resin'. Elsevier Niagara Falls:
    [ Status: Unpublished ]
  • Hamerton I, Tang W, Anguita JV, Silva SRP. (2013) 'Towards the rational design of polymers using molecular simulation: Predicting the effect of cure schedule on thermo-mechanical properties for a cycloaliphatic amine-cured epoxy resin'. Reactive and Functional Polymers, 74 (1), pp. 1-15.
  • Shannon JM, Sporea RA, Georgakopoulos S, Shkunov M, Silva SRP. (2013) 'Low-Field Behavior of Source-Gated Transistors'. IEEE IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, 60 (8), pp. 2444-2449.

    Abstract

    A physical description of low-field behavior of a Schottky source-gated transistor (SGT) is outlined where carriers crossing the source barrier by thermionic emission are restricted by JFET action in the pinch-off region at the drain end of the source. This mode of operation leads to transistor characteristics with low saturation voltage and high output impedance without the need for field relief at the edge of the Schottky source barrier and explains many characteristics of SGT observed experimentally. 2-D device simulations with and without barrier lowering due to the Schottky effect show that the transistors can be designed so that the current is independent of source length and thickness variations in the semiconductor. This feature together with the fact that the current in an SGT is independent of source-drain separation hypothesizes the fabrication of uniform current sources and other large-area analog circuit blocks with repeatable performance even in imprecise technologies such as high-speed printing.

  • Shiozawa H, Bachmatiuk A, Stangl A, Cox DC, Silva SRP, Ruemmeli MH, Pichler T. (2013) 'Microscopic insight into the bilateral formation of carbon spirals from a symmetric iron core'. NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP SCIENTIFIC REPORTS, 3 Article number ARTN 1840
  • Ahmad M, Anguita JV, Stolojan V, Carey JD, Silva SRP. (2013) 'Efficient coupling of optical energy for rapid catalyzed nanomaterial growth: High-quality carbon nanotube synthesis at low substrate temperatures'. ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, 5 (9), pp. 3861-3866.

    Abstract

    The synthesis of high-quality nanomaterials depends on the efficiency of the catalyst and the growth temperature. To produce high-quality material, high-growth temperatures (often up to 1000 C) are regularly required and this can limit possible applications, especially where temperature sensitive substrates or tight thermal budgets are present. In this study, we show that high-quality catalyzed nanomaterial growth at low substrate temperatures is possible by efficient coupling of energy directly into the catalyst particles by an optical method. We demonstrate that using this photothermal-based chemical vapor deposition method that rapid growth (under 4 min, which includes catalyst pretreatment time) of high-density carbon nanotubes can be grown at substrate temperatures as low as 415 C with proper catalyst heat treatment. The growth process results in nanotubes that are high quality, as judged by a range of structural, Raman, and electrical characterization techniques, and are compatible with the requirements for interconnect technology. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  • Rozanski LJ, Castaldelli E, Sam FLM, Mills CA, Demets GJ-F, Silva SRP. (2013) 'Solution processed naphthalene diimide derivative as electron transport layers for enhanced brightness and efficient polymer light emitting diodes'. Royal Society of Chemistry Journal of Materials Chemistry C, UK: 1 (20), pp. 3347-3352.

    Abstract

    Increasing the efficiency and lifetime of polymer light emitting diodes (PLEDs) requires a balanced injection and flow of charges through the device, driving demand for cheap and effective electron transport/hole blocking layers. Some materials, such as conjugated polyelectrolytes, have been identified as potential candidates but the production of these materials requires complex, and hence costly, synthesis routes. We have utilized a soluble small molecule naphthalene diimide derivative (DC18) as a novel electron transport/hole blocking layer in common PLED architectures, and compared its electronic properties to those of the electron transport/hole blocking small molecule bathocuproine (BCP). PLEDs incorporating DC18 as the electron transport layer reduce turn on voltage by 25%; increase brightness over three and a half times; and provide a full five-fold enhancement in efficiencies compared to reference devices. While DC18 has similar properties to the effective conjugated polyelectrolytes used as electron transport layers, it is simpler to synthesise, reducing cost while retaining favourable electron transport properties, and producing a greater degree of efficiency enhancement. The impact on device lifetime is hypothesized to be significant as well, due to the air-stability seen in many naphthalene diimide derivatives.

  • Beliatis MJ, Henley SJ, Han S, Gandi K, Adikaari D, Stratakis E, Kymakis E, Silva SRP. (2013) 'Organic solar cells with plasmonic layers formed by laser nanofabrication'. RSC Publishing Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics (PCCP),
  • Han SJ, Adikaari AADT, Jayawardena KDGI, Nismy NA, Silva SRP, Hak Kim Y, Won Kim J, Hahn Y-B. (2013) 'Band alignment effects at the metal electrode interface of poly(3-hexylthiophene):zinc oxide hybrid photovoltaics'. Applied Physics Letters, 102 (8)

    Abstract

    Photoelectron spectroscopy is used to investigate the role of titanium oxide as an interfacial layer between a hybrid regioregular poly(3- hexylthiophene):zinc oxide photoactive layer and the Al back contact. The inspection of chemical bonds through X-ray photoemission spectroscopy core peaks indicates that the inner structure of the rr-P3HT:ZnO photo-active layer is preserved, subsequent to the deposition of the TiO layer. Furthermore, the band alignment of rr-P3HT:ZnO/TiO and TiO /Al interfaces gives rise to the enhancement in device efficiency from 1.08% to 1.22% upon incorporating the TiO layer, which is associated with the additional open circuit voltage obtained in the interface of P3HT:ZnO/TiO. © 2013 American Institute of Physics.

  • Dabera GD, Jayawardena KD, Prabhath MR, Yahya I, Tan YY, Nismy NA, Shiozawa H, Sauer M, Ruiz-Soria G, Ayala P, Stolojan V, Adikaari AA, Jarowski PD, Pichler T, Silva SR. (2013) 'Hybrid carbon nanotube networks as efficient hole extraction layers for organic photovoltaics.'. ACS Nano, United States: 7 (1), pp. 556-565.

    Abstract

    Transparent, highly percolated networks of regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (rr-P3HT)-wrapped semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (s-SWNTs) are deposited, and the charge transfer processes of these nanohybrids are studied using spectroscopic and electrical measurements. The data disclose hole doping of s-SWNTs by the polymer, challenging the prevalent electron-doping hypothesis. Through controlled fabrication, high- to low-density nanohybrid networks are achieved, with low-density hybrid carbon nanotube networks tested as hole transport layers (HTLs) for bulk heterojunction (BHJ) organic photovoltaics (OPV). OPVs incorporating these rr-P3HT/s-SWNT networks as the HTL demonstrate the best large area (70 mm(2)) carbon nanotube incorporated organic solar cells to date with a power conversion efficiency of 7.6%. This signifies the strong capability of nanohybrids as an efficient hole extraction layer, and we believe that dense nanohybrid networks have the potential to replace expensive and material scarce inorganic transparent electrodes in large area electronics toward the realization of low-cost flexible electronics.

  • Opoku C, Hoettges KF, Hughes MP, Stolojan V, Silva SRP, Shkunov M. (2013) 'Solution processable multi-channel ZnO nanowire field-effect transistors with organic gate dielectric'. Nanotechnology, 24 (40), pp. 405203-4(7pp).

    Abstract

    The present work focuses on nanowire (NW) applications as semiconducting elements in solution processable field-effect transistors (FETs) targeting large-area low-cost electronics. We address one of the main challenges related to NW deposition and alignment by using dielectrophoresis (DEP) to select multiple ZnO nanowires with the correct length, and to attract, orientate and position them in predefined substrate locations. High-performance top-gate ZnO NW FETs are demonstrated on glass substrates with organic gate dielectric layers and surround source-drain contacts. Such devices are hybrids, in which inorganic multiple single-crystal ZnO NWs and organic gate dielectric are synergic in a single system. Current-voltage (I-V) measurements of a representative hybrid device demonstrate excellent device performance with high on/off ratio of 10^7, steep subthreshold swing (s-s) of 400 mV/dec and high electron mobility of 35 cm2 V-1 s-1 in N2 ambient. Stable device operation is demonstrated after 3 months of air exposure, where similar device parameters are extracted including on/off ratio of 4x10^6, s-s 500 mV/dec and field-effect mobility of 28 cm2 V-1 s-1. These results demonstrate that DEP can be used to assemble multiples of NWs from solvent formulations to enable low-temperature hybrid transistor fabrication for large-area inexpensive electronics.

  • Rajkumar RK, Cox DC, Tzalenchuk A, Kazakova O, Silva SRP, Manzin A. (2013) '3-D mapping of sensitivity of graphene hall devices to local magnetic and electrical fields'. IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, 49 (7), pp. 3445-3448.
  • Shi S, Sadhu V, Moubah R, Schmerber G, Bao Q, Silva SRP. (2013) 'Solution-processable graphene oxide as an efficient hole injection layer for high luminance organic light-emitting diodes'. ROYAL SOC CHEMISTRY JOURNAL OF MATERIALS CHEMISTRY C, 1 (9), pp. 1708-1712.
  • Kim SH, Kim J-H, Hahn Y-B, Silva SRP. (2013) 'Conjugated polymer/Sn-doped ZnO nanowires for heterojunction hybrid solar cells'. Science of Advanced Materials, 5 (5), pp. 499-504.
  • Sporea RA, Alshammari AS, Georgakopoulos S, Underwood J, Shkunov M, Silva SRP. (2013) 'Micron-scale inkjet-assisted digital lithography for large-area flexible electronics'. European Solid-State Device Research Conference, , pp. 280-283.
  • Alshammari AS, Shkunov M, Silva SRP. (2013) 'Inkjet printed PEDOT: PSS/MWCNT nano-composites with aligned carbon nanotubes and enhanced conductivity'. Physica Status Solidi - Rapid Research Letters,
  • Anguita JV, Cox DC, Ahmad M, Tan YY, Allam J, Silva SRP. (2013) 'Highly Transmissive Carbon Nanotube Forests Grown at Low Substrate Temperature'. Advanced Functional Materials, 10 (6)
  • Henley SJ, Beliatis MJ, Stolojan V, Silva SR. (2012) 'Laser implantation of plasmonic nanostructures into glass.'. Nanoscale,
  • Fryar J, Jayawardena KDGI, Silva SRP, Henley SJ. (2012) 'The origin of the metal enrichment of carbon nanostructures produced by laser ablation of a carbon-nickel target'. Carbon, 50 (15), pp. 5505-5520.

    Abstract

    Compositional analysis of metal-containing carbon thin films and nanostructures produced by pulsed laser ablation of a carbon-nickel target revealed significantly higher fractions of nickel in the materials than in the target used to produce them. Ablation of mixed targets is used routinely in the synthesis of carbon nanotubes and to enhance the conductivity of amorphous carbon films by metal incorporation. In this extensive study we investigate the physical mechanisms underlying this metal-enrichment and relate changes in the dynamics of the ablation plumes with increasing background gas pressure to the composition of deposited materials. The failure to preserve the target atom ratios cannot, in this case, be attributed to conventional mechanisms for non-stoichiometric transfer. Instead, nickel-enrichment of the target surface by back-deposition, combined with significantly different propagation dynamics for C atoms, Ni atoms and alloy clusters through the background gas, appears to be the main cause of the high nickel fractions. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • Shang N, Kumar A, Sharma S, Papakonstantinou P, Sun N, Li M, Silva SRP, Blackley RA, Zhou W, Karlsson LS. (2012) 'Vertical graphene nanoflakes for the immobilization, electrocatalytic oxidation and quantitative detection of DNA'. Electrochemistry Communications, 25 (1), pp. 140-143.

    Abstract

    Vertical graphene nanoflake integrated films having a high density of edge planes have been used as an electrochemical platform to systematically investigate the immobilization, electrochemical oxidation kinetics and direct quantitative determination of native DNA. Consistently, both transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy observations demonstrate the presence of a self-assembled monolayer of native DNA, immobilized on the graphene nanoflakes. Graphene shows excellent electrocatalytic activity for the electrooxidation of double stranded DNA, better than carbon nanotubes and glassy carbon, due to the abundance of electrocatalytic graphene edges present not only at the top but also along the sides of each graphene nanoflake. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  • Han S, Adikaari AADT, Jayawardena KDGI, Nismy NA, Silva SRP. (2012) 'Control of nanocrystal surface defects for efficient charge extraction in polymer-ZnO photovoltaic systems'. AIP Journal of Applied Physics, 112 (6)

    Abstract

    Factors determining the photovoltaic device performance of blends of regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (rr-P3HT) and ZnO nanostructures are reported. A decrease in the crystallinity of rr-P3HT upon the formation of ZnO (through hydrolysis) is observed through optical absorption spectroscopy. Increasing the humidity level for the ZnO formation leads to a decrease in the photoluminescence of the rr-P3HT:ZnO blend together with improved photovoltaic device performance. This is attributed to more efficient charge extraction due to a decrease in the radiative trap sites on the ZnO surface as a result of decreasing ZnO surface area with increasing humidity level. © 2012 American Institute of Physics.

  • Neves V, Heister E, Costa S, Tîlmaciu C, Flahaut E, Soula B, Coley HM, McFadden J, Silva SR. (2012) 'Design of double-walled carbon nanotubes for biomedical applications.'. Institute of Physics Nanotechnology, England: 23 (36)

    Abstract

    Double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWNTs) prepared by catalytic chemical vapour deposition were functionalized in such a way that they were optimally designed as a nano-vector for the delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA), which is of great interest for biomedical research and drug development. DWNTs were initially oxidized and coated with a polypeptide (Poly(Lys:Phe)), which was then conjugated to thiol-modified siRNA using a heterobifunctional cross-linker. The obtained oxDWNT-siRNA was characterized by Raman spectroscopy inside and outside a biological environment (mammalian cells). Uptake of the custom-designed nanotubes was not associated with detectable biochemical perturbations in cultured cells, but transfection of cells with DWNTs loaded with siRNA targeting the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene, serving as a model system, as well as with therapeutic siRNA targeting the survivin gene, led to a significant gene silencing effect, and in the latter case a resulting apoptotic effect in cancer cells.

  • Shi S, Silva SRP. (2012) 'High luminance organic light-emitting diodes with efficient multi-walled carbon nanotube hole injectors'. Carbon, 50 (11), pp. 4163-4170.

    Abstract

    We report on high luminance organic light-emitting diodes using acid functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotube (o-MWCNTs) as efficient hole injector electrodes, using a simple, solution processable device structure. At only 10 V, the luminance approaches 50,000 cd/m with an external quantum efficiency over 2% and a current efficiency greater than 21 cd/A. The investigation of hole-only devices shows that the mechanism for hole injection changes from injection limited to bulk limited because of the higher effective work function of the anode modified by the o-MWCNTs. We expect the enhancement of the local electric field, brought about by both the dielectric inhomogeneities within the o-MWCNT containing anode and the high aspect ratio carbon nanotubes, improves hole injection from the anode to the organic active layer at much lower applied voltage. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • Ramli MM, Zhang W, Silva SRP, Henley SJ. (2012) 'Dye-assisted dispersion of single-walled carbon nanotubes for solution fabrication of NO2 sensors'. AMER INST PHYSICS AIP ADVANCES, 2 (3) Article number ARTN 032165
  • Zhang W, Tan YY, Wu C, Silva SRP. (2012) 'Self-assembly of single walled carbon nanotubes onto cotton to make conductive yarn'. Elsevier Particuology, 10 (4), pp. 517-521.

    Abstract

    A simple, economical and scalable technique is demonstrated to make conductiveyarn. Singlewalledcarbonnanotubes (SWCNTs) are non-covalently functionalized with dye (Acid Red 91) and dispersed in water; while cottonyarn is treated with poly (ethylene imine). When the resulting yarn is immersed in the SWCNT dispersion, SWCNTs self-assemble onto the yarn due to electrostatic forces between the functionalized nanotubes and yarn. Scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy indicate the assembly of carbonnanotubes. The SWCNT functionalized yarn exhibits reasonable electrical conduction behaviour and are then used to make chemiresistors. The electrical resistance of the chemiresistors used as sensors increases on exposure to ammonia gas, which can be explained in terms of electron transfer between gas molecules and SWCNTs.

  • Zhang W, Lei MK, Zhang W, Silva SRP, Johnson L. (2012) 'The effect of plasma modification on the sheet resistance of nylon fabrics coated with carbon nanotubes'. Elsevier Applied Surface Science, 258 (20), pp. 8209-8213.

    Abstract

    Low-pressure oxygen and argon plasmas were used to pre-treat nylon fabrics, and the modified fabrics, together with the raw fabrics, were subsequently coated with single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) by a dip-drying process. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Raman spectroscopy analyses indicated the attachment of SWCNTs onto nylon fabrics. After the coating with SWCNTs, the plasma modified fabrics exhibited sheet resistance of as low as 2.0 kΩ/sq. with respect to 4.9 kΩ/sq. of the raw fabrics, presumably owing to the increase of fibre surface roughness incurred by the plasma modification, which is evidenced by SEM analyses. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis indicates the incorporation of oxygen functionalities on fibre surfaces in the plasma modification. This is responsible for the variation of the electrical conductance of SWCNT-coated fabrics with the type of plasma and the duration of plasma ablation. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • Zhang W, Silva SRP. (2012) 'Alter the sheet resistance of carbon nanotube-coated cellulose fabric with argon plasma pretreatment'. INST ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY-IET MICRO & NANO LETTERS, 7 (8), pp. 850-853.
  • Latini G, Tan LW, Cacialli F, Silva SRP. (2012) 'Superficial fluoropolymer layers for efficient light-emitting diodes'. Elsevier Organic Electronics, 13 (6), pp. 992-998.

    Abstract

    Fluoropolymers are characterized by high chemical inertness and, when in solid state, by superficial dipoles due to the C–F bond where the charge density is strongly displaced. These two characteristics are exploited here for fine control of charge balance in organic light-emitting devices and for preventing electrochemical interaction between heterogeneous layers. The insertion of a thin layer of polytetrafluoroethylene, PTFE, at the interface between poly(ethylene dioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonic acid), PEDOT:PSS, and an electroluminescent polymer leads to improved device efficiency and longevity. The presence of the superficial dipole increases the effective work function of the anode and improves the charge balance which enhances the external quantum efficiency, EQE, of the devices by up to a factor of two without significant effects on the luminance levels. The insertion of the PTFE layer reduces the photoluminescence quenching at the PEDOT:PSS/polymer interface, however we show that the EQE enhancement is mainly due to a better confinement of minority carrier electrons in the active layer. The lifetime of the devices shows a remarkable increase correlated with the insertion of the PTFE layer. Such improvements are ascribed to the reduced electrochemical interaction between the electroluminescent polymer and PEDOT:PSS due to the chemically inert nature of PTFE. The PTFE acts as a chemical zipper of two heterogeneous media with the added functionality of control over the charge balance.

  • Saaverda MS, Sims GD, McCartney LN, Stolojan V, Anguita JV, Tan YY, Ogin SL, Smith PA, Silva SRP. (2012) 'Catalysing the production of multiple arm carbon octupi nanostructures'. Elsevier Carbon, 50 (6), pp. 2141-2146.

    Abstract

    Octopus-like carbon nanofibres with leg diameters as small as 9 nm are reported, with a high yield over large areas, using a unique photo-thermal chemical vapour deposition system. The branched nature of these nanostructures leads to geometries ideal for increasing the surface area of contacts for many electronic and electrochemical devices. The manufacture of these structures involves a combination of a polyacrylonitrile/polysiloxane film covering the surface of cupronickel catalysts, supported on silicon. Acetylene is used as the carbon feedstock. High-resolution electron microscopy revealed a relationship between the geometry of the nanoparticles and the catalytic growth process, which can be tuned to maximise geometries (and therefore the surface area) and was obtained with a catalyst size of 125 nm. The technique proposed for growing these carbon octopi nanostructures is ideal to facilitate a new in situ transfer film process to place high-density carbon structures on secondary surfaces to produce high capacitance all-carbon contacts.

  • Heister E, Neves V, Lamprecht C, Silva SRP, Coley HM, McFadden J. (2012) 'Drug loading, dispersion stability, and therapeutic efficacy in targeted drug delivery with carbon nanotubes'. Elsevier Carbon, 50 (2), pp. 622-632.

    Abstract

    We have designed a drug delivery system for the anti-cancer drugs doxorubicin and mitoxantrone based on carbon nanotubes, which is stable under biological conditions, allows for sustained release, and promotes selectivity through an active targeting scheme. Carbon nanotubes are particularly promising for this area of application due to their high surface area, allowing for high drug loading, and their unique interaction with cellular membranes. We have taken a systematic approach to PEG conjugation in order to create a formulation of stable and therapeutically effective CNTs. The presented drug delivery system may be a means of improving cancer treatment modalities by reducing drug-related side effects.

  • Tan YY, Jayawardena KDGI, Adikaari AADT, Tan LW, Anguita JV, Henley SJ, Stolojan V, Carey JD, Silva SRP. (2012) 'Photo-thermal chemical vapor deposition growth of graphene'. Elsevier Carbon, 50 (2), pp. 668-673.

    Abstract

    The growth of graphene on Ni using a photo-thermal chemical vapor deposition (PT-CVD) technique is reported. The non-thermal equilibrium nature of PT-CVD process resulted in a much shorter duration in both heating up and cooling down stages, thus allowing for a reduction in the overall growth time. Despite the reduced time for synthesis compared to standard thermal chemical vapor deposition (T-CVD), there was no decrease in the quality of the graphene film produced. Furthermore, the graphene formation under PT-CVD is much less sensitive to cooling rate than that observed for T-CVD process. Growth on Ni also allows for the alleviation of hydrogen blister damage that is commonly encountered during growth on Cu substrates and a lower processing temperature. To characterize the film’s electrical and optical properties, we further report the use of pristine PT-CVD grown graphene as the transparent electrode material in an organic photovoltaic device (OPV) with poly(3-hexyl)thiophene (P3HT)/phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) as the active layer where the power conversion efficiency of the OPV cell is found to be comparable to that reported using pristine graphene prepared by conventional CVD.

  • Zhang W, Shiozawa H, Wu CW, Hamerton I, Cox DC, Silva SR. (2012) 'The effect of pH on the functionalization of nylon fabric with carbon nanotubes.'. J Nanosci Nanotechnol, United States: 12 (1), pp. 84-90.
  • Curry RJ, adikaari , silva S, etchart I, Guering P, Berard M, cheetham A. (2012) 'Near infrared up-conversion in organic photovoltaic devices using an efficient Yb3+:Ho3+ Co-doped Ln2BaZnO5 (Ln = Y, Gd) phosphor'. American Institute of Physics Journal of Applied Physics, 111 (9) Article number 094502

    Abstract

    The first detailed study that combines the use of a new generation of high-efficiency Yb3+:Ho3+ co-doped Y2BaZnO5 near-infrared up-converting phosphors with organic photovoltaic devices is reported. We show that it is possible to obtain a Jsc of 16 µA / cm2 under 986 nm illumination (~390 mW / cm2 corresponding to ~37 suns) leading to an up-conversion external quantum efficiency (UC EQE) of 0.0052%. Through modification of the organic photovoltaic devices to incorporate transparent electrodes we show that UC EQE could be increased to 0.031 %, matching that achieved in amorphous-Si:H PV cells. Accounting for the full spectral range that may be absorbed by the phosphor(~870–1030 nm) yields an up-conversion power conversion efficiency (UC PCE) of 0.073% which again could be improved to 0.45% using transparent electrodes. This technique for utilizing the near-infrared spectral region may therefore offer a potential route to improving the performance of organic photovoltaic devices as research into discovering high-efficiency up-converting phosphors continues to provide improved materials.

  • Sporea RA, Shannon JM, Silva SRP. (2012) 'Modes of operation and optimum design for application of source-gated transistors'. ECS Transactions, 50 (8), pp. 65-70.
  • Saavedra MS, Sims GD, McCartney LN, Stolojan V, Anguita JV, Tan YY, Ogin SL, Smith PA, Silva SRP. (2012) 'Catalysing the production of multiple arm carbon octopi nanostructures'. Elsevier Carbon, 50 (6), pp. 2141-2146.
  • Sporea RA, Shannon JM, Silva SRP, Trainor MJ, Young ND. (2012) 'Field plate optimization in low-power high-gain source-gated transistors'. IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, 59 (8), pp. 2180-2186.

    Abstract

    Source-gated transistors (SGTs) have potentially very high output impedance and low saturation voltages, which make them ideal as building blocks for high-performance analog circuits fabricated in thin-film technologies. The quality of saturation is greatly influenced by the design of the field-relief structure incorporated into the source electrode. Starting from measurements on self-aligned polysilicon structures, we show through numerical simulations how the field plate (FP) design can be improved. A simple source FP around 1 μm long situated several tens of nanometers above the semiconductor can increase the low-voltage intrinsic gain by more than two orders of magnitude and offers adequate tolerance to process variations in a moderately scaled thin-film SGT. © 2012 IEEE.

  • Sanz V, Coley HM, McFadden J, Sanz V, Silva SRP. (2012) 'Protamine and chloroquine enhance gene delivery and expression mediated by RNA-wrapped single walled carbon nanotubes'. AMER SCIENTIFIC PUBLISHERS Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, 12 (3), pp. 1739-1747.
  • Sporea RA, Trainor MJ, Young ND, Shannon JM, Silva SRP. (2012) 'Field plate optimization in low-power high-gain source-gated transistors'. IEEE IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, 59 (8)

    Abstract

    Source-gated transistors (SGTs) have potentially very high output impedance and low saturation voltages, which make them ideal as building blocks for high performance analog circuits fabricated in thin-film technologies. The quality of the saturation is greatly influenced by the design of the field-relief structure incorporated into the source electrode. Starting from measurements on self-aligned polysilicon structures, we show through numerical simulations how the field plate design can be improved. A simple source field plate around 1µm long situated several tens of nm above the semiconductor can increase the low-voltage intrinsic gain by more than two orders of magnitude and offers adequate tolerance to process variations in a moderately scaled thin-film SGT.

  • Zhang W, Lei MK, Zhang W, Silva SRP, Johnson L. (2012) 'The effect of plasma modification on the sheet resistance of nylon fabrics coated with carbon nanotubes'. Applied Surface Science,
  • Shi S, Silva SRP. (2012) 'High luminance organic light-emitting diodes with efficient multi-walled carbon nanotube hole injectors'. PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD CARBON, 50 (11), pp. 4163-4170.
  • Silva SRP. (2012) 'Electron field emission from carbon nanotubes'. Technical Digest - 25th International Vacuum Nanoelectronics Conference, IVNC 2012, , pp. 102-103.
  • Neves V, Gerondopoulos A, Heister E, Tîlmaciu C, Flahaut E, Soula B, Silva SRP, McFadden J, Coley HM. (2012) 'Cellular localization, accumulation and trafficking of double-walled carbon nanotubes in human prostate cancer cells'. Springer Nano Research, 5 (4), pp. 223-234.

    Abstract

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are at present being considered as potential nanovectors with the ability to deliver therapeutic cargoes into living cells. Previous studies established the ability of CNTs to enter cells and their therapeutic utility, but an appreciation of global intracellular trafficking associated with their cellular distribution has yet to be described. Despite the many aspects of the uptake mechanism of CNTs being studied, only a few studies have investigated internalization and fate of CNTs inside cells in detail. In the present study, intracellular localization and trafficking of RNA-wrapped, oxidized double-walled CNTs (oxDWNT-RNA) is presented. Fixed cells, previously exposed to oxDWNT-RNA, were subjected to immunocytochemical analysis using antibodies specific to proteins implicated in endocytosis; moreover cell compartment markers and pharmacological inhibitory conditions were also employed in this study. Our results revealed that an endocytic pathway is involved in the internalization of oxDWNT-RNA. The nanotubes were found in clathrin-coated vesicles, after which they appear to be sorted in early endosomes, followed by vesicular maturation, become located in lysosomes. Furthermore, we observed co-localization of oxDWNT-RNA with the small GTP-binding protein (Rab 11), involved in their recycling back to the plasma membrane via endosomes from the trans-golgi network.

  • Fryar J, Jayawardena KDGI, Silva SRP, Henley SJ. (2012) 'The origin of the metal enrichment of carbon nanostructures produced by laser ablation of a carbon-nickel target'. Carbon,
  • Sanz V, Coley HM, Silva SRP, McFadden J. (2012) 'Modeling the binding of peptides on carbon nanotubes and their use as protein and DNA carriers'. Springer Journal of Nanoparticle Research, 14 (2)

    Abstract

    An in-depth study of a novel functionalization of carbon nanotubes for their application as protein and DNA carriers is presented. First, the optimum conditions for the dispersion of singlewalled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with amphiphilic polypeptides were obtained, and the SWCNT–polypeptide complexes were characterized by different techniques (UV–Vis-NIR, CD, and AFM). Based on the properties of the SWCNT–polypeptide complexes, a model that characterizes the adsorption of natural proteins onto SWCNT was described for the first time. This model predicts the adsorption of natural proteins on SWCNTs based on the protein structure and composition, and therefore, allows the design of methods for the preparation of SWCNT–protein complexes. Besides, the use of cationic-designed amphiphilic polypeptides to disperse SWCNTs is applied for subsequent and efficient binding of DNA to carbon nanotubes by a bilayer approach. Therefore, in this article, we develop procedures for the use of SWCNTs as protein and DNA carriers. The systems were delivered into cells showing that the efficiency of delivery is affected by the charge of the complexes, which has important implications in the use of SWCNT as platforms for protein and DNA binding and subsequent use as delivery systems.

  • Zhang W, Wu CW, Tan YY, Silva SRP. (2012) 'Functionalisation of nylon with carbon nanotubes to make thermally stable fabric and wearable capacitor'. INST ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY-IET MICRO & NANO LETTERS, 7 (3), pp. 193-195.
  • Tan YY, Tan LW, Jayawardena KDGI, Anguita JV, Carey JD, Silva SRP. (2011) 'Field effect in chemical vapour deposited graphene incorporating a polymeric gate dielectric'. Synthetic Metals, 161 (21-22), pp. 2249-2252.
  • Miyajima Y, Tison Y, Giusca CE, Stolojan V, Watanabe H, Habuchi H, Henley SJ, Shannon JM, Silva SRP. (2011) 'Probing the band structure of hydrogen-free amorphous carbon and the effect of nitrogen incorporation'. PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD CARBON, 49 (15), pp. 5229-5238.
  • Sanz V, Tilmacîu C, Soula B, Flahaut E, Coley HM, Silva SRP, McFadden J. (2011) 'Chloroquine-enhanced gene delivery mediated by carbon nanotubes'. Elsevier Carbon, 49 (15), pp. 5348-5358.

    Abstract

    Polyethyleneimine-coated double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs) were used for dual gene and drug delivery, after loading the DWCNTs with the drug chloroquine, a lysosomotropic compound that is able to promote escape from the lysosomal compartment. Different forms of functionalization of the DWCNTs were examined in order to optimize this system. They included the testing of different treatments on DWCNTs to optimize the loading and delivery of chloroquine and the selection of a cationic polymer for coating the DWCNTs for optimum DNA binding and delivery. An acid oxidation treatment of DWCNTs was selected for optimum chloroquine loading together with polyethyleneimine as optimum cationic coating agent for plasmid DNA binding. Optimization of the conditions for choroquine-enhanced gene delivery were developed using luciferase expression as a model system. We have demonstrated that chloroquine-loading increases the ability of polyethyleneimine-coated DWCNTs to deliver functional nucleic acid to human cells. Cell viability tests have shown no cytotoxicity of the functionalized DWCNTs at the concentrations needed for optimum gene delivery. These results support the potential applications of this methodology in gene therapy.

  • Inigo AR, Underwood JM, Silva SRP. (2011) 'Carbon nanotube modified electrodes for enhanced brightness in organic light emitting devices'. PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD CARBON, 49 (13), pp. 4211-4217.
  • Haberer D, Giusca CE, Wang Y, Sachdev H, Fedorov AV, Farjam M, Jafari SA, Vyalikh DV, Usachov D, Liu X, Treske U, Grobosch M, Vilkov O, Adamchuk VK, Irle S, Silva SRP, Knupfer M, Buechner B, Grueneis A. (2011) 'Evidence for a New Two-Dimensional C4H-Type Polymer Based on Hydrogenated Graphene'. ADVANCED MATERIALS, 23 (39), pp. 4497-+.
  • Jayawardena KDGI, Tan YY, Fryar J, Shiozawa H, Silva SRP, Henley SJ, Fuge GM, Truscott BS, Ashfold MNR. (2011) 'Highly conductive nanoclustered carbon:nickel films grown by pulsed laser deposition'. Elsevier Carbon, 49 (12), pp. 3781-3788.

    Abstract

    An enhancement by 5 orders of magnitude of the electrical conductivity of nanoclustered carbon films is reported by incorporation of metallic atoms, but without significant morphological changes. Films were deposited by 248 nm pulsed laser ablation of both a pyrolytic graphite target and a mixed carbon–nickel (C:Ni) target, and structural analysis revealed that similar film morphologies were obtained when deposition was carried out using either target. Compositional analysis demonstrated a preferential incorporation of nickel over carbon in the resulting films (cf. the composition of the target). This non-stoichiometric transfer was also observed for films grown by 193 nm laser ablation of the C:Ni target, for which the enhancement was more pronounced, indicating that the ablation mechanism and the subsequent transfer are important in determining the eventual film composition.

  • Shang NG, Silva SRP, Jiang X, Papakonstantinou P. (2011) 'Directly observable G band splitting in Raman spectra from individual tubular graphite cones'. PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD CARBON, 49 (9), pp. 3048-3054.
  • Miyajima Y, Henley SJ, Silva SRP. (2011) 'Hydrogenated amorphous carbon and carbon nitride films deposited at low pressure by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition'. Elsevier THIN SOLID FILMS, 519 (19), pp. 6374-6380.
  • Inigo AR, Henley SJ, Silva SRP. (2011) 'Dispersive hole transport in polymer:carbon nanotube composites.'. Nanotechnology, England: 22 (26)

    Abstract

    The hole transport properties of poly(2-methoxy, 5-(2'-ethyl-hexoxy)-p-phenylene vinylene) (MEH-PPV) blended with acid oxidized multiwall carbon nanotubes (COOH-MWCNTs) were investigated in a diode configuration using the time-of-flight (TOF) photocurrent method. While the room temperature hole mobility in pure MEH-PPV films was non-dispersive with positive field dependent mobility, MEH-PPV:COOH-MWCNT blended devices exhibited dispersive transport and negative field dependent mobility. This indicates that the hole mobility in this composite is influenced by positional disorder caused by the presence of COOH-MWCNTs in the MEH-PPV matrix. These results strongly suggest that the distribution of COOH-MWCNTs optimising in the organic matrix is important for charge transport in the high mobility nanotube component to be activated, when used in hybrid material systems.

  • Sporea RA, Guo X, Shannon JM, Silva SRP. (2011) 'Source-Gated Transistors for Versatile Large Area Electronic Circuit Design and Fabrication'. Semiconductor Technology for Ultra Large Scale Integrated Circuits and Thin Film Transistors 3 Edition. The Electrochemical Society ECS Transactions, USA: 37 (1), pp. 57-63.

    Abstract

    Source-gated transistors (SGTs) comprise a blocking contact or potential barrier at the source, which control the current. The paper describes how SGTs can be optimized for particular applications and for specific semiconductor material systems. It is shown how the saturation voltage can be designed to be an order of magnitude smaller than in equivalent FETs to give power savings of over 50% for the same current output. The SGT also achieves a better saturation regime, with lower output conductance over a larger range of drain voltages. Flat-panel lighting, remote sensing and signal processing and large-area circuits made using inexpensive but imprecise patterning techniques are some of the applications which could benefit from incorporating these devices.

  • Sharma P, Stolojan V, Silva SRP. (2011) 'Raman analysis of oxide cladded silicon core nanowires grown with solid silicon feed stock'. SPRINGER JOURNAL OF NANOPARTICLE RESEARCH, 13 (7), pp. 2697-2703.
  • Sadhu V, Nismy NA, Adikaari AA, Henley SJ, Shkunov M, Silva SRP. (2011) 'The incorporation of mono- and bi-functionalized multiwall carbon nanotubes in organic photovoltaic cells.'. Nanotechnology, England: 22 (26)

    Abstract

    We have successfully prepared mono- and bi-functionalized multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) with thiophene, amine and thiophene-amine groups. The dispersion of nanotubes has been enhanced and stable optimized dispersions in organic solvents were obtained. These functionalized nanotubes have been successfully incorporated into bulk heterojunction (BHJ) organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells with a poly (3-hexyl thiophene) (P3HT) and [6, 6]-phenyl-C(61)-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) photoactive blended layer. The incorporation of MWCNT with different functional groups, in the active layer, results in different cell performance with respect to a reference cell. A maximum power conversion efficiency of 2.5% is achieved with the inclusion of thiophene functionalized nanotubes. This improvement in the device performance is attributed to an extension of the exciton dissociation volume and charge transport properties through the nanotube percolation network in P3HT/CNT, PCBM/CNT or both phases. This is believed to be due to more efficient dispersion of the functionalized nanotubes within the photoactive composite layer.

  • Sporea RA, Shannon JM, Silva SRP. (2011) 'High-resolution temperature sensing with source-gated transistors'. IEEE Device Research Conference (DRC), 2011 69th Annual, USA: , pp. 61-62.

    Abstract

    Source-gated transistors (SGTs) are three-terminal devices in which the current is controlled by a potential barrier at the source. The gate voltage is used primarily to modulate the effective height of the source barrier. These devices have a number of operational advantages over conventional field-effect transistors, including a potentially much smaller saturation voltage and very low output conductance in saturation, which lead to low power operation and high intrinsic gain.

  • Beliatis MJ, Henley SJ, Silva SRP. (2011) 'Engineering the plasmon resonance of large area bimetallic nanoparticle films by laser nanostructuring for chemical sensors'. OPTICAL SOC AMER OPT LETT, 36 (8), pp. 1362-1364.

    Abstract

    Large area fabrication of metal alloy nanoparticles with tunable surface plasmon resonances on low-cost substrates is reported. A UV excimer laser was used to anneal 5 nm thick Ag Au bilayer films deposited with different composition ratios to create alloy nanoparticles. These engineered surfaces are used to investigate how the wavelength of the surface plasmon resonance affects the optical detection capability of chemical species by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy. (c) 2011 Optical Society of America

  • Filip LD, Carey JD, Silva SRP. (2011) 'Exact equipotential profile mapping: A self-validating method'. AMER INST PHYSICS JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS, 109 (8) Article number ARTN 084527
  • Sanz V, Borowiak E, Lukanov P, Galibert AM, Flahaut E, Coley HM, Silva SRP, McFadden J. (2011) 'Optimising DNA binding to carbon nanotubes by non-covalent methods'. Elsevier Carbon, 49 (5), pp. 1775-1781.

    Abstract

    The use of carbon nanotubes as a gene delivery system has been extensively studied in recent years owing to its potential advantages over viral vectors. To achieve this goal, carbon nanotubes have to be functionalized to become compatible with aqueous media and to bind the genetic material. To establish the best conditions for plasmid DNA binding, we compare the dispersion properties of single-, double- and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs, DWCNTs and MWCNTs, respectively) functionalized with a variety of surfactants by non-covalent attachment. The DNA binding properties of the functionalized carbon nanotubes were studied and compared by electrophoresis. Furthermore, a bilayer functionalization method for DNA binding on SWCNTs was developed that utilized RNA-wrapping to solubilize the nanotubes and cationic polymers as a bridge between nanotubes and DNA.

  • Beliatis MJ, Martin NA, Leming EJ, Silva SR, Henley SJ. (2011) 'Laser ablation direct writing of metal nanoparticles for hydrogen and humidity sensors.'. American Chemical Society Langmuir, United States: 27 (3), pp. 1241-1244.

    Abstract

    A UV pulsed laser writing technique to fabricate metal nanoparticle patterns on low-cost substrates is demonstrated. We use this process to directly write nanoparticle gas sensors, which operate via quantum tunnelling of electrons at room temperature across the device. The advantages of this method are no lithography requirements, high precision nanoparticle placement, and room temperature processing in atmospheric conditions. Palladium-based nanoparticle sensors are tested for the detection of water vapor and hydrogen within controlled environmental chambers. The electrical conduction mechanism responsible for the very high sensitivity of the devices is discussed with regard to the interparticle capacitance and the tunnelling resistance.

  • Shiozawa H, Skeldon AC, Lloyd DJ, Stolojan V, Cox DC, Silva SR. (2011) 'Spontaneous emergence of long-range shape symmetry'. Nano Letters, United States: 11 (1), pp. 160-163.
  • Nismy NA, Jayawardena KD, Adikaari AA, Silva SR. (2011) 'Photoluminescence Quenching in Carbon Nanotube-Polymer/Fullerene Films: Carbon Nanotubes as Exciton Dissociation Centres in Organic Photovoltaics.'. Wiley Advanced Materials, 23 (33), pp. 3796-3800.
  • Jayawardena KDGI, Opoku C, Fryar J, Silva SRP, Henley SJ. (2011) 'Excimer laser accelerated hydrothermal synthesis of ZnO nanocrystals & their electrical properties'. Applied Surface Science, 257 (12), pp. 5274-5277.
  • Sporea RA, Trainor MJ, Young ND, Guo X, Shannon JM, Silva SRP. (2011) 'Performance trade-offs in polysilicon source-gated transistors'. Elsevier Solid-State Electronics, 65-66 (1), pp. 246-249.

    Abstract

    Self-aligned Schottky-source source-gated transistors (SGTs) have been made in polysilicon. The structures enable a direct comparison to be made between a SGT and a standard thin-film field-effect transistor (FET) on the same device. SGTs having excellent characteristics have been fabricated, with intrinsic gains approaching 10,000. The effects of bulk doping in the polysilicon and of the source barrier modification implant are considered in the context of the electrical output characteristics. It is shown that the choice of source length is a tradeoff between device speed and variations in current output due to variability during fabrication.

  • Zhang W, Ravi S, Silva P. (2011) 'Application of carbon nanotubes in polymer electrolyte based fuel cells'. Reviews on Advanced Materials Science, 29 (1), pp. 1-14.

    Abstract

    Polymer electrolyte based fuel cells (PEFCs) are always in the forefront of fuel cell revolution. Recently a wide variety of application of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in PEFC components has been exploited. The impetus is to improve the PEFC performance by taking advantages of CNTs' extraordinary physical, chemical and electronic properties. Herein, we briefly review these efforts with an attempt to obtain a better understanding on the role of CNTs in PEFCs, and this article is structured as the following: the contribution of CNTs is first addressed in terms of improving the mechanical strength and proton conductivity of polymer electrolyte membrane; their role in electrocatalysis is then discussed with respect to facilitating the utilization of noble metal catalysts (platinum) and exploring the platinum-free catalysts; the consideration of CNTs as hydrogen storage materials is also highlighted. Based on the literatures studied, CNTs demonstrate great potential as multifunctional materials in improving PEFC performance.

  • Chen GY, Jensen B, Stolojan V, Silva SRP. (2011) 'Growth of carbon nanotubes at temperatures compatible with integrated circuit technologies'. PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD CARBON, 49 (1), pp. 280-285.
  • Mohammad M, Khan MB, Khan ZM, Cavalli G, Adhikari D, Silva R. (2011) 'Horizontal patterns of single wall carbon nanotubes by simple filtration method'. Trans Tech Publications Advanced Materials Research, 326, pp. 121-126.
  • Shang NG, Tan YY, Stolojan V, Papakonstantinou P, Silva SRP. (2010) 'High-rate low-temperature growth of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes'. IOP PUBLISHING LTD NANOTECHNOLOGY, 21 (50) Article number ARTN 505604
  • Zhang W, Silva SRP. (2010) 'Raman and FT-IR studies on dye-assisted dispersion and flocculation of single walled carbon nanotubes'. PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD SPECTROCHIMICA ACTA PART A-MOLECULAR AND BIOMOLECULAR SPECTROSCOPY, 77 (1), pp. 175-178.
  • Henley SJ, Fryar J, Jayawardena KDGI, Silva SRP. (2010) 'Laser-assisted hydrothermal growth of size-controlled ZnO nanorods for sensing applications'. IOP PUBLISHING LTD NANOTECHNOLOGY, 21 (36) Article number ARTN 365502
  • Zhang W, Silva SRP. (2010) 'Reversible functionalization of multi-walled carbon nanotubes with organic dyes'. PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD SCRIPTA MATERIALIA, 63 (6), pp. 645-648.
  • Jayawardena KDGI, Fryar J, Ravi S, Silva P, Henley SJ. (2010) 'Morphology Control of Zinc Oxide Nanocrystals via Hybrid Laser/Hydrothermal Synthesis'. AMER CHEMICAL SOC JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY C, 114 (30), pp. 12931-12937.
  • Sharma P, Anguita JV, Stolojan V, Henley SJ, Silva SRP. (2010) 'The growth of silica and silica-clad nanowires using a solid-state reaction mechanism on Ti, Ni and SiO2 layers'. IOP PUBLISHING LTD NANOTECHNOLOGY, 21 (29) Article number ARTN 295603
  • Nismy NA, Adikaari AADT, Silva SRP. (2010) 'Functionalized multiwall carbon nanotubes incorporated polymer/fullerene hybrid photovoltaics'. AMER INST PHYSICS APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 97 (3) Article number ARTN 033105
  • Shiozawa H, Kramberger C, Pfeiffer R, Kuzmany H, Pichler T, Liu Z, Suenaga K, Kataura H, Silva SRP. (2010) 'Catalyst and Chirality Dependent Growth of Carbon Nanotubes Determined Through Nano-Test Tube Chemistry'. WILEY-V C H VERLAG GMBH ADVANCED MATERIALS, 22 (33), pp. 3685-+.
  • Zhang W, Silva SRP. (2010) 'The effects of phenolic hydrogens and methyl substitute groups in organic dyes on their dispersion of multiple-walled carbon nanotubes'. PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD CARBON, 48 (7), pp. 2063-2071.
  • Chen GY, Stolojan V, Silva SRP. (2010) 'Top-Down Heating for Low Substrate Temperature Synthesis of Carbon Nanotubes'. AMER SCIENTIFIC PUBLISHERS JOURNAL OF NANOSCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY, 10 (6), pp. 3952-3958.
  • Heister E, Lamprecht C, Neves V, Tilmaciu C, Datas L, Flahaut E, Soula B, Hinterdorfer P, Coley HM, Silva SRP, McFadden J. (2010) 'Higher Dispersion Efficacy of Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes in Chemical and Biological Environments'. AMER CHEMICAL SOC ACS NANO, 4 (5), pp. 2615-2626.
  • Misra SK, Ohashi F, Valappil SP, Knowles JC, Roy I, Silva SRP, Salih V, Boccaccini AR. (2010) 'Characterization of carbon nanotube (MWCNT) containing P(3HB)/bioactive glass composites for tissue engineering applications'. ELSEVIER SCI LTD ACTA BIOMATERIALIA, 6 (3), pp. 735-742.
  • Mollah S, Henley SJ, Giusca CE, Silva SRP. (2010) 'Photo-Chemical Synthesis of Iron Oxide Nanowires Induced by Pulsed Laser Ablation of Iron Powder in Liquid Media'. TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD INTEGRATED FERROELECTRICS, 119, pp. 45-54.
  • Sporea RA, Trainor MJ, Young ND, Shannon JM, Silva SRP. (2010) 'Intrinsic Gain in Self-Aligned Polysilicon Source-Gated Transistors'. IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRON DEVICES, 57 (10), pp. 2434-2439.
  • Neves V, Heister E, Costa S, Tilmaciu C, Borowiak-Palen E, Giusca CE, Flahaut E, Soula B, Coley HM, McFadden J, Silva SRP. (2010) 'Uptake and Release of Double-Walled Carbon Nanotubes by Mammalian Cells'. WILEY-V C H VERLAG GMBH ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, 20 (19), pp. 3272-3279.
  • Sporea RA, Guo X, Shannon JM, Silva SRP. (2010) 'Polysilicon source-gated transistors for mixed-signal systems-on-panel'. Electrochemical Society ECS Transactions, 33 (5), pp. 419-424.

    Abstract

    The performance benefits of using source-gated transistors (SGTs) in analog large-area electronic circuits are examined practically and via numerical simulations. In current mirror circuits made using thin-film technology, significant advantages are observed for SGT implementations. A comparison of current mirrors implemented with standard field effect transistors (FETs) and SGTs shows that the SGT version can operate at a lower voltage and has larger output dynamic range for a given device geometry. The results are explained in relation to the saturation mechanisms of the SGT and are supported by experimental measurements of polysilicon devices.

  • Shang N, Papakonstantinou P, Wang P, Silva SRP. (2010) 'Platinum integrated graphene for methanol fuel cells'. American Chemical Society Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 114 (37), pp. 15837-15841.
  • Shiozawa H, Silva SRP, Liu Z, Suenaga K, Kataura H, Kramberger C, Pfeiffer R, Kuzmany H, Pichler T. (2010) 'Low-temperature growth of single-wall carbon nanotubes inside nano test tubes'. Physica Status Solidi (B) Basic Research, 247 (11-12), pp. 2730-2733.
  • Ayala P, Miyata Y, De Blauwe K, Shiozawa H, Feng Y, Yanagi K, Kramberger C, Silva SRP, Follath R, Kataura H, Pichler T. (2009) 'Disentanglement of the electronic properties of metallicity-selected single-walled carbon nanotubes'. AMER PHYSICAL SOC PHYSICAL REVIEW B, 80 (20) Article number ARTN 205427
  • Henley SJ, Mollah S, Giusca CE, Silva SRP. (2009) 'Laser-induced self-assembly of iron oxide nanostructures with controllable dimensionality'. AMER INST PHYSICS JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS, 106 (6) Article number ARTN 064309
  • Miyajima Y, Shkunov M, Silva SRP. (2009) 'Amorphous carbon and carbon nitride bottom gate thin film transistors'. AMER INST PHYSICS APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 95 (10) Article number ARTN 102102
  • Kang B, Tan LW, Silva SRP. (2009) 'Ultraviolet-illuminated fluoropolymer indium-tin-oxide buffer layers for improved power conversion in organic photovoltaics'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV ORGANIC ELECTRONICS, 10 (6), pp. 1178-1181.
  • Heister E, Neves V, Tilmaciu C, Lipert K, Beltran VS, Coley HM, Silva SRP, McFadden J. (2009) 'Triple functionalisation of single-walled carbon nanotubes with doxorubicin, a monoclonal antibody, and a fluorescent marker for targeted cancer therapy'. PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD CARBON, 47 (9), pp. 2152-2160.
  • Palumbo M, Lutz T, Giusca CE, Shiozawa H, Stolojan V, Cox DC, Wilson RM, Henley SJ, Silva SRP. (2009) 'From Stems (and Stars) to Roses: Shape-Controlled Synthesis of Zinc Oxide Crystals'. AMER CHEMICAL SOC CRYSTAL GROWTH & DESIGN, 9 (8), pp. 3432-3437.
  • Smith RC, Silva SRP. (2009) 'Interpretation of the field enhancement factor for electron emission from carbon nanotubes'. AMER INST PHYSICS JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS, 106 (1) Article number ARTN 014314
  • Dissanayake DMNM, Hatton RA, Lutz T, Curry RJ, Silva SRP. (2009) 'The fabrication and analysis of a PbS nanocrystal:C-60 bilayer hybrid photovoltaic system'. IOP PUBLISHING LTD NANOTECHNOLOGY, 20 (24) Article number ARTN 245202
  • Filip LD, Palumbo M, Carey JD, Silva SRP. (2009) 'Two-step electron tunneling from confined electronic states in a nanoparticle'. AMER PHYSICAL SOC PHYSICAL REVIEW B, 79 (24) Article number ARTN 245429
  • Filip LD, Smith RC, Carey JD, Silva SRP. (2009) 'Electron transfer from a carbon nanotube into vacuum under high electric fields'. IOP PUBLISHING LTD JOURNAL OF PHYSICS-CONDENSED MATTER, 21 (19) Article number ARTN 195302
  • Dissanayake DMNM, Hatton RA, Lutz T, Curry RJ, Silva SRP. (2009) 'Charge transfer between acenes and PbS nanocrystals'. IOP PUBLISHING LTD NANOTECHNOLOGY, 20 (19) Article number ARTN 195205
  • Lyth SM, Henley SJ, Silva SRP. (2009) 'Improved field emission via laser processing of carbon nanotubes on paper substrates'. A V S AMER INST PHYSICS JOURNAL OF VACUUM SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY B, 27 (3), pp. 1068-1071.
  • Hatton RA, Blanchard NP, Tan LW, Latini G, Cacialli F, Silva SRP. (2009) 'Oxidised carbon nanotubes as solution processable, high work function hole-extraction layers for organic solar cells'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV ORGANIC ELECTRONICS, 10 (3), pp. 388-395.
  • Smith PR, Carey JD, Cox DC, Forrest RD, Silva SRP. (2009) 'On the importance of the electrostatic environment for the transport properties of freestanding multiwall carbon nanotubes'. IOP PUBLISHING LTD NANOTECHNOLOGY, 20 (14) Article number ARTN 145202
  • Miyajima Y, Henley SJ, Adamopoulos G, Stolojan V, Garcia-Caurel E, Drevillon B, Shannon JM, Silva SRP. (2009) 'Pulsed laser deposited tetrahedral amorphous carbon with high sp(3) fractions and low optical bandgaps'. AMER INST PHYSICS JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS, 105 (7) Article number ARTN 073521
  • Smith RC, Silva SRP. (2009) 'Maximizing the electron field emission performance of carbon nanotube arrays'. AMER INST PHYSICS APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 94 (13) Article number ARTN 133104
  • Lyth SM, Silva SRP. (2009) 'Resonant behavior observed in electron field emission from acid functionalized multiwall carbon nanotubes'. AMER INST PHYSICS APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 94 (12) Article number ARTN 123102

    Abstract

    Acid functionalized multiwall carbon nanotube ink was deposited onto carbon fiber fabric via dip coating. Repeatable staircaselike current-field curves were observed in the field emission data. These atypical curves are attributed to resonant tunneling through localized surface states in a quantum well structure, which arises due to the presence of the surface carboxylic functional group.

  • Shiozawa H, Pichler T, Kramberger C, Ruemmeli M, Batchelor D, Liu Z, Suenaga K, Kataura H, Silva SRP. (2009) 'Screening the Missing Electron: Nanochemistry in Action'. AMER PHYSICAL SOC PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS, 102 (4) Article number ARTN 046804
  • Guo X, Sporea R, Shannon JM, Silva SRP. (2009) 'Down-scaling of thin-film transistors: Opportunities and design challenges'. ECS Transactions, 22 (1), pp. 227-238.

    Abstract

    With the ever-increasing demands for integration of advanced electronic functions into large-area electronics, down-scaling of thin-film transistors (TFTs) becomes very necessary. The key device operational issues associated with TFT scaling, including short-channel effects (SCEs) and self-heating, are considered in this paper. Device structure engineering approaches are introduced to suppress the SCEs for designing short-channel TFTs with excellent digital and analog performance. And electro-thermal simulation results show that the self-heating in TFTs will be much more significant than that in silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) due to the substrate of poor thermal conductivity. Enhancing the heat dissipation by placement of metal heat pipe in the cap dielectric layers is proved to be an effective way to deal with the heating issues.

  • Adikaari AADT, Dissanayake DMNM, Mudugamuwa NK, Silva SRP. (2009) 'Nano engineered organic-inorganic material systems for photovoltaics'. Advanced Materials Research, 67, pp. 1-6.
  • Tan LW, Hatton RA, Latini G, Shannon JM, Silva SRP. (2008) 'Modification of charge transport in triphenyldiamine films induced by acid oxidized single-walled carbon nanotube interlayers'. IOP PUBLISHING LTD NANOTECHNOLOGY, 19 (48) Article number ARTN 485706
  • Henley SJ, Watts PCP, Mureau N, Silva SRP. (2008) 'Laser-induced decoration of carbon nanotubes with metal nanoparticles'. SPRINGER APPLIED PHYSICS A-MATERIALS SCIENCE & PROCESSING, 93 (4), pp. 875-879.
  • Ohashi F, Chen GY, Stolojan V, Silva SRP. (2008) 'The role of the gas species on the formation of carbon nanotubes during thermal chemical vapour deposition'. IOP PUBLISHING LTD NANOTECHNOLOGY, 19 (44) Article number ARTN 445605
  • Mudugamuwa NK, Adikaari AADT, Dissanayake DMNM, Stolojan V, Silva SRP. (2008) 'Reversible increase of photocurrents in excimer laser-crystallized silicon solar cells'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV SOLAR ENERGY MATERIALS AND SOLAR CELLS, 92 (11), pp. 1378-1381.
  • Champi A, Ferlauto AS, Alvarez F, Silva SRP, Marques FC. (2008) 'On the elastic constants of amorphous carbon nitride'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA DIAMOND AND RELATED MATERIALS, 17 (11), pp. 1850-1852.
  • Shiozawa H, Giusca CE, Silva SRP, Kataura H, Pichler T. (2008) 'Capillary filling of single-walled carbon nanotubes with ferrocene in an organic solvent'. WILEY-V C H VERLAG GMBH PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI B-BASIC SOLID STATE PHYSICS, 245 (10), pp. 1983-1985.
  • Tison Y, Giusca CE, Sloan J, Silva SRP. (2008) 'Registry-Induced Electronic Superstructure in Double-Walled Carbon Nanotubes, Associated with the Interaction between Two Graphene-Like Monolayers'. AMER CHEMICAL SOC ACS NANO, 2 (10), pp. 2113-2120.
  • Palumbo M, Henley SJ, Lutz T, Stolojan V, Silva SRP. (2008) 'A fast sonochemical approach for the synthesis of solution processable ZnO rods'. AMER INST PHYSICS JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS, 104 (7) Article number ARTN 074906
  • Giusca CE, Tison Y, Silva SRP. (2008) 'Evidence for Metal-Semiconductor Transitions in Twisted and Collapsed Double-Walled Carbon Nanotubes by Scanning Tunneling Microscopy'. AMER CHEMICAL SOC NANO LETTERS, 8 (10), pp. 3350-3356.
  • Kang B, Tan LW, Silva SRP. (2008) 'Fluoropolymer indium-tin-oxide buffer layers for improved power conversion in organic photovoltaics'. AMER INST PHYSICS APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 93 (13) Article number ARTN 133302
  • Miyajima Y, Adamopoulos G, Henley SJ, Stolojan V, Tison Y, Garcia-Caurel E, Drevillon B, Shannon JM, Silva SRP. (2008) 'Electronic state modification in laser deposited amorphous carbon films by the inclusion of nitrogen'. AMER INST PHYSICS JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS, 104 (6) Article number ARTN 063701
  • Matsubara EY, Rosolen JM, Silva SRP. (2008) 'Composite electrode of carbon nanotubes and vitreous carbon for electron field emission'. AMER INST PHYSICS JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS, 104 (5) Article number ARTN 054303
  • Guo X, Silva SRP, Ishii T. (2008) 'Current percolation in ultrathin channel nanocrystalline silicon transistors'. AMER INST PHYSICS APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 93 (4) Article number ARTN 042105
  • Dissanayake DMNM, Lutz T, Curry RJ, Silva SRP. (2008) 'Measurement and validation of PbS nanocrystal energy levels'. AMER INST PHYSICS APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 93 (4) Article number ARTN 043501
  • Gibson I, Silva SRP. (2008) 'Harnessing the full potential of nanotechnology for wealth creation'. Nanotechnology Perceptions, 4 (2), pp. 87-92.
  • Ruffini G, Dunne S, Fuentemilla L, Grau C, Farres E, Marco-Pallares J, Watts PCP, Silva SRP. (2008) 'First human trials of a dry electrophysiology sensor using a carbon nanotube array interface'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA SENSORS AND ACTUATORS A-PHYSICAL, 144 (2), pp. 275-279.
  • Adikaari AADT, Silva SRP. (2008) 'EXCIMER LASER CRYSTALLIZATION AND NANOSTRUCTURING OF AMORPHOUS SILICON FOR PHOTOVOLTAIC APPLICATIONS'. WORLD SCIENTIFIC PUBL CO PTE LTD NANO, 3 (3), pp. 117-126.
  • Mureau N, Watts PCP, Tison Y, Silva SRP. (2008) 'Bulk electrical properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes immobilized by dielectrophoresis: Evidence of metallic or semiconductor behavior'. WILEY-V C H VERLAG GMBH ELECTROPHORESIS, 29 (11), pp. 2266-2271.
  • Guo X, Ishii T, Silva SRP. (2008) 'Improving switching performance of thin-film transistors in disordered silicon'. IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC IEEE ELECTRON DEVICE LETTERS, 29 (6), pp. 588-591.
  • Adikaari AADT, Mudugamuwa NK, Silva SRP. (2008) 'Nanocrystalline silicon solar cells from excimer laser crystallization of amorphous silicon'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV SOLAR ENERGY MATERIALS AND SOLAR CELLS, 92 (6), pp. 634-638.
  • Mollah S, Henley SJ, Silva SRP. (2008) 'Continuous-flow laser synthesis of large quantities of iron oxide nanowires in solution'. IOP PUBLISHING LTD NANOTECHNOLOGY, 19 (20) Article number ARTN 205604
  • Guo X, Silva SRP. (2008) 'Engineering - High-performance transistors by design'. AMER ASSOC ADVANCEMENT SCIENCE SCIENCE, 320 (5876), pp. 618-619.
  • Miyajima Y, Adikaari AADT, Henley SJ, Shannon JM, Silva SRP. (2008) 'Electrical properties of pulsed UV laser irradiated amorphous carbon'. AMER INST PHYSICS APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 92 (15) Article number ARTN 152104
  • Bourdakos KN, Dissanayake DMNM, Lutz T, Silva SRP, Curry RJ. (2008) 'Highly efficient near-infrared hybrid organic-inorganic nanocrystal electroluminescence device'. AMER INST PHYSICS APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 92 (15) Article number ARTN 153311
  • Jeynes JCG, Jeynes C, Kirkby KJ, Ruemmeli A, Silva SRP. (2008) 'RBS/EBS/PIXE measurement of single-walled carbon nanotube modification by nitric acid purification treatment'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS, Univ Hyderabad, Sch Phys, Hyderabad, INDIA: 266 (8), pp. 1569-1573.
  • Giusca CE, Tison Y, Silva SRP. (2008) 'INTER-LAYER INTERACTION IN DOUBLE-WALLED CARBON NANOTUBES EVIDENCED BY SCANNING TUNNELING MICROSCOPY AND SPECTROSCOPY'. WORLD SCIENTIFIC PUBL CO PTE LTD NANO, 3 (2), pp. 65-73.
  • Watts PCP, Lyth SM, Henley SJ, Silva SRP. (2008) 'Secondary nanotube growth on aligned carbon nanofibre arrays or superior field emission'. AMER SCIENTIFIC PUBLISHERS JOURNAL OF NANOSCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY, 8 (4), pp. 2147-2150.
  • Dissanayake DMNM, Adikaari AADT, Silva SRP. (2008) 'Enhanced photovoltaic performance in nanoimprinted pentacene-PbS nanocrystal hybrid device'. AMER INST PHYSICS APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 92 (9) Article number ARTN 093308
  • Tison Y, Giusca CE, Stolojan V, Hayashi Y, Silva SRP. (2008) 'The inner shell influence on the electronic structure of double-walled carbon nanotubes'. WILEY-V C H VERLAG GMBH ADVANCED MATERIALS, 20 (1), pp. 189-+.
  • Emah JB, Curry RJ, Silva SRP. (2008) 'Low cost patterning of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(styrenesulfonate) films to increase organic photovoltaic device efficiency'. American Institute of Physics Applied Physics Letters, 93 Article number 103301
  • Hatton RA, Miller AJ, Silva SRP. (2008) 'Carbon nanotubes: a multi-functional material for organic optoelectronics'. ROYAL SOC CHEMISTRY JOURNAL OF MATERIALS CHEMISTRY, 18 (11), pp. 1183-1192.
  • Chong LC, Stolojan V, Wagner G, Silva SRP, Curry RJ. (2008) 'One-pot rapid low-cost synthesis of Pd-fullerite catalysts'. ROYAL SOC CHEMISTRY JOURNAL OF MATERIALS CHEMISTRY, 18 (40), pp. 4808-4813.
  • Adikaari AADT, Dissanayake DMNM, Silva SRP. (2008) 'Organic-Inorganic Solar Cells: Recent Developments and Outlook'. IEEE IEEE Journal on Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, 16 (6), pp. 1595-1606.
  • Kerr L, Cox C, Stolojan V, Silva P. (2008) 'Characterisation of electron-beam deposited tungsten interconnects'. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 126 (1) Article number 012073
  • Chong LC, Sloan J, Wagner G, Silva SRP, Curry RJ. (2008) 'Controlled growth of true nanoscale single crystal fullerites for device applications'. ROYAL SOC CHEMISTRY JOURNAL OF MATERIALS CHEMISTRY, 18 (28), pp. 3319-3324.
  • Bourdakos KN, Dissanayake DMNM, Lutz T, Silva SRP, Curry RJ. (2008) 'Erratum: "Highly efficient near-infrared hybrid organic-inorganic nanocrystal electroluminescence device" [Appl. Phys. Lett.92, 153311 (2008)]'. American Institute of Physics Applied Physics Letters, 92 (20) Article number 209903
  • Henley SJ, Hatton RA, Chen GY, Gao C, Zeng H, Kroto HW, Silva SRP. (2007) 'Enhancement of polymer luminescence by excitation-energy transfer from mufti-walled carbon nanotubes'. WILEY-V C H VERLAG GMBH SMALL, 3 (11), pp. 1927-1933.
  • Guo X, Silva SRP. (2007) 'A simple and effective approach to improve the output linearity of switched-current AMOLED pixel circuitry'. IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC IEEE ELECTRON DEVICE LETTERS, 28 (10), pp. 887-889.
  • Dissanayake DMNM, Hatton RA, Lutz T, Giusca CE, Curry RJ, Silva SRP. (2007) 'A PbS nanocrystal-C-60 photovoltaic device for infrared light harvesting'. AMER INST PHYSICS APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 91 (13) Article number ARTN 133506
  • Gomez-Rojas L, Bhattacharyya S, Mendoza E, Cox DC, Rosolen JM, Silva SRP. (2007) 'RF response of single-walled carbon nanotubes'. AMER CHEMICAL SOC NANO LETTERS, 7 (9), pp. 2672-2675.
  • Guo X, Silva SRP. (2007) 'An efficient macromodeling approach for simulating carbon-nanotube field-emission triode devices in display applications'. IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC IEEE ELECTRON DEVICE LETTERS, 28 (8), pp. 710-712.
  • Kerr GL, Smith PR, Carey JD, Silva SRP. (2007) 'Electrical conduction and transmission coefficients of suspended multiwalled carbon nanotubes'. IOP PUBLISHING LTD NANOTECHNOLOGY, 18 (29) Article number ARTN 295203
  • Henley SJ, Silva SRP. (2007) 'Laser direct write of silver nanoparticles from solution onto glass substrates for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy'. AMER INST PHYSICS APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 91 (2) Article number ARTN 023107
  • Giusca CE, Tison Y, Silva SRP. (2007) 'Atomic and electronic structure in collapsed carbon nanotubes evidenced by scanning tunneling microscopy'. AMER PHYSICAL SOC PHYSICAL REVIEW B, 76 (3) Article number ARTN 035429
  • Nanditha DM, Dissanayake M, Adikaari AADT, Curry RJ, Hatton RA, Silva SRP. (2007) 'Nanoimprinted large area heterojunction pentacene-C-60 photovoltaic device'. AMER INST PHYSICS APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 90 (25) Article number ARTN 253502
  • Watts PCP, Henley SJ, Mendoza E, Silva SRP, Irvine JK, McAdams ET. (2007) 'Core-shell silver/silver chloride nanoparticles on carbon nanofibre arrays for bio-potential monitoring'. IOP PUBLISHING LTD NANOTECHNOLOGY, 18 (20) Article number ARTN 205502
  • Hatton RA, Blanchard NP, Stolojan V, Miller AJ, Silva SRP. (2007) 'Nanostructured copper phthalocyanine-sensitized multiwall carbon nanotube films'. AMER CHEMICAL SOC LANGMUIR, 23 (11), pp. 6424-6430.
  • Adikaari AADT, Dissanayake DMNM, Hatton RA, Silva SRP. (2007) 'Efficient laser textured nanocrystalline silicon-polymer bilayer solar cells'. AMER INST PHYSICS APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 90 (20) Article number ARTN 203514
  • Watts PCP, Mureau N, Tang Z, Miyajima Y, David Carey J, Silva SRP. (2007) 'The importance of oxygen-containing defects on carbon nanotubes for the detection of polar and non-polar vapours through hydrogen bond formation'. Nanotechnology, 18 (17)
  • Watts PCP, Mureau N, Tang Z, Miyajima Y, Carey JD, Silva SRP. (2007) 'The importance of oxygen-containing defects on carbon nanotubes for the detection of polar and non-polar vapours through hydrogen bond formation'. IOP PUBLISHING LTD NANOTECHNOLOGY, 18 (17) Article number ARTN 175701
  • Giusca CE, Tison Y, Stolojan V, Borowiak-Palen E, Silva SRP. (2007) 'Inner-tube chirality determination for double-walled carbon nanotubes by scanning tunneling microscopy'. AMER CHEMICAL SOC NANO LETTERS, 7 (5), pp. 1232-1239.
  • Mureau N, Mendoza E, Silva SRP. (2007) 'Dielectrophoretic manipulation of fluorescing single-walled carbon nanotubes'. WILEY-BLACKWELL ELECTROPHORESIS, 28 (10), pp. 1495-1498.
  • Lyth SM, Silva SRP. (2007) 'Field emission from multiwall carbon nanotubes on paper substrates'. AMER INST PHYSICS APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 90 (17) Article number ARTN 173124
  • Adikaari AADT, Mudugamuwa NK, Silva SRP. (2007) 'Use of an asymmetric pulse profile for higher crystalline volumes from excimer laser crystallization of amorphous silicon'. AMER INST PHYSICS APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 90 (17) Article number ARTN 171912
  • Tsang WM, Stolojan V, Sealy BJ, Silva SRP, Wong SP. (2007) 'Electron field emission properties of co quantum dots in SiO matrix synthesised by ion implantation'. IVNC and IFES 2006 - Technical Digest - l9th International Vacuum Nanoelectronics Conference and 50th International Field Emission Symposium, , pp. 47-48.
  • Misra SK, Watts PCP, Valappil SP, Silva SRP, Roy I, Boccaccini AR. (2007) 'Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate)/Bioglass (R) composite films containing carbon nanotubes'. IOP PUBLISHING LTD NANOTECHNOLOGY, 18 (7) Article number ARTN 075701
  • Bhattacharyya S, Silva SRP. (2007) 'Demonstration of an amorphous carbon tunnel diode'. AMER INST PHYSICS APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 90 (8) Article number ARTN 082105
  • Blanchard NP, Hatton RA, Silva SRP. (2007) 'Tuning the work function of surface oxidised multi-wall carbon nanotubes via cation exchange'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV CHEMICAL PHYSICS LETTERS, 434 (1-3), pp. 92-95.
  • Miller AJ, Hatton RA, Chen GY, Silva SRP. (2007) 'Carbon nanotubes grown on In2O3 : Sn glass as large area electrodes for organic photovoltaics'. AMER INST PHYSICS APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 90 (2) Article number ARTN 023105
  • Nanditha DM, Dissanayake M, Hatton RA, Curry RJ, Silva SRP. (2007) 'Operation of a reversed pentacene-fullerene discrete heterojunction photovoltaic device 10.1063/1.2713345'. AMER INST PHYSICS APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 90 (11) Article number ARTN 113505
  • Guo X, Silva SRP, Ishii T. (2007) 'Electrical properties and carrier transport mechanisms of nanometer-scale ultra-thin channel poly-Si transistors'. ICSICT-2006: 2006 8th International Conference on Solid-State and Integrated Circuit Technology, Proceedings, , pp. 194-196.
  • Carey D, Smith R, Silva R, Murphy R, Blau W, Coleman J. (2007) 'Transport and field emission in carbon nanotube - Polymer composite cathodes'. Technical Digest of the 20th International Vacuum Nanoelectronics Conference, IVNC 07, , pp. 187-188.
  • Smith RC, Carey JD, Cox DC, Silva SRP. (2007) 'In-situ field emission characterisation of multi walled carbon nanotubes'. Technical Digest of the 20th International Vacuum Nanoelectronics Conference, IVNC 07, , pp. 94-95.
  • Lyth SM, Filip LD, Cox PC, Silva SRP. (2007) 'Novel carbon nanotube based three terminal devices'. Technical Digest of the 20th International Vacuum Nanoelectronics Conference, IVNC 07, , pp. 241-242.
  • Guo X, Silva SRP. (2007) 'Analysis of self-heating in poly-Si thin-film transistors and circuits by a self-consistent electro-thermal simulation approach'. ICSICT-2006: 2006 8th International Conference on Solid-State and Integrated Circuit Technology, Proceedings, , pp. 1398-1400.
  • Filip LD, Smith RC, Carev JD, Silva SRP, Nicolaescu D. (2007) 'Modelling of electron transfer from a carbon nanotube cap into the vacuum under high extraction fields'. Technical Digest of the 20th International Vacuum Nanoelectronics Conference, IVNC 07, , pp. 48-49.
  • Smith RC, Filip LD, Carey JD, Silva SRP. (2007) 'Calculation of field enhancement factor and screening effects in carbon nanotube arrays'. IEEE 2007 IEEE 20TH INTERNATIONAL VACUUM NANOELECTRONICS CONFERENCE, Chicago, IL: , pp. 155-156.
  • Lyth SM, Hatton RA, Silva SRP. (2007) 'Efficient field emission from Li-salt functionalized multiwall carbon nanotubes on flexible substrates'. AMER INST PHYSICS APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 90 (1) Article number ARTN 013120
  • Ruffini G, Dunne S, Farrés E, Cester I, Watts PCP, Silva SRP, Grau C, Fuentemilla L, Marco-Pallares J, Vandecasteele B. (2007) 'ENOBIO dry electrophysiology electrode; first human trial plus wireless electrode system'. Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology - Proceedings, , pp. 6689-6693.
  • Mendoza E, Rodriguez J, Li Y, Zhu YQ, Poa CHP, Henley SJ, Romano-Rodriguez A, Morante JR, Silva SRP. (2007) 'Effect of the nanostructure and surface chemistry on the gas adsorption properties of macroscopic multiwalled carbon nanotube ropes'. PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD CARBON, 45 (1), pp. 83-88.
  • Zeze DA, Carey JD, Stolojan V, Weiss BL, Silva SRP. (2006) 'Damage effects in Pyrex by CF4 reactive ion etching in dual RF-microwave plasmas'. INST ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY-IET MICRO & NANO LETTERS, 1 (2), pp. 103-107.
  • Adikaari AADT, Carey JD, Stolojan V, Keddie JL, Silva SRP. (2006) 'Bandgap enhancement of layered nanocrystalline silicon from excimer laser crystallization'. IOP PUBLISHING LTD NANOTECHNOLOGY, 17 (21), pp. 5412-5416.
  • Tsang WM, Henley SJ, Stolojan V, Silva SRP. (2006) 'Negative differential conductance observed in electron field emission from band gap modulated amorphous-carbon nanolayers'. AMER INST PHYSICS APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 89 (19) Article number ARTN 193103
  • Henley SJ, Carey JD, Silva SRP. (2006) 'Silver-nanoparticle-decorated carbon nanoscaffolds: Application as a sensing platform'. AMER INST PHYSICS APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 89 (18) Article number ARTN 183120
  • Miller AJ, Hatton RA, Silva SRP. (2006) 'Interpenetrating multiwall carbon nanotube electrodes for organic solar cells'. AMER INST PHYSICS APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 89 (13) Article number ARTN 133117
  • Miller AJ, Hatton RA, Silva SRP. (2006) 'Water-soluble multiwall-carbon-nanotube-polythiophene composite for bilayer photovoltaics'. AMER INST PHYSICS APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 89 (12) Article number ARTN 123115
  • Watts PCP, Lyth SM, Mendoza E, Silva SRP. (2006) 'Polymer supported carbon nanotube arrays for field emission and sensor devices'. AMER INST PHYSICS APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 89 (10) Article number ARTN 103113
  • Hayashi Y, Tokunaga T, Kaneko K, Henley SJ, Stolojan V, Carey JD, Silva SRP. (2006) 'Microstructure analyses of metal-filled carbon nanotubes synthesized by microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition'. IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON NANOTECHNOLOGY, 5 (5), pp. 485-490.
  • Stolojan V, Tison Y, Chen GY, Silva R. (2006) 'Controlled growth-reversal of catalytic carbon nanotubes under electron-beam irradiation.'. Nano Lett, United States: 6 (9), pp. 1837-1841.

    Abstract

    The growth of carbon nanotubes from Ni catalysts is reversed and observed in real time in a transmission electron microscope, at room temperature. The Ni catalyst is found to be Ni3C and remains attached to the nanotube throughout the irradiation sequence, indicating that C most likely diffuses on the surface of the catalyst to form nanotubes. We calculate the energy barrier for saturating the Ni3C (2-13) surface with C to be 0.14 eV, thus providing a low-energy surface for the formation of graphene planes.

  • Jin Y, Curry RJ, Sloan J, Hatton RA, Chong LC, Blanchard N, Stolojan V, Kroto HW, Silva SRP. (2006) 'Structural and optoelectronic properties of C-60 rods obtained via a rapid synthesis route'. ROYAL SOC CHEMISTRY JOURNAL OF MATERIALS CHEMISTRY, 16 (37), pp. 3715-3720.
  • Smith RC, Carey JD, Cox DC, Silva SRP. (2006) 'In situ electrode manipulation for three terminal field emission characterization of individual carbon nanotubes'. AMER INST PHYSICS APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 89 (6) Article number ARTN 063111
  • Tokunaga T, Hayashi Y, Fujita T, Silva SRP, Amaratunga GAJ. (2006) 'Demixing of solid-soluted Co-Pd binary alloy induced by microwave plasma hydrogen irradiation technique'. INST PURE APPLIED PHYSICS JAPANESE JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS PART 2-LETTERS & EXPRESS LETTERS, 45 (29-32), pp. L860-L863.
  • Li Y-H, Zhao YM, Roe M, Furniss D, Zhu YQ, Silva SRP, Wei JQ, Wu DH, Poa CHP. (2006) 'In-plane large single-walled carbon nanotube films: In situ synthesis and field-emission properties'. WILEY-V C H VERLAG GMBH SMALL, 2 (8-9), pp. 1026-1030.
  • Li YH, Zhao YM, Zhu YQ, Rodriguez J, Morante JR, Mendoza E, Poa CHP, Silva SRP. (2006) 'Mechanical and NH3 sensing properties of long multi-walled carbon nanotube ropes'. PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD CARBON, 44 (9), pp. 1821-1825.
  • Bhattacharyya S, Henley SJ, Lock D, Blanchard NP, Silva SRP. (2006) 'Semiconducting phase of amorphous carbon-nickel composite films'. AMER INST PHYSICS APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 89 (2) Article number ARTN 022113
  • Jeynes JCG, Mendoza E, Chow DCS, Watts PCR, McFadden J, Silva SRP. (2006) 'Generation of chemically unmodified pure single-walled carbon nanotubes by solubilizing with RNA and treatment with ribonuclease A'. WILEY-V C H VERLAG GMBH ADVANCED MATERIALS, 18 (12), pp. 1598-+.
  • Mureau N, Mendoza E, Silva SRP, Hoettges KF, Hughes MP. (2006) 'In situ and real time determination of metallic and semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes in suspension via dielectrophoresis'. AMER INST PHYSICS APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 88 (24) Article number ARTN 243109
  • Rosolen JM, Poa CHP, Tronto S, Marchesin MS, Silva SRP. (2006) 'Electron field emission of carbon nanotubes on carbon felt'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV CHEMICAL PHYSICS LETTERS, 424 (1-3), pp. 151-155.
  • Carey JD, Smith RC, Silva SRP. (2006) 'Carbon based electronic materials: applications in electron field emission'. SPRINGER JOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE-MATERIALS IN ELECTRONICS, 17 (6), pp. 405-412.
  • Borowiak-Palen E, Ruemmeli MH, Gemming T, Pichler T, Kalenczuk RJ, Silva SRP. (2006) 'Silver filled single-wall carbon nanotubes - synthesis, structural and electronic properties'. IOP PUBLISHING LTD NANOTECHNOLOGY, 17 (9), pp. 2415-2419.
  • Lyth SM, Oyeleye F, Curry RJ, Davis J, Silva SRP. (2006) 'Field emission from multiwall carbon nanotubes prepared by electrodeposition without the use of a dispersant'. A V S AMER INST PHYSICS JOURNAL OF VACUUM SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY B, 24 (3), pp. 1362-1364.
  • Borowiak-Palen E, Mendoza E, Bachmatiuk A, Rummeli MH, Gemming T, Nogues J, Skumryev V, Kalenczuk RJ, Pichler T, Silva SRP. (2006) 'Iron filled single-wall carbon nanotubes - A novel ferromagnetic medium'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV CHEMICAL PHYSICS LETTERS, 421 (1-3), pp. 129-133.
  • Knox-Davies EC, Shannon JM, Silva SRP. (2006) 'The properties and deposition process of GaN films grown by reactive sputtering at low temperatures'. AMER INST PHYSICS JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS, 99 (7) Article number ARTN 073503
  • Stolojan V, Moreau P, Goringe MJ, Silva SRP. (2006) 'Subnanometer-resolved measurement of the tunneling effective mass using bulk plasmons'. AMER INST PHYSICS APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 88 (12) Article number ARTN 122109
  • Stolojan V, Moreau P, Henley SJ, Goringe MJ, Silva SRP. (2006) 'Energy loss spectroscopic profiling across linear interfaces: The example of amorphous carbon superlattices'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV ULTRAMICROSCOPY, 106 (4-5), pp. 346-355.
  • Rosolen JM, Tronto S, Marchesin MS, Almeida EC, Ferreira NG, Poa CHP, Silva SRP. (2006) 'Electron field emission from composite electrodes of carbon nanotubes-boron-doped diamond and carbon felts'. AMER INST PHYSICS APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 88 (8) Article number ARTN 083116
  • Henley SJ, Carey JD, Silva SRP. (2006) 'Laser-nanostructured Ag films as substrates for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy'. AMER INST PHYSICS APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 88 (8) Article number ARTN 081904
  • Roy SS, McCann R, Papakonstantinou P, McLaughlin JA, Kirkman IW, Bhattacharyya S, Silva SRP. (2006) 'Near edge x-ray absorption fine structure study of aligned pi-bonded carbon structures in nitrogenated ta-C films'. AMER INST PHYSICS JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS, 99 (4) Article number ARTN 043511
  • Knox-Davies EC, Henley SJ, Shannon JM, Silva SRP. (2006) 'Improved optical and electrical properties of low-temperature sputtered GaN by hydrogenation'. AMER INST PHYSICS JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS, 99 (3) Article number ARTN 036108
  • Silva SRP, Blanchard N, Lyth S. (2006) 'Nanotechnology: The science and engineering of tomorrow'. Journal of the National Science Foundation of Sri Lanka, 34 (1), pp. 3-5.
  • Ruffini G, Dunne S, Farrés E, Watts PCP, Mendoza E, Silva SRP, Grau C, Marco-Pallarés J, Fuentemilla L, Vandecasteele B. (2006) 'ENOBIO - First tests of a dry electrophysiology electrode using carbon nanotubes'. Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology - Proceedings, , pp. 1826-1829.
  • Tsang WM, Henley SJ, Stolojan V, Silva SRP. (2006) 'Negative differential conductance observed in electron field emission from band gap modulated A-C nanolayers'. IVNC and IFES 2006 - Technical Digest - l9th International Vacuum Nanoelectronics Conference and 50th International Field Emission Symposium, , pp. 199-200.
  • Tsang WM, Henley SJ, Blanchard N, Silva SRP. (2006) 'Pulsed laser deposited Ag-Sio nanocomposite thin films for vacuum microelectronic applications'. IVNC and IFES 2006 - Technical Digest - l9th International Vacuum Nanoelectronics Conference and 50th International Field Emission Symposium, , pp. 377-378.
  • Jeynes JCG, Mendoza E, Watts PCP, Silva SRP, Chow DCS, McFadden J. (2006) 'Generation of chemically unmodified pure single-walled carbon nanotubes by solubilizing with RNA and treatment with ribonuclease A'. Advanced Materials, 18 (12), pp. 1598-1602.
  • Silva R. (2006) 'Highs and lows in nanotubes'. Physics World, 19 (6), pp. 9-9.
  • Mureau N, Mendoza E, Hoettges KF, Silva SRP, Hughes MP. (2006) 'Determination of relative concentrations of metallic and semi-conducting SWNTs in suspension via dielectrophoresis'. 2006 NSTI Nanotechnology Conference and Trade Show - NSTI Nanotech 2006 Technical Proceedings, 1, pp. 110-112.
  • Carey JD, Silva SRP. (2006) 'Effects of nanoscale clustering in amorphous carbon'. SPRINGER-VERLAG BERLIN CARBON: THE FUTURE MATERIAL FOR ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS, 100, pp. 137-152.
  • Bhattacharyya S, Henley SJ, Mendoza E, Gomez-Rojas L, Allam J, Silva SRP. (2006) 'Resonant tunnelling and fast switching in amorphous-carbon quantum-well structures'. NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP NATURE MATERIALS, 5 (1), pp. 19-22.
  • Smith RC, Carey JD, Murphy RJ, Blau WJ, Coleman JN, Silva SRP. (2005) 'Charge transport effects in field emission from carbon nanotube-polymer composites'. AMER INST PHYSICS APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 87 (26) Article number ARTN 263105
  • Chen GY, Poa CHP, Henley SJ, Stolojan V, Silva SRP, Haq S. (2005) 'Deployment of titanium thermal barrier for low-temperature carbon nanotube growth'. AMER INST PHYSICS APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 87 (25) Article number ARTN 253115
  • Miyajima Y, Nitta S, Silva SRP, Zeze DA. (2005) 'Surface induced bulk modifications of amorphous carbon nitride films by post-deposition oxygen and hydrogen plasma treatment'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA THIN SOLID FILMS, 491 (1-2), pp. 161-167.
  • Henley SJ, Carey JD, Silva SRP. (2005) 'Pulsed-laser-induced nanoscale island formation in thin metal-on-oxide films'. Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, 72 (19)
  • Guo XJ, Silva SRP. (2005) 'Investigation on the current nonuniformity in current-mode TFT active-matrix display pixel circuitry'. IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRON DEVICES, 52 (11), pp. 2379-2385.
  • Cox DC, Forrest RD, Smith PR, Stolojan V, Silva SRP. (2005) 'Study of the current stressing in nanomanipulated three-dimensional carbon nanotube structures'. AMER INST PHYSICS APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 87 (3) Article number ARTN 033102
  • Smith RC, Forrest RD, Carey JD, Hsu WK, Silva SRP. (2005) 'Interpretation of enhancement factor in nonplanar field emitters'. AMER INST PHYSICS APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 87 (1) Article number ARTN 013111
  • Rummeli MH, Borowiak-Palen E, Gemming T, Pichler T, Knupfer M, Kalbac M, Dunsch L, Jost O, Silva SRP, Pompe W, Buchner B. (2005) 'Novel catalysts, room temperature, and the importance of oxygen for the synthesis of single-walled carbon nanotubes'. AMER CHEMICAL SOC NANO LETTERS, 5 (7), pp. 1209-1215.
  • Gao C, Jin YZ, Kong H, Whitby RLD, Acquah SFA, Chen GY, Qian HH, Hartschuh A, Silva SRP, Henley S, Fearon P, Kroto HW, Walton DRM. (2005) 'Polyurea-functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes: Synthesis, morphology, and Raman spectroscopy'. AMER CHEMICAL SOC JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY B, 109 (24), pp. 11925-11932.
  • Poa CHP, Silva SRP, Lacerda RG, Amaratunga GAJ, Milne WI, Marques FC. (2005) 'Effects of applying stress on the electron field emission properties in amorphous carbon thin films'. AMER INST PHYSICS APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 86 (23) Article number ARTN 232102
  • Poa CHP, Henley SJ, Chen GY, Adikaari AADT, Giusca CE, Silva SRP. (2005) 'Growth and field emission properties of vertically aligned carbon nanofibers'. AMER INST PHYSICS JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS, 97 (11) Article number ARTN 114308
  • Adikaari AADT, Silva SRP. (2005) 'Thickness dependence of properties of excimer laser crystallized nano-polycrystalline silicon'. AMER INST PHYSICS JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS, 97 (11) Article number ARTN 114305
  • Stolojan V, Silva SRP, Goringe MJ, Whitby RLD, Hsu WK, Walton DRM, Kroto HW. (2005) 'Dielectric properties of WS2-coated multiwalled carbon nanotubes studied by energy-loss spectroscopic profiling'. AMER INST PHYSICS APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 86 (6) Article number ARTN 063112
  • Orwa JO, Silva SRP, Shannon JM. (2005) 'Forming in hydrogenated amorphous silicon metal-semiconductor-metal devices using bipolar pulse stressing'. IEE-INST ELEC ENG ELECTRONICS LETTERS, 41 (2), pp. 98-100.
  • Orwa JO, Shannon JM, Gateru RG, Silva SRP. (2005) 'Effect of ion bombardment and annealing on the electrical properties of hydrogenated amorphous silicon metal-semiconductor-metal structures'. AMER INST PHYSICS JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS, 97 (2) Article number ARTN 023519
  • Henley SJ, Carey JD, Silva SRP, Fuge GM, Ashfold MNR, Anglos D. (2005) 'Dynamics of confined plumes during short and ultrashort pulsed laser ablation of graphite'. Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, 72 (20)

    Abstract

    The optical emission from electronically excited C species in the ablation plume following the short (ns) and ultrashort (fs) UV pulsed laser ablation of graphite is studied. Wavelength, time and spatially resolved imaging of the plume, in background pressures of inert gases such as argon and helium, is performed. Analysis of images of optical emission from C+* ions and C2* radicals, yielded estimates of the apparent velocity of emitting species, which appear to arise both from the initial ablation event and, in the presence of background gas, mainly from impact excitation. At elevated background pressures of argon (PAr), the formation and propagation of a shock wave is observed for ns pulses, whereas for fs pulses, the propagation of two shock waves is observed. During fs ablation, the first shock wave we associate with an initial burst of highly energetic/electronically excited ablated components, indicative of an enhanced fraction of non-thermal ejection mechanisms when compared with ns ablation. The second shock wave we associate with subsequently ejected, slower moving, material. Concurrent with the plume dynamics investigations, nanostructured amorphous carbon materials were deposited by collecting the ablated material. By varying PAr from 5 to 340 mTorr, the film morphology could be changed from mirror smooth, through a rough nanostructured phase and, at the highest background pressures for ns pulses, to a low density cluster-assembled material. The evident correlations between the film structure, the mean velocities of the emitting C species, and their respective dependences upon PAr are discussed for both pulse durations. In addition, we comment on the effect of observed initial plume dynamics on the subsequent C cluster formation in the expanding plume. © 2005 The American Physical Society.

  • Lyth SM, Oyeleye F, Curry RJ, Silva SRP, Davis J. (2005) 'Field emission from multiwall carbon nanotubes prepared by electrodeposition without the use of a dispersant'. Technical Digest of the 18th International Vacuum Nanoelectronics Conference, IVNC 2005, 2005, pp. 304-305.
  • Tsang WM, Stolojan V, Giusca C, Poa CHP, Sealy B, Silva SRP, Wong SP. (2005) 'The electron field emission properties of Ag-SiO nanocomposite layers'. Technical Digest of the 18th International Vacuum Nanoelectronics Conference, IVNC 2005, 2005, pp. 206-207.
  • Filip LD, Nicolaescu D, Silva SRP. (2005) 'Quantum size dependence of electron distribution on carbon nanotubes and its influence on field emission'. Technical Digest of the 18th International Vacuum Nanoelectronics Conference, IVNC 2005, 2005, pp. 87-88.
  • Rümmeli M, Gemming T, Knupfer M, Pichler T, Büchner B, Jost O, Borowiak-Palen E, Silva SRP. (2005) 'Metal oxides and low temperature SWCNT synthesis via laser evaporation'. AIP Conference Proceedings, 786, pp. 77-80.
  • Henley SJ, Woolger NEP, Carey JD, Silva SRP, Fuge GM, Ashfold MNR. (2005) 'Metal incorporation into nanoporous carbon'. Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings, 876, pp. 256-261.

    Abstract

    Nanoporous carbon films were deposited by 248 nm pulsed laser ablation of a graphite target in different background pressures of argon (P). The morphology changed from smooth, high-density amorphous carbon films at P = 20 mTorr to ultra-low density nanoporous material at P = 380 mTorr. Subsequently, the nanostructural, chemical and electrical properties of metal containing nanoporous carbon samples were investigated by ablating graphite targets containing known contents of Ni and Co. We demonstrate how the ablation plume dynamics affect both the nanostructure of the material and the incorporation of metal atoms. The suitability of these functionalised ultra-low density materials for gas sensing applications is discussed. © 2005 Materials Research Society.

  • Chen GY, Poa PCH, Henley SJ, Stolojan V, Silva SRP. (2005) 'Carbon nanotubes and nanostructures grown at low temperatures below 400°C'. Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings, 901, pp. 511-522.
  • Smith RC, Cox DC, Silva SRP. (2005) 'Electron field emission from a single carbon nanotube: Effects of anode location'. AMER INST PHYSICS APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 87 (10) Article number ARTN 103112
  • Mendoza E, Henley SJ, Poa CHP, Stolojan V, Chen GY, Giusca CE, Carey JD, Silva SRP. (2005) 'Dendrimer assisted catalytic growth of mats of multiwall carbon nanofibers'. PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD CARBON, 43 (10), pp. 2229-2231.
  • Chen GY, Stolojan V, Silva SRP, Herman H, Haq S. (2005) 'Carbon spheres generated in 'dusty plasmas''. PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD CARBON, 43 (4), pp. 704-708.
  • Mendoza E, Borowiak-Palen E, Sharpe K, De Silva SGM, Mureau N, Henley SH, Silva SRP. (2005) 'Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes as platforms for the design of Biosensors'. 2005 NSTI Nanotechnology Conference and Trade Show - NSTI Nanotech 2005 Technical Proceedings, , pp. 426-429.
  • Jeynes JCG, Mendoza E, Chow D, McFadden J, Silva SRP. (2005) 'DNA/RNA purified single walled carbon nanotubes on self-assembled networks'. 2005 NSTI Nanotechnology Conference and Trade Show - NSTI Nanotech 2005 Technical Proceedings, , pp. 250-253.
  • Gao C, Kong H, Jin YZ, Whitby RLD, Acquah SFA, Fearon P, Kroto HW, Walton DRM, Chen GY, Silva SRP, Henley S, Qian H, Hartschuh A. (2005) 'Polyurea-functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes: Synthesis, morphology, and Raman spectroscopy'. Journal of Physical Chemistry B, 109 (24), pp. 11925-11932.
  • Borowiak-Palen E, Mendoza E, Henley SJ, Cox DC, Poa CHP, Stolojan V, Silva SRP, Ruemmeli MH, Gemming T, Pichler T. (2005) 'Silver intercalated carbon nanotubes'. AIP Conference Proceedings, 786, pp. 236-239.
  • Guo X, Silva SRP. (2005) 'Active-matrix addrsssing for carbon nanotube field emission displays'. Proceedings of the Second Americas Display Engineering and Applications Conference, ADEAC 2005, , pp. 366-368.
  • Tsang WM, Silva SRP, Wong SP, Lindner JKN. (2005) 'Improving electron emission properties of SiC layers by introducing electrically conductive clusters using ion implantation'. Technical Digest of the 18th International Vacuum Nanoelectronics Conference, IVNC 2005, 2005, pp. 54-55.
  • Henley SJ, Carey JD, Silva SRP. (2004) 'Room temperature photoluminescence from nanostructured amorphous carbon'. Applied Physics Letters, 85 (25), pp. 6236-6238.

    Abstract

    Visible room-temperature photoluminescence (PL) was observed from hydrogen-free nanostructured amorphous carbon films deposited by pulsed laser ablation in different background pressures of argon (PAr). By varying PAr from 5 to 340 mTorr, the film morphology changed from smooth to rough and at the highest pressures, low-density filamentary growth was observed. Over the same pressure regime an increase in the ordering of s p2 bonded C content was observed using visible Raman spectroscopy. The origin of the PL is discussed in terms of improved carrier localization within an increased s p2 rich phase. © 2004 American Institute of Physics.

  • Carey JD, Silva SRP. (2004) 'Disorder, clustering, and localization effects in amorphous carbon'. AMERICAN PHYSICAL SOC PHYSICAL REVIEW B, 70 (23) Article number ARTN 235417
  • Katsuno T, Nitta S, Habuchi H, Stolojan V, Silva SRP. (2004) 'Highly photoconductive amorphous carbon nitride films prepared by cyclic nitrogen radical sputtering'. AMER INST PHYSICS APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 85 (14), pp. 2803-2805.
  • Silva SRP, Carey JD, Chen GY, Cox DC, Forrest RD, Poa CHP, Smith RC, Tang YF, Shannon JM. (2004) 'Nanoengineering of materials for field emission display technologies'. IEE-INST ELEC ENG IEE PROCEEDINGS-CIRCUITS DEVICES AND SYSTEMS, 151 (5), pp. 489-496.
  • Boskovic BO, Stolojan V, Zeze DA, Forrest RD, Silva SRP, Haq S. (2004) 'Branched carbon nanofiber network synthesis at room temperature using radio frequency supported microwave plasmas'. AMER INST PHYSICS JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS, 96 (6), pp. 3443-3446.
  • Cox DC, Forrest RD, Smith PR, Silva SRP. (2004) 'Thermionic emission from defective carbon nanotubes'. AMER INST PHYSICS APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 85 (11), pp. 2065-2067.
  • Guo X, Silva SRP. (2004) 'Circuit simulation of current-modulated field emission display pixel driver based on carbon nanotubes'. IEE-INST ELEC ENG ELECTRONICS LETTERS, 40 (18), pp. 1113-1115.
  • Henley SJ, Poa CHP, Adikaari AADT, Giusca CE, Carey JD, Silva SRP. (2004) 'Excimer laser nanostructuring of nickel thin films for the catalytic growth of carbon nanotubes'. AMER INST PHYSICS APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 84 (20), pp. 4035-4037.
  • Smith RC, Carey JD, Poa CHP, Cox DC, Silva SRP. (2004) 'Electron field emission from room temperature grown carbon nanofibers'. AMER INST PHYSICS JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS, 95 (6), pp. 3153-3157.
  • Zeze DA, Cox DC, Weiss BL, Silva SRP. (2004) 'Lithography-free high aspect ratio submicron quartz columns by reactive ion etching'. AMER INST PHYSICS APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 84 (8), pp. 1362-1364.
  • Chen GY, Poa CHP, Stolojan V, Henley S, Silva SRP. (2004) 'Growth kinetics changes of vertically aligned carbon nanostructures syntheslsed at low substrate temperatures'. Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings, 858, pp. 91-96.
  • Carey JD, Ong LL, Silva SRP. (2003) 'Formation of low-temperature self-organized nanoscale nickel metal islands'. IOP PUBLISHING LTD NANOTECHNOLOGY, 14 (11) Article number PII S0957-4484(03)66225-2 , pp. 1223-1227.
  • Marques FC, Lacerda RG, Champi A, Stolojan V, Cox DC, Silva SRP. (2003) 'Thermal expansion coefficient of hydrogenated amorphous carbon'. AMER INST PHYSICS APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 83 (15), pp. 3099-3101.
  • Khan RUA, Silva SRP. (2003) 'Electrical transport within polymeric amorphous carbon thin films and the effects of ion implantation'. AMER INST PHYSICS JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS, 94 (7), pp. 4470-4476.
  • Knox-Davies EC, Silva SRP, Shannon JM. (2003) 'Properties of nanocrystalline GaN films deposited by reactive sputtering'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA DIAMOND AND RELATED MATERIALS, 12 (8), pp. 1417-1421.
  • Khan RUA, Silva SRP, van Swaaij RACMM. (2003) 'Polymeric amorphous carbon as p-type window within amorphous silicon solar cells'. AMER INST PHYSICS APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 82 (22), pp. 3979-3981.
  • Zeze DA, Silva SRP, Haq S, Harris SJ. (2003) 'Comparison of the X-ray photoelectron and electron-energy-loss spectra of the nitrogen-doped hydrogenated amorphous carbon bond'. TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD PHILOSOPHICAL MAGAZINE, 83 (16), pp. 1937-1947.
  • Konchits AA, Valakh MY, Shanina BD, Kolesnik SP, Yanchuk IB, Carey JD, Silva SRP. (2003) 'Effects of ion implantation on electron centers in hydrogenated amorphous carbon films'. AMER INST PHYSICS JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS, 93 (10), pp. 5905-5910.
  • Boskovic BO, Stolojan V, Khan RUA, Haq S, Silva SRP. (2002) 'Large-area synthesis of carbon nanofibres at room temperature'. NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP NATURE MATERIALS, 1 (3), pp. 165-168.
  • Zeze DA, Forrest RD, Carey JD, Cox DC, Robertson ID, Weiss BL, Silva SRP. (2002) 'Reactive ion etching of quartz and Pyrex for microelectronic applications'. AMER INST PHYSICS JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS, 92 (7), pp. 3624-3629.
  • Poa CH, Lacerda RG, Cox DC, Silva SRP, Marques FC. (2002) 'Stress-induced electron emission from nanocomposite amorphous carbon thin films'. AMER INST PHYSICS APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 81 (5), pp. 853-855.
  • Tang YF, Silva SRP, Boskovic BO, Shannon JM, Rose MJ. (2002) 'Electron field emission from excimer laser crystallized amorphous silicon'. AMER INST PHYSICS APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 80 (22), pp. 4154-4156.
  • Poa CH, Silva SRP, Watts PCP, Hsu WK, Kroto HW, Walton DRM. (2002) 'Field emission from nonaligned carbon nanotubes embedded in a polystyrene matrix'. AMER INST PHYSICS APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 80 (17), pp. 3189-3191.
  • Zeze DA, Silva SRP, Brown NMD, Joyce AM, Anderson CA. (2002) 'Targeting mass-selected cluster ions for the deposition of advanced carbonaceous materials using an inductively coupled plasma'. AMER INST PHYSICS JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS, 91 (4), pp. 1819-1827.
  • Zeze DA, Silva SRP, Brown NMD, Joyce AM, Anderson CA. (2002) 'Targeting mass-selected cluster ions for the deposition of advanced carbonaceous materials using an inductively coupled plasma'. Journal of Applied Physics, 91 (3), pp. 1819-1827.
  • Tang YF, Silva SRP, Boskovic BO, Shannon JM, Rose MJ. (2002) 'Electron field emission from excimer laser crystallized amorphous silicon'. Applied Physics Letters, 80 (22), pp. 4154-4156.
  • Carey JD, Silva SRP. (2001) 'Field emission from amorphous semiconductors'. PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD SOLID-STATE ELECTRONICS, 45 (6), pp. 1017-1024.
  • Carey JD, Forrest RD, Silva SRP. (2001) 'Origin of electric field enhancement in field emission from amorphous carbon thin films'. AMER INST PHYSICS APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 78 (16), pp. 2339-2341.
  • Khan RUA, Carey JD, Silva SRP, Jones BJ, Barklie RC. (2001) 'Electron delocalization in amorphous carbon by ion implantation'. AMER PHYSICAL SOC PHYSICAL REVIEW B, 63 (12) Article number ARTN 121201
  • Carey JD, Silva SRP. (2001) 'Conditioning of hydrogenated amorphous carbon thin films for field emission via current stressing'. http://apl.aip.org/resource/1/applab/v78/i3/p347_s1 Applied Physics Letters, 78, pp. 347-349.
  • Carey JD, Silva SRP. (2001) 'Conditioning of hydrogenated amorphous carbon thin films for field emission via current stressing'. AMER INST PHYSICS APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 78 (3), pp. 347-349.
  • Tang YF, Silva SRP, Rose MJ. (2001) 'Super sequential lateral growth of Nd : YAG laser crystallized hydrogenated amorphous silicon'. AMER INST PHYSICS APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 78 (2), pp. 186-188.
  • Papworth AJ, Kiely CJ, Burden AP, Silva SRP, Amaratunga GAJ. (2000) 'Electron-energy-loss spectroscopy characterization of the sp(2) bonding fraction within carbon thin films'. AMER PHYSICAL SOC PHYSICAL REVIEW B, 62 (19), pp. 12628-12631.
  • Anguita JV, Silva SRP, Young W. (2000) 'Photoluminescence from polymer-like hydrogenated and nitrogenated amorphous carbon films'. AMER INST PHYSICS JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS, 88 (9) Article number PII [S0021-8979(00)01122-1] , pp. 5175-5179.
  • Khan RUA, Anguita JV, Silva SRP. (2000) 'Ion-implantation into amorphous hydrogenated carbon films'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV JOURNAL OF NON-CRYSTALLINE SOLIDS, 276 (1-3), pp. 201-205.
  • Carey JD, Forrest RD, Khan RUA, Silva SRP. (2000) 'Influence of sp(2) clusters on the field emission properties of amorphous carbon thin films'. AMER INST PHYSICS APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 77 (13) Article number PII [S0003-6951(00)01639-9] , pp. 2006-2008.
  • W. T. Young , S. R. P. silva , Anguita JV, shannon J, k. p. homewood , b. j. sealy . (2000) 'Low temperature growth of gallium nitride'. Diamond and Related Materials,
  • Barklie RC, Collins M, Silva SRP. (2000) 'EPR linewidth variation, spin relaxation times, and exchange in amorphous hydrogenated carbon'. Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, 61 (5), pp. 3546-3554.
  • Silva SRP, Carey JD, Forrest RD. (2000) 'Amorphous semiconductors for cold cathodes: a route to large-area flat-panel displays'. Journal of the Society for Information Display, 8 (1), pp. 17-21.
  • Anguita JV, Silva SRP, Burden AP, Sealy BJ, Haq S, Hebbron M, Sturland I, Pritchard A. (1999) 'Thermal stability of plasma deposited thin films of hydrogenated carbon-nitrogen alloys'. AMER INST PHYSICS JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS, 86 (11), pp. 6276-6281.
  • Shi X, Cheah LK, Tay BK, Silva SRP. (1999) 'Electron field emission from surface treated tetrahedral amorphous carbon films'. AMER INST PHYSICS APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 74 (6), pp. 833-835.
  • Burden AP, Forrest RD, Silva SRP. (1999) 'Enhancing the field emission properties of amorphous carbon films by thermal annealing'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA THIN SOLID FILMS, 337 (1-2), pp. 257-260.
  • Barradas NP, Almeida SA, Jeynes C, Knights AP, Silva SRP, Sealy BJ. (1999) 'RES and ERDA study of ion beam synthesised amorphous gallium nitride'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS, ROYAL TROP INST, AMSTERDAM, NETHERLANDS: 148 (1-4), pp. 463-467.
  • Barradas NP, Almeida SA, Jeynes C, Knights AP, Silva SRP, Sealy BJ. (1999) 'RBS and ERDA study of ion beam synthesised amorphous gallium nitride'. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, 148 (1-4), pp. 463-467.
  • Forrest RD, Burden AP, Silva SRP, Cheah LK, Shi X. (1998) 'A study of electron field emission as a function of film thickness from amorphous carbon films'. AMER INST PHYSICS APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 73 (25), pp. 3784-3786.
  • Cheah LK, Shi X, Shi JR, Liu EJ, Silva SRP. (1998) 'Properties of nitrogen doped tetrahedral amorphous carbon films prepared by filtered cathodic vacuum are technique'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV JOURNAL OF NON-CRYSTALLINE SOLIDS, 242 (1), pp. 40-48.
  • Burden AP, Silva SRP. (1998) 'Fullerene and nanotube formation in cool terrestrial "dusty plasmas"'. AMER INST PHYSICS APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 73 (21), pp. 3082-3084.
  • Almeida SA, Silva SRP, Sealy BJ, Watts JF. (1998) 'Ion-beam synthesis of amorphous gallium nitride'. TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD PHILOSOPHICAL MAGAZINE LETTERS, 78 (4), pp. 319-324.
  • Schwan J, Batori V, Ulrich S, Ehrhardt H, Silva SRP. (1998) 'Nitrogen doping of amorphous carbon thin films'. AMER INST PHYSICS JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS, 84 (4), pp. 2071-2081.
  • Burden AP, Silva SRP. (1998) 'Fullerene-like carbon nanoparticles generated by radio-frequency plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition'. TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD PHILOSOPHICAL MAGAZINE LETTERS, 78 (1), pp. 15-19.
  • Silva SRP, Forbes RG. (1998) 'Controlling mechanisms for field-induced electron emission from diamond-like carbon films'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV ULTRAMICROSCOPY, NATL RES INST MET, TSUKUBA, JAPAN: 73 (1-4), pp. 51-57.
  • Silva SRP, Forrest RD, Shannon JM. (1998) 'Electron field emission from amorphous silicon'. Proceedings of the IEEE International Vacuum Microelectronics Conference, IVMC, , pp. 285-286.
  • Silva SRP, Amaratunga GAJ, Okano K. (1998) 'Modelling of the electron field emission process in polycrystalline diamond-like carbon thin films'. Proceedings of the IEEE International Vacuum Microelectronics Conference, IVMC, , pp. 176-177.
  • Lucyszyn S, Silva SRP, Robertson ID, Collier RJ, Jastrzebski AK, Thayne IG, Beaumont SP. (1998) 'Terahertz multi-chip module (T-MCM) technology for the 21 century?'. IEE Colloquium (Digest), (231)
  • Almeida SA, Silva SRP. (1997) 'Stoichiometric limitations of RF plasma deposited amorphous silicon-nitrogen alloys'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA THIN SOLID FILMS, 311 (1-2), pp. 133-137.
  • Schwan J, Ulrich S, Theel T, Roth H, Ehrhardt H, Becker P, Silva SRP. (1997) 'Stress-induced formation of high-density amorphous carbon thin films'. AMER INST PHYSICS JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS, 82 (12), pp. 6024-6030.
  • Silva SRP, Amaratunga GAJ, Barnes JR. (1997) 'Self-texturing of nitrogenated amorphous carbon thin films for electron field emission'. AMER INST PHYSICS APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 71 (11), pp. 1477-1479.
  • Xu S, Flynn D, Tay BK, Prawer S, Nugent KW, Silva SRP, Lifshitz Y, Milne WI. (1997) 'Mechanical properties and Raman spectra of tetrahedral amorphous carbon films with high sp(3) fraction deposited using a filtered cathodic arc'. TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD PHILOSOPHICAL MAGAZINE B-PHYSICS OF CONDENSED MATTER STATISTICAL MECHANICS ELECTRONIC OPTICAL AND MAGNETIC PROPERTIES, 76 (3), pp. 351-361.
  • Silva SRP, Robertson J, Amaratunga GAJ, Rafferty B, Brown LM, Schwan J, Franceschini DF, Mariotto G. (1997) 'Nitrogen modification of hydrogenated amorphous carbon films'. AMER INST PHYSICS JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS, 81 (6), pp. 2626-2634.
  • Chhowalla M, Robertson J, Chen CW, Silva SRP, Davis CA, Amaratunga GAJ, Milne WI. (1997) 'Influence of ion energy and substrate temperature on the optical and electronic properties of tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) films'. AMER INST PHYSICS JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS, 81 (1), pp. 139-145.
  • Silva SRP, Robertson J, Rusli , Amaratunga GAJ, Schwan J. (1996) 'Structure and luminescence properties of an amorphous hydrogenated carbon'. TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD PHILOSOPHICAL MAGAZINE B-PHYSICS OF CONDENSED MATTER STATISTICAL MECHANICS ELECTRONIC OPTICAL AND MAGNETIC PROPERTIES, 74 (4), pp. 369-386.
  • Silva SRP, Xu S, Tay BX, Tan HS, Milne WI. (1996) 'Nanocrystallites in tetrahedral amorphous carbon films (vol 69, pg 491, 1996)'. AMER INST PHYSICS APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 69 (13), pp. 1980-1980.
  • OBrien P, Walsh JR, Watson IM, Hart L, Silva SRP. (1996) 'Properties of cadmium sulphide films grown by single-source metalorganic chemical vapour deposition with dithiocarbamate precursors'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV JOURNAL OF CRYSTAL GROWTH, 167 (1-2), pp. 133-142.
  • Schwan J, Ulrich S, Batori V, Ehrhardt H, Silva SRP. (1996) 'Raman spectroscopy on amorphous carbon films'. AMER INST PHYSICS JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS, 80 (1), pp. 440-447.
  • Okano K, Koizumi S, Silva SRP, Amaratunga GAJ. (1996) 'Low-threshold cold cathodes made of nitrogen-doped chemical-vapour-deposited diamond'. MACMILLAN MAGAZINES LTD NATURE, 381 (6578), pp. 140-141.
  • Franceschini DF, Freire FL, Silva SRP. (1996) 'Influence of precursor gases on the structure of plasma deposited amorphous hydrogenated carbon-nitrogen films'. AMER INST PHYSICS APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 68 (19), pp. 2645-2647.
  • Clay KJ, Speakman SP, Amaratunga GAJ, Silva SRP. (1996) 'Characterization of C:H:N deposition from CH4/N-2 rf plasmas using optical emission spectroscopy'. AMER INST PHYSICS JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS, 79 (9), pp. 7227-7233.
  • Xu S, Tay BK, Tan HS, Zhong L, Tu YQ, Silva SRP, Milne WI. (1996) 'Properties of carbon ion deposited tetrahedral amorphous carbon films as a function of ion energy'. AMER INST PHYSICS JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS, 79 (9), pp. 7234-7240.
  • Amaratunga GAJ, Silva SRP. (1996) 'Nitrogen containing hydrogenated amorphous carbon for thin-film field emission cathodes'. AMER INST PHYSICS APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 68 (18), pp. 2529-2531.
  • Pharr GM, Callahan DL, McAdams SD, Tsui TY, Anders S, Anders A, Ager JW, Brown IG, Bhatia CS, Silva SRP, Robertson J. (1996) 'Hardness, elastic modulus, and structure of very hard carbon films produced by cathodic-arc deposition with substrate pulse biasing'. AMER INST PHYSICS APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 68 (6), pp. 779-781.
  • Schwan J, Ulrich S, Roth H, Ehrhardt H, Silva SRP, Robertson J, Samlenski R, Brenn R. (1996) 'Tetrahedral amorphous carbon films prepared by magnetron sputtering and dc ion plating'. AMER INST PHYSICS JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS, 79 (3), pp. 1416-1422.
  • DAVIS CA, SILVA SRP, DUNINBORKOWSKI RE, AMARATUNGA GAJ, KNOWLES KM, STOBBS WM. (1995) 'DIRECT OBSERVATION OF COMPOSITIONALLY HOMOGENEOUS A-C-H BAND-GAP-MODULATED SUPERLATTICES'. AMERICAN PHYSICAL SOC PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS, 75 (23), pp. 4258-4261.
  • SILVA SRP, KAPOOR A, AMARATUNGA GAJ. (1995) 'TRIBOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF DIAMOND-LIKE CARBON-FILMS DEPOSITED ON SILICON USING RF PLASMA-ENHANCED CVD'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA LAUSANNE SURFACE & COATINGS TECHNOLOGY, 73 (1-2), pp. 132-136.
  • Franceschini DF, Freire Jr FL, Silva SRP. (1995) 'Influence of precursor gases on the structure of plasma deposited amorphous hydrogenated carbon-nitrogen films'. Applied Physics Letters, , pp. 2645-2645.
  • Amaratunga GAJ, Silva SRP. (1995) 'Nitrogen containing hydrogenated amorphous carbon for thin-film field emission cathodes'. Applied Physics Letters, , pp. 2529-2529.
  • Pharr GM, Callahan DL, McAdams SD, Tsui TY, Anders S, Anders A, Ager Iii JW, Brown IG, Bhatia CS, Silva SRP, Robertson J. (1995) 'Hardness, elastic modulus, and structure of very hard carbon films produced by cathodic-arc deposition with substrate pulse biasing'. Applied Physics Letters, , pp. 779-779.
  • SILVA SRP, AMARATUNGA GAJ, RUSLI , HAQ S, SALJE EK. (1994) 'OPTICAL QUANTUM-SIZE EFFECTS IN DIAMOND-LIKE CARBON SUPERLATTICE STRUCTURES'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA LAUSANNE THIN SOLID FILMS, 253 (1-2), pp. 20-24.
  • SILVA SRP, AMARATUNGA GAJ. (1994) 'USE OF SPACE-CHARGE-LIMITED CURRENT TO EVALUATE THE ELECTRONIC DENSITY-OF-STATES IN DIAMOND-LIKE CARBON THIN-FILMS'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA LAUSANNE THIN SOLID FILMS, 253 (1-2), pp. 146-150.
  • SILVA SRP, AMARATUNGA GAJ, WOODBURN CN, WELLAND ME, HAQ S. (1994) 'QUANTUM SIZE EFFECTS IN AMORPHOUS DIAMOND-LIKE CARBON SUPERLATTICES'. JAPAN J APPLIED PHYSICS JAPANESE JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS PART 1-REGULAR PAPERS SHORT NOTES & REVIEW PAPERS, 33 (12A), pp. 6458-6465.
  • SILVA SRP, AMARATUNGA GAJ, SALJE EKH, KNOWLES KM. (1994) 'EVIDENCE OF HEXAGONAL DIAMOND IN PLASMA-DEPOSITED CARBON-FILMS'. KLUWER ACADEMIC PUBL JOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE, 29 (19), pp. 4962-4966.
  • SILVA SRP, KNOWLES KM, AMARATUNGA GAJ, PUTNIS A. (1994) 'THE MICROSTRUCTURE OF INCLUSIONS IN NANOCRYSTALLINE CARBON-FILMS DEPOSITED AT LOW-TEMPERATURE'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA LAUSANNE DIAMOND AND RELATED MATERIALS, 3 (7), pp. 1048-1055.
  • AMARATUNGA GAJ, VEERASAMY VS, MILNE WI, DAVIS CA, SILVA SRP, MACKENZIE HS. (1993) 'PHOTOCONDUCTIVITY IN HIGHLY TETRAHEDRAL DIAMOND-LIKE AMORPHOUS-CARBON'. AMER INST PHYSICS APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 63 (3), pp. 370-372.
  • SILVA SRP, AMARATUNGA GAJ, CONSTANTINOU CP. (1992) 'OPTICAL-PROPERTIES OF AMORPHOUS C/DIAMOND THIN-FILMS'. AMER INST PHYSICS JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS, 72 (3), pp. 1149-1153.
  • Silva SRP, Amaratunga GAJ, Constantinou CP, McKenzie DR. (1992) 'Smooth thin film C/diamond membranes with controllable optical band gaps'. Diamond and Related Materials, 1 (5-6), pp. 612-618.
  • AMARATUNGA GAJ, SILVA SRP, MCKENZIE DR. (1991) 'INFLUENCE OF DC BIAS VOLTAGE ON THE REFRACTIVE-INDEX AND STRESS OF CARBON-DIAMOND FILMS DEPOSITED FROM A CH4/AR RF PLASMA'. AMER INST PHYSICS JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS, 70 (10), pp. 5374-5379.

Conference papers

  • Hamerton I, Anguita JV, Silva SRP. (2013) 'Towards the rational design of polymers using molecular simulation: predicting the effect of cure schedule on thermo-mechanical properties for a cycloaliphatic amine-cured epoxy resin'. Berlin : Fraunhofer IZM Berlin Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, Berlin: Thermosets 2013 From Monomers to Components 1 (1), pp. 235-238.
  • Sporea RA, Shannon JM, Silva SRP, Guo X. (2011) 'Source-gated transistors for improved current-mode pixel drivers'. Kunshan, China: SID Asia Display / China Display 2011
  • Adikaari AADT, Briscoe J, Dunn S, Carey JD, Silva SRP. (2011) 'Effect of transparent electrode on the performance of bulk heterojunction solar cells'. MRS San Francisco: MRS Spring Meeting 2010 1270

    Abstract

    We present a performance comparison of polythiophene/fullerene derivative bulk heterojunction solar cells fabricated on fluorinated tin oxide (FTO) and indium tin oxide (ITO) in the presence and absence of the commonly used poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) hole extraction layer. From a potential commercial perspective the performance of cheaper and more readily available FTO compares well with the more expensive ITO in terms of measured device efficiency (FTO:2.8 % and ITO:3.1%). The devices show similar fill factors (FTO:63% and ITO:64%) with the same open circuit voltage of 0.6 V. The short circuit current density is lower for FTO devices at 7.5 mA/cm2 which compares with 8.0 mA/cm2 for ITO; a behaviour that is mainly attributed to the reduced optical transmission of the FTO layer. Importantly, these devices were part fabricated and wholly characterized under atmospheric conditions. The quoted device performance is the best reported for FTO based bulk heterojunction systems in the absence of the highly acidic PEDOT:PSS hole extraction layer, which is believed to degrade conductive oxides.

  • Shang N, Tan YY, Stolojan V, Silva SRP, Papakonstantinou P, Chen GY. (2010) 'Direct catalytic growth of high-density carbon nanotubes on nanoclusters at low temperatures'. Proceedings - 2010 8th International Vacuum Electron Sources Conference and Nanocarbon, IVESC 2010 and NANOcarbon 2010, , pp. 389-389.
  • Sporea RA, Shannon JM, Silva SRP, Trainor MJ, Young ND. (2010) 'Performance trade-offs in polysilicon source-gated transistors'. 2010 Proceedings of the European Solid State Device Research Conference, ESSDERC 2010, , pp. 222-225.

    Abstract

    Self-aligned Schottky-source source-gated transistors (SGTs) have been made in polysilicon. The structures enable a direct comparison to be made between a SGT and a standard thin-film field-effect transistor (FET) on the same device. SGTs having excellent characteristics have been fabricated, with intrinsic gains approaching 10,000. The effects of bulk doping in the polysilicon and of the source barrier modification implant are considered in the context of the electrical output characteristics. It is shown that the choice of source length is a tradeoff between device speed and current uniformity. ©2010 IEEE.

  • Filip LD, Carey DJ, Silva SRP. (2010) 'P2-29: Electron tunneling from a 3D nano-sphere'. 23rd International Vacuum Nanoelectronics Conference, Palo Alto, USA: IVNC 2010, pp. 179-180.
  • Sporea RA, Trainor MJ, Young ND, Shannon JM, Silva SRP. (2010) 'Performance improvements in polysilicon source-gated transistors'. IEEE DRC Conference Digest, Indiana, USA: 68th Device Research Conference, pp. 245-246.

    Abstract

    The source-gated transistor (SGT) is a new type of transistor in which the current is controlled by a potential barrier at the source and by a gate which modulates the effective height of the source barrier. It is an ideal device architecture to be used with the low mobility materials typically applied to large area electronics, as it provides low saturation voltages and high output impedances. Furthermore, the high internal fields and low concentration of excess carriers lead to higher speed and better stability compared with FETs, particularly in disordered, low mobility semiconductors. As such, the SGT is especially well suited to thin-film analog circuits.

  • Giusca CE, Silva SRP. (2010) 'Influence of Structural Defects on the Electronic Properties of Carbon Nanotubes Examined by Scanning Tunnelling Microscopy'. Semiconductor Nanowires - Growth, Physics, Devices, and Applications, San Francisco, CA: Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Spring Meeting Volume 1258, 1258-R05-21
  • Tan LW, Hatten RA, Giusca CE, Silva SRP. (2010) 'Interfacial energy level alignment at acid oxidised carbon nanotube - Triphenyldiamine contacts'. Cambridge University Press MRS Proceedings, San Francisco, USA: 2010 MRS Spring Meeting: Symposia P/Q/R – Low-Dimensional Functional Nanostructures-Fabrication, Characterization and Applications 1258, pp. 253-259.
  • Giusca CE, Stolojan V, Sloan J, Shiozawa H, Silva SRP. (2010) 'GeTe-filled carbon nanotubes for data storage applications'. Cambridge University Press MRS Proceedings, California, USA: 2010 MRS Spring Meeting: Symposium H – Phase-Change Materials for Memory and Reconfigurable Electronics Applications 1251, pp. 19-24.

    Abstract

    By virtue of their unique electronic properties, nanometer-diameter sized single-walled carbon nanotubes represent ideal candidates to function as active parts of nanoelectronic memory storage devices. We show for the first time that GeTe, a phase change material, currently considered to be one of the most promising materials for data-storage applications, can efficiently be encapsulated within single-walled carbon nanontubes of 1.4 nm diameter. Structural investigations on the encapsulated GeTe nanowires have been carried out by high resolution transmission electron microscopy. The electronic interactions between the filling material and the host nanotube have been examined using ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy experiments and show that the electronic structure of the encapsulating nanotube and that of the encased filling are not perturbed by the presence of each of the other component. The newly formed hybrids offer potential to operate as active elements in non-volatile electronic memory storage devices.

  • Sporea RA, Shannon JM, Silva SRP. (2010) 'Properties of source-gated transistors in polysilicon'. 6th Conference on Ph.D. Research in Microelectronics and Electronics, PRIME 2010,

    Abstract

    This paper describes some of the performance characteristics of self-aligned polysilicon Schottky Source-Gated Transistors (SGTs) made on glass by laser annealing of amorphous silicon. The threshold and Schottky barrier height are tuned by varying the dose of dopants in the bulk and under the source respectively. These devices are well suited for analog applications owing to their low saturation voltage, low drain field dependence of the current and intrinsic gain which is in excess of 1000 for well designed structures. Double drain operation leads to f ≈100MHz for non-optimized devices.

  • Yahya I, Mustaza SM, Stolojan V, Clowes S, Silva SRP. (2010) 'Carbon nanotube field effect transistor measurements in vacuum'. IEEE International Conference on Semiconductor Electronics, Proceedings, ICSE, , pp. 224-228.
  • Nismy NA, Adikaari AADT, Silva SRP. (2010) 'Enhanced performance from acid functionalized multiwall carbon nanotubes in the active layer of organic bulk heterojunction solar cells'. Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings, 1270, pp. 61-66.
  • Shiozawa H, Kramberger C, Ruemmeli M, Batchelor D, Kataura H, Pichler T, Silva SRP. (2009) 'Electronic properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes encapsulating a cerium organometallic compound'. WILEY-V C H VERLAG GMBH PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI B-BASIC SOLID STATE PHYSICS, Kirchberg, GERMANY: 23rd Winterschool on Electronic Properties of Novel Materials 246 (11-12), pp. 2626-2630.
  • Sporea RA, Guo X, Shannon JM, Silva SRP. (2009) 'Effects of process variations on the current in Schottky Barrier Source-Gated Transistors'. IEEE Proceedings of the International Semiconductor Conference (CAS), Sinaia, Romania: CAS 2009 2, pp. 413-416.

    Abstract

    The sensitivity of the drain current in Schottky barrier source-gated transistors to process variation is studied using computer simulations. It is shown that provided the device is designed correctly, the current is independent of source-drain separation and is insensitive to source length variations. However, uniform insulator thickness and precise control of the source barrier is needed if good current uniformity is to be obtained.

  • Filip LD, Palumbo M, Carey JD, Silva SRP. (2009) 'Sequential and resonant field emission from nano-structured cathodes'. Technical Digest - 2009 22nd International Vacuum Nanoelectronics Conference, IVNC 2009, , pp. 105-106.
  • Anguita JV, Sharma P, Henley SJ, Silva SRP, Notzel R. (2009) 'Room temperature photoluminescence in the visible range from silicon nanowires grown by a solid-state reaction'. IOP PUBLISHING LTD SEMICONDUCTOR NANOSTRUCTURES TOWARDS ELECTRONIC AND OPTOELECTRONIC DEVICE APPLICATIONS II (SYMPOSIUM K, E-MRS 2009 SPRING MEETING), Strasbourg, FRANCE: Symposium K on Semiconductor Nanostructures Towards Electronic and Optoelectronic Device Applications II at the E-MRS Spring Meeting 6
  • Adikaari AADT, Dissanayake DMNM, Mudugamuwa NK, Silva SRP, Ray S, Nath SK, Kumar A, Agarwala RC, Agarwala V, Chaudhari GP, Daniel BSS. (2009) 'Nano Engineered Organic-Inorganic Material Systems for Photovoltaics'. TRANS TECH PUBLICATIONS LTD NANOMATERIALS AND DEVICES: PROCESSING AND APPLICATIONS, Indian Inst Technol, Roorkee, INDIA: International Conference on Nanomaterials and Devices 67, pp. 1-6.
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  • Shi X, Lutz T, Giannakidis A, Goulianos A, Watts P, Yaici K, Evans B, Kondoz A, Petrou M, Silva SRP, de Silva S. (2008) 'The Guardian Angel Project: Using an unobtrusive Wireless Sensor Network System to Improve Health and Well-being in the 21st Century'. Montpellier, France: NT08, Ninth International Conference on the Science and Application of Nanotubes
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  • Tsang WM, Adikaari AADT, Stolojan V, Silva SRP. (2008) 'Improving the electron emission properties of ion-beam-synthesized Ag-SiO2 nanocomposites by pulsed laser annealing'. A V S AMER INST PHYSICS JOURNAL OF VACUUM SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY B, Chicago, IL: 20th International Vacuum Nanoelectronics Conference 26 (2), pp. 860-863.
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  • Stolojan V, Tsang W, Silva SRP, Cullis AG, Midgley PA. (2008) 'The Dielectric Properties of Co-Implanted SiO(2) Investigated Using Spatially-Resolved EELS'. SPRINGER-VERLAG BERLIN MICROSCOPY OF SEMICONDUCTING MATERIALS 2007, Univ Cambridge, Cambridge, ENGLAND: 15th Conference on Microscopy of Semiconducting Materials 120, pp. 341-344.
  • Tison V, Stolojan V, Watts PCP, Cox DC, Chen GY, Silva SRP, Cullis AG, Midgley PA. (2008) 'Gas Sensing Properties of Vapour-Deposited Tungsten Oxide Nanostructures'. SPRINGER-VERLAG BERLIN MICROSCOPY OF SEMICONDUCTING MATERIALS 2007, Univ Cambridge, Cambridge, ENGLAND: 15th Conference on Microscopy of Semiconducting Materials 120, pp. 281-284.
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  • Kerr GL, Smith PR, Carey JD, Silva SRP. (2008) 'In-situ electrical characterisation of suspended multiwalled carbon nanotubes'. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 126
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  • Adikaari AADT, Mudugamuwa NK, Silva SRP, Chua SJ, Teng JH, Wada O, DelaRue R, Tang XH. (2008) 'Higher crystalline volume yields from excimer laser crystallization of amorphous silicon with an asymmetrical peak pulse profile'. TRANS TECH PUBLICATIONS LTD SEMICONDUCTOR PHOTONICS: NANO-STRUCTURED MATERIALS AND DEVICES, Singapore, SINGAPORE: Symposium on Semiconductor Photonics - Nano-Structured Materials and Devices 31, pp. 185-188.
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  • Tsang WM, Stolojan V, Wong S, Linder JKN, Sealy BJ, Silva SRR. (2007) 'The structural and electron field emission properties of ion-beam-synthesised metallic-dielectric nanocomposites'. INST PROBLEMS MECHANICAL ENGINEERING-RUSSIAN ACAD SCIENCES REVIEWS ON ADVANCED MATERIALS SCIENCE, Warsaw Univ Technol, Warsaw, POLAND: Fall Meeting of the European-Materials-Research-Society 15 (3), pp. 179-184.
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  • Tsang WM, Stolojan V, Sealy BJ, Wong SP, Silva SRP. (2007) 'Electron field emission properties of Co quantum dots in SiO2 matrix synthesised by ion implantation'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV ULTRAMICROSCOPY, Guilin, PEOPLES R CHINA: Joint 50th International Field Emission Symposium/19th International Vacuum Nanoelectronics Conference 107 (9), pp. 819-824.
  • Henley SJ, Carey JD, Silva SRP. (2007) 'Metal nanoparticle production by pulsed laser nanostructuring of thin metal films'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV APPLIED SURFACE SCIENCE, Nice, FRANCE: Symposium on Photon-Assisted Synthesis and Processing of Functional Materials held at the 2006 EMRS Spring Meeting 253 (19), pp. 8080-8085.
  • Filip LD, Smith RC, Nicolaescu D, Carey JD, Silva SRP. (2007) 'Modelling of electron transfer from a carbon nanotube cap into the vacuum under high extraction fields'. IEEE 2007 IEEE 20TH INTERNATIONAL VACUUM NANOELECTRONICS CONFERENCE, Chicago, IL: 20th International Vacuum Nanoelectronics Conference, pp. 42-43.
  • Hayashi Y, Fujita T, Tokunaga T, Kaneko K, Butler T, Rupesinghe N, Carey JD, Silva SRP, Amaratunga GAJ. (2007) 'Encapsluation of Co and Pd multi-metal nanowires inside multiwalled carbon nanotubes by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA DIAMOND AND RELATED MATERIALS, Estoril, PORTUGAL: 17th European Conference on Diamond, Diamond-Like Materials, Carbon Nanotubes, Nitrides and Silicon Carbide 16 (4-7), pp. 1200-1203.
  • Hatton RA, Blanchard NP, Miller AJ, Silva SRP. (2007) 'A multi-wall carbon nanotube-molecular semiconductor composite for bi-layer organic solar cells'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV PHYSICA E-LOW-DIMENSIONAL SYSTEMS & NANOSTRUCTURES, Nice, FRANCE: European Materials Research Symposium on Science and Technology of Nanotube and Nanowires 37 (1-2), pp. 124-127.
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  • Lyth SM, Silva SRP. (2007) 'A study of field emission from glass spheres, coated with carbon nanotubes'. IEEE, ELECTRON DEVICES SOC & RELIABILITY GROUP EIGHTH IEEE INTERNATIONAL VACUUM ELECTRONICS CONFERENCE, Kitakyushu, JAPAN: 8th IEEE International Vacuum Electronics Conference, pp. 327-328.
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  • Bhattacharyya S, Henley SJ, Blanchard NP, Silva SRP, Wagner S, Chu V, Atwater HA, Yamamoto K, Zan HW. (2007) 'Novel semiconducting phase of amorphous carbon nickel composite films'. MATERIALS RESEARCH SOCIETY Amorphous and Polycrystalline Thin-Film Silicon Science and Technology 2006, San Francisco, CA: Symposium on Amorphous and Polycrystalline Thin-Film Silicon Science and Technology held at the 2006 MRS Spring Meeting 910, pp. 285-290.
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  • Hurley RE, Gamble HS, Jin M-H, Armstrong BM, Ghita M, McCullough RW, Adikaari AADT, Henley SJ, Silva SRP. (2007) 'Laser annealing of sputtered silicon for wafer-bonding applications'. NATL INST OPTOELECTRONICS JOURNAL OF OPTOELECTRONICS AND ADVANCED MATERIALS, Varna, BULGARIA: 14th International School on Condensed Matter Physics 9 (1), pp. 121-126.
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  • Lyth SM, Henley SJ, Silva SRP. (2007) 'Laser ablation of thin carbon nanotube films on glass substrates as transparent field emitters'. IEEE, ELECTRON DEVICES SOC & RELIABILITY GROUP EIGHTH IEEE INTERNATIONAL VACUUM ELECTRONICS CONFERENCE, Kitakyushu, JAPAN: 8th IEEE International Vacuum Electronics Conference, pp. 329-330.
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  • Henley SJ, Silva SRP, Fuge GM, Ashfold MNR, Hess WP, Herman PR, Bauerle D, Koinuma H. (2007) 'Radiation trapping in LiF ablation plumes'. IOP PUBLISHING LTD COLA'05: 8TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON LASER ABLATION, Banff, CANADA: 8th International Conference on Laser Ablation 59, pp. 745-748.
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  • Ruffini G, Dunne S, Farres E, Marco-Pallares J, Ray C, Mendoza E, Silva R, Grau C. (2006) 'A dry electrophysiology electrode using CNT arrays'. SENSORS AND ACTUATORS A-PHYSICAL, 132 (1), pp. 34-41.
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  • Guo X, Silva SRP. (2006) 'Capacitive compensation to suppress sample-and-hold non-idealities in switched-current AMOLED pixel circuits'. INST IMAGE INFORMATION & TELEVISION ENGINEERS IDW '06: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 13TH INTERNATIONAL DISPLAY WORKSHOPS, VOLS 1-3, Otsu, JAPAN: 13th International Display Workshop (IDW 06), pp. 829-832.
  • Chen GY, Stolojan V, Cox DC, Giusca C, Silva SRP. (2006) 'Growth of tungsten oxide nanowires using simple thermal heating'. IEEE 2006 IEEE Conference on Emerging Technologies - Nanoelectronics, Singapore, SINGAPORE: IEEE Conference on Emerging Technologies - Nanoelectronics, pp. 376-378.
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  • Quo X, Adikaari AADT, Silva SRP. (2006) 'Performance evaluation and design guidelines of sub-100-nm source/drain unilateral-crystallized poly-Si TFTs for SoP applications'. INST IMAGE INFORMATION & TELEVISION ENGINEERS IDW '06: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 13TH INTERNATIONAL DISPLAY WORKSHOPS, VOLS 1-3, Otsu, JAPAN: 13th International Display Workshop (IDW 06), pp. 1667-1670.
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  • Balon F, Stolojan V, Silva SRP, Michalka M, Kromka A. (2005) 'Diamond-like carbon thin films for high-temperature applications prepared by filtered pulsed laser deposition'. PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD VACUUM, Portoroz, SLOVENIA: 10th Joint Vacuum Conference (JVC-10) 80 (1-3), pp. 163-167.
  • Silva SRP, Stolojan V. (2005) 'Electron energy loss spectroscopy of carbonaceous rnaterials'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA THIN SOLID FILMS, San Diego, CA: ICMCTF 2004 Conference 488 (1-2), pp. 283-290.
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  • Damitha AA, Adikaari T, Silva SRP, Kearney MJ, Shannon JM, Durstock M, Friedman D, Gaudiana R, Rockett A. (2005) 'Improved efficiency in hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells irradiated by excimer laser'. MATERIALS RESEARCH SOCIETY Materials for Photovoltaics, Boston, MA: Symposium on Materials for Photovoltaics held at the Fall Meeting of the MRS 836, pp. 279-284.
  • Stolojan V, Moreau P, Goringe MJ, Silva SRP, Cullis AG, Hutchison JL. (2005) 'Quantum effects in band gap-modulated amorphous carbon superlattices'. SPRINGER-VERLAG BERLIN Microscopy of Semiconducting Materials, Univ Oxford, Oxford, ENGLAND: 14th Conference on Microscopy of Semiconducting Materials 107, pp. 307-310.
  • Tsang WM, Stolojan V, Adikaari AADT, Silva SRP, Wong SP. (2005) 'Ion-beam-synthesized Ag-SiO nanocomposite layers for electron field emission devices'. Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings, 908, pp. 81-86.
  • Carey JD, Henley SJ, Mendoza E, Giusca CE, Adikaari AADT, Silva SRP, Taylor DP, Liu J, McIlroy D, Merhari L, Pendry JB, Borenstein JT, Grodzinski P, Lee LP, Wang ZL. (2004) 'Formation of three dimensional Ni nanostructures for large area catalysts'. MATERIALS RESEARCH SOCIETY NANOENGINEERED ASSEMBLIES AND ADVANCED MICRO/NANOSYSTEMS, San Francisco, CA: Symposium on Nanoengineered Assemblies and Advanced Micro/Nanosystems held at the 2004 MRS Spring Meeting 820, pp. 357-362.
  • Cox DC, Forrest RD, Smith PR, Silva SRP, Guceri S, Gogotsi YG, Kuznetsov V. (2004) 'Bespoke carbon nanotube devices and structures'. SPRINGER NANOENGINEERED NANOFIBROUS MATERIALS, Belek-Antalya, TURKEY: Conference of the NATO-Advanced-Study-Institute on Nanoengineered Nanofibrous Materials 169, pp. 323-328.
  • Smith RC, Carey JD, Silva SRP, Akinwande AI, Chen L, Kymissis I, Hong C. (2004) 'Simulation of field enhancement effects in carbon nanotubes'. IEEE TECHNICAL DIGEST OF THE 17TH INTERNATIONAL VACUUM NANOELECTRONICS CONFERENCE, MIT, Cambridge, MA: 17th International Vacuum Nanoelectronics Conference (IVNC 04), pp. 176-177.
  • Poa CHP, Silva SRP, Akinwande AI, Chen L, Kymissis I, Hong C. (2004) 'Effect of conductive filaments on the electron emission properties in cathodes'. IEEE TECHNICAL DIGEST OF THE 17TH INTERNATIONAL VACUUM NANOELECTRONICS CONFERENCE, MIT, Cambridge, MA: 17th International Vacuum Nanoelectronics Conference (IVNC 04), pp. 76-77.
  • Poa CHP, Lacerda RG, Silva SRP, Marques FC, Akinwande AI, Chen L, Kymissis I, Hong C. (2004) 'Influence of stress on the field emission properties of amorphous carbon thin films and multiwall carbon nanotube-polymer composites'. IEEE TECHNICAL DIGEST OF THE 17TH INTERNATIONAL VACUUM NANOELECTRONICS CONFERENCE, MIT, Cambridge, MA: 17th International Vacuum Nanoelectronics Conference (IVNC 04), pp. 194-195.
  • Carey JD, Forrest RD, Poa CH, Silva SRP. (2003) 'Role of nanostructure on electron field emission from amorphous carbon thin films'. A V S AMER INST PHYSICS JOURNAL OF VACUUM SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY B, UNIV LYON, LYON, FRANCE: 15th International Vacuum Microelectronics Conference (IVMC) 21 (4), pp. 1633-1639.
  • Poa CHP, Smith RC, Silva SRP, Watts PCP, Hsu WK, Kroto HW, Walton DRM. (2003) 'Field emission from nonaligned carbon nanotube-polymer matrix cathodes'. A V S AMER INST PHYSICS JOURNAL OF VACUUM SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY B, UNIV LYON, LYON, FRANCE: 15th International Vacuum Microelectronics Conference (IVMC) 21 (4), pp. 1715-1719.
  • Forrest RD, Cox DC, Tang YF, Shannon JM, Silva SRP. (2003) 'Fabrication of a self-aligned microtip field emission array'. A V S AMER INST PHYSICS JOURNAL OF VACUUM SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY B, UNIV LYON, LYON, FRANCE: 15th International Vacuum Microelectronics Conference (IVMC) 21 (4), pp. 1560-1565.
  • Poa CHP, Lacerda RG, Cox DC, Marques FC, Silva SRP. (2003) 'Effects of stress on electron emission from nanostructured carbon materials'. A V S AMER INST PHYSICS JOURNAL OF VACUUM SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY B, UNIV LYON, LYON, FRANCE: 15th International Vacuum Microelectronics Conference (IVMC) 21 (4), pp. 1710-1714.
  • Silva SRP, Carey JD. (2003) 'Enhancing the electrical conduction in amorphous carbon and prospects for device applications'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA DIAMOND AND RELATED MATERIALS, UNIV BARCELONA, DEPT APPL PHYS & OPT, BARCELONA, SPAIN: 4th Specialist Meeting on Amorphous Carbon (SMAC 2002) 12 (2), pp. 151-158.
  • Jones BJ, Barklie RC, Smith G, El Mkami H, Carey JD, Silva SRP. (2003) 'An EPR study at X- and W-band of defects in a-C : H films in the temperature range 5-300 K'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA DIAMOND AND RELATED MATERIALS, UNIV BARCELONA, DEPT APPL PHYS & OPT, BARCELONA, SPAIN: 4th Specialist Meeting on Amorphous Carbon (SMAC 2002) 12 (2), pp. 116-123.
  • Stolojan V, Whiting MJ, Goringe MJ, Kelly MJ, Silva SRP, Cullis AG, Midgley PA. (2003) 'Electron energy loss line spectral and TEM analysis of heterojunctions'. IOP PUBLISHING LTD MICROSCOPY OF SEMICONDUCTING MATERIALS 2003, Univ Cambridge, Cambridge, ENGLAND: Conference on Microscopy of Semiconducting Materials (180), pp. 41-44.
  • Gateru RG, Shannon JM, Silva SRP, Saddow SE, Larkin DJ, Saks NS, Schoner A. (2003) 'Memory switching in ion bombarded amorphous silicon carbide thin film devices'. MATERIALS RESEARCH SOCIETY SILICON CARBIDE 2002-MATERIALS, PROCESSING AND DEVICES, BOSTON, MA: Symposium on Silicon Carbide-Materials, Processing and Devices held at the 2002 MRS Fall Meeting 742, pp. 79-83.
  • Lacerda RG, Stolojan V, Cox DC, Silva SRP, Marques FC. (2002) 'Structural characterization of hard a-C : H films as a function of the methane pressure'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA DIAMOND AND RELATED MATERIALS, BUDAPEST, HUNGARY: 12th European Conference on Diamond Diamond-Like Materials Carbon Nanotubes Nitrides and Silicon Carbide (Diamond 2001) 11 (3-6), pp. 980-984.
  • Forrest RD, Chen GY, Silva SRP. (2001) 'Electron field emission from amorphous carbon films as a function of deposition self bias, nitrogen content and substrate resistivity - experiment and simulation'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA MATERIALS CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS, INST ATOMIC MOLECULAR SCI ACAD SINICA, TAIPEI, TAIWAN: Taiwan Diamond 2000 Meeting 72 (2), pp. 204-209.
  • Kench PJ, Shannon JM, Shao G, Tsakiropoulos P, Silva SRP. (2001) 'Ion beam synthesis of gallium nitride'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS, CANELA, BRAZIL: 12th International Conference on Ion Beam Modification of Materials (IBMM2000) 175, pp. 678-682.
  • Khan RUA, Silva SRP. (2001) 'Switching phenomena in boron-implanted amorphous carbon films'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA DIAMOND AND RELATED MATERIALS, OPORTO, PORTUGAL: 11th European Conference on Diamond, Diamond-like Materials, Carbon Nanotubes, Nitrides and Silicon Carbide (Diamond 2000) 10 (3-7), pp. 1036-1039.
  • Carey JD, Silva SRP. (2001) 'Current-induced conditioning of hydrogenated amorphous carbon thin films for field emission'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA DIAMOND AND RELATED MATERIALS, OPORTO, PORTUGAL: 11th European Conference on Diamond, Diamond-like Materials, Carbon Nanotubes, Nitrides and Silicon Carbide (Diamond 2000) 10 (3-7), pp. 873-877.
  • Jones BJ, Barklie RC, Khan RUA, Carey JD, Silva SRP. (2001) 'Electron paramagnetic resonance study of ion implantation induced defects in amorphous hydrogenated carbon'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA DIAMOND AND RELATED MATERIALS, OPORTO, PORTUGAL: 11th European Conference on Diamond, Diamond-like Materials, Carbon Nanotubes, Nitrides and Silicon Carbide (Diamond 2000) 10 (3-7), pp. 993-997.
  • Young WT, Silva SRP, Shannon JM. (2001) 'Laser annealing of low temperature grown gallium nitride'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA DIAMOND AND RELATED MATERIALS, OPORTO, PORTUGAL: 11th European Conference on Diamond, Diamond-like Materials, Carbon Nanotubes, Nitrides and Silicon Carbide (Diamond 2000) 10 (3-7), pp. 1311-1313.
  • Khan RUA, Silva SRP. (2001) 'A review of the effects of carbon self-implantation into amorphous carbon'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA DIAMOND AND RELATED MATERIALS, MONDOVI, ITALY: 3rd Specialist Meeting on Amorphous Carbon (SMAC 2000) 10 (2), pp. 224-229.
  • Anguita JV, Young WT, Khan RU, Silva SRP, Haq S, Sturland I, Pritchard A. (2000) 'Photoluminescence in low defect density a-C : H and a-C : H : N'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV JOURNAL OF NON-CRYSTALLINE SOLIDS, SNOWBIRD, UTAH: 18th International Conference on Amorphous and Microcrystalline Semiconductors (ICAMS 18) 266, pp. 821-824.
  • Khan RUA, Grambole D, Silva SRP. (2000) 'Studies of carbon ion self-implantation into hydrogenated amorphous carbon films'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA DIAMOND AND RELATED MATERIALS, PRAGUE, CZECH REPUBLIC: 10th European Conference on Diamond, Diamond-Like Materials, Nitrides and Silicon Carbide (Diamond 1999) 9 (3-6), pp. 675-679.
  • Forrest RD, Khan RUA, Silva SRP. (2000) 'Tailoring of the field emission properties of hydrogenated amorphous carbon thin films by nitrogen incorporation and thermal annealing'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA DIAMOND AND RELATED MATERIALS, PRAGUE, CZECH REPUBLIC: 10th European Conference on Diamond, Diamond-Like Materials, Nitrides and Silicon Carbide (Diamond 1999) 9 (3-6), pp. 1205-1208.
  • Anguita JV, Silva SRP. (2000) 'Semiconducting hydrogenated carbon-nitrogen alloys with low defect densities'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA DIAMOND AND RELATED MATERIALS, PRAGUE, CZECH REPUBLIC: 10th European Conference on Diamond, Diamond-Like Materials, Nitrides and Silicon Carbide (Diamond 1999) 9 (3-6), pp. 777-780.
  • Collins M, Barklie RC, Anguita JV, Carey JD, Silva SRP. (2000) 'Characterisation of defects in thin films of hydrogenated amorphous carbon'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA DIAMOND AND RELATED MATERIALS, PRAGUE, CZECH REPUBLIC: 10th European Conference on Diamond, Diamond-Like Materials, Nitrides and Silicon Carbide (Diamond 1999) 9 (3-6), pp. 781-785.
  • Young WT, Silva SRP, Anguita JV, Shannon JM, Homewood KP, Sealy BJ. (2000) 'Low temperature growth of gallium nitride'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA DIAMOND AND RELATED MATERIALS, PRAGUE, CZECH REPUBLIC: 10th European Conference on Diamond, Diamond-Like Materials, Nitrides and Silicon Carbide (Diamond 1999) 9 (3-6), pp. 456-459.
  • Carey JD, Poa CH, Forrest RD, Burden AP, Silva SRP. (2000) 'Modification of electron field emission properties from surface treated amorphous carbon thin films'. AMER INST PHYSICS JOURNAL OF VACUUM SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY B, DARMSTADT, GERMANY: 12th International Vaccum Microelectronics Conference (IVMC 99) 18 (2), pp. 1051-1053.
  • Barradas NP, Khan RUA, Anguita JV, Silva SRP, Kreissig U, Grotzschel R, Moller W. (2000) 'Growth and characterisation of amorphous carbon films doped with nitrogen'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS, DRESEDEN, GERMANY: 14th International Conference on Ion Beam Analysis/6th European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology 161, pp. 969-974.
  • Khan RUA, Silva SRP. (2000) 'Electronic conduction in ion implanted amorphous carbon thin films'. WORLD SCIENTIFIC PUBL CO PTE LTD INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MODERN PHYSICS B, SINGAPORE, SINGAPORE: 2nd International Specialist Meeting on Amorphous Carbon (SMAC 99) 14 (2-3), pp. 195-205.
  • Young WT, Silva SRP, Benyoucef M, Kuball M, Anguita JV, Shannon JM, Homewood KP, Sealy BJ. (1999) 'The growth of gallium nitride films produced by reactive sputtering at low temperature'. WILEY-V C H VERLAG GMBH PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI A-APPLIED RESEARCH, MONTPELLIER, FRANCE: 3rd International Conference on Nitride Semiconductors (ICNS 99) 176 (1), pp. 319-322.
  • Almeida SA, Silva SRP, Sealy BJ, Watts JF. (1999) 'Bond formation in ion beam synthesised amorphous gallium nitride'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA THIN SOLID FILMS, BIRMINGHAM, ENGLAND: 14th International Vacuum Congress/10th International Conference on Solid Surfaces/5th International Conference on Nanometre-Scale Science and Technology/10th International Conference on Quantitative Surface Analysis 343, pp. 632-636.
  • Silva SRP, Amaratunga GAJ, Okano K. (1999) 'Modeling of the electron field emission process in polycrystalline diamond and diamond-like carbon thin films'. AMER INST PHYSICS JOURNAL OF VACUUM SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY B, ASHEVILLE, NORTH CAROLINA: 11th International Vacuum Microelectronics Conference (IVMC 98) 17 (2), pp. 557-561.
  • Silva SRP, Forrest RD, Shannon JM, Sealy BJ. (1999) 'Electron field emission from amorphous silicon'. AMER INST PHYSICS JOURNAL OF VACUUM SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY B, ASHEVILLE, NORTH CAROLINA: 11th International Vacuum Microelectronics Conference (IVMC 98) 17 (2), pp. 596-600.
  • Khan RUA, Burden AP, Silva SRP, Shannon JM, Sealy BJ. (1999) 'A study of the effects of nitrogen incorporation and annealing on the properties of hydrogenated amorphous carbon films'. PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD CARBON, STRASBOURG, FRANCE: Symposium K on Carbon-Based Materials for Microelectronics of the European-Materials-Research-Society-Meeting 37 (5), pp. 777-780.
  • Silva SRP, Almeida SA, Sealy BJ. (1999) 'Thin amorphous gallium nitride films formed by ion beam synthesis'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS, STRASBOURG, FRANCE: Symposium J on Ion Implantation into Semiconductors, Oxides and Ceramics, at the Spring Meeting of the European-Materials-Research-Society 147 (1-4), pp. 388-392.
  • Silva SRP, Khan RUA, Burden AP, Anguita JV, Shannon JM, Sealy BJ, Papworth AJ, Kiely CJ, Amaratunga GAJ. (1998) 'The microstructural dependence of the opto-electronic properties of nitrogenated hydrogenated amorphous carbon thin films'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA THIN SOLID FILMS, SAN DIEGO, CALIFORNIA: 25th International Conference on Metallurgical Coatings and Thin Films 332 (1-2), pp. 118-123.
  • Burden AP, Anguita JV, Silva SRP. (1998) 'Microstructural characterisation of carbonaceous dust generated during the deposition of diamond-like carbon coatings'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA THIN SOLID FILMS, SAN DIEGO, CALIFORNIA: 25th International Conference on Metallurgical Coatings and Thin Films 332 (1-2), pp. 252-256.
  • Forrest RD, Burden AP, Khan RUA, Silva SRP. (1998) 'Electron field emission from amorphous carbon thin films as a function of annealing'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA SURFACE & COATINGS TECHNOLOGY, SAN DIEGO, CALIFORNIA: 25th International Conference on Metallurgical Coatings and Thin Films 108 (1-3), pp. 577-582.
  • Webb RP, Jimenez-Rodriguez JJ, Kerford M, Silva SRP. (1998) 'The formation of diamond-like carbon films due to molecular impacts on graphite'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA DIAMOND AND RELATED MATERIALS, EDINBURGH, SCOTLAND: Diamond 97 Conference 7 (8), pp. 1163-1166.
  • Barklie RC, Collins M, Cunniffe J, Silva SRP. (1998) 'An EPR study of defects in hydrogenated amorphous carbon thin films'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA DIAMOND AND RELATED MATERIALS, EDINBURGH, SCOTLAND: Diamond 97 Conference 7 (6), pp. 864-868.
  • Burden AP, Mendoza E, Silva SRP, Amaratunga GAJ. (1998) 'The stability of nitrogen-containing amorphous carbon films after annealing at moderate temperatures'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA DIAMOND AND RELATED MATERIALS, EDINBURGH, SCOTLAND: 8th European Conference on Diamond, Diamond-like and Related Materials/4th International Conference on the Applications of Diamond Films and Related Materials 7 (2-5), pp. 495-498.
  • Cheah LK, Shi X, Tay BK, Silva SRP, Sun Z. (1998) 'Field emission from undoped and nitrogen-doped tetrahedral amorphous carbon film prepared by filtered cathodic vacuum arc technique'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA DIAMOND AND RELATED MATERIALS, EDINBURGH, SCOTLAND: 8th European Conference on Diamond, Diamond-like and Related Materials/4th International Conference on the Applications of Diamond Films and Related Materials 7 (2-5), pp. 640-644.
  • Silva SRP, Forrest RD, Munindradasa DA, Amaratunga GAJ. (1998) 'Electron field emission studies from amorphous carbon thin films'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA DIAMOND AND RELATED MATERIALS, EDINBURGH, SCOTLAND: 8th European Conference on Diamond, Diamond-like and Related Materials/4th International Conference on the Applications of Diamond Films and Related Materials 7 (2-5), pp. 645-650.
  • Burden AP, Forrest R, Silva SRP, Sealy BJ, Amaratunga GAJ, Siegal MP, Milne WI, Jaskie JE. (1998) 'Field emission study of the critical parameters of amorphous carbon films deposited ion a variety of carbonaceous substrates'. MATERIALS RESEARCH SOCIETY COVALENTLY BONDED DISORDERED THIN-FILM MATERIALS, BOSTON, MA: Symposium on Covalently Bonded Disordered Thin-Film Materials, at the 1997 MRS Fall Meeting 498, pp. 221-226.
  • Silva SRP, Forrest RD, Shannon JM. (1998) 'Electron emission from amorphous silicon thin films'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV JOURNAL OF NON-CRYSTALLINE SOLIDS, BUDAPEST, HUNGARY: 17th International Conference on Amorphous and Microcrystalline Semiconductors - Science and Technology (ICAMS 17) 227, pp. 1101-1105.
  • Munindradasa DAI, Chhowalla M, Amaratunga GAJ, Silva SRP. (1998) 'Electronic behaviour and field emission of a-C : H : N/Si heterojunctions'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV JOURNAL OF NON-CRYSTALLINE SOLIDS, BUDAPEST, HUNGARY: 17th International Conference on Amorphous and Microcrystalline Semiconductors - Science and Technology (ICAMS 17) 227, pp. 1106-1112.
  • Silva SRP, Rusli , Homewood KP, Amaratunga GAJ. (1998) 'Superlattice structures based on amorphous carbon'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV JOURNAL OF NON-CRYSTALLINE SOLIDS, BUDAPEST, HUNGARY: 17th International Conference on Amorphous and Microcrystalline Semiconductors - Science and Technology (ICAMS 17) 227, pp. 1137-1141.
  • Silva SRP, Xu S, Tay BK, Tan HS, Scheibe HJ, Chhowalla M, Milne WI. (1996) 'The structure of tetrahedral amorphous carbon thin films'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA THIN SOLID FILMS, SAN DIEGO, CA: 23rd International Conference on Metallurgical Coatings and Thin Films 290, pp. 317-322.
  • Rusli , Amaratunga GAJ, Silva SRP. (1996) 'Highly luminescent hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H) thin films'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV OPTICAL MATERIALS, SHEFFIELD HALLAM UNIV, SHEFFIELD, ENGLAND: 1st International Workshop on Materials for Optoelectronics 6 (1-2), pp. 93-98.
  • Amaratunga GAJ, Silva SRP. (1996) 'Field emission from a-C:H and a-C:H:N'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV JOURNAL OF NON-CRYSTALLINE SOLIDS, KOBE, JAPAN: 16th International Conference on Amorphous Semiconductors - Science and Technology (ICAS 16) 198, pp. 611-614.
  • Silva SRP, Rafferty B, Amaratunga GAJ, Schwan J, Franceschini DF, Brown LM. (1996) 'Nitrogenated amorphous carbon as a semiconductor'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA LAUSANNE DIAMOND AND RELATED MATERIALS, BARCELONA, SPAIN: 6th European Conference on Diamond, Diamond-like and Related Materials (Diamond Films 95) 5 (3-5), pp. 401-404.
  • Robertson J, Silva SRP, Amaratunga GAJ, Milne WI, Gaskill DK, Brandt CD, Nemanich RJ. (1996) 'Electron field emission from diamond-like carbon'. MATERIALS RESEARCH SOC III-NITRIDE, SIC AND DIAMOND MATERIALS FOR ELECTRONIC DEVICES, SAN FRANCISCO, CA: Symposium on III-Nitride, SiC and Diamond Materials for Electronic Devices 423, pp. 777-782.
  • Silva SRP, Amaratunga GAJ. (1995) 'Doping of rf plasma deposited diamond-like carbon films'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA LAUSANNE THIN SOLID FILMS, SAN DIEGO, CA: 22nd International Conference on Metallurgical Coatings and Thin Films (ICMCTF 1995) 270 (1-2), pp. 194-199.
  • Rusli , Amaratunga GAJ, Silva SRP. (1995) 'Photoluminescence in amorphous carbon thin films and its relation to the microscopic properties'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA LAUSANNE THIN SOLID FILMS, SAN DIEGO, CA: 22nd International Conference on Metallurgical Coatings and Thin Films (ICMCTF 1995) 270 (1-2), pp. 160-164.
  • SILVA SRP, CLAY KJ, SPEAKMAN SP, AMARATUNGA GAJ. (1995) 'DIAMOND-LIKE CARBON THIN-FILM DEPOSITION USING A MAGNETICALLY CONFINED RF PECVD SYSTEM'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA LAUSANNE DIAMOND AND RELATED MATERIALS, IL CIOCCO, ITALY: Diamond Films 94 4 (7), pp. 977-983.
  • SILVA SRP, AMARATUNGA GAJ, MILNE WI, Marshall JM, Kirov N, Vavrek A. (1995) 'The microstructure of plasma deposited diamond-like carbon thin films'. RESEARCH STUDIES PRESS ELECTRONIC, OPTOELECTRONIC AND MAGNETIC THIN FILMS, VARNA, BULGARIA: 8th International School on Condensed Matter Physics - Electronic, Optoelectronic and Magnetic Thin Films 1, pp. 495-498.
  • RUSLI , SILVA SRP, AMARATUNGA GAJ. (1994) 'THE OPTICAL-PROPERTIES OF BAND-GAP-MODULATED DIAMOND-LIKE CARBON THIN-FILMS'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA LAUSANNE DIAMOND AND RELATED MATERIALS, ALBUFEIRA, PORTUGAL: 4th European Conference on Diamond, Diamond-like and Related Materials (Diamond Films 93) 3 (4-6), pp. 817-820.
  • CHAN KK, SILVA SRP, AMARATUNGA GAJ. (1992) 'ELECTRONIC-PROPERTIES OF SEMICONDUCTING DIAMOND-LIKE CARBON DIAMOND'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA LAUSANNE THIN SOLID FILMS, AUBURN UNIV, AUBURN, AL: CONF ON APPLIED DIAMOND 212 (1-2), pp. 232-239.

Book chapters

  • Silva SRP, Beliatis MJ, Jayawardena KDGI, Mills CA, Rhodes RW, Rozanski LJ. (2014) 'Hybrid and nano-composite materials for flexible organic electronics applications'. in Logothetidis S (ed.) Handbook of flexible organic electronics UK : Woodhead Publishing Article number 3
    [ Status: Accepted ]
  • Beliatis MJ, Rozanski LJ, Jayawardena KDGI, Rhodes RW, Anguita JV, Mills CA, Silva SRP. (2014) 'Hybrid and Nano-composite Carbon Sensing Platforms'. in Demarchi D, Tagliaferro A (eds.) Carbon for Sensing Devices Switzerland : Springer International Publishing Switzerland Article number 5
    [ Status: Accepted ]

Patents

  • Haq S, Hebbron MC, Anguita JV, Silva SRP. High Emissivity Radiator. Article number WO/2006/038040
    [ Status: Accepted ]
  • Silva SRP, Anguita JV. (2011) Material having a Low Dielectric Constant and Method of Making the Same.

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