Professor Nazlin Howell

Professor of Food Biochemistry

Qualifications: BSc PhD CChem FRSA FIFST FRSA

Email:
Phone: Work: 01483 68 6448
Room no: 35 AY 03

Office hours

9 am to 5 pm

Further information

Research Interests

Effect of bioactive peptides and proteins on nutritional and functional protperties of food; biochemical changes in frozen fish; processing of and related biochemical studies on the underutilised fish species in Africa and Asia; effect of UV-A mediated skin cell damage and its prevention by metal chelative properties of flavonoids; protein-protein, protein-polysaccharide and protein-lipid interactions; effect of high pressure processing on the structure and physical-chemical properties of proteins; protein-lipid interactions in food gels and emulsions; structural studies and utilisation of Chinese plant products to improve food quality; structure-function relationships of proteins by chemical modification.

 


CURRENT RESEARCH PRIORITIES

Improving the nutritional quality and safety of underutilised food
I have coordinated major research projects on under-utilised fish species and other staple products in association with developing countries that have been funded by four EC grants (listed individually under the grants section, totalling 3 million euros) involving ten partners in Europe, Africa and Asia. In the last EU project we investigated the nutritional quality of low-value fish and fish oils including the safety of oxidised oils using Caco-2 cells; the effect of natural antioxidants; the presence of pollutants including PCBs, DDT and dioxins in marine fish in collaboration with Unilever Research; production of collagen and gelatin from fish waste skin and innovative extrusion of products including infant weaning foods using staple plant products; this project will reduce waste, pollution and help alleviate food shortages in Africa and Asia in collaboration with FAO and UNICEF as well as industrial partners (SMEs and industrial companies, Masterfoods, Croda, Unilever).

In addition, the Commonwealth Universities Association funded a studentship to study the ‘Biochemical and nutritional properties of sweet potato and its processing into infant weaning foods’ to improve the food processing capability and alleviate food shortages in Uganda.
Further research arising from this project is being undertaken as highlighted below.

Protein-lipid interactions
Elucidation of the mechanisms of protein-lipid interaction is being undertaken (funding by BBSRC, industry, The Royal Society and PhD studentships from Malaysia, Libya and Saudi Arabia,) to improve the quality of products containing polyunsaturated fatty acids, which can minimise cardiovascular and other diseases but are prone to lipid oxidation that can result in toxic products.

Structure and activities of natural antioxidants
The structure and antioxidant properties of natural plant products including vitamin C, vitamin E, rosemary, tea and cocoa polyphenols (BBSRC; EC funding); thyme, thymbra and pimpinella (collaborative student at King Suleimani University, Kurdistan, Iraq), Chinese herbs and green tea ( BBSRC UK-China Partnering award and visits by Chinese Government scholars) are being investigated.

Antioxidant and metal chelative properties of flavonoids in relation to the prevention of UV-A mediated skin cell damage. This collaborative studentship was funded by the King AbdulAziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia (Postgraduate School for Women). The project allows the expertise gained in the protein denaturation and lipid oxidation studies above, to be applied to the investigation of cultured human skin cells subjected to UV damage and the protection offered by the use of flavonoids and other natural antioxidants.

Bioactive peptides from food proteins 

Novel and innovative research on peptides derived from food proteins that have health enhancing properties is being undertaken. Hypertension, cholesterol and reactive oxygen species are risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease which is a major cause of death. Research on the antioxidant and antihypertensive effect of fish bioactive peptides is being undertaken by a PhD student from Zambia, funded by the Commonwealth Association of Universities. Novel studies on the isolation of peptides by chromatography and ultrafiltration from chicken flesh and skin (Malaysian Government funding) to study antioxidant and cholesterol lowering activity as well as cholesterol lowering activity of peptides from egg albumen (studentship, Saudi Arabia) and soya proteins are also being investigated.

Effect of high pressure processing on the physico-chemical properties of proteins investigates structural and functional changes in food proteins (egg albumen and whey proteins) and antinutrients (soya proteins), using emerging technologies such as high pressure processing have been undertaken.

Publications

SELECTED REFEREED RESEARCH PAPERS

1. Alghazeer, R, Saeed, S and Howell, N. (2008). Aldehyde formation in frozen fish. Food Chemistry 108, 801-810.

2. Alghazeer, R, Saeed, S and Howell, N. (2008). Formation of 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) in frozen mackerel. J. Sci Food Agric. 88. 1128-1134.

3. Alghazeer, R and Howell, N. (2008). Effect of green tea on protein structure of mackerel (Scomber scombrus) during frozen storage by FT-Raman spectrosdopy. Int J. Food Sci. Technol. Accepted.

4. Alghazeer, R and Howell, N. (2008). Cytotoxicity effect of oxidised lipids on cultured colonal human intestinal cancer cells (Caco-2 cells). Toxicology Letters. (Accepted).

5. Alghazeer, R, Herman, H, Gao, H and Howell, N. (2007). Elucidation of cytotoxicity effect of oxidised lipids on cultured caco-2 cells using bioimaging techniques. Submitted.

6. Eduard Dàvila, Dolors Parés, Nazlin K. Howell (2007). Studies on plasma proteins interactions in heat-induced gels by differential scanning calorimetry and FT-Raman spectroscopy. Food Hydrocolloids 21, 1144-1152.

7. Eduard Dàvila, Dolors Parés, Nazlin K. Howell (2006). FT Raman spectroscopy study of heat-induced gelation of plasma proteins as influenced by pH. J. Agric and Food Chem. 54, 7890-7897.

8. Rahimuddin, S, Khoja, S, Zuhair, M M, Howell, N K and Brown, J E. (2007). Inhibition of peroxidation in UVA-treated skin fibroblasts by luteolin and its glucosides. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. 109, 647-655.

9. Wu, W, Clifford MN and Howell NK (2007). The effect of instant green tea on the foaming and rheological properties of egg albumen proteins. J. Sci. Food Agric. 87, 1810-1819.

10. Sarkardei, S and Howell, NK (2007). Effects of Freeze-drying on Lipids of Atlantic Mackerel (Scomber scombrus) and Horse Mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) by FT-Raman spectroscopy. Food Chemistry 103, 62-70.

11. Sarkardei, S and Howell, NK. (2008). Effects of natural antioxidants on stored freeze-dried Atlantic Mackerel (Scomber scombrus) lipids and proteins. JSFA. Submitted.

12. Sarkardei, S and Howell, NK. (2007). Effects of natural antioxidants on stored freeze-dried food product formulated using Horse Mackerel (Trachurus trachurus). IJFST , 43, 309-315.

13. Sarkardei, S., Kass. G and Howell, NK Cytotoxicity of oil extracted from stored freeze-dried food product formulated using mackerel (Scomber scombrus) with and without antioxidants in cultured colonal human intestinal cancer caco-2 cells. JSFA . Submitted

14. Saeed, S, Gillies, D, Wagner, G and Howell, N. K. (2006). ESR and NMR spectroscopy studies on formation of dityrosine in emulsions containing oxidised methyl linoleate. Food and Chemical Toxicology 44, 1385-1392.

15. Cheow, CS, Norizah, MS, Kyaw, ZY and Howell, NK. (2007). Preparation and characterisation of gelatins from the skins of sin croaker (Johnius dussumieri) and shortfin scad (Decapterus macrosoma). Food Chemistry, 101, 386-391.

16. Badii, F and Howell, N.K. (2006). Fish gelatin: structure, gelling properties and interaction with egg albumen proteins. Food Hydrocolloids 20, 630-640.

17. Leelapongwattana, K, Benjakul, S, Visessanguan, W and Howell, Nazlin K. (2008). Effect of some additives on the inhibition of lizardfish trimethylamine-N-oxide demethylase and frozen storage stability of minced flesh. Int. J. Food Sci Technol. 43(3):448-455.

18. Leelapongwattana K, Benjakul S, Visessanguan W, and Howell, N.K.(2008).
Raman spectroscopic analysis and rheological measurements on natural actomyosin from haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) during refrigerated (4oC) and frozen (-10 oC) storage in the presence of trimethylamine-N-oxide demethylase from kidney of lizardfish (Saurida tumbil). Food Chem. 106, 1253-1263.

19. Intarasirisawat R, Benjakul S, Visessanguan, W and Howell, N.K. (2007).
Autolysis study of bigeye snapper (Priacanthus macracanthus) skin and its effect on gelatin
Food Hydrocolloids 21 (4): 537-544.

20. Leelapongwattana, K., Benjakul, S., Visessanguan, W. and Howell, N. K. (2008). Effect of trimethylamine-N-oxide demethylase from lizardfish kidney on biochemical changes of haddock natural actomyosin stored at 4 and -10C. Eur. Food Res. Technol. 226, 833-841.

21. Leelapongwattana, K., Benjakul, S., Visessanguan, W. and Howell, N. K. (2007). Effect of some additives on the inhibition of lizardfish trimethylamine-N-oxide demethylase and frozen storage stability of minced flesh. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol. Accepted.

22. Leelapongwattana, K., Benjakul, S., Visessanguan, W. and Howell, N. K. (2007). Effects of inhibitors and antioxidants on physicochemical and biochemical changes of haddock muscle induced by lizardfish trimethylamine-N-oxide demethylase during frozen storage. J. Sci. Food Agric. in review.

23. Leelapongwattana K, Benjakul S, Visessanguan W, Howell NK. (2005). Physicochemical and biochemical changes in whole lizardfish (Saurida micropectoralis) muscles and fillets during frozen storage. J. Food Biochemistry 29, 547-569.

24. Leelapongwattana, K, Benjakul, S, Visessanguan, W and Howell, N. K.(2005). Physicochemical and biochemical changes during frozen storage of minced flesh of lizardfish (Saurida micropectoralis). Food Chemistry 90, 141-150.

25. Wu, W, Clifford MN and Howell NK (2006). The effect of instant green tea on the foaming and rheological properties of whey proteins. J. Sci. Food Agric. Accepted.

26. Badii, F and Howell, N. K. Effect of green tea polyphenols, and vitamin E and C on lipid oxidation and protein denaturation in freeze-dried horse mackerel. J. Agric. Food Chem. Submitted.

27. Badii, F and Howell, N. K. The effect of natural antioxidants on the physicochemical properties of stored dried horse mackerel. J. Sci. Food Agric. Submitted.

28. Dileep, A.O. Shamasundar, B.A. Binsi, P.K, Badii, F and Howell N.K. (2007). Influence of corn and tapioca starch on the dynamic viscoelastic behaviour of ribbonfish (Trichiurus spp) meat stored in ice. Journal of Food Science. In press.

29. Dileep, A. O., Shamasundar, B.A., Binsi, P.K., Badii, F and Howell, N.K. (2005). Effect of ice storage on the physicochemical and dynamic viscoelastic properties of ribbonfish (Trichiurus spp). J. Food Science 70, 537-545.

30. Cheow, CS, Kyaw, ZY, Howell, NK and Dzulkifly, M.H. (2005). Relationship between physicochemical properties of starches and expansion of fish cracker (keropok). Journal of Food Quality 27, (1), 1-12..

31. Cheow, CS et al . Preparation and characterization of gelatin from Scianidae, Sin Croaker and Carangidae. Journal of Food Quality. Accepted.

32. Ngarize, S, Herman, H., Adams, A and Howell, N.K. (2004). Comparison of changes in the secondary structure of unheated, heated and high-pressure treated -lactoglobulin and ovalbumin proteins using Fourier Transform Raman spectroscopy and self deconvolution. J.Agric. Food Chem. 52, 6470-6477.

33. Ngarize, S, Adams, A and Howell, N.K. (2005). A comparative study of heat and high pressure induced gels of whey and egg albumen proteins and their binary mixtures. Food Hydrocolloids. 19, 984-996.

34. Ngarize, S, Adams, A and Howell, N.K. (2004). Studies on egg albumen and whey protein interactions by FT-Raman spectroscopy and rheology. Food Hydrocolloids 18, 49-59.

35. Badii, F and Howell, N.K.(2004). Elucidation of protein aggregation in frozen cod and haddock by transmission electron microscopy/ immunocytochemistry, light microscopy and atomic force microscopy. J Sci. Food Agric. 84, 1919-1928.

36. Saeed, S and Howell, N.K. (2004). Rheological and differential scanning calorimetry studies on structural and textural changes in frozen Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus). J Sci. Food Agric. 84, 1216-1222.

37. Alonso, J, Canet, W, Howell, N and Alique, R (2003) Purification and Characterization of Carrot Pectinesterase (Daucus carota L) J. Sci Food and Agric.83, 1600-1606.

38. Saeed, S and Howell, N.K. (2003). Biochemical and rheological changes in frozen Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus). J. Sci Food and Agric. In press.

39. Badii, F and Howell, N.K. (2003). Elucidation of the effect of formaldehyde and lipids on collagen from frozen cod by Raman spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. J. Agric. Food Chemistry, 51, 1440-1446.

40. Comfort, S and Howell, N.K. (2003). Gelation properties of soluble wheat proteins and meat protein mixtures. Food Hydrocolloids 17, 149-159.

41. Saeed, S and Howell, N.K. (2002). Effect of lipid oxidation and frozen storage on muscle proteins of Atantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus). J Sci Food Agric. 82, 579-586.

42. Badii, F and Howell, N.K. (2002). Effect of antioxidants, citrate and cryoprotectants on protein solubility and texture of frozen cod (Gadus morhua). J. Agric. Food Chemistry, 50, 2053-2061.

Teaching

Teaching Interests
I teach on the BSc Hons Nutrition and Food Science degree courses including the following modules:

  • BS118 - Food Science
  • BS 226 - Food Science
  • BS 227 - Food Analysis and Quality Control (module organiser)
  • BS 228 - Practical Food Science (module organiser)
  • BS 328 - Food Safety
  • BS 329 - Food Quality Assurance (module organiser)
  • BS 330 - Food Technology

All Publications

PUBLICATIONS
REFEREED RESEARCH PAPERS

1. Alghazeer, R, Saeed, S and Howell, N. (2008). Aldehyde formation in frozen fish. Food Chemistry 108, 801-810.

2. Alghazeer, R, Saeed, S and Howell, N. (2008). Formation of 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) in frozen mackerel. J. Sci Food Agric. 88. 1128-1134.

3. Alghazeer, R and Howell, N. (2008). Effect of green tea on protein structure of mackerel (Scomber scombrus) during frozen storage by FT-Raman spectrosdopy. Int J. Food Sci. Technol. Accepted.

4. Alghazeer, R and Howell, N. (2008). Cytotoxicity effect of oxidised lipids on cultured colonal human intestinal cancer cells (Caco-2 cells). Toxicology Letters. (Accepted).

5. Alghazeer, R, Herman, H, Gao, H and Howell, N. (2007). Elucidation of cytotoxicity effect of oxidised lipids on cultured caco-2 cells using bioimaging techniques. Submitted.

6. Eduard Dàvila, Dolors Parés, Nazlin K. Howell (2007). Studies on plasma proteins interactions in heat-induced gels by differential scanning calorimetry and FT-Raman spectroscopy. Food Hydrocolloids 21, 1144-1152.

7. Eduard Dàvila, Dolors Parés, Nazlin K. Howell (2006). FT Raman spectroscopy study of heat-induced gelation of plasma proteins as influenced by pH. J. Agric and Food Chem. 54, 7890-7897.

8. Rahimuddin, S, Khoja, S, Zuhair, M M, Howell, N K and Brown, J E. (2007). Inhibition of peroxidation in UVA-treated skin fibroblasts by luteolin and its glucosides. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. 109, 647-655.

9. Wu, W, Clifford MN and Howell NK (2007). The effect of instant green tea on the foaming and rheological properties of egg albumen proteins. J. Sci. Food Agric. 87, 1810-1819.

10. Sarkardei, S and Howell, NK (2007). Effects of Freeze-drying on Lipids of Atlantic Mackerel (Scomber scombrus) and Horse Mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) by FT-Raman spectroscopy. Food Chemistry 103, 62-70.

11. Sarkardei, S and Howell, NK. (2008). Effects of natural antioxidants on stored freeze-dried Atlantic Mackerel (Scomber scombrus) lipids and proteins. JSFA. Submitted.

12. Sarkardei, S and Howell, NK. (2007). Effects of natural antioxidants on stored freeze-dried food product formulated using Horse Mackerel (Trachurus trachurus). IJFST , 43, 309-315.

13. Sarkardei, S., Kass. G and Howell, NK Cytotoxicity of oil extracted from stored freeze-dried food product formulated using mackerel (Scomber scombrus) with and without antioxidants in cultured colonal human intestinal cancer caco-2 cells. JSFA . Submitted

14. Saeed, S, Gillies, D, Wagner, G and Howell, N. K. (2006). ESR and NMR spectroscopy studies on formation of dityrosine in emulsions containing oxidised methyl linoleate. Food and Chemical Toxicology 44, 1385-1392.

15. Nandutu, A M, Clifford, M and Howell, N.K. (2007). Analysis of phenolic compounds in Ugandan sweet potato varieties (NSP, SPK AND TZ). African Journal of Biochemistry Research Vol. 1 (3), 029-036.

16. Cheow, CS, Norizah, MS, Kyaw, ZY and Howell, NK. (2007). Preparation and characterisation of gelatins from the skins of sin croaker (Johnius dussumieri) and shortfin scad (Decapterus macrosoma). Food Chemistry, 101, 386-391.

17. Badii, F and Howell, N.K. (2006). Fish gelatin: structure, gelling properties and interaction with egg albumen proteins. Food Hydrocolloids 20, 630-640.

18. Leelapongwattana, K, Benjakul, S, Visessanguan, W and Howell, Nazlin K. (2008). Effect of some additives on the inhibition of lizardfish trimethylamine-N-oxide demethylase and frozen storage stability of minced flesh. Int. J. Food Sci Technol. 43(3):448-455.

19. Leelapongwattana K, Benjakul S, Visessanguan W, and Howell, N.K.(2008).
Raman spectroscopic analysis and rheological measurements on natural actomyosin from haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) during refrigerated (4oC) and frozen (-10 oC) storage in the presence of trimethylamine-N-oxide demethylase from kidney of lizardfish (Saurida tumbil). Food Chem. 106, 1253-1263.

20. Intarasirisawat R, Benjakul S, Visessanguan, W and Howell, N.K. (2007).
Autolysis study of bigeye snapper (Priacanthus macracanthus) skin and its effect on gelatin
Food Hydrocolloids 21 (4): 537-544.

21. Leelapongwattana, K., Benjakul, S., Visessanguan, W. and Howell, N. K. (2008). Effect of trimethylamine-N-oxide demethylase from lizardfish kidney on biochemical changes of haddock natural actomyosin stored at 4 and -10C. Eur. Food Res. Technol. 226, 833-841.

22. Leelapongwattana, K., Benjakul, S., Visessanguan, W. and Howell, N. K. (2007). Effect of some additives on the inhibition of lizardfish trimethylamine-N-oxide demethylase and frozen storage stability of minced flesh. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol. Accepted.

23. Leelapongwattana, K., Benjakul, S., Visessanguan, W. and Howell, N. K. (2007). Effects of inhibitors and antioxidants on physicochemical and biochemical changes of haddock muscle induced by lizardfish trimethylamine-N-oxide demethylase during frozen storage. J. Sci. Food Agric. in review.

24. Leelapongwattana K, Benjakul S, Visessanguan W, Howell NK. (2005). Physicochemical and biochemical changes in whole lizardfish (Saurida micropectoralis) muscles and fillets during frozen storage. J. Food Biochemistry 29, 547-569.

25. Leelapongwattana, K, Benjakul, S, Visessanguan, W and Howell, N. K.(2005). Physicochemical and biochemical changes during frozen storage of minced flesh of lizardfish (Saurida micropectoralis). Food Chemistry 90, 141-150.

26. Wu, W, Clifford MN and Howell NK (2006). The effect of instant green tea on the foaming and rheological properties of whey proteins. J. Sci. Food Agric. Accepted.

27. Saeed, S and Howell, NK (2006). Fourier-transform Raman spectroscopy studies in emulsions containing -lactoglobulin and oxidised methyl linoleate. J Sci Food Agric. Submitted.

28. Saeed, S and Howell, NK (2006). Changes in the gelling and conformational properties of -lactoglobulin in the presence of oxidised lipids. Food Hydrocolloids. Submitted.

29. Badii, F and Howell, N. K. Effect of green tea polyphenols, and vitamin E and C on lipid oxidation and protein denaturation in freeze-dried horse mackerel. J. Agric. Food Chem. Submitted.

30. Badii, F and Howell, N. K. The effect of natural antioxidants on the physicochemical properties of stored dried horse mackerel. J. Sci. Food Agric. Submitted.

31. Badii, F, Odote P, Kazungu, J, Abbey, L, Kandando, R, Shamasundar, B, Cheow Chong Seng, and Howell, NK. Composition and nutritional analysis of under-utilised fish species in Africa and Asia. J. Food Biochemistry. Submitted.

32. Dileep, A.O. Shamasundar, B.A. Binsi, P.K, Badii, F and Howell N.K. (2007). Influence of corn and tapioca starch on the dynamic viscoelastic behaviour of ribbonfish (Trichiurus spp) meat stored in ice. Journal of Food Science. In press.

33. Dileep, A. O., Shamasundar, B.A., Binsi, P.K., Badii, F and Howell, N.K. (2005). Effect of ice storage on the physicochemical and dynamic viscoelastic properties of ribbonfish (Trichiurus spp). J. Food Science 70, 537-545.

34. Cheow, CS, Kyaw, ZY, Howell, NK and Dzulkifly, M.H. (2005). Relationship between physicochemical properties of starches and expansion of fish cracker (keropok). Journal of Food Quality 27, (1), 1-12..

35. Cheow, CS et al . Preparation and characterization of gelatin from Scianidae, Sin Croaker and Carangidae. Journal of Food Quality. Accepted.

36. Ngarize, S, Herman, H., Adams, A and Howell, N.K. (2004). Comparison of changes in the secondary structure of unheated, heated and high-pressure treated -lactoglobulin and ovalbumin proteins using Fourier Transform Raman spectroscopy and self deconvolution. J.Agric. Food Chem. 52, 6470-6477.

37. Ngarize, S, Adams, A and Howell, N.K. (2005). A comparative study of heat and high pressure induced gels of whey and egg albumen proteins and their binary mixtures. Food Hydrocolloids. 19, 984-996.

38. Ngarize, S, Adams, A and Howell, N.K. (2004). Studies on egg albumen and whey protein interactions by FT-Raman spectroscopy and rheology. Food Hydrocolloids 18, 49-59.

39. Ngarize, S, Adams, A and Howell, N.K. (2006). A study of the effects of sugars on the rheological properties and molecular interactions of unheated, heated and high pressure treated whey and egg albumen proteins.. Food Hydrocolloids. Accepted.

40. Ngarize, S, Adams, A and Howell, N.K. (2006). A study of the effects of salt on the rheological properties and molecular interactions of unheated, heated and high pressure treated ovalbumin and -lactoglobulin proteins.. Food Hydrocolloids. Accepted.

41. Badii, F and Howell, N.K.(2004). Elucidation of protein aggregation in frozen cod and haddock by transmission electron microscopy/ immunocytochemistry, light microscopy and atomic force microscopy. J Sci. Food Agric. 84, 1919-1928.

42. Saeed, S and Howell, N.K. (2004). Rheological and differential scanning calorimetry studies on structural and textural changes in frozen Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus). J Sci. Food Agric. 84, 1216-1222.

43. Alonso, J, Canet, W, Howell, N and Alique, R (2003) Purification and Characterization of Carrot Pectinesterase (Daucus carota L) J. Sci Food and Agric.83, 1600-1606.

44. Badii, F and Howell, N.K. (2003). Elucidation of molecular changes in the water soluble proteins in cod by circular dichroism and FT-Raman spectrsocopy. J. Sci Food and Agric. Submitted.

45. Saeed, S and Howell, N.K. (2003). Biochemical and rheological changes in frozen Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus). J. Sci Food and Agric. In press.

46. Badii, F and Howell, N.K. (2003). Elucidation of the effect of formaldehyde and lipids on collagen from frozen cod by Raman spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. J. Agric. Food Chemistry, 51, 1440-1446.

47. Comfort, S and Howell, N.K. (2003). Gelation properties of soluble wheat proteins and meat protein mixtures. Food Hydrocolloids 17, 149-159.

48. Saeed, S and Howell, N.K. (2002). Effect of lipid oxidation and frozen storage on muscle proteins of Atantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus). J Sci Food Agric. 82, 579-586.

49. Badii, F and Howell, N.K. (2002). Effect of antioxidants, citrate and cryoprotectants on protein solubility and texture of frozen cod (Gadus morhua). J. Agric. Food Chemistry, 50, 2053-2061.

50. Badii, F and Howell, N.K. (2002). Changes in the texture and structure of cod and haddock fillets during frozen storage. Food Hydrocolloids 16, 313-319.

51. Badii, F and Howell, N.K. (2002) A comparison of biochemical changes in cod (Gadus morhua) and haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) during frozen storage. J. Sci. Food Agric. 82, 87-97.

52. Howell, N.K., Herman, H and Li-Chan, E.C.Y (2001). Elucidation of protein-lipid interactions in a lysozyme-corn oil system by Fourier Transform Raman spectroscopy. J. Agric. Food Chemistry 49, 1529-1533.

53. Saeed, S and Howell, N.K.(2001). 12-Lipoxygenase activity in the muscle tissue of Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus) and its prevention by antioxidants. J Sci Food Agric. 81, 1-6.

54. Kyaw, Z.Y., Yu, S.Y, Dzulkifly, M.H and Howell, N.K.(2001). Effect of fish:starch ratio on viscoelastic and microstructure of fish cracker (keropok) dough. International Journal of Food Science and Technology. 36, 1-7.

55. Cheow,C.S., Yu,S.Y., Howell,N.K., Che Man,Y & Mohamad, S.K.(1999). Effect of salt and fish contents on the microstructure and expansion of fish cracker (keropok). J Sci Food Agric. 79, 879-885.

56. Medina, I., Saeed, S. and Howell, N.K.(1999). Enzymatic oxidative activity in sardine (Sardina pilchardus) and herring (Cuplea harengus) during chilling and correlation with freshness. Europ. Food Res. Technol. 210, 34-38.

57. Saeed, S., Fawthrop, S.A. and Howell, N.K. (1999). Electron spin resonance (ESR) study on free-radical transfer in food lipid-protein interaction. J Sci Food Agric. 79, 1809-1816.

58. Cheow,C.S., Yu,S.Y. & Howell, N.K. (1999). Effect of salt, sugar and MSG on the viscoelastic properties of fish cracker gel. J. Food Processing and Preservation. 23, 21-37.

59. Howell, N.K., Arteaga, G., Nakai, S and Li-Chan, E.C.Y. (1999). Raman spectral analysis in the C-H stretching region of proteins and amino acids for investigation of hydrophobic interactions. J. Agric. Food Chem. 47, 924-933.

60. Saeed, S and Howell, N.K. (1999). High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and spectroscopic studies on fish oil oxidation products extracted from frozen Atlantic mackerel. J. American Oil Chem. Soc. 76, (3), 391-397.

61. Mendes, R., Batista, I, Kandando, R and Howell, N. (1998).Influence of washing parameters on the characteristics of horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) mince. Journal of Food Biochemistry 22, 511-528.

62. Howell, N., Bristow E., Emma Copeland, G-L Friedli, G.L. (1998). Interaction of deamidated soluble wheat protein with sodium alginate. Food Hydrocolloids 12, 317-324.

63. Alonso, J., Howell, N.K. and Canet, W. (1997). Isolation and characterisation of pectin esterase from grapefruit. J Sci Food Agric. 75, 352-358.

64. Howell, N.K., Shavila, Y., Grootveld, M and Williams, S. (1996). High resolution NMR and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies on fresh and frozen cod (Gadus morhua). Journal of Magnetic Resonance Analysis 2, 180-181.

65. Friedli, G and Howell, N.K. (1995). LOQ small angle neutron scattering studies (SANS) on gliadin and deamidated gliadin. EPSRC ISIS 95 Annual Report. Rutherford Appleton Laboratory Report No RAL-95-050 Vol.2. A473.

66. Howell, N.K. and Li-Chan, E.C.Y. (1996). Elucidation of the Interaction of Lysozyme and Whey Proteins by Raman spectroscopy. International Journal of Food Science and Technology 31 439-452.

67. Friedli, G.L.and Howell, N. (1996). Gelation properties of deamidated soluble wheat protein. Food Hydrocolloids 10, 255-261.

68. Howell, N.K. Shavila,Y. Grootveld, M. and Williams, S. (1996). High resolution NMR and Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Fresh and Frozen Cod (Gadus morhua) and Haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus). Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 72, 49-56.

69. Howell, N.K., Yeboah, N.and Lewis, D.F.V. (1995) Interactions of Lysozyme with Whey Proteins. International Journal of Food Science and Technology 30, 813-824.

70. Howell, N.K. and Taylor, C.(1995). Effect of ascorbic acid on the physicochemical and functional properties of globular proteins. International Journal of Food Science and Technology 30, 321-334.

71. Howell N. K. and Taylor, C (1991). Effect of amidation on the foaming and physicochemical properties of bovine serum albumin. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 26, 385-395.

72. Murphy, M.C. and Howell, N.K.(1991). Functional properties of native and positively and negatively charged modified bovine serum albumin. J Sci Food Agric 55, 489-492.

73. Murphy, M.C. and Howell, N.K.(1991). Effects of the Attachment of Small Molecules by Carbodiimide-mediated Condensation on the Physicochemical and Functional Properties of Bovine Serum Albumin. J Sci Food Agric. 55, 117-140.

74. Murphy, M.C. and Howell, N.K.(1991).Effect of the Attachment of Valine Residues on the Physicochemical and Functional Properties of Bovine Serum Albumin. J Sci Food Agric. 54, 245-253.

75. Murphy, M.C and Howell, N.K.(1990). Effect of Thiolation on the Physicochemical and Functional Properties of Bovine Serum Albumin. J Sci Food Agric 53, 549-558.

76. Murphy, M.C.and Howell, N.K.(1990). Effect of Succinylation on the Functional and Physicochemical Properties of Bovine Serum Albumin. J Sci Food Agric 51, 109-123.

77. Howell, N.K. and Lawrie, R.A.(1987). Functional aspects of blood plasma proteins. 5.Viscosity. Journal of Food Technology 22, 145-151.

78. Howell, N.K. and Lawrie, R.A.(1985).Functional Aspects of blood plasma proteins. 4. Elucidation of the mechanism of gelation of plasma and egg albumen proteins. Journal of Food Technology 20, 489-504.

79. Howell, N.K and Lawrie, R.A.(1984). Functional Aspects of blood plasma proteins. 3. Interaction with other proteins and stabilisers. Journal of Food Technology 19, 297-313.

80. Howell, N.K. and Lawrie, R.A. (1984) Functional Aspects of blood plasma proteins. 2. Gelling properties. Journal of Food Technology 19, 289-295.

81. Howell, N.K. and Lawrie, R.A. (1983). Functional Aspects of Blood Plasma Proteins.1. Separation and characterisation. Journal of Food Technology (1983) 18, 747-762.

82. Howell, N.K. and Lawrie, R.A.(1981). Functional aspects of blood plasma fractions. Meat Research Workers D-4:383-384.

83. Howell, N. (1978). Functional properties of animal proteins in food. J. International Flavours and Food Additives, 6, 119-126.

84. Guy, R.C.E., Willcox, C. and Karmali, N. (1974). A Method for Measuring the Chemical Deterioration in Egg Protein Quality caused by Processing and Storage. J. Food Technology 8, 1-5.


B. INVITED REFEREED BOOK CHAPTERS

By
and collagen


1. Nazlin K Howell and Chitundu Kasase (2009). Bioactive peptides and proteins from fish muscle and collagen. In Biologically Active Food Proteins and Peptides in Health – Fundamental and Clinical Aspects. Blackwell-Wiley Publ. London. In press.

2. Meng, G, Howell, NK and Li-Chan ECY (2006). Investigation of protein-lipid interactions by vibrational spectroscopy. In Lipid Analysis and Lipidomics.: New Techniques and Applications. Ed. M.M. Mossoba, J.K.G. Kramer, J.T. Brenna and R.E. McDonald. AOACS Press.Pp 355-376.

3. Howell, N.K. (2005). Interaction of proteins with small molecules. In Ingredient Interactions -Effects on Food Quality. Ed. A. Gaonkar and A. McPherson. CRC Press Taylor and Francis, Florida.2nd Ed. Pp.309-341.

4. Howell, N.K., Saeed, S and Gillies, D (2005). ESR and NMR spectroscopy studies on emulsions containing -lactoglobulin and oxidised methyl linoleate. In Magnetic Resonance in Food Science: A Multivariate Challenge. Ed. S B Engleson, P S Belton and H J Jakobsen. Royal Society of Chemistry, UK. Pp 104-112.

5. Howell, N.K. (2004). Fish gelatin: structure, gelling properties and interaction with other food proteins. In Gums and Stabilisers for the Food Industry 12. Ed. P.A. Williams and G.O. Philips. The Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, UK. Pp. 167-178.

6. Howell, N.K. (2004). The chemistry of quality enhancement in low-value fish. In Quality of Fresh and Processed Foods. American Chemical Society. Ed. A. Spanier. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York. Pp 135-145.

7. Howell, N.K. (2002). Elucidation of protein-lipid interactions. In Gums and Stabilisers for the Food Industry 11. Ed. P.A. Williams and G.O. Philips. The Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, UK. Pp. 136-144.

8. Howell, N.K. (2000). Advances in protein interactions. In Gums and stabilisers for the food industry 10. Ed. P.A. Williams and G.O. Philips. The Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, UK. Pp . 217-227.

9. Howell, N.K. and Saeed, S. (1999). The application of electron spin resonance spectroscopy to the detection and transfer of free radicals in protein-lipid systems. In: Applications of Magnetic Resonance in Food Science. Ed. P.S.Belton, B.P. Hills and G.A. Webb. The Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, UK. Pp 133-143.

10. Howell, N.K. and Saeed, S. (1999). The effect of antioxidants on the production of lipid oxidation products and transfer of free radicals in oxidised lipid-protein systems. In: Antioxidants in Human Health and Disease. Ed. T.K. Basu, N.J Temple and M.L. Garg. CAB International, Oxford, UK. pp 43-54.

11. Howell, N.K. (1999). Gelation properties and interactions of fish proteins. In: Food Hydrocolloids I: Physical Chemistry and Industrial Application of Gels, Polysaccharides and Proteins. Ed.K. Nishinari. Elsevier, Amsterdam Pp 399-406.

12. Somers, P and Howell, N.K. (1997). Gelation properties of smooth and skeletal muscle myosin proteins. In Gums and stabilisers for the food industry 9. Ed. P.A. Williams and G.O. Philips. The Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, UK. Pp 136-144.

13. Howell, N.K.(1996) Chemical and enzymatic modifications of food proteins. In Food Proteins: Properties and Applications Vol 1. Ed. S. Nakai and H.W. Modler. Food Science and Technology Series. VCH Publishers, New York. pp. Pp 235-280. ISBN: 1-56081-691-0.

14. Howell, N.K. (1995). Synergism and Interactions in Mixed Food Protein Systems. In Biopolymer Mixtures, Ed. S.E. Harding, S.E.Hill and J. Mitchell. University of Nottingham Press, pp 329-347. ISBN: 1-897676-247.

15. Howell, N.K. (1995). Interaction of proteins with small molecules. In Ingredient Interactions -Effects on Food Quality. Ed. A. Gaonkar. Marcel Dekker, New York. Pp.269-289. ISBN:0-8247-9347-1.

16. Howell, N.K. (1994). Elucidation of protein-protein interactions in gels and foams. In Gums and stabilisers for the food industry 7. Ed. G.O. Philips., P.A. Williams and D.J. Wedlock, Oxford University Press. UK. Pp 77-89. ISBN:0-19-963465-3.

17. Howell, N.K. (1992). Protein-protein Interactions. In Biochemistry of Food Proteins. Ed.B.J.F.Hudson. Elsevier Applied Science Publ.Ltd., Essex, pp 35-74. ISBN 1-85166-768.
18. Howell, N.K.(1991). Protein-Protein Interactions. In Developments in Food Proteins -7 Ed.B.J.F.Hudson. Elsevier Applied Science Publ.Ltd., Essex, pp 231-270.

C. INVITED RESEARCH PAPERS AND REVIEWS

1. Howell, N.K. and Saeed, S (2006). Rheological and spectroscopic studies of emulsions containing proteins and oxidized lipids. Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Food Rheology and Structure. Ed. P. Fischer, P. Erni, and E.J Windhab. ETH Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich. Pp 323-326.

2. Howell, N.K., Saeed, S and Badii, F. (2005). Molecular mechanisms of protein-lipid interactions. The International Conference on Nanotechnology: Science and Applications (Nanotech Insight 2005),Ed. A Haist and MMS Abdel-Mottaleb, Chemnitz University of Technology, Germany. Pp 140-141.

3. Howell, N.K. (2001). Biochemical changes and processing of under-utilised marine fish in Africa and Asia. EC Fisheries Cooperation Bulletin 14, 45-47.

4. Howell, N. K. (2001). Changements et transformation biochimiques des poissons de mer peu employes en Afrique et en Asia. CE Cooperation Peche Bulletin 14, 48-50.

5. Howell, N.K. (2000). EC Synopsis of selected R&D projects in the field of fisheries and aquaculture. ISBN 92-828-7143-6. Pp 46-49.

6. Howell, N.K.(1999). Protein-protein and protein-polysaccharide interactions in food gels. Food Ingredients and Analysis International, 4, 23-30.

7. Flair-Flow dissemination report F-FE 290/98 (1998). Toughening in Frozen Fish. EU FAIR project.CT95.1111.

8. Howell, N.K. (1998). Biochemical changes and protein interactions leading to aggregation and toughening in frozen fish. Third European Marine Science and Technology Conference Project Synopses Vol. VI: Fisheries and Aquaculture (FAIR 1994-1998). Published by the European Commission, Luxembourg. ISBN No . 92-828-3039-X. Pp 110-113.

9. Howell, N.K. (1997). Processing of and related biochemical studies on the under-utilised marine fish/crustacea species in Africa and Asia. Scientific cooperation of the European Union with the countries of South-East Asia. Published by the European Commission EC DG XII Luxembourg. ISBN No . 92-828-0574-3. Pp 108-109.

10. Flair-Flow dissemination report F-FE 204/96 (1995). Mechanisms of aggregation of proteins in frozen fish. EU FAR project.

11. Howell, N.K. (1995). Processing of and related biochemical studies on the under-utilised marine fish/crustacea species in Africa and Asia. European Commission Life Sciences and technologies for developing countries STD 3 Agriculture. Published by EC DG XII Luxembourg. ISBN No . 92-827-6619-5. Pp 306-307.

12. Howell, N.K.(1995).Elucidation of aggregation mechanisms of proteins in frozen fish. Fisheries and Aquaculture Research Vol.1 pp 243-246. Published by EU DG XII Luxembourg. ISBN No . 92-826-9926-9.

13. Howell, N.K. (1990). Food protein ingredients, structure and function. Food Technology International Europe, 175-179.


D. INVITED BOOK REVIEWS

1. Howell, N.K. (2002). EU Food Law edited by Kaarin Goodburn. In Food Research International. Elsevier. In press

2. Howell, N.K. (1994). Protein interactions edited by H. Visser. In International J Food Science and Technology.

3. Howell, N.K. (1986). Developments in food proteins-3 Ed. B.J.F. Hudson. in Trends in analytical chemistry 5, XX11-XX111.

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