Professor Margaret Rayman
Professor of Nutritional Medicine
Qualifications: BSc, DPhil (Oxon), RPHNutr
Phone: Work: 01483 68 6447
Room no: 18 AY 03
Professor Margaret Rayman has a doctorate in Inorganic Biochemistry from Somerville College, Oxford and has held post-doctoral fellowships at the Institute of Cancer Research and Imperial College. She is now Professor of Nutritional Medicine at the University of Surrey where she directs the highly respected MSc Programme in Nutritional Medicine.
Her research centres on the importance of trace elements to human health with particular emphasis on selenium in prostate cancer and the pregnancy disease pre-eclampsia. She is also investigating the relationship between selenium, iodine and thyroid function. She has published widely, including a paper in Cancer Research that showed a link between prostate cancer risk and selenoprotein genotype.
She has been a judge for the BBC Radio 4 Food and Farming Awards and sits as a magistrate in Surrey.
Since returning from a lengthy career gap (20-years out of research), my work, which has been full-time for the last nine years has focused on trace elements of importance to health, most notably selenium but also iron and latterly, iodine (see selected publications below).
- I am currently running a trial of low-dose selenium in pregnancy to see if the risk of the pregnancy disease pre-eclampsia can be reduced.
- One of my major interests is the importance of selenium in prostate cancer risk and progression (see information below on my book on diet and prostate cancer, funded by the Prostate Cancer Research Foundation).
- I am also looking at the interaction between iodine, selenium and thyroid function in pregnancy.
I currently collaborate with academics at 17 other universities and two research institutes.
- 'Effect of selenium on markers of risk of pre-eclampsia in UK pregnant women: a randomised, controlled pilot trial.'. Br J Nutr, , pp. 1-13. . (2014)
- 'Selenoprotein Gene Variants, Toenail Selenium Levels, and Risk of Advanced Prostate Cancer.'. J Natl Cancer Inst, doi: 10.1093/jnci/dju003
- 'Iodine deficiency in pregnant women living in the South East of the UK: the influence of diet and nutritional supplements on iodine status'. British Journal of Nutrition, , pp. 1-10. . (2014)
- 'Development of an evidenced-based iodine food fact sheet for use in the UK'. European Journal of Nutrition and Food Safety, 4 (3) . (2014)
- 'Epidemiology of selenium and type 2 diabetes: Can we make sense of it?'. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 65, pp. 1557-1564. . (2013)
- 'Is iodine deficiency during pregnancy a public health concern in the UK?'. Nutrition Bulletin, 38 (4), pp. 400-404.doi: 10.1111/nbu.12059
- 'Anthropometric indices and selenium status in British adults: The U.K. National Diet and Nutrition Survey'. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 65, pp. 1315-1321. . (2013)
- 'Effect of inadequate iodine status in UK pregnant women on cognitive outcomes in their children: results from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC)'. The Lancet, . (2013)
- 'Iodine deficiency in the UK: An overlooked cause of impaired neurodevelopment?'. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 72 (2), pp. 226-235. . (2013)
- 'Epidemiology of selenium and type2 diabetes: Can we make sense of it?'. Free Radic Biol Med, . (2013)
- 'Iodine supplements during and after pregnancy'. JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association, 309 (13), pp. 1345-1345. . (2013)
- 'Availability of iodised table salt in the UK - is it likely to influence population iodine intake?'. Public Health Nutr, , pp. 1-5. . (2013)
- 'Effect of inadequate iodine status in UK pregnant women on cognitive outcomes in their children: Results from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC)'. The Lancet, 382 (9889), pp. 331-337. . (2013)
- 'IODINE STATUS'. KARGER ANNALS OF NUTRITION AND METABOLISM, 63, pp. 75-76. . (2013)
- 'Dietary factors that influence maternal iodine status in UK pregnant women'. CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS PROCEEDINGS OF THE NUTRITION SOCIETY, 72 (OCE4), pp. E292-E292. . (2013)
- 'Effect of Selenium Supplementation on Thyroid Function in UK Pregnant Women: a Randomised, Controlled Pilot Trial'. CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS PROCEEDINGS OF THE NUTRITION SOCIETY, 72 (OCE4), pp. E293-E293. . (2013)
- 'DOES MATERNAL IODINE STATUS IN UK PREGNANT WOMEN INFLUENCE CHILD NEURODEVELOPMENT?'. KARGER ANNALS OF NUTRITION AND METABOLISM, 63, pp. 1865-1865. . (2013)
- 'Effect of prenatal selenium supplementation on cord blood selenium and lipid profile'. Pediatrics and Neonatology, 53 (6), pp. 334-339. . (2012)
- 'Selenium supplementation for critical illness reply'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC LANCET, 380 (9840), pp. 471-472. . (2012)
- 'Author's reply'. The Lancet, 380 (9840), pp. 471-472. . (2012)
- 'Selenium, selenoenzymes, oxidative stress and risk of neoplastic progression from barrett's esophagus: Results from biomarkers and genetic variants'. PLoS ONE, 7 (6) . (2012)
- 'Selenium and human health.'. Lancet, England: 379 (9822), pp. 1256-1268. . (2012)
- 'Effect of Prenatal Selenium Supplementation on Cord Blood Selenium and Lipid Profile'. Pediatrics and Neonatology, . (2012)
- 'A randomized trial of selenium supplementation and risk of type-2 diabetes, as assessed by plasma adiponectin.'. PLoS One, United States: 7 (9) . (2012)
- 'Selenium and human health'. The Lancet, 379 (9822), pp. 1256-1268. . (2012)
- 'Antenatal thyroid screening and childhood cognitive function'. New England Journal of Medicine, 366 (17), pp. 1640-1641.doi: 10.1056/NEJMc1202720
- 'Supranutritional selenium induces alterations in molecular targets related to energy metabolism in skeletal muscle and visceral adipose tissue of pigs'. Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry, 114, pp. 47-54. . (2012)
- 'Iodine deficiency in UK schoolgirls'. Lancet, 378 . (2011)
- 'Effect of Supplementation With High-Selenium Yeast on Plasma Lipids A Randomized Trial'. AMER COLL PHYSICIANS ANNALS OF INTERNAL MEDICINE, 154 (10), pp. 656-W240. . (2011)
- 'Selenium status and blood lipids: the cardiovascular risk in young finns study'. JOURNAL OF INTERNAL MEDICINE, 270 (5), pp. 469-477. . (2011)
- 'Maternal selenium status during early gestation and risk for preterm birth'. CMA-CANADIAN MEDICAL ASSOC CANADIAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION JOURNAL, 183 (5), pp. 549-555.doi: 10.1503/cmaj.101095
- 'Maternal selenium status during early gestation and risk for Preterm Birth'. Obstetrical and Gynecological Survey, 66 (7), pp. 400-401.doi: 10.1503/cmaj.101095
- 'Iodine concentration of organic and conventional milk: implications for iodine intake'. Cambridge University Press British Journal of Nutrition, 107 (7), pp. 935-940.Full text is available at: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/184898/
Iodine is required for adequate thyroid hormone production, which is essential for brain development, particularly in the first trimester of pregnancy. Milk is the principal source of iodine in UK diets, and while small studies in Europe have shown organic milk to have a lower iodine concentration than conventional milk, no such study has been conducted in Britain. In view of the increasing popularity of organic milk in the UK, we aimed to compare the iodine concentration of retail organic and conventional milk and to evaluate regional influences in iodine levels. Samples of organic milk (n 92) and conventional milk (n 80), purchased from retail outlets in sixteen areas of the UK (southern England, Wales and Northern Ireland), were analysed for iodine using inductively coupled plasma MS. The region of origin of the milk was determined from information on the label. Organic milk was 42·1 % lower in iodine content than conventional milk (median iodine concentration 144·5 v. 249·5 ng/g; P < 0·001). There was no difference in the iodine concentration of either conventional or organic milk by area of purchase. However, a difference was seen in iodine concentration of organic milk by region of origin (P < 0·001). The lower iodine concentration of organic milk has public-health implications, particularly in view of emerging evidence of iodine deficiency in UK population sub-groups, including pregnant women. Individuals who choose organic milk should be aware that their iodine intake may be compromised and should ensure adequate iodine intake from alternative sources.
- 'Iodine deficiency in UK schoolgirls'. Elsevier The Lancet, 378 (9803), pp. 1623-1623.Full text is available at: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/184917/
- 'Selenium status and cardiometabolic health: State of the evidence'. Elsevier NUTR METAB CARDIOVAS, 20 (10), pp. 754-760.Full text is available at: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/184921/
Use of selenium enriched foods, supplements and fertilizers has increased markedly in recent years in the US and other Western countries because of the perception that the anti-oxidant properties of selenium could potentially reduce the risk of cancer and other chronic diseases. However, concern has been raised recently about possible adverse cardiometabolic effects of high selenium exposure, including an increased risk of diabetes and hyperlipidemia with high selenium intake. Hence, from a public health perspective, the relationship between selenium status and cardiometabolic health should be clarified in order to help guide consumers in their choices of nutritional supplements and enriched food products. Additional experimental evidence is needed to provide new insights into the role of selenium and of specific selenoproteins in human biology, especially to clarify the underlying mechanisms linking selenium to chronic disease endpoints. Further epidemiological studies and randomized clinical trials across populations with different selenium status should be conducted to determine the causal effect of selenium on cardiovascular disease and risk factors. Nevertheless, at the present time the widespread use of selenium supplements or other strategies that artificially increase selenium status above the level required for optimal selenoprotein activity is not justified and should not be encouraged
- 'Information needs and information-seeking behaviour'. TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD PSYCHOLOGY & HEALTH, 25 (Supplement 1), pp. 250-251. . (2010)
- 'Effect of supplementation with selenium on postpartum depression: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial'. INFORMA HEALTHCARE JOURNAL OF MATERNAL-FETAL & NEONATAL MEDICINE, 24 (1), pp. 104-108. . (2010)
- 'SELENIUM SUPPLEMENTATION AND THE INCIDENCE OF PREECLAMPSIA IN PREGNANT IRANIAN WOMEN: A RANDOMIZED, DOUBLE-BLIND, PLACEBO-CONTROLLED PILOT TRIAL'. ELSEVIER TAIWAN TAIWAN J OBSTET GYNE, 49 (2), pp. 181-187. . (2010)
- 'The Effect of Maternal Selenium Supplementation on Pregnancy Outcome and the Level of Oxidative Stress in Neonates'. IRANIAN RES CRESCENT SOC IRANIAN RED CRESCENT MEDICAL JOURNAL, 12 (3), pp. 254-259. . (2010)
- 'Plasma selenium and risk of dysglycemia in an elderly French population: results from the prospective Epidemiology of Vascular Ageing Study'. BIOMED CENTRAL LTD NUTRITION & METABOLISM, 7 Article number ARTN 21 Full text is available at: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/184923/
- 'Iodine deficiency in pregnant women living in the South-East of the UK'. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 69 . (2010)
- 'Higher Selenium Status is Associated with Adverse Blood Lipid Profile in British Adults'. AMER SOC NUTRITIONAL SCIENCE JOURNAL OF NUTRITION, 140 (1), pp. 81-87. . (2010)
- 'Prooxidant-antioxidant balance in pregnancy: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of selenium supplementation'. WALTER DE GRUYTER & CO JOURNAL OF PERINATAL MEDICINE, 38 (5), pp. 473-478.doi: 10.1515/JPM.2010.068
- 'Selenium supplementation and premature (pre-labour) rupture of membranes: A randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial'. INFORMA HEALTHCARE JOURNAL OF OBSTETRICS AND GYNAECOLOGY, 30 (1), pp. 30-34. . (2010)
- 'Selenoproteins and human health: Insights from epidemiological data'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV BBA-GEN SUBJECTS, 1790 (11), pp. 1533-1540.Full text is available at: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/184927/
Knowledge of the plasma selenium levels associated with optimised concentration or activity of specific selenoproteins can provide considerable insights from epidemiological data on the possible involvement of those selenoproteins in health, most notably with respect to cancer. For cohort studies, if selenoproteins such as glutathione peroxidase and selenoprotein P are relevant to cancer, one might only expect to see an effect on risk when the concentrations in the cohort range from below, to above, the level needed to optimise the activity or concentration of these enzymes. Similarly, trials would only show a beneficial effect of supplementation if selenium status were raised from below, to above, the optimal concentration for the selenoproteins likely to be implicated in cancer risk, as occurred in the NPC trial but not in SELECT. The most powerful evidence for the involvement of selenoproteins in human health comes from epidemiological studies that have related single nucleotide polymorphisms in selenoproteins to disease risk. The totality of the evidence currently implicates GPx1, GPx4, SEPS1, Sep15, SEPP1 and TXNRD1 in conditions such as cardiovascular disease, pre-eclampsia and cancer. Future studies therefore need to determine not only selenium status, but genotype, both in selenoproteins and related pathways, when investigating the relationship of selenium with disease risk.
- 'Selenium and Vitamin E Supplementation for Cancer Prevention'. AMER MEDICAL ASSOC JAMA-J AM MED ASSOC, 301 (18), pp. 1876-1876.Full text is available at: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/184928/
- 'Plasma selenium concentration and prostate cancer risk'. AMER SOC CLINICAL NUTRITION AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION, 89 (4), pp. 1276-1277. . (2009)
- 'Interaction between Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Selenoprotein P and Mitochondrial Superoxide Dismutase Determines Prostate Cancer Risk'. AMER ASSOC CANCER RESEARCH CANCER RESEARCH, 68 (24), pp. 10171-10177.Full text is available at: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/184931/
- 'Effect of selenium status and supplementation with high-selenium yeast on plasma homocysteine and B vitamin concentrations in the UK elderly'. WILEY-V C H VERLAG GMBH MOLECULAR NUTRITION & FOOD RESEARCH, 52 (11), pp. 1324-1333. . (2008)
- 'Food-chain selenium and human health: spotlight on speciation'. CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS BRIT J NUTR, 100 (2), pp. 238-253.Full text is available at: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/184938/
There is a growing appreciation that it is not just the total intake of dietary selenium (Se) that is important to health but that the species of Se ingested may also be important. This review attempts to catalogue what is known about Se species in food sources and supplements and the health effects in which they are implicated. The biosynthetic pathways involved in Se assimilation by plants and the way in which Se species are metabolized in animals are presented in order to give an insight into the species likely to be present in plant and animal foods. Known data on the species of Se in the food chain and in food supplements are tabulated along with their concentrations and the analytical methodology used. The latter is important since identification that is only based on retention time matching with authentic standards must be considered as tentative: for evidence of structural confirmation, fragmentation of the molecular ion in addition to MS data is required. Bioavailability, as normally defined, is higher for organic Se species. Health effects, both beneficial and toxic, thought to be associated with specific Se species are described. Potent antitumour effects have been attributed to the low-molecular-weight species, Se-methyl-selenocysteine and its γ-glutamyl-derivative, found in a number of edible plants of the Allium and Brassica families. There remain considerable gaps in our knowledge of the forms of Se that naturally occur in foods. Without adequate knowledge of Se speciation, false conclusions may be drawn when assessing Se requirements for optimal health.
- 'Food-chain selenium and human health: emphasis on intake'. CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS BRITISH JOURNAL OF NUTRITION, 100 (2), pp. 254-268.Full text is available at: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/184937/
- 'Dietary manipulation on in musculoskeletal conditions'. Elsevier BEST PRACT RES CL RH, 22 (3), pp. 535-561.Full text is available at: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/185057/
Dietary advice and intervention clearly have a place in rheumatology and allow patients to have some control over their own disease. Although there is no evidence for efficacy of ‘fad’ diets, 30–40% of rheumatoid patients can benefit from excluding foods individually identified during the reintroduction phase of an elimination diet. A proportion of patients who follow a vegetarian or Mediterranean-type diet will experience benefit. Patients who are either overweight or obese should participate in weight-loss programmes. Those with osteoarthritis need to concentrate on reducing fat mass while maintaining muscle mass. Arthritic patients, other than those with gout, should increase their intake of oily fish and additionally supplement with fish oil for up to 3 months to see whether they experience benefit. All arthritic patients, particularly those with inflammatory disease, should be advised to ensure a good dietary intake of antioxidants, copper and zinc. Supplementation with selenium and vitamin D may be advisable.
- 'Iodine status of UK women of childbearing age'. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, 21, pp. 379-380. . (2008)
- 'A survey to estimate total nutrient intake at conception - Dietary and supplementary'. Journal of Nutritional and Environmental Medicine, 17 (1), pp. 12-43. . (2008)
- 'Survey of total folate intake at conception and assessment of impact of fortification'. Journal of Nutritional and Environmental Medicine, 17 (1), pp. 44-55. . (2008)
- 'Randomised, double blind, placebo-controlled trial of selenium supplementation in adult asthma'. B M J PUBLISHING GROUP THORAX, 62 (6), pp. 483-490. . (2007)
- 'Discussion'. Novartis Foundation Symposium, 282, pp. 117-122. . (2007)
- 'Discussion'. Novartis Foundation Symposium, 282, pp. 36-45. . (2007)
- 'Discussion'. Novartis Foundation Symposium, 282, pp. 87-92. . (2007)
- 'Final discussion'. Novartis Foundation Symposium, 282, pp. 212-218. . (2007)
- 'Discussion'. Novartis Foundation Symposium, 282, pp. 69-76. . (2007)
- 'Discussion'. Novartis Foundation Symposium, 282, pp. 149-153. . (2007)
- 'Discussion'. Novartis Foundation Symposium, 282, pp. 167-172. . (2007)
- 'Discussion'. Novartis Foundation Symposium, 282, pp. 138-142. . (2007)
- 'Bioavailability and speciation of selenium from selenium-enriched mushrooms'. CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS PROCEEDINGS OF THE NUTRITION SOCIETY, 66, pp. 55A-55A. . (2007)
- 'Selenium status influences the effect of folate, vitamin B12 and pyridoxal 5 '-phosphate on homocysteine concentrations'. CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS PROCEEDINGS OF THE NUTRITION SOCIETY, 66, pp. 36A-36A. . (2007)
- 'Impact of selenium on mood and quality of life: a randomized, controlled trial.'. Biol Psychiatry, United States: 59 (2), pp. 147-154.Full text is available at: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/185248/
Selenium is known to be important to the brain. Three small, published studies have suggested an effect of selenium supplementation or deprivation on mood in healthy volunteers. We investigated these findings on a much larger scale.
- 'Selenium on the menu'. Biologist, 53 (5), pp. 236-241. . (2006)
- 'Simultaneous identification of selenium-containing glutathione species in selenised yeast by on-line HPLC with ICP-MS and electrospray ionisation quadrupole time of flight (QTOF)-MS/MS'. ROYAL SOC CHEMISTRY JOURNAL OF ANALYTICAL ATOMIC SPECTROMETRY, 21 (11), pp. 1256-1263.doi: 10.1039/b601867j
- 'Selenium in cancer prevention: a review of the evidence and mechanism of action'. Cambridge University Press P NUTR SOC, 64 (4), pp. 527-542.doi: 10.1079/PNS2005467Full text is available at: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/185971/
Selenium (Se) is an unusual trace element in having its own codon in mRNA that specifies its insertion into selenoproteins as selenocysteine (Sec), by means of a mechanism requiring a large Sec-insertion complex. This exacting insertion machinery for selenoprotein production has implications for our Se requirements for cancer prevention. If Se may protect against cancer, an adequate intake of Se is desirable. However, the level of intake in Europe and some parts of the world is not adequate for full expression of protective selenoproteins. The evidence for Se as a cancer preventive agent includes that from geographic, animal, prospective and intervention studies. Newly-published prospective studies on oesophageal, gastric-cardia and lung cancer have reinforced previous evidence which is particularly strong for prostate cancer. Interventions with Se have shown benefit in reducing the risk of cancer incidence and mortality in all cancers combined, and specifically in liver, prostate, colorectal and lung cancers. The effect seemed to be strongest in those with the lowest Se status. As the level of Se that appears to be required for optimal effect is higher than that previously understood to be required to maximise the activity of selenoenzymes, the question has been raised as to whether selenoproteins are involved in the anti-cancer process. However, recent evidence showing an association between Se, reduction of DNA damage and oxidative stress together with data showing an effect of selenoprotein genotype on cancer risk implies that selenoproteins are indeed implicated. The likelihood of simultaneous and consecutive effects at different cancer stages still allows an important role for anti-cancer Se metabolites such as methyl selenol formed from γ-glutamyl-selenomethyl-selenocysteine and selenomethylselenocysteine, components identified in certain plants and Se-yeast that have anti-cancer effects. There is some evidence that Se may affect not only cancer risk but also progression and metastasis. Current primary and secondary prevention trials of Se are underway in the USA including the SELECT prostate cancer trial, though a large European trial is still desirable given the likelihood of a stronger effect in populations of lower Se status.
- 'Selenium-enriched yeast as a nutritional supplement: bioavailability, toxicology, efficacy and new identification of an anti-cancer component'. CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS PROCEEDINGS OF THE NUTRITION SOCIETY, 64, pp. 91A-91A. . (2005)
- 'Nutrient intake is unrelated to nutrient status in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome'. Journal of Nutritional and Environmental Medicine, 15 (4), pp. 177-189. . (2005)
- 'The use of high-selenium yeast to raise selenium status: how does it measure up?'. Cambridge University Press BRIT J NUTR, 92 (4), pp. 557-573.doi: 10.1079/BJN20041251Full text is available at: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/185974/
Selenium-enriched yeast (Se-yeast) is a common form of selenium used to supplement dietary intake of this important trace mineral. However, its availability within the EU is under threat owing to concerns expressed by the EC Scientific Committee on Food that Se-yeast supplements are poorly characterised and could potentially cause the build up of selenium in tissues to toxic levels. This review examines the validity of these concerns. Diagrams of the biosynthesis and metabolism of selenium compounds show which species can be expected to occur in Se-yeast preparations. Seyeast manufacture is described together with quality control measures applied by reputable manufacturers. The way in which speciation of Se-yeast is achieved is explained and results on amounts of selenium species in various commercial products are tabulated. In all cases described, selenomethionine is the largest single species, accounting for 54-74% of total selenium. Se-yeast is capable of increasing the activity of the selenoenzymes and its bioavailability has been found to be higher than that of inorganic selenium sources in all but one study. Intervention studies with Seyeast have shown the benefit of this form in cancer prevention, immune response and HIV infection. Of around one dozen supplementation studies, none has shown evidence of toxicity even up to an intake level of 800 μg/d selenium over a period of years. It is concluded that Se-yeast from reputable manufacturers is adequately characterised, of reproducible quality, and that there is no evidence of toxicity even at levels far above the EC Tolerable Upper Intake Level of 300 μg/d.
- 'Low selenium is associated with the occurrence of preeclampsia in women from the United Kingdom - Reply'. MOSBY-ELSEVIER AMERICAN JOURNAL OF OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY, 191 (2), pp. 676-677.Full text is available at: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/185975/
- 'Speciation and bioavailability of selenium in yeast-based intervention agents used in cancer chemoprevention studies'. AOAC INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF AOAC INTERNATIONAL, 87 (1), pp. 225-232. . (2004)
- 'Selenium speciation analysis of selenium-enriched supplements by HPLC with ultrasonic nebulisation ICP-MS and electrospray MS/MS detection'. ROYAL SOC CHEMISTRY JOURNAL OF ANALYTICAL ATOMIC SPECTROMETRY, 19 (12), pp. 1529-1538.doi: 10.1039/b411270a
- 'Low selenium is associated with the occurrence of preeclampsia in women from the United Kingdom  (multiple letters)'. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 191 (2), pp. 676-677. . (2004)
- 'Low selenium status is associated with the occurrence of the pregnancy disease preeclampsia in women from the United Kingdom'. MOSBY, INC AM J OBSTET GYNECOL, 189 (5), pp. 1343-1349.Full text is available at: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/186025/
- 'Se brought to earth'. ROYAL SOC CHEMISTRY CHEMISTRY IN BRITAIN, 38 (10), pp. 28-31. . (2002)
- 'Abnormal iron parameters in the pregnancy syndrome preeclampsia'. MOSBY, INC AMERICAN JOURNAL OF OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY, 187 (2), pp. 412-418.Full text is available at: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/185979/
- 'The importance of selenium to human health'. LANCET LTD LANCET, 356 (9225), pp. 233-241.Full text is available at: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/185977/
The essential trace mineral, selenium, is of fundamental importance to human health. As a constituent of selenoproteins, selenium has structural and enzymic roles, in the latter context being best-known as an antioxidant and catalyst for the production of active thyroid hormone. Selenium is needed for the proper functioning of the immune system, and appears to be a key nutrient in counteracting the development of virulence and inhibiting HIV progression to AIDS. It is required for sperm motility and may reduce the risk of miscarriage. Deficiency has been linked to adverse mood states. Findings have been equivocal in linking selenium to cardiovascular disease risk although other conditions involving oxidative stress and inflammation have shown benefits of a higher selenium status. An elevated selenium intake may be associated with reduced cancer risk. Large clinical trials are now planned to confirm or refute this hypothesis. In the context of these health effects, low or diminishing selenium status in some parts of the world, notably in some European countries, is giving cause for concern.
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- 'Iodised salt availability in the United Kingdom'. Reading: Nutrition Society Summer Meeting 70 .
- 'Maternal iodine status during pregnancy and the impact on cognitive outcomes in the offspring'. London: Nutrition Society Winter Meeting (70) .
- 'Factors controlling the distribution of selenium in the environment and their impact on health and nutrition'. CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS PROCEEDINGS OF THE NUTRITION SOCIETY, Univ Surrey, Guildford, ENGLAND: Conference on Over-and Undernutrition - Challenges and Approaches 69 (1), pp. 119-132. . (2010)
- 'High-Normal Selenium Status Is Associated with Adverse Lipid Profile in British Adults'. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS CIRCULATION, Palm Harbor, FL: Joint Nutrition, Physical Activity and Metabolism Conference/49th Cardiovascular Disease Epidemiology and Prevention of the American-Heart-Association 119 (10), pp. E307-E307. . (2009)
- 'Randomized controlled trial of the effect of selenium supplementation on thyroid function in the elderly in the United Kingdom'. AMER SOC CLINICAL NUTRITION AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION, ROYAL COLL PHYSICIANS, LONDON, ENGLAND: Joint Winter Meeting of the Nutrition-Society / Association-for-the-Study-of-Obesity 87 (2), pp. 370-378. . (2008)
- 'The PRECISE pilot trial: Investigating the relation among selenium, homocysteine, and folate in an elderly UK population'. AMER SOCIETY NUTRITIONAL SCIENCE JOURNAL OF NUTRITION, Washington, DC: International Research Conference on Food, Nutrition, and Cancer 137 (1), pp. 282S-283S. . (2007)
- 'Do functional selenoprotein SNPs predict the risk of prostate cancer?'. CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS PROCEEDINGS OF THE NUTRITION SOCIETY, 65, pp. 100A-100A. . (2006)
- 'Identification of water-soluble gamma-glutamyl-Se-methylselenocysteine in yeast-based selenium supplements by reversed-phase HPLC with ICP-MS and electrospray tandem MS detection'. ROYAL SOC CHEMISTRY JOURNAL OF ANALYTICAL ATOMIC SPECTROMETRY, Budapest, HUNGARY: European Winter Conference on Plasma Spectrochemisty 20 (9), pp. 864-870.doi: 10.1039/b503895b
- 'The argument for increasing selenium intake'. C A B I PUBLISHING PROCEEDINGS OF THE NUTRITION SOCIETY, UNIV SHEFFIELD, SHEFFIELD, ENGLAND: Meeting of the Nutrition-Society 61 (2), pp. 203-215.doi: 10.1079/PNS2002153
- 'Abnormalities of iron homeostasis in the pregnancy syndrome pre-eclampsia'. KLUWER ACADEMIC/PLENUM PUBL TRACE ELEMENTS IN MAN AND ANIMALS 10, EVIAN LES BAINS, FRANCE: 10th International Symposium on Trace Elements in Man and Animals (TEMA 10), pp. 611-615. . (2000)
- 'Selenium in cancer prevention'. KLUWER ACADEMIC/PLENUM PUBL TRACE ELEMENTS IN MAN AND ANIMALS 10, EVIAN LES BAINS, FRANCE: 10th International Symposium on Trace Elements in Man and Animals (TEMA 10), pp. 575-580. . (2000)
- 'Serum elemental concentrations in the pregnancy disease pre-eclampsia'. NATL RESEARCH COUNCIL CANADA TRACE ELEMENTS IN MAN AND ANIMALS - 9, BANFF, CANADA: 9th International Symposium on Trace Elements in Man and Animals (TEMA 9), pp. 71-73. . (1997)
- 'Selenium and adverse conditions of human pregnancy'. in Hatfield DL, Berry MJ, Gladyshev VN (eds.) Selenium: Its molecular biology and role in human health 3rd Edition. Springer Article number 42 , pp. 531-546. . (2012)
- 'Selenium'. in Milner JA JA, Romagnolo DF (eds.) Bioactive Compounds and Cancer Springer Article number 19 , pp. 411-448. . (2010)
- BSc degree programmes in Nutrition, Nutrition & Dietetics, Nutrition & Food Science: lecture topics include selenium, iodine and manganese.
- MSc Nutritional Medicine
My major contribution to teaching in the University has been the creation of the very successful Nutritional Medicine post-graduate programme, the first (and still unique) university-level, evidence-based course in the UK designed for the in-service training of doctors and other health professionals in the use of nutritional methods of disease prophylaxis and management.
The Programme, of which I am Director, has now been running for 11 years during which time it has been extremely successful, achieving a high profile and excellent reputation. We draw a considerable number of students from Europe and from countries as far away as China, Canada and South Africa. Currently there are 155 registered part-time students, the majority of whom are practising clinicians, including consultants, and a substantial number of gastroenterologists.
- I organise a number of MSc Nutritional Medicine modules and lecture on topics including selenium, iodine, osteo- and rheumatoid arthritis; diet and prostate cancer; pre-eclampsia.
- You can read the menu for "The Antioxidant and Phytoprotectant Dinner" which forms part of the learning experience on the “Antioxidants and Phytoprotectants” module.
- You can find information on Nutritional Medicine at
Director, Nutritional Medicine MSc Programme
Admissions Tutor, Nutritional Medicine MSc Programme
Chair, Nutritional Medicine Board of Studies
- Registered Public Health Nutritionist (professional qualification of The Nutrition Society)
- Active member of the Nutrition Society
- Member of Council of the Nutrition Society from 2007