Christoph Teller's research tries to find answers to one of the oldest questions in retail research: Why do people shop where they do? Thereby, he focuses not only at the single store level but also at the supra-store (service delivery network/agglomeration) level, within a national but also an international context. Besides this, he also deals with the 'dark side of retailing' - retail logistics and store operations. In particular, he investigates the last links in the supply chain, i.e. stores (‘last 50 metres’ to the point of sale) and households (‘last mile’ to the point of consumption). His most current research foci are the antecedents of supply chain management execution, boundary-spanning activities of store managers, co-opetition in service delivery networks and determinants of food waste occurrence on the distribution stage in the food supply chain.
The concept map below is based on all journal articles and gives a quick overview of all the (four central) themes featured by Christoph's research.
Below are more details on the current research projects and very recent publications:
If you cannot fight them, complement them - A study into the resilience of urban retail and service agglomerations
(Paper: Adaptive resilience and the competition between retail and service agglomeration formats: an international perspective; co-authored by Steve Wood and Arne Floh and published in the Journal of Marketing Management (Taylor and Francis))
The wheel of retailing is turning, one retail format comes and another one disappears. But is it really that simple? In the conclusions of our research we argue “no”. Our research journey departed from the simple question of why consumers shop in different kinds of retail and service agglomerations (such as malls and high streets) within the same urban catchment. By doing so we focus on the competition between different agglomeration formats from the residents’ point of view. Empirically we investigated the competitive relationship between high streets/town centres and malls across three European capital cities, i.e. Vienna, Ljubljana and Bratislava. Using surveys of 2,161 consumers resident in these three cities we find limited differences between formats in terms of the investigated drivers of competitiveness. Further we reveal a positive relationships of patronage towards both formats in all cities. The significant difference in why respondents patronise them suggest a partly complementary existence of the two types of agglomeration. We explain this apparent complementarity through the theory of adaptive resilience that has seen evolved agglomeration formats such as high streets/town centres develop to provide a differentiated offer and consumer attraction compared to enclosed malls. It is the resilience that has let the retail side of high streets evolve their service offer and thus adapt in the face of fierce competition. In other words, it seems as if it is not the death that awaits the high street but change as a consequence of its resilience. Download the paper from the publisher’s website and Research Gate). This is the link to the JMM blog on our paper.
Store managers as ambassadors of and seismographs in shopping centres
(OPEN ACCESS Paper: The Boundary Spanning of Managers within Service Networks; co-authored by Andrew Alexanderand Anne Roggeveen and published in the Journal of Business Research)
The highlights of the paper are: (1) Managers span boundaries between the parent organization, the network and customers. (2) Managers undertake representational and informational boundary spanning activities. (3) Informational include the collection, contextualization and relay of information. (4) Representational include service delivery, coordination, guarding, and communication. (5) These activities enhance customer value in and competitiveness of the network.
The research suggests a number of practical implications concerned with the communication of the boundary spanning role and its potential, the identification of boundary spanning champions and the facilitation of those who undertake this important role.
The highlights of the paper are: (1) Competition and cooperation between stores increase agglomeration performance. (2) There is a positive spill-over effect between agglomeration and store performance. (3) Cooperation increases store performance indirectly via agglomeration performance. (4) The spill-over effect nullifies competition’s negative impact on store performance. (5) Coopetition capabilities of stores enhance competitiveness of an agglomeration.
For retailers operating stores in agglomerations this research provides food for thoughts in terms of the following: The findings are a call for more cooperation in agglomerations and show the positive impact of competition in agglomerations. It concludes that coopetition is a much needed mind-set in agglomerations.
Download the paper from Elsevier (incl. a Powerpoint presentation describing the paper), the University of Surrey Repository (SRI) and ResearchGate)
“Each product that we throw away that is still consumable hurts” (Paper: What a Waste! Exploring the Human Reality of Food Waste from the Store Manager's Perspective, co-authored by Verena Gruber and Christina Holweg and published in the Journal of Public Policy and Marketing)
The highlights of this paper are: (1) Food waste in retail and wholesale stores is not only a contentious economic and environmental issue, it also an area of major ethical concern. (2) Top management only sees small single-digit numbers, but store managers struggle with large amounts of actual waste they need to dispose of each day. (3) Food waste is a phenomenon that has significant inherent sustainability potential, especially in the social domain when redistributing it to people in need.Herbert Kotzab, David Grant and Christina Holweg and published in the International Journal of Retail and Distribution Management)
The highlights of this paper are: It is important for companies to identify their key supplier relationships. Companies need to be able to differentiate between their internal and external SCM resources. Internal SCM resources affect the performance of external SCM resources. External SCM resources affect the company’s ability to manage their key supplier relationships. Effective key supplier relationship management improves overall SCM execution.
In terms of practical implications companies should focus on the performance of their external SCM resources to successfully manage their key supplier relationships. Because internal resources influence external resources, organizations should be prepared internally for supply chain partnering. Retail and manufacturing companies benefit from collaborative relationships with their suppliers.
On the afterlife of unsaleable products in stores (Paper: Unsaleable Grocery Products, their Residual Value and Instore Logistics; co-authored by Christina Holweg and Herbert Kotzab; published in the International Journal of Logistics and Distribution Management)
The highlights of this paper are: Out-of-date yoghurt, dented cans, bruised fruit, curvy carrots - these products may be perfectly edible but they don’t meet customer expectations and are therefore considered waste. Could there be business-friendly alternatives to throwing these products away? One way that unsaleable products could be handled is via redistribution: (1) Internal: products are transformed and sold on fresh food counters or in-store restaurants; (2) social: products are collected by charities such as food banks; (3) Other: products are used for non-human consumption. Nevertheless, many store managers raised concerns about product liability and food safety. The administrative workload for putting redistribution processes in place could also be heavy – and some companies have strict rules about redistributing branded products as it could devalue the brand. However, most store managers foresaw few costs with social redistribution. Some thought it would save money as they would not have to remove packaging for waste disposal.
In terms of practical implications, this research recommends that retailers should determine processes and partnerships for redistribution, including guidelines for staff and systems for measurement. The way stores deal with these issues could become a sustainability measure and performance indicator, potentially saving money for retailers as well as doing social and environmental good.Andrew Alexander and published in the European Journal of Marketing).
The contribution of this paper is to provide a more complete understanding of the role of the store manager as an integral actor in the shopping centre in terms of informational boundary spanning between the retail organisation, the customers and local shopping centre management.
From a practical point of view our findings show that store managers have the potential to be informational boundary spanners and thus valuable resources to inform and give feedback to shopping centre management.Download the paper from Emerald, the University of Surrey Repository (SRI) and Research Gate. Full list of Publications and Presentations (440.24KB - Requires Adobe Reader)
Autumn semester 2015/16:
Undergraduate level: Retail buying and merchandising (MAN3138 – module coordinator)
Postgraduate level: Retail buying and merchandising (MANM128 – module coordinator)
Spring semester 2016:
Postgraduate level: Dissertation (MANM291)
Head of the Department of Marketing and Retail Management;
Director of the MSc Programme International Retail Marketing;
[PI] Engaging Communities in City Centre Management Decision Making through New Technologies (GBP 14,920.5; funded by the cross faculty award for pump-priming of the University of Surrey, together with Andrew Alexander and Paul Krause)
|2016-2018||[PI] Bridging Communities: Retail Managers as Boundary Spanners in Town Centre Environments (GBP 3,992.4; funded by the British Academy of Management (Grants Scheme 2015, together with Andrew Alexander))|
Core issues in store based retailing and new technology (GBP 12,000; funded by NEMODE (New Economics Models in the Digital Economy, http://www.nemode.ac.uk/, together with Andrew Alexander and Steve Wood);
Subproject I: [CI] Critical Instore Marketing and Store Operations Issues - a literature review.
Subproject II: [PI] Current and Future Marketing and Operational Issues in Store based Retail Environments – the Experts’ Point of View.
Subproject III: [CI] Themes and Priorities in Instore Marketing and Operations – a Research Agenda.
Subproject IV: [CI] Critical Issues in Managing the Town Centre Retail and Service Environment - The Centre Managers’ Perspective.
[CI] Definition and Possible Redistribution of Edible Food Waste in Viennese Wholesale and Retail Stores (supported by ‘Vienna Anniversary Fund for the Vienna University of Economics and Business Administration’(Jubiläumsfonds der Stadt Wien für die Wirtschaftsuniversität Wien; EUR 17,000, together with Christina Holweg).
[CI] Assessing the Boundary Spanning Activities of Retail Store Managers (supported by the Academy of Marketing Research Initiative Funding 2012) [http://www.academyofmarketing.org/research/amrc.html; GBP 2,000, together with Andrew Alexander]
[CI] Assessing the Boundary Spanning of Store Managers in Shopping Centres (supported for a second time by the Surrey Business School Pump Priming Fund [http://www.surrey.ac.uk/sbs/]; 1st round, GBP 3,240; 2nd round, GBP 2,000, together with Andrew Alexander)
[PI] Agglomeration effects in shopping streets (supported by ‘Vienna Anniversary Fund for the Vienna University of Economics and Business Administration’(Jubiläumsfonds der Stadt Wien für die Wirtschaftsuniversität Wien)[http://www.magwien.gv.at/english/research/suppvienna.html]; EUR 17,000)
[PI] Retail agglomeration format patronage behaviour in Bratislava
[PI] Response behaviour and data quality in web-based surveys (supported by ‘E-Management Consulting GmbH’ [http://www.e-management.at/])
[PI] Store-format specific consumer behaviour of elderly people (supported by ‘City of Vienna’ [http://www.wien.gv.at/english/]; EUR 25,000)
[PI] Development of a decision support system/software for cash-logistics in Slovakian retail stores and bank branches (supported by ‘Slovenska Sporitelna’ [http://www.slsp.sk/])
[PI] Response behaviour and data quality in web-based surveys (supported by ‘E-Management Consulting GmbH’ [http://www.e-management.at/])
[PI] Agglomeration effects in store-based retailing from a customer’s point of view – theoretical discussion and empirical evaluation in Vienna
[PI] Agglomeration effects from a tenant’s point of view – theoretical discussion and empirical evaluation in shopping centres (supported by ‘SPAR Austria’ [http://www.spar.at/])
[PI] The impact of olfactory stimuli on the customer behaviour in retail agglomerations (supported by ‘SPAR Austria’ [http://www.spar.at/])
[PI] Moribund city centres vs. prosperous shopping centres – a Central European phenomenon? A comparison between Slovenia and Austria (supported by ‘Festo Fellow Fond’ [http://www.festo.com/net/startpage/]; EUR 10,000)
[PI] Empirical trend and future research in retailing – the Austrian grocery sector from 2006 to 2011 (supported by ‘Fachjournal Regal’ [http://www.regal.at/home/i_home_1208.asp])
[PI] Customers’ reactions on out-of-stock situations in self-service oriented drugstores (supported by ‘DM-Drogeriemarkt’ [http://www.dm-drogeriemarkt.at/] und ‘ECR-Austria’ [http://www.ecr-austria.at/])
[PI] The influence of situational factors on retail agglomeration choice
[PI] Evaluation and perception of logistics activities undertaken by customers on grocery shopping trips (supported by ‘Hausfreund’ [http://www.hausfreund.at/])
[PI] Factors influencing the competition between retail agglomerations from a customer’s point of view – an empirical comparison between the ‘Mariahilferstrasse’ and the ‘Shopping City Sued’
[PI] Determinants of retail agglomeration choice (supported by ‘Jubiläumsfonds der Österreichischen Nationalbank’ [http://www.oenb.at/de/ueber_die_oenb/foerderung/jubilaeumsfonds/jubilaeumsfonds.jsp]; EUR 33.000)
[PI] The costs of shopping – Do they really affect retail agglomeration choice? (supported by ‘Vienna Anniversary Fund for the Vienna University of Economics and Business Administration’(Jubiläumsfonds der Stadt Wien für die Wirtschaftsuniversität Wien; EUR 20,000) [http://www.magwien.gv.at/english/research/suppvienna.html])
[PI] Store formats and consumer logistics (supported by ‘Billa’ [http://www.billa.at/])
[PI] The services of the Austrian Chamber of Commerce from a member’s point of view (supported by the ‘Sparte Handel der Wirtschaftskammer Wien’ [http://portal.wko.at/wk/startseite_dst.wk?DstID=2082])
[PI] Determinants of store choice and consumer logistics. An empirical evaluation of shopping trip behaviour regarding DIY-stores (supported by ‘OBI-Austria’ [http://www.obi.at/at/] und ‘Sochor’ [http://www.sochor.at/])
[PI] Instore logistics in grocery retailing. Performance measurement at the end of the supply chain (supported by ‘SPAR Austria’ [http://www.spar.at/])
[PI] Perception, usage and evaluation of home delivery services in Austria – an empirical comparison between core target groups (senior citizens, students and actual supermarket customers (supported by ‘REWE Group Austria’ [http://www.rewe-group.at/Layouts/re_Startseite.aspx?])
[PI] Trends in Retailing (in cooperation with ‘Austrian Chamber of Commerce‘ [http://portal.wko.at/wk/startseite.wk], ‘Austrian Institute for SME Research ‘ [http://www.kmuforschung.ac.at/en/menu/info.htm] und ‘Institutes for Advanced Studies‘ [http://www.ihs.ac.at/])
[PI] Operational/functional test of the decision support system/software ‘EuroCalculus’ during the first two week of the Euro-changeover phase in Austria
[PI] Synergetic effects of local and industry-specific retail co-operations (in cooperation with ‘Austrian Institute for SME Research’ [http://www.kmuforschung.ac.at/en/menu/info.htm])
[PI] Development of a decision support system/software for the cash logistics of OBI Austria (supported by OBI Austria [http://www.obi.at/at/])
[PI] Development of a decision support system/software for the cash logistics of Media/Saturn Austria (supported by Media/Saturn Austria [http://www.mediamarkt.at/, http://www.saturn.at/])
[PI] Consequences/problems of the Euro-Changeover for the retailers and the development of the decision support software ‘EuroCalculus’ for the cash logistics of Austrian retailers and bank branches (supported by ‘Studiengesellschaft für Zusammenarbeit im Zahlungsverkehr’ [http://www.stuzza.at/257_EN.621EDD7696382bbac1b5fdbfa0555746f5cf2e20])
[PI] Performance measurement in retail logistics (supported by ‘Sparte Handel der Wirtschaftskammer Wien’ [http://portal.wko.at/wk/startseite_dst.wk?DstID=2082])
[PI] Customers’ reactions on out-of-stock situations in self-services oriented grocery stores – a comparison between price-promoted and non promoted products (supported by ‘Firmengruppe Kastner’ [http://www.kastner.at/kastner/webauftritt])
[CI] The efficiency of retail logistics systems in Austria (supported by ‘Jubiläumsfond der Österreichischen Nationalbank’ [http://www.oenb.at/de/ueber_die_oenb/foerderung/jubilaeumsfonds/jubilaeumsfonds.jsp]; EUR 12,400)
|07/2015||Best paper award (for the paper ‘The Role of Prototypes and Novelty in the Aesthetic Perception of Higher and Lower Designed Store Environments’) at the 18th Conference of the European Association for Education and Research in Commercial Distribution (EAERCD), Rennes, France.|
|07/2012||Best track paper (track Retail Marketing, for the paper ‘Store Managers – The Sounding Board in Shopping Centre Environments?') at the Academy of Marketing Conference 2012. Southampton, UK.|
|05/2012||'Supply Chain Management – An International Journal' highly commended award (for the paper 'Antecedents for the Adoption and Execution of Supply Chain Management')|
|04/2012||Best conference paper award (for the paper 'Cognitive Age and Grocery Store Patronage Behaviour of Elderly Shoppers') at the American Marketing Association/American Collegiate Retailing Association (AMA/ACRA) Triennial Conference 2012. Seattle, USA|
|09/2009||Best track paper (track Strategic Issues in Retailing, for the paper 'Agglomeration Formats, Attractiveness and Consumer Patronage') at the American Marketing Association/American Collegiate Retailing Association (AMA/ACRA) Triennial Conference 2009. New Orleans, USA.|
|12/2008||Viennese Award for Retail Research (Wiener Preis für Handelsforschung) [for the habilitation thesis]|
|12/2007||Research award for top publications of the WU|
|10/2005||Scholarship from the ‘Otto Mønsteds Fond’ [for the visiting lectureship at the Copenhagen Business School]|
|07/2005||'Managing Service Quality Journal' highly commended award (for the paper 'The Consumer Direct Services Revolution in Grocery Retailing: an exploratory investigation'|
|01/2003||Rudolf Sallinger Award [for the PhD thesis]|
|12/2002||Publication of the PhD thesis in the scientific series ’Forschungsergebnisse der Wirtschaftsuniversitaet Wien’ (for exceptional PhD theses) published by the WU|
|11/2001||Viennese Award for Retail Research (Wiener Preis für Handelsforschung) [for the PhD theses]|
This paper investigates the competitive relationship between dominant urban agglomeration formats (traditional “evolved” town centres and “created” shopping malls) and the drivers of competiveness in the form of key agglomeration resources (accessibility, parking condition, tenant mix, atmosphere). Based on a consumer survey (n, 2,161) across three distinctive European capital cities, co-variance based structural equation modelling reveals remarkably limited differences between formats in terms of the investigated drivers of competitiveness. Positive relationships of patronage towards both formats in all cities and the significant difference in why respondents patronise them suggest a partly complementary existence of the two types of agglomeration. We explain this apparent complementarity through the theory of adaptive resilience that has seen evolved agglomeration formats develop to provide a differentiated offer and consumer attraction compared to enclosed malls.
Supply chain resilience is an operational capability that enables a disrupted or broken supply chain to reconstruct itself and be stronger than before. This paper examines resilience using the dynamic capabilities approach, grounded in the Resource-Based View of firms. The purpose of this research is to provide insights for achieving resilience by mapping the relationships between the practices, resources, and processes over which a manager has control. A survey of 171 managers is used to test a conceptual model that proposes relationship between supply chain capabilities and resilience as well as the moderating role of supply chain risks. Variance-based structural equation modeling reveals that only tighter integration between echelons and increasing flexibility lead to added resilience. The perception of supplier risk helps motivate the supply chain manager to enhance integration capabilities and thus achieve higher resilience. Furthermore, the perception of external risks to a supply chain actually reduces the effort of deploying external capabilities to obtain resilience. Overall, the findings strongly support the view that resources, routines, and capabilities provide different results in terms of resilience depending upon supply chain risk factors.
© 2016 The AuthorsThis research examines how managers act as a boundary spanner in two types of boundary-spanning relationships and how their boundary-spanning activities provide support for customer value creation in service networks. Using an embedded case design in three shopping centers, the results from interviews with retail store managers and shopping center managers indicate that store managers span boundaries between both the parent organization and the shopping center and between the shopping center and customers. Analysis reveals six types of boundary-spanning activities. Four serve to represent the organization (service delivery, coordination, guarding, and external communication), while two are informational in nature (outbound information collection and relay, and inbound information collection and relay). This research highlights the wide range of activities a manager can undertake to improve the competitiveness of a company and service network by enhancing customer value.
Purpose: The aims of this paper are (1) to explore the complexities of regularly implemented as well as irregularly occurring – sometimes improvised – instore logistics processes related to products which are declared unsaleable and (2) to identify the challenges and opportunities in managing instore logistics processes related to unsaleable products in grocery stores. Methodology: We apply an embedded case study approach. Within each case, i.e. dominant store format, we investigate the instore logistics processes of 32 retail and wholesale stores and focus further on those processes related to products declared unsaleable. The case study research methodology comprises in-depth interviews with store and category managers, point-of-sale observations and secondary data research. Findings: We identified four different specific instore logistics processes depending on the residual product value of unsaleable products. The analysis of these processes suggests that establishing more efficient return, disposal, recycling and, most importantly, redistribution processes leads to various benefits such as cost savings, more effective and efficient operations, better use of resources and waste reduction, while at the same time supporting charitable institutions and people in need. Contribution: The contribution of this research is (1) to provide a better understanding of different ways of seeing and handling unsaleable products and (2) to reveal the significant importance of focusing on instore logistics beyond the point of sale with respect to the economic, ecological and social benefits to retailers, wholesalers and their stakeholder groups.
This special issue presents the best papers from the second Colloquium on European Research in Retailing (CERR). CERR 2014 was held in September 2014 at the University of Bremen, Germany. The colloquium is the result of the collaboration of three European scientific research laboratories. Among those, the Department of Logistic Management of the University of Bremen was the main organising entity of CERR 2014. CERR’s aim is to offer researchers from all over Europe, on a bi-annual basis a meeting place to share in a congenial environment the result of their latest research dedicated to understanding consumers’ behavior and designing the operations, logistics, and channels to reach them. The other partners were the University of Surrey and ESSCA School of Management. The next research colloquium will be held in Toulouse in 2016.
ABSTRACT: Stores in retail and other service agglomerations, such as high streets and shopping malls, compete with each other for customers yet they may also cooperate with each other in relation to operational and marketing matters within the agglomeration in which they are located. The aim of this paper is to investigate the impact of both competition and cooperation, i.e. coopetition, on agglomeration and store performance. Drawing on the network debate, this paper develops a conceptual model and tests it in three distinctive agglomerations, each in an urban setting, namely first- and second-order high streets as well as an inner-city retail and service cluster. A total of 277 store managers served as key informants in our survey. Variance-based structural equation modelling reveals that both competition and cooperation improve agglomeration performance directly. Despite competition having a negative direct effect on stores’ performance, the overall effect is insignificant. Cooperation affects store performance positively but only indirectly. The contribution of this paper is to reveal and substantiate the complex nature and benefits of the effects of the coopetition of stores located within agglomerations. More widely it underlines the importance of managers of agglomerations understanding the differing effects of competition and cooperation and using this understanding in their management decision making. HIGHLIGHTS: • Competition and cooperation between stores increase agglomeration performance. • There is a positive spill-over effect between agglomeration and store performance. • Cooperation increases store performance indirectly via agglomeration performance. • The spill-over effect nullifies competition’s negative impact on store performance. • Coopetition capabilities of stores enhance competitiveness of an agglomeration.
Purpose: This paper investigates the impact of key supplier relationship management (KSRM) – understood as an aggregated supply chain management (SCM) process in the upstream direction – on the overall level of the execution of SCM within organizations. Methodology: A conceptual model is developed from a theoretical framework and proposes the capability to do KSRM as a mediator between internal and external SCM resources and SCM execution. A survey of 174 managers representing different supply chain stages is used to test the model through variance-based structural equation modelling. Findings: The findings reveal that external SCM resources directly affect the capability to do KSRM. Nevertheless, internal resources show a considerable indirect impact through external resources and can thus be considered an indirect determinant. The capability to do KSRM in turn impacts upon the level of SCM execution, measured in terms of the integration of business processes, directly and substantially, as well as mediating the effect between SCM resources and the level of SCM execution. Value: The main contribution of this paper is to empirically demonstrate the potential of KSRM for enhancing the level of SCM execution within organizations and consequently the level of integration in supply chains, leading to higher customer and shareholder value.
This paper identifies inter- and intra-organisational management resources that determine the level of execution of inter-firm alliance supply chain management (SCM). By drawing on network and resource-based view theories, a conceptual model proposes the effects of SCM resources and capabilities as influencing factors on SCM execution. The model was tested using survey data from studies conducted in two European supply chain environments. Variance-based structural equation modelling confirmed the hypothesised hierarchical order of three proposed antecedents: internal SCM resources affect joint SCM resources, which in turn influence collaborative SCM-related processes and finally SCM execution. An importance-performance analysis for both settings shows that providing and investing in internal SCM resources should be a priority when aiming to increase SCM execution. The theoretical contribution of this paper lies in confirming that the improvement of SCM execution follows a clear pathway featuring internal supply chain resources as one of the main drivers. The practical implications of this research include the development of a prioritisation list of measures that elevate SCM execution in the two country settings.
The role and influence of aesthetics in the consumption of store environments remains poorly understood. Little is known about how aesthetics propose substantial or adjunctive roles in consumers’ store experiences. The aim of this paper is to examine consumer perceptions of store design-architecture in higher and lower-level design contexts. Building on the aesthetics, and environmental psychology literatures, our findings confirm consumers’ determinations of perceptual differences in the aesthetic content contained in presented store environmental stimuli. Latent-means comparisons confirm consumers’ perceptions of the presence of a higher-level design in one fast-fashion store with a lower-level design of a second store of the same retailer using a Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA). The results demonstrate the reliability and validity of the proposed constructs in confirming the presence of higher and lower-levels of design. This research thus expands on the extant number of store specification and response constructs and prospectively opens up new lines of store environments research.
Purpose: The aim of this paper is to investigate (1) the link between store managers’ evaluation of how customers assess a shopping centre and their own evaluation of the centre and, based on that, (2) the relevance of store managers in reflecting upon and informing the management and marketing practices of the local shopping centre management. Methodology: A conceptual model is developed based on the network and boundary-spanning theories. The model is tested using a web-based survey of 217 managers, representing stores located in shopping malls, and by applying covariance-based structural equation modelling. Findings: The study reveals store managers to be engaging in a significant information-processing pathway, from customers’ evaluation of the shopping centre (as perceived by the store manager) to their own evaluation of the centre in terms of managerial satisfaction and loyalty. Research limitations: The empirical study focuses exclusively on shopping malls and thus does not consider other shopping centre forms such as town centres and retail parks. Practical implications: This paper concludes that store managers have the potential to be informational boundary spanners and thus valuable resources to inform and give feedback to shopping centre management. Originality: The contribution of this paper is to provide a more complete understanding of the role of the store manager as an integral actor in the shopping centre in terms of informational boundary spanning between the retail organisation, the customers and local shopping centre management.
The aim of this paper is to identify areas for improving the level of supply chain management (SCM) execution. A conceptual model was developed that proposes internal and joint SCM conditions and the adoption of SCM processes as the main antecedents of SCM execution. Based on a survey of 174 senior managers representing large organizations structural equation modelling was conducted followed by a three-step importance-performance analysis. The results show that internal SCM conditions, specifically information technology and human resources, are the major drivers for improving the total level of SCM execution.
Through identifying the attributes of a place that have an influence on the patronage behaviour of urban retail customers, this paper presents a conceptual model that proposes direct and indirect antecedents regarding the different retail-related dimensions associated with urban place attractiveness. An empirical study was conducted whereby the model was tested by surveying approximately 500 actual customers at the time they visited a particular town centre for the purposes of shopping. The results showed that the retail tenant mix, the merchandise value, and the atmosphere had a direct impact, and the product range and the sales personnel an indirect impact upon the evaluation of attractiveness. Furthermore, a number of additional effects towards these antecedents were identified with respect to parking conditions, the non-retail tenant mix, manoeuvrability, and orientation. This revealed that retailing activities were a major driver of attractiveness for an urban place. The practical implication of these findings suggests that place marketing activities should be proactive in supporting and enabling retailers in fulfilling their roles.
This paper aims to first identify gender differences in perception and evaluation of retail agglomerations, and second, discuss the implications of these differences for marketing and management. Based on a conceptual model 2151 agglomeration shoppers were surveyed using interviewer-administered questionnaires. Structural equation modelling revealed that accessibility, parking and infrastructure are perceived differently between gender groups. The attractiveness in terms of satisfaction, retention proneness and patronage intention was also evaluated distinctively. Nevertheless, when examining the impact of the perceived attributes on agglomeration attractiveness, there was no difference. In both settings, the retail tenant mix and the atmosphere are the main antecedents of attractiveness. Finally, an importance–performance analysis offers managers a method for prioritising their marketing efforts considering gender differences.
This article investigates antecedents of grocery store format patronage behaviour of elderly shoppers. Based on a literature review, we set up a conceptual model that proposes effects between the perception of store attributes, satisfaction, patronage intention and behaviour. We test the model using a survey of more than 400 supermarket patrons aged 60 and over who live in a highly concentrated urban retail environment. Variance based structural equation modelling reveals that the product range and the price–value ratio have the most impact on patronage behaviour. Nevertheless, response based segmentation identifies unobserved heterogeneity in the overall modelling results. Unlike demographic characteristics of the respondents, the variables ‘availability of a car’ and ‘problems in walking longer distances’ explain the heterogeneity of the results between segments where significantly different impacts of accessibility and price–value ratio on patronage behaviour can be identified.
The effect of olfactory stimuli on consumer behaviour has received little attention in marketing and retailing literature compared to other atmospheric cues. Researchers report ambiguous findings and shortcomings of measurement approaches. Based on a critical literature review, a field experiment in a regional shopping mall investigates the effectiveness of ambient scent. Before-and-after surveys of randomly selected shoppers in experimental and control groups were conducted and different experimental designs simulated. Those designs not controlling either extraneous variables or attitudinal differences between the control and experimental group reveal a positive effect on factors operationalising mall perception and consumers' emotions. The design controlling both sources of bias indicates no impact of ambient scent on the dependent variables. None of the behavioural variables were affected in any case. This paper questions prior findings on the effectiveness of ambient scent in a shopping-mall environment and calls for more rigour in investigating the effectiveness of atmospheric stimuli in general.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is (1) to develop a scale that evaluates the environmental elements in retail supply chains and (2) to examine the environmental supply chain management initiatives of the world’s largest 100 retailing companies. Methodology: The empirical evaluation has been executed through an investigative approach applying a web-scan framework which included the analysis of websites and publicly published documents such as annual reports and Corporate Social Responsibility reports. Findings: We identified 34 environmental sustainability initiatives which we grouped into eight categories. They refer to ‘fundamental environmental attitude’, ‘use of energy’, ‘use of input material’, ‘product’, ‘packaging’, ‘transport’, ‘consumption’, and ‘waste’. The level of environmental supply chain management can be characterised as very operational and very short-term oriented (= green operations). Long-term oriented green-design-initiatives were hardly observed. Furthermore, the specific environmental activities of three retailers from Denmark, France and the United Kingdom were compared. Research limitations: The empirical study investigates supply chain operations of retailers and excludes other areas of retail management. The results are based on material that is published by the respective companies and thus do not comprise internal reports. Value of paper: The main contribution of this paper is to test the proposition that global retailers follow the path of the ‘greening Goliaths’, where environmental sustainability becomes a quasi industry standard for the ecological sustainability transformation of global retailing
Retail and service enterprises seek benefits and synergies from locating their stores within retail agglomerations, such as shopping streets and malls. The aim of this paper is to identify the main drivers of such synergetic or ‘agglomeration effects’ for tenants. A literature review reveals four sets of drivers that are related to the location, the tenant mix, the marketing, and the management of an agglomeration. Based on a survey of 217 managers representing stores that are located in five regional and four supra-regional shopping malls, we demonstrate that location-related drivers including geographical location, accessibility, and parking conditions have a the highest impact on agglomeration effects in terms of the economic success of tenants. The results were consistent amongst different types of tenants differentiated by store size, customer footfall, industry affiliation, and perceived role within the respective mall (as footfall taker or generator within the network).
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop a conceptual model that includes drivers of supply chain management (SCM) adoption and execution identified in the literature, provide a set of measurement scales that operationalise constructs within this model, empirically verify a hierarchical order of antecedents that affects the adoption and execution of SCM, and assist management by providing a focus on those SCM conditions and processes that need to be prioritised to increase successful SCM adoption and execution. Design: The conceptual model is tested empirically through a survey of 174 senior supply chain managers representing the biggest organisations within a central European country. Findings: Using structural equation modelling the hypothesised hierarchical order of three proposed antecedents are verified: ‘internal SCM conditions’ that affect ‘joint or external SCM conditions’ which in turn influences collaborative ‘SCM-related processes’. Firms that adopt these steps should enjoy a rigorous and appropriate road to the full execution of SCM. Research limitations: The survey results reflect the views of large organisations in a countryspecific supply chain setting. Practical implications: The findings provide a hierarchical focus for financial, personnel and management initiatives to increase integration within a supply chain and improve competitiveness. Originality/value: The major contribution of this paper is that it provides empirical proof of the antecedents that affect the adoption and execution of SCM.
Purpose: This paper identifies those attributes of created and evolved retail agglomeration formats that have a substantial impact on overall attractiveness from the consumers’ point of view. From an agglomeration management perspective primary areas of concern are identified and suggestions to increase the competitiveness of diverse agglomeration formats are presented. Design/methodology: Through synthesizing pertinent literatures we produce a conceptual framework that proposes significant impacts between ten generic agglomeration attributes and different dimensions of attractiveness. We then test the hypotheses using a survey of more than 1,000 consumers of three competing agglomeration formats (a town center, a strip center and a regional shopping mall) in a particular locality. Findings: Retail related factors and the atmosphere influence attractiveness most significantly in each of the three settings. All other factors – in particular convenience related ones - show only format specific relevance or are of no direct importance on the consumers’ evaluation of attractiveness. Research limitations/implications: The findings can only be transferred to similar retail settings and do not consider supra-regional agglomerations. Practical implications: The results suggest that management of all three agglomerations is quite limited in directly influencing attractiveness. They should instead focus on the optimum selection of retail tenants and support or compliment the marketing endeavors of their tenants. Originality/value: The focus is on regional retail agglomerations and considers the interdependencies between different formats in one geographical area. The in-vivo survey approach takes into account the moderating effect of the shopping situation when consumers’ evaluate the attractiveness of competing shopping venues.
This paper critically evaluates the proposed structure and contents of a frequently discussed Category Management (CM) model in the Efficient Consumer Response (ECR) context. Based on this we present an extensive empirical study where the data from a survey of 202 household representatives are merged with their actual purchasing data taken from a consumer purchase panel (>30,000 purchase observations). The results from an exploratory factor analysis and subsequent multiple regression analyses show that the investigated CM model needs to be amended by personnel and Point-of-Sale aspects as they affect Consumer Value significantly. Finally, the investigated differences between the drivers of Consumers Value call for including both survey and consumer purchase data and consequently incorporate attitudinal and behavioural aspects into Category Management.
Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to identify store format attributes that impact on store format choice when consumers conduct fill-in or major trips to buy groceries. By doing so, we take into consideration that consumers patronise multiple (store-based) formats depending on the shopping situation operationalised by the type of shopping trip. Design/methodology/approach: The paper adopts the conceptual framework of random utility theory via application of a multinomial logit modelling framework. The analysis is based on a survey of 408 consumers representing households in a clearly defined central European retail area. Findings: The results reveal a considerable moderating effect of the shopping situation on the relationship between perceived store format attributes and store format choice. Consumers’ utilities are significantly higher for discount stores and hypermarkets when conducting major trips. To the contrary, supermarkets are preferred for fill-in trips in the focused retail market. Merchandise-related attributes of store formats have a higher impact on the utility formation regarding major-trips, whereas service- and convenience-related attributes do so regarding fill-in trips. Research limitations: The findings can only be generalised to retail markets having similar characteristics like the one under study. It is highly concentrated, contains considerable share of small size retail stores, it is urban and has clear cut boundaries due to its geographical location. Originality/value: This paper considers the fact that consumers patronise multiple store formats and investigates the moderating effect of the shopping situation – operationalised by different types of shopping trips – on store format choice.
This paper attempts to contribute to a more thorough understanding of the on-site (‘in vivo’) evaluation of retail agglomerations once shoppers have already made their destination choices. To address this issue, a modification of more conventional concepts of retail attractiveness that considers situational contexts is proposed and empirically tested. The survey comprised more than 2,000 on-site interviews of customers of an inner city shopping street and a competing peripheral shopping mall. The results show that the tenant mix and the atmosphere, unlike parking and accessibility, exert a major impact on distinct dimensions of perceived attractiveness. Furthermore, the empirical findings provide evidence that factors characterizing aspects of the individual shopping situation significantly affect on-site evaluation. Some methodological limitations and future research directions are also discussed.
This paper focuses on the impact of hedonic and utilitarian values of shopping on retail agglomeration patronage issues, in particular on the shopping behaviour and the perception of retail agglomerations. Our empirical study is based on a discussion of agglomerations’ potential to attract utilitarian and hedonic shopper types. A sample of 2,139 customers were interviewed in a peripheral shopping mall and an inner city shopping street and confronted with a multi-item scale operationalising shopping values as developed by Babin et al. (1994). Using a standard fuzzy c-means clustering algorithm we identify four distinct shopper types. The results show that hedonists are represented by a higher number of females, earn lower individual incomes and are less educated compared to utilitarians. Interestingly, a higher share of hedonists visited the shopping mall. Overall, they make more shopping trips to agglomerations, stay there longer, visit more stores and – depending on the agglomeration format – spend less than or the same amount as utilitarians. Finally, we see that those customers who are attracted by agglomerations because of atmospheric and price stimuli are typical hedonists.
Firms nowadays face significant challenges in their operating environments, which have been characterised in two different ways. From a strategic management perspective these environments are in a state of hypercompetition while from a logistics or supply chain perspective these environments require market responsiveness predicated upon agile supply chains. However, firms must also rely on many interorganizational relationships to ensure efficient and effective movements within their supply chains. This paper discusses the relationships among these concepts and proposes a research framework combining aspects of the hypercompetition and responsiveness and agility viewpoints.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to propose a model which structures and links different types of efficient consumer response (ECR) measures; it does so by considering the use of both quantitative or ‘hard’ and qualitative or ‘soft’ measures in ECR, emphasizing the importance and causal role of ‘soft’ measures throughout the ECR process. Methodology/Approach: This paper reviews the ECR and performance measurement literature and proposes a model that explains linkages from intra-organizational, interorganizational and industry prerequisites through ECR activities to ECR outcomes; and highlights the role of performance, behavioural, attitude and capability measures. Two extant studies from Austria and Denmark are examined in the context of the model to exemplify some of its features. Research limitations/implications: The proposed model is presented for primarily future investigation; thus there is no empirical study in this paper other than a comparison of the two extant studies to support some constructs and variables. However, the model represents a structure that can guide future research on more specific ECR elements. Practical implications: The model makes a practical contribution by providing a structure from which measurement or scorecard systems can be established. Originality/value of the paper: The model makes a theoretical contribution by providing an overall structure to link different areas of ECR research such as barriers for ECR implementation, and specific ECR concepts, activities, and their outcomes.
The decline of shopping streets and the rise of shopping malls have been major trends in European retailing for decades. So far, research has failed to investigate this shift of agglomeration format (AF) patronage from a marketing perspective, including the consumers’ point of view. This paper presents a theoretical comparison of generic similarities and conceptual differences between shopping streets and shopping malls. Based on this comparison the AF-specific characteristics perceived by consumers are compared and discussed with respect to their impact on agglomeration attractiveness. This leads to the development of a conceptual framework which is empirically tested using a web-based survey of almost 1,000 consumers representing a typical urban central European retail market. The relative importance of nine distinctive AF characteristics on attractiveness was analysed using structural equation modelling. The findings proved to be quite similar for both shopping streets and shopping malls; the retail tenant mix and atmosphere had the highest relative importance.
Purpose - To provide empirical evidence and explanation of the phenomenon that providers of home delivery of groceries are still of minor importance in highly concentrated retail markets. Design/methodology/approach - Based on a critical literature review three propositions were set up. A web based survey was conducted with two prospective consumer groups for home delivery providers: time starved consumers and consumers with Internet affinity. A structural equation modeling analysis was applied in addition to uni- and bivariate analysis. Findings - In contrast to some assumptions in the literature shopping in stores for groceries was not generally perceived to be an annoying activity. Respondents were aware of their own shopping logistics efforts in terms of spatial and temporal distance when shopping in stores but were unable to convert these efforts into costs. Any perceived inconvenience connected with shopping for groceries had no impact on respondents’ willingness to pay for home delivery services or their future intentions to use such services. Research limitations/implications - The study only investigated two specific consumer groups within highly concentrated urban grocery retail markets. However these groups may be considered typical of most western European countries and thus the study’s findings are of importance to retailers. Practical implications - The major findings suggest that in general home delivery service may not be considered a strategic competitive advantage in grocery retail markets. Other marketing issues such as pricing, assortment and store personnel still substantially affect a consumer’s choice of retail formats. This leads to the conclusion that home delivery providers should either appeal to niche markets and/or offer additional differential criteria compared to traditional retail formats. Originality/value - The paper argues for a different viewpoint for researchers nvestigating the topic of Internetbased distance retailing. Further, the reintegration of logistical tasks from consumers should not be considered detached from other format choice criteria.
The purpose of the paper is to introduce a model of Instore Logistics for retail stores. The model attempted to give a picture of all logistics processes that are carried out within a retail outlet from an incoming dock to the check out. The model has afterwards been empirically validated by analyzing the Instore Logistics processes of dairy products in 200 stores in the Austrian grocery retail sector. The findings of the survey show typical problem areas within store operations and identify the impact of the final 50 metres in the store as a key factor impacting upon the success of retail business. The paper continues the work of Raman, DeHoratius & Ton (2001) and Cachon (2001) and the findings contribute to close the execution gap in retail operations.
Leading representatives of the European grocery industry formed the European Efficient Consumer Response (ECR-)Initiative in 1995. The goal of this strategic alliance is set to reengineer the way business is done in the industry by implementing cooperative strategies between retailer and manufacturer in order to fulfill consumer wishes better, faster and at less cost. ECR appears thereby in many facets, from a ‘simple’ dyadic value-adding partnership to a sophisticated form of co-opetition, where Supply Chain members have both relationship types – competition and cooperation – at the same time. Our paper discusses these issues first on theoretical bases and then presents empirical results of a comprehensive analysis within a selected European ECR-initiative showing the success factors of managing ECR-partnership relations.
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Last Modified: Friday 2 December 2016 14:49:29 by ct0009
Expiry Date: Thursday 8 November 2012 13:02:15
Assembly date: Wed Jan 18 09:38:07 GMT 2017
Content ID: 61716