Professor Mark Saunders
Professor in Business Research Methods
Qualifications: BA (Lancaster), MSc (Salford), PGCE (Cantab), PhD (Lancaster), FCIPD
Phone: Work: 01483 68 6731
Room no: 43 MS 03
My weekly timetable and office hours are displayed on my office door. However, if it is more convenient for you, please email me for an appointment.
Mark joined the Surrey Business School in January 2009 as Professor in Business Research Methods. His is also Faculty Director of Postgraduate Research Programmes. His research interests are Research Methods, Trust and Small and Medium sized Enterprise (SME) success and these are reflected in his teaching. Mark also undertakes consultancy in the public, private and not for profit sectors..
Mark begun his career in academia after a variety of research posts in local government. He lectured at the Gloucestershire Business School, University of Gloucestershire, in Research Methods and Human Resource Management between 1990 and 2001. During this period he was Head of the Human Resource Management Research Centre. He subsequently worked at Oxford Brookes University Business School between 2001 and 2009 where he was Assistant Dean (Director of Research and Doctoral Programmes) and Professor of Business Research Methods.
Mark is co-author of seven management text books. These include Research Methods for Business Students (2012, 6th edition, Financial Times Prentice Hall), which has also been translated into Chinese, Dutch, Vietnamese and Russian; Doing Research in Business and Management: An Essential Guide to Planning Your Project (2012, Financial Times Prentice Hall); Statistics: What you really need to know ( 2008, McGraw Hill); Strategic Human Resource Management (2007, Financial Times Prentice Hall); Employee Relations: Understanding the Employment Relationship (2003, Financial Times Prentice Hall) and Managing Change: an HR Strategy Approach (2000, Financial Times Prentice Hall).
His co-edited books combine his research interests in methods and trust. The most recent the Handbook of Research Methods on Trust (2012, Edward Elgar) provides a comprehensive collection of chapters on the methods currently used to research trust. In contrast Organizational trust: a cultural perspective (2010, Cambridge University Press) is drawn from an ESRC funded seminar series for which he was principal investigator. A copy of the concluding chapter outlining future research directions can be downloaded here.
Copies of Mark's recent research publications can be downloaded from his publications pages.
Mark's recent consultancy clients include Kingston Smith (one of the UK's top twenty audit and chartered accountancy firms), Worcestershire County Council, Cambridge University, the National Health Service and West Midlands Learning and Skills Council.
Within my research I adopt a pragmatist approach utilizing a range of data collection methods alongside both quantitative and qualitative data analysis techniques.
Human resource aspects of the management of change:
- Trust within and between organisations, in particular issues associated with:
-trust and change,
-perceptions of organisational justice.
- Understanding and improving relationships within organisations, between organisations and between organisations and their customers.
- Small and Medium sized Enterprise (SME) success.
Organisational research methods:
- Implications for organisations of using online research methods.
- Ethical implications for researchers of using online research methods.
- Methods to research sensitive topics such as trust and justice.
- Development of the Template Process as a tool to learn about, understand and improve organizational relationships within a process consultation framework.
Mark has published on research methods, trust and organizational justice, downsizing and employee mobility. He has been a guest editor for the journals Personnel Review and Strategic Change, is a member of the editorial boards of the journals Personnel Review and Electronic Journal of Business Research Methods, Journal of Services Research and the Journal of Trust Research. He is Research Consultant to the Editorial Board of Coaching: An International Journal of Theory, Research and Practice.
Between 2005 and 2007 he was principal organiser of the ESRC Seminar Series: Building, maintaining and repairing trust across cultures: theory and practice (with Denise Skinner, Nicole Gillespie and Graham Dietz).
Research Student Supervision
Mark has supervised 12 PhDs, 1 DBA and 1 MPhil to successful completion. He has examined over 20 doctorates.
If you are interested in studying with him in his areas of research interest, please contact him for an informal discussion by email.
Member of Editorial Board (1999 –date) and Book Reviews Editor for Personnel Review (1999-2008).
Member of Editorial Board (2004 -date) On-line Journal of Business Research Methods
Member of Editorial Board (2009 -date) Journal of Trust Research
Member of Editorial Board (2009 -date) Journal of Services Research
Research Consultant to the Editorial Board (2011-date) Coaching: An International Journal of Theory, Research and Practice
- 'SME innovation and learning: the role of networks and crisis events'. Emerald European Journal of Training and Development, UK: 38 (1/2), pp. 136-149.Full text is available at: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/805158/
Purpose: To contribute to the literature on innovation and entrepreneurial learning by exploring how SMEs learn and innovate, how they use of both formal and informal learning and in particular the role of networks and crisis events within their learning experience. Design/methodology/approach: Mixed method study, comprising 13 focus groups, over 1000 questionnaire responses from SME mangers, 13 focus groups and 20 case studies derived from semi-structured interviews. Findings: SMEs have a strong commitment to learning, and a shared vision. Much of this learning is informal through network events, mentoring or coaching. SMEs that are innovative are significantly more committed to learning than those which are less innovative, seeing employee learning as an investment. Innovative SMEs are more likely to have a shared vision, be open-minded and to learn from crises, being able to reflect on their experiences. Implications for research: There is a need for further process driven qualitative research to understand the interrelationship between, particularly informal, learning, crisis events and SME innovation. Implications for practice: SME owners need opportunities and time for reflection as a means of stimulating personal learning – particularly the opportunity to learn from crisis events. Access to mentors (often outside the business) can be important here, as are informal networks. Originality/value: This is one of the first mixed method large scale studies to explore the relationship between SME innovation and learning, highlighting the importance of informal learning to innovation and the need for SME leaders to foster this learning as part of a shared organisational vision.
- 'Elective surgical patients' narratives of hospitalization: The co-construction of safety'. Social Science and Medicine, 98, pp. 29-36.Full text is available at: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/804416/
This research explores how elective surgical patients make sense of their hospitalization experiences. We explore sensemaking using longitudinal narrative interviews (n=72) with 38 patients undergoing elective surgical procedures between June 2010 and February 2011. We consider patients’ narratives, the stories they tell of their prior expectations, and subsequent post-surgery experiences of their care in a United Kingdom (UK) hospital. An emergent pre-surgery theme is that of a paradoxical position in which they choose to make themselves vulnerable by agreeing to surgery to enhance their health, this necessitating trust of clinicians (doctors and nurses). To make sense of their situation, patients draw on technical (doctors’ expert knowledge and skills), bureaucratic (National Health Service as a revered institution) and ideological (hospitals as places of safety), discourses. Post-operatively, themes of ‘chaos’ and ‘suffering’ emerge from the narratives of patients whose pre-surgery expectations (and trust) have been violated. Their stories tell of unmet expectations and of inability to make shared sense of experiences with clinicians who are responsible for their care. We add to knowledge of how patients play a critical part in the co-construction of safety by demonstrating how patient-clinician intersubjectivity contributes to the type of harm that patients describe. Our results suggest that approaches to enhancing patients’ safety will be limited if they fail to reflect patients’ involvement in the negotiated process of healthcare. We also provide further evidence of the contribution narrative inquiry can make to patient safety.
- 'The Influence of Culture on Trust Judgments in Customer Relationship Development by Ethnic Minority Small Businesses'. Wiley Journal of Small Business Management, 52 (1), pp. 59-78.doi: 10.1111/jsbm.12033
- 'Erfolgreich Veränderungen gestalten durch ein starkes Mittelmanagement'. Der Betriebswirt – Management in Wissenschaft und Praxis, Germany: 54 (1), pp. 12-18. . (2013)
- 'The origins and conceptualisations of `triple-loop’ learning: a critical review'. Sage Management Learning, 43 (3), pp. 289-305. . (2012)
- 'Web versus Mail: The influence of survey distribution mode on employees' response'. Sage Field Methods, 24 (1), pp. 56-73.Full text is available at: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/25594/
Despite organizations’ widespread Internet use and ready availability of Web survey software, few studies have examined explicitly the impact on employees’ responses of using the Web as opposed to mail-based surveys (MBS). This article addresses this gap using an employee attitude survey distributed to a 50% systematic sample of 3,338 employees by mail, the remaining employees receiving the survey via a Web link. Although the return rate for the Web (49.1%) was higher than for mail (33.5%), the quality of Web returns was reduced by a higher number of partial responses and abandonments. Taking into account effect size, significant differences in response were small other than for open question content. Recommendations regarding use of Web-based surveys (WBS) are offered and areas for future research suggested.
- 'Formulating a convincing rationale for a research study'. Taylor & Francis Coaching: An International Journal of Theory, Research and Practice, 5 (1), pp. 55-61.Full text is available at: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/135497/
Explaining the purpose of a research study and providing a compelling rationale is an important part of any coaching research project, enabling the work to be set in the context of both existing evidence (and theory) and its practical applications. This necessitates formulating a clear research question and deriving specific research objectives, thereby justifying and contextualising the study. In this research note we consider the characteristics of good research questions and research objectives and the role of theory in developing these. We conclude with a summary and a checklist to help ensure the rationale for a coaching research study is convincing.
- 'Beyond Consensus: An Alternative use of Delphi Enquiry in Hospitality Research'. Emerald International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 24 (6), pp. 907-924. . (2012)
- 'Trust in Partnership Relationships: Navigating the Cultural Mosaic'. The Partner, , pp. 98-101. . (2012)
- 'On the experience of conducting a Systematic Review in Industrial, Work and Organizational Psychology: Yes it is Worthwhile'. Hogrefe Publishing Journal of Personnel Psychology, 10 (3), pp. 133-138.Full text is available at: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/7300/
Systematic Review methodology (SRm) is an increasingly popular choice for literature reviews in the Social Sciences. While compared to traditional narrative reviews SRm appears time-consuming and laborious, transparency and replicability of the methodology is argued to facilitate greater clarity of review. Nevertheless, researchers in Industrial, Work, and Organizational (IWO) Psychology have yet to embrace this methodology. Drawing on experience from conducting a Systematic Review (SR) of individual workplace performance we explore the premise: The advantages of SRm to IWO Psychology researchers outweigh the disadvantages. We offer observations, insights, and potential solutions to challenges faced during the reviewing process, concluding that SRm is worthwhile for IWO Psychology researchers
- 'On the attributes of a critical literature review'. Taylor and Francis Coaching: An International Journal, 4 (2), pp. 156-162.Full text is available at: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/7386/
Exploring and evaluating findings from previous research is an essential aspect of all research projects enabling the work to be set in the context of what is known and what is not known. This necessitates a critical review of the literature in which existing research is discussed and evaluated, thereby contextualising and justifying the project. In this research note we consider what is understood by being critical when reviewing prior to outlining the key attributes of a critical literature review. We conclude with a summary checklist to help ensure a literature review is critical.
- 'Researching sensitive issues without sensitising: using a concurrent mixed methods design to research trust and distrust'. e-Content Management Journal of Multiple Research Approaches, 5 (3), pp. 334-350.Full text is available at: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/121075/
Researchers exploring sensitive issues need to obtain valid and reliable information. This may necessitate participants not being sensitised to the precise research focus to prevent contamination of findings. In this paper research exploring feelings of trust and distrust and emotional responses to organisational change is used to assess how a concurrent mixed methods design, utilizing a constrained card sort and in-depth interview, can enable such sensitive issues to be researched without sensitising participants. This illustrative example provides instructive guidance regarding how to apply this mixed method. It also reveals how feelings of trust and distrust and emotional responses are directly associated with positively and negatively interpreted change situations rather than misappropriated, highlighting reasons for these responses including the role of managers. The paper concludes by considering how this mixed methods design can support researching such sensitive issues in organisations.
- 'Affective and continuance commitment in public private partnership'. Employee Relations, 32 (4), pp. 396-417.Full text is available at: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/788047/
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of the "transfer" process on relationships between employees' perceived organisational support and affective and continuance commitment within the context of the move to a new employment relationship as part of a public private partnership. Design/methodology/approach: Eight semi-structured interviews informed the design of a questionnaire, which was distributed to facilities management employees of a UK NHS hospital who had been seconded to a private-sector management company. This resulted in 101 effective responses (33 per cent). Findings: In new forms of employment relationship, employees' perceptions of the "transfer" process influence significantly their perceptions of the management company and their commitment to it. Positively perceived organisational support from the management company significantly increases affective and continuance commitment to the management company, particularly amongst those who feel positive about the transfer process. Research limitations/implications: This research focuses upon employee commitment to the management company. Further research is proposed to investigate different foci of commitment as well as the influence of the psychological contract. Practical implications: The effect of fairness in the "transfer" process is far reaching, lasting beyond the initial transfer. Both parties should work together to enable a smooth employee "transfer" process, supervisors particularly having a strong influence on employees' attitudes and behaviour. Originality/value: There is a lack of research regarding the antecedents and consequences of commitment of employees, who are managed by one but employed by a different organisation. This study begins to address this gap. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
- 'UK managers' conceptions of employee training and development'. Journal of European Industrial Training, 34 (7), pp. 609-630.Full text is available at: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/712907/
Purpose: The first purpose of this paper is to review the practical and theoretical distinctions between training and development in the organisational psychology and human resource development (HRD) literatures. Then the paper seeks to investigate how managers responsible for the training and development function conceptualise these activities in practice, the factors that guide their decision making, how they evaluate the outcomes and the extent to which they perceive a relationship between training and development. Design/methodology/approach: Taking a critical realist perspective, 26 interviews were conducted with UK managers and analysed through thematic coding using template analysis. Findings: Managers' conceptualisations of training and development vary. Formal training is prioritised due to a perceived more tangible demonstrable return on investment. Perceived success in training focuses on improvements to job-related skills, whereas success outcomes for development are more varied and difficult to measure. Managers consider that training and development are more valuable when combined. Research limitations/implications: There is a need for further process-driven research to understand the interrelationship between training and development and to develop methods that can be used by organisations to evaluate both. This necessitates going beyond methods currently in use and including both qualitative and quantitative measures. Practical implications: Managers may take a more proactive and directive role in facilitating development than the literature suggests; consequently, their role needs to be considered more actively in HRD learning strategies. Originality/value: This is one of the first qualitative studies to explore the conceptualisations of managers responsible for training and development, highlighting the inter-relationship between training and development and the factors guiding decisions regarding these activities. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
- 'Book review: D. Coglan and T Brannick 'Doing Action Research in Your Own Organisation''. Action Learning: Research and Practice, 7 (3), pp. 317-318. . (2010)
- 'The management of post-merger cultural integration: Implications from the hotel industry'. Service Industries Journal, 29 (10), pp. 1359-1375.Full text is available at: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/788060/
This paper explores employees' reactions to the management of post-merger cultural integration in the hotel industry. Using a mixed method design incorporating a structured card sort of possible emotions and subsequent in-depth interview, data were collected from 30 head office employees. Findings highlight the importance of the human dynamics of a merger, emphasising the importance of strong leadership, open and honest communication as pre-cursors to integration and suggest the need for a pre-merger cultural audit. Merging two organisations involves the dedication of a remarkable level of resources and activities both before and after the merger and yet, a successful outcome is uncertain and is subject to effective management of cultural integration. © 2009 Taylor & Francis.
- 'Developing the Service Template: From measurement to agendas for improvement'. Taylor & Francis Service Industries Journal, 26 (5), pp. 581-595.Full text is available at: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/788048/
Traditional survey-based measures of service quality are argued to be problematic when reflecting individual services and turning measurement into action. This paper reviews developments to an alternative measurement approach, the Service Template Process, and offers an extension to it. The extended process appears able to measure service users' and deliverers' perceptions of service quality independently. It also enables participants to jointly agree an agenda for quality improvement. The extended process is evaluated in four service situations. The paper concludes with an assessment of the advantages and disadvantages of the process in comparison with more traditional approaches to measuring service quality.
- 'Book Review: Handbook of organizational justice'. SAGE PUBLICATIONS LTD ORGAN STUD, 27 (12), pp. 1911-1914. . (2006)
- 'You owe it to yourself: The financially literate manager'. Accounting Forum, 30 (2), pp. 179-191.Full text is available at: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/788065/
There is an important benefit for businesspeople who are financially literate. Financial literacy helps them to function efficiently at work because they are able to evaluate the information needed to make decisions that have financial ramifications or consequences. Research into the financially literate has tended to concentrate on personal finance issues involving the general public. The focus of this paper, however, is on small businesses owner-entrepreneurs who, in their first year, are required to understand the financial position and activities of their organisations, and thus do not need to take the activities, statements and advice of their accountants and financial advisors on trust. Using data collected from 147 small businesses over their first year of trading, the findings provide evidence of a degree of financial illiteracy which has implications for the success or failure of this section of the business community. © 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
- 'Forced employment contract change and the psychological contract'. Employee Relations, 28 (5), pp. 449-467.Full text is available at: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/788034/
Purpose - To explore the implications for all employees' psychological contracts of a forced change from permanent to temporary employment status for some employees within an organisation. Design/methodology/approach - A random sample of 30 employees, stratified by employment status was selected. Each employee undertook a structured card sort of possible emotional responses to change followed by an in-depth interview to explore and explain their categorisation of these responses. Findings - The nature of psychological contracts and organisational attachments for both permanent employees and forced temporary workers is complex. Permanent employees generally continue to exhibit relational forms of attachment to the organisation. These, they believe, are reciprocated by the organisation. Reactions from forced temporary workers are more varied. After a period of denial, some develop a more calculative approach to their interactions. Others maintain aspects of their previously developed relational attachments. Only some temporary workers appear to recognise that their future direction is no longer a concern of the organisation. Research limitations/implications - Although only based upon one organisation, the findings suggest that the process of psychological contract adjustment is likely to emerge through gradual re-interpretation, rather than through re-negotiation. Practical implications - Management actions need to be recognised as important in re-defining the nature of psychological contracts. The transitional nature of this process may be prolonged where management imposes transactional contracts and where communication and negotiation to create clear expectations is lacking. Originality/value - The findings provide new insights into the implications of forcing employees from permanent to temporary contracts for their, and remaining permanent employees', psychological contracts. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
- 'From evaluation towards an agenda for quality improvement: The development and application of the Template Process'. Sage Active Learning in Higher Education, 6 (1), pp. 60-72.Full text is available at: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/788035/
For many students and lecturers evaluation is confined to some form of survey. Whilst these can provide useful feedback, their focus is likely to reflect the values and norms of those commissioning and undertaking the evaluation. For real improvements in quality to occur both lecturers’ and students’ perspectives of factors that are important need to be made explicit and understood. Drawing upon literature relating to service quality and in particular the Service Template, this article outlines and evaluates an alternative approach for establishing students’ and lecturers’ perspectives, obtaining feedback and developing an agenda for improvement. Using the example of dissertation supervision, it is argued that a revised Template Process operating within a process consultation framework can meet these concerns. The article concludes with a discussion of the applicability of the Template Process to evaluating teaching and learning.
- 'The nature of the relationship between authors and publishers'. Springer Publishing Research Quarterly, 21 (2), pp. 3-15.Full text is available at: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/788061/
Relationships within and outside organizations are changing, and the publishing sector is no exception. However, the roles of author and publisher remain distinct, each dependent on the other for the successful completion of a publishing project. Drawing upon research conducted in the English Language Teaching Division of an international publishing company, this article examines the authorpublisher relationship within a service context. It considers the characteristics authors and publishers identify to be integral to the relationship, and explores the extent to which the expectations and perceptions of authors and publishers differ. The research findings indicate that there is a mismatch between the characteristics that authors and publishers identify as integral to their relationship. Whilst publishers focus upon the role of the editor in the nurturing and maintenance of relationships with individual authors, authors consider their relationship to be with the whole publishing house, including the marketing and design functions.
- 'Professionalisation of the start up process'. Wiley Strategic Change, 14 (6), pp. 337-347. . (2005)
- 'Mismatched perceptions and expectations: An exploration of stakeholders' views of key and technical skills in vocational education and training'. Emerald Journal of European Industrial Training, 29 (5), pp. 369-382.Full text is available at: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/788054/
Purpose – To explore potential mismatches between stakeholders' perceptions and expectations of key and technical skills needed for an advanced modern apprentice within the UK. Design/methodology/approach – Using data collected from the automotive sector, the template process is used to establish lecturer, student and employee stakeholder group's expectations of a person taking up employment alongside an advanced modern apprenticeship or as an advanced modern apprentice. Perceptions of the extent to which expectations are met and their relative importance are assessed. Findings – All stakeholders acknowledge that a skills gap exists across key and technical skills. However, whilst students focus on technical skills, lecturers and employees place greatest emphasis on key skills and their ability to transfer them. Research limitations/implications – Although this research is based on the UK automotive sector, the findings emphasise the importance of key skills and understanding as part of students' learning. Research is needed to establish why students appear to undervalue these and establish whether similar patterns exist in other sectors. Practical implications – The voluntarist approach to UK vocational education and training has, when combined with the need for further education colleges to be economically viable, resulted in courses that appear attractive but do not always meet the automotive sector's needs. Research is needed to establish whether this is occurring across other sectors. Originality/value – This template process offers a new technique to explore stakeholders' perceptions and expectations. The findings provide new insights into the mismatches between expectations of the stakeholders in vocational education and training.
- 'Guest Editorial: HRM and change'. Personnel Review, 33 (2), pp. 159-160. . (2004)
- 'Trust and mistrust in organisations: An exploration using an organisational justice framework'. Taylor & Francis European Journal of Work and Organisational Psychology, 13 (4), pp. 493-515.Full text is available at: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/788064/
This article commences with an overview of trust and mistrust, focusing on the debate about whether these are two ends of a continuum or distinct but interrelated concepts. Building on this review, the relationship between employees' perceptions of organizational justice and their self-categorized feelings of trust and mistrust is considered. It is suggested that organizational justice offers a useful means through which to explain and understand employees' feelings of trust and mistrust. Using case study data drawn from a UK public sector organization, the relationship between employees' feelings of trust and mistrust is explored within a change context. The data suggest that, whereas some employees perceive trust and mistrust as two ends of a continuum, others see them as distinct concepts. These findings are conceptualized as a trust - mistrust - absence triangle. Drawing on organizational justice as an explanatory theory, reasons for these findings are offered. The article concludes with a discussion regarding the coexistence of trust and mistrust and the explanatory value of organizational justice theory in understanding this.
- 'Family breakdown: developing an explanatory theory of reward system change'. Personnel Review, 33 (2), pp. 174-186. . (2004)
- 'Towards a shared understanding of skill shortages: differing perceptions of training and development needs'. Education and Training, 46 (4), pp. 182-193. . (2004)
- 'Policies, promises and trust: Improving working lives in the NHS'. Emerald International Journal of Public Sector Management, 17 (7), pp. 558-570.Full text is available at: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/788057/
In recent years the UK National Health Service (NHS) has been characterised by radical and continuous change at every level. Within the literature, and the NHS itself, it is argued that successfully changing such an organisation requires the sustained commitment, trust and goodwill of staff. As part of developing and maintaining mutual trust and commitment it is widely argued that employers must meet the employee expectations which form part of the psychological contract, an important element of which, Armstrong argues, is being able to trust in management to keep their promises. Within this paper we argue that policies can be seen as a visible manifestation of management promises and present the improving working lives (IWL) policy within the NHS as an example of one such “promise” that has been made to staff in relation to areas which are important to them at a personal level. Using an anonymous questionnaire that explored areas central to IWL, data were collected from staff in five Primary Care Trusts within one Strategic Heath Authority in relation to their experiences and awareness of what was being done to address these issues. The research found that although the IWL Standard makes very public promises about work-life balance, harassment, equality and the valuing of staff, at best these have only been partially delivered.
- 'Guest Editorial - Human Resource Management in a changing world'. Strategic Change, 11 (7), pp. 341-345. . (2003)
- 'Exploring employees' reactions to strategic change over time: The utilisation of an organisational justice perspective'. Irish Journal of Management, 24 (1), pp. 66-86. . (2003)
- 'Organisational justice, trust and the management of change: An exploration'. Emerald Personnel Review, 32 (3), pp. 360-374.Full text is available at: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/788056/
This paper explores employees’ trust as a reaction to the management of change using the constructs of organisational justice. Following a review of organisational justice theory in relation to trust and change, employees’ reactions are considered using a case study of a UK public sector organisation. Drawing on 28 in-depth interviews with employees, the nature of trust is explored. Little difference is found between trusting and mistrustful employees’ perceptions of distributive justice. Supporting earlier findings regarding the relationship between procedural justice and trust, the research also reveals the distinct importance of fairness of treatment (interactional justice) in enabling trust.
- 'Understanding employees' reactions to the management of change: an exploration through an organisational justice framework'. Irish Journal of Management, 23 (1), pp. 85-108. . (2002)
- 'Towards critical evaluation of the quality of information systems services: The development and application of the Template Process'. Electronic Journal of Business Research Methods, 1 (1), pp. 29-36. . (2002)
- 'Reactions to change and how to deal with them'. Croner's Journal of Professional HRM, 28, pp. 17-23. . (2002)
- 'Managing careers in restructured organisations'. Croner's Journal of Professional HRM, 23 (0), pp. 16-22. . (2001)
- 'Towards a new approach to understanding service encounters: establishing, learning about and reconciling different views'. Journal of European Industrial Training, 24, pp. 220-227. . (2000)
- 'Stress at work: assessing the risk'. Occupational Health Review, 87, pp. 29-34. . (2000)
- 'The development and evaluation of a new generic model of individual workplace performance'. Cardiff: 26th Annual Conference of the British Academy of Management . (2012)
- 'Identifying the Triggers for SME Innovation and Success: A UK mixed methods study'. Singapore: 3rd Annual conference on Innovation and Entrepreneurship . (2012)
- 'Trust and sense making in dominant-subordinate relationships: the case of trust violation and patient safety'. Milan: EIASM 6th Workshop on Trust Within and Between OrganisationsFull text is available at: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/804472/
This paper examines the role of sense-making in maintaining trust within dominant-subordinate relationships, following trust violation, addressing the question “Why do people carry on trusting despite evidence to the contrary?” Whilst recognizing the role of hierarchy, accounts of sense-making have tended to emphasise agency and shared sense-sense-making or consensual adequacy. They have consequently tended to neglect how following presumptive trust individuals may be socialized into trusting behaviour that complies with norms dictated by more powerful actors, even where a trust violation offers evidence that becoming vulnerable will result in harm. Using their trust relationship with hospital employees, patients’ sense making of trust violations in relation to their safety is examined. The contribution we make is therefore two-fold. Firstly we explore the implications for trust of how service users make sense of events where there may be opportunity for discrepant sense-making. Secondly by focusing on service users’ narratives we examine processes by which, in the face of contradictory information, trust is maintained.
- 'A new generic model of individual workplace performance?'. Chester: Division of Occupational Psychology Conference . (2012)
- 'They think that poor old patient doesn't know anything: Sense making in the context of dominant and subordinate relationships'. Aston, Birmingham: British Academy of ManagementFull text is available at: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/181455/
- 'Non response in cross-cultural telephone surveys: reflections on telephone survey interviews with Chinese managers'. Aston, Birmingham: British Academy of Management . (2011)
- 'Does it pay to be specific about performance? Some Meta-Analytic Evidence'. Aston, Birmingham: British Academy of Management . (2011)
- 'Telephone requests for participation and refusal: reflections on gaining interview survey access to Chinese managers'. Reading : Academic Conferences International Proceedings of the 10th European Conference of Research Methods in Business and Management, Caen, France: 10th European Conference on Research Methods in Business and Management, pp. 537-546. . (2011)
- 'Trust and Strategic Change: an Organizational Justice Perspective'. Sheffield, UK: Trust and HRM Symposium, British Academy of Management . (2010)
- 'Researching sensitively without sensitizing: using a mixed methods design'. Reading : ACI Proceedings of the 9th European Conference on Research Methods in Business and Management, 9th European Conference on Research Methods in Business and Management, pp. 503-509. . (2010)
- 'Location, the development of swift trust and learning: insights from two doctoral summer schools'. Madrid, Spain: EIASM 5th Workshop on Trust Within and Between Organisations . (2010)
- 'An investigation of the Interface between strategic orientations, organizational learning and SME growth in the retail industry'. Istanbul, Turkey: 17th Recent Advances in Retailing and Services Science Conference . (2010)
- 'The impact of web and mail survey distribution methods on employees’ response'. Brighton, UK: British Academy of Management . (2009)
- 'Researching Sensitively without Sensitizing: Using Card Sorts in Concurrent Mixed Method Designs'. Sheffield, UK: British Academy of Management . (2009)
- 'Location, trust and learning: insights from a doctoral summer school'. Newcastle, UK: 10th International Conference on Human Resource Development: Research and Practice across Europe . (2009)
- 'A real world comparison of responses to distributing questionnaire surveys by mail and web'. Reading : Proceedings of the 8th European Conference on Research Methods in Business and Management, 8th European Conference on Research Methods in Business and Management, pp. 323-330. . (2009)
- 'The meaning and use of trust related terms'. Harrogate, UK: British Academy of Management . (2008)
- 'Improving service relationships using the Service Template Process: from defining problems to owning solutions'. Penn State University, USA: International Conference of Services Management . (2008)
- 'Doing things right or doing the right things? Using the Extended Service Template Process to facilitate learning'. Lille, France: 9th International Conference on Human Resource Development Research and Practice Across Europe . (2008)
- 'Conceptualising trust and distrust and the role of boundaries: an organisationally based exploration'. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: EIASM 4rd Workshop on Trust Within and Between Organisations Special Session V: Toward a systematic understanding of trust and boundaries . (2007)
- 'Improving organisational relationships: applying the Extended Service Template Process to promote organisational learning'. Praeto: ACREW . (2006)
- 'The meaning and use of the terms trust, mistrust and distrust: relevant debate or academic navel gazing?'. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: EIASM . (2005)
- 'Perceptions of Organizational Justice and Organizational Commitment'. Istanbull, Turkey: XII European Congress of Work and Organisational Psychology . (2005)
- 'Developing the Service Template: from measurement to quality improvement'. Oxford, UK: British Academy of Management . (2005)
- 'The role of Power and Agency in the Introduction of a Job Families System'. Istanbull, Turkey: XII European Congress of Work and Organisational Psychology . (2005)
- 'The Impact of Forced Change in Employment Contracts on Employees’ Perceptions of their Psychological Contracts'. Istanbul, Turkey: XII European Congress of Work and Organisational Psychology . (2005)
- 'You owe it to yourself: The financially literate manager'. Dublin, NI: Irish Academy of Management Conference . (2004)
- 'The meaning and use of the words trust, mistrust and distrust: relevant debate or academic navel gazing?'. Ljubljana, Slovenia: European Group for Organisational Studies Conference . (2004)
- 'Organisational Justice and Strategic Change: The Development and Exploration of a Conceptual Framework'. Dublin: Irish Academy of Management Conference . (2003)
- 'Exploring the Reasons for Failure of a Job Families Rewards System'. Lisbon, Portugal: 11th European Congress on Work and Organizational Psychology . (2003)
- 'Trust in the new National Health Service'. Milan, Italy: European Academy of Management Conference . (2003)
- 'Trust and Mistrust in Organisations: An Exploration Using an Organisational Justice Framework'. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Second International Workshop on Trust . (2003)
- 'The development of an analytical framework for Organisational Justice: Exploring the practice of strategic change'. Waterford, Ireland: Irish Academy of Management Conference . (2003)
- 'Policies, Promises and Trust: Improving Working Lives in the National Health Service'. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Second International Workshop on Trust . (2003)
- 'Beyond the home shopping catalogue? Business and Management postgraduate students’ understanding of critically reviewing the literature'. Proceedings of the 2nd European Conference on Research Methodology for Business and Management Studies, 2nd European Conference on Research Methodology for Business and Management Studies, pp. 313-319. . (2003)
- 'Towards critical evaluation of dissertation supervision: the development and application of the Template process'. Warwick, UK: CEDAR, New Initiatives in Research and EvaluationFull text is available at: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/788063/
For many students and lecturers evaluation is confined to some form of questionnaire survey. Whilst these can provide useful feedback, their focus is likely to reflect the values and norms of those commissioning and undertaking the evaluation. For real improvements in quality to occur both lecturers’ and students’ perspectives of those factors that are important need to be made explicit and understood. Drawing upon literature relating to service quality measures and in particular the Service Template, this paper outlines and evaluates an alternative approach for establishing students’ and lecturers’ perspectives, obtaining feedback and developing an agenda for improvement. Using the example of dissertation supervision, it is argued that a revised Template Process operating within a process consultation framework can meet these concerns. The paper concludes with a discussion of the wider applicability of the Template Process to evaluating teaching and learning.
- 'Family breakdown: developing an explanatory theory of reward system change'. Proceedings of the HRM in a Changing World Conference, Oxford Brookes University, UK: HRM in a Changing World, pp. 34-37. . (2002)
- 'Employee's trust as a reaction to the management of change: an exploration through an organisational justice framework'. Stockholm, Sweden: European Academy of Management Conference . (2002)
- 'Towards critical evaluation of the quality of information systems services: The development and application of the Template Process'. Proceedings of the European Conference on Research Methodology for Business and Management Studies, European Conference on Research Methodology for Business and Management Studies, pp. 327-334. . (2002)
- 'Understanding employees’ reactions to the management of change'. Londonderry, Ireland: Irish Academy of Management . (2001)
- 'From measurement to an agenda for action: Developing the service template process to establish, understand and address what really matters'. What really matters in Operations Management, Bath School of Management, Bath: What really matters in Operations Management, pp. 957-968. . (2001)
- 'Employee reactions to the management of change: an exploration of an organisational justice framework'. Athens, Greece: International Conference on Advances in Management . (2001)
- 'The use of assessment criteria to ensure consistency of marking: some implications for good practice'. Oxford, UK: Oxford Centre for Learning and Development Conference on Assessment . (2001)
- 'Double loop learning and improving organisational relationships: the application of the Template process'. Colorado, USA: International Conference on Advances in Management . (2000)
- 'Towards a new approach to understanding service encounters - establishing and reconciling different views'. Limerick, Ireland: Irish Academy of Management Conference . (2000)
- 'Organisational Justice and Strategic Change: The Development and Exploration of a Conceptual Framework'. Edinburgh, UK: British Academy of Management . (2000)
- 'Non-Response in Cross-Cultural Surveys: Reflections on Telephone Survey Interviews with Chinese Managers'. in Wang CL, Ketchen Jr DJ, Bergh D (eds.) Research Methodology in Strategy & Management Bradford : Emerald Publishing 7, pp. 213-237. . (2012)
- 'Introduction: the variety of methods for the muti-faceted phenomenon of trust'. in Lyon F, Moellering G, Saunders MNK (eds.) Handbook of Research Methods on Trust
Edward Elgar , pp. 1-15.Full text is available at: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/788052/
A reader who picks up this handbook will, we imagine, share the excitement and frustration about trust that thinkers have experienced for millennia and that is still felt throughout the growing community of trust researchers nowadays: how trust is one of the most fascinating and fundamental social phenomena yet at the same time one of the most elusive and challenging concepts one could study. As scholars we have to reach past the undying topicality and apparent importance of trust as we apply our research methods to this challenge, only to realize their limitations when the object of study is trust. The chapters show that we have a broad array of methods that help us rise to the challenge of capturing at least part of the multi-faceted phenomenon of trust. To date, an overview of the many methods that can be used for studying trust has been missing. It is our aim to provide such an overview with this handbook, while recognizing that it cannot be fully exhaustive. Through this handbook we hope to encourage trust researchers to reflect on the methods they use, to acknowledge contributions from a variety of methodological positions and to improve methods and instruments according to the specific challenges posed by trust. Our optimism in this respect is based on the relative methodological openness and pluralism we have observed in the trust research community. Perhaps more than in other fields, our research topic prevents methodological hubris as it constantly reminds us how no method can provide the perfect understanding of a phenomenon. In line with these considerations, the editors and contributors of this volume have explored trust from a variety of directions. As trust is a concept that cannot be easily observed or even defined, the trust research community has drawn on ideas across academia to gain a better understanding of it. This book reflects on the journeys of trust researchers and through the sharing of their experiences hopes to cast light on methods for those researching trust.
- 'Combining card sorts and in-depth interviews'. in Lyon F, Moellering G, Saunders MNK (eds.) Handbook of Research Methods on Trust
Edward Elgar Article number 11 , pp. 110-120.Full text is available at: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/787905/
Trust research invariably asks questions about sensitive issues, highlighting the need to build rapport and trust between the researcher and participant. It may also be necessary to ensure participants are not sensitized to the focus on trust. This chapter outlines the use of a card sort, concurrent with an in-depth interview to help overcome these issues.
- 'Choosing research participants'. in Symons G, Cassell C (eds.) The Practice of Qualitative Organizational Research: Core Methods and Current Challenges London : Sage , pp. 37-55. . (2012)
- 'Trust and strategic change: An organizational justice perspective'. in Searle R, Skinner D (eds.) Trust and Human Resource Management
Cheltenham : Edward Elgar Article number 14 , pp. 268-286.Full text is available at: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/7302/
- 'The Management Researcher as Practitioner'. in Lee B, Cassell C (eds.) Challenges and Controversies in Management Research
London : Routledge- Taylor & Francis Article number 15 , pp. 243-256.Full text is available at: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/7301/
- 'Web or mail: which questionnaire delivery method should be used?'. in Lee T (ed.) The Partner 2010 London : Partnership Sourcing Ltd , pp. 67-69. . (2010)
- 'Emerging themes, implications for practice and directions for research'. in Saunders MNK, Skinner D, Lewicki RJ (eds.) Organizational Trust 1st Edition. Cambridge Univ Pr Article number 16 , pp. 407-423. . (2010)
- 'Understanding and Improving Organisational Relationships'. in Lee T (ed.) The Partner 2009 London : Partnership Sourcing Ltd , pp. 50-53. . (2009)
- 'Trust and mistrust in organisations: An exploration using an organisational justice framework'. in Bournois F, Altman A, Boje D (eds.) Managerial Psychology London : Sage . (2008)
- 'Trust in Organisational Relationships'. in Lee T (ed.) The Partner 2008 London : Partnership Sourcing Ltd , pp. 34-38. . (2008)
- 'Entry for 'Content Analysis''. in Thorpe R, Holt R (eds.) The Sage Dictionary of Qualitative Management Research London : Sage , pp. 58-59. . (2008)
- 'Improving Service Quality in the New Public Sector'. in Sargeant A, Wymer W (eds.) The Routledge Companion to Nonprofit Marketing London : Routledge , pp. 389-402. . (2007)
- 'Entry for "Gatekeeper"'. in Jupp V (ed.) The Sage dictionary of social research methods Sage Publications Ltd . (2006)
- 'Entry for 'Organisational Research''. in Jupp V (ed.) The Sage dictionary of social research methods Sage Publications Ltd , pp. 208-210. . (2006)
- 'Entry for 'Research Bargain''. in Jupp V (ed.) The Sage dictionary of social research methods Sage Publications Ltd , pp. 264-265. . (2006)
- 'Appraisal at 'EnergyCo': 360-degree feedback using questionnaires'. in Blundel R (ed.) Effective Organisational Communication 2nd Edition. Harlow : FT Prentice Hall , pp. 132-133. . (2004)
- 'Double loop learning and improving organisational relationships: the application of the Template Process'. in Rahim MA, Golembiewski RT, Lundberg C (eds.) Current Topics in Management Volume 6 Amsterdam : Elsevier Science 6, pp. 127-148. . (2001)
- SME success in challenging times: Bank finance -lost in translation. in (ed.) SME success in challenging times: Bank finance -lost in translation
London : Kingston Smith LLP , pp. 1-14.Full text is available at: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/804540/
The conventional wisdom, not just in the UK but also internationally, is that the major banks are not interested in lending to small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). One of the main factors cited is that banks find it difficult to gauge whether SMEs have the capacity and/or willingness to repay their debts. In contrast, some studies suggest that most SMEs seeking external funding are successful in their applications. The current study sets out to investigate the truth of these seemingly contradictory claims and makes recommendations for improvements in SME access to bank finance. In conducting the study, the authors made use of their 2012 national survey on the triggers for SME success (with over 1,000 SME responses), and secondary data analysis of government reports, with new data gathering methods using two SME focus groups, five in-depth SME case studies, and analysis of the major banks’ SME lending policies as presented through their websites. Access was obtained to interview the senior lending policy makers of four major banks and one challenger bank. Research revealed that the majority of SMEs seeking routes to finance avoid banks and traditional financial institutions. The main source of finance used by SMEs to start their business is personal/family savings, with more established SMEs using retained profits. Although banks are used by SMEs, they are not the primary source of finance. From an SME perspective, not only do banks not provide the capital required, but they also seem to know very little about what businesses (particularly small businesses) need. However, the picture is more nuanced than this. Of those SMEs that seek access to external finance, banks are still the primary source. Furthermore, and contrary to popular myth, the majority of SMEs seeking finance from banks do obtain it. This situation, however, has deteriorated. Before the economic crisis of 2008, 90% of SMEs seeking bank finance successfully attained it, a figure which fell to 74% in 2011. This partly helps to explain the growth in importance of alternative sources of finance such as business angels, peer-to-peer lending and crowd funding. Drawing upon the literature reviewed, the two focus groups with SMEs, and the five bank interviews, a number of key findings were derived.
- Success in challenging times: Key lessons for UK SMEs (full report). London : Kingston Smith LLP , pp. 1-77.Full text is available at: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/732199/
There are approximately 4.5 million businesses employing less than 250 people in the UK, providing a total of 13.7 million jobs, equating to half the private sector workforce in 2011. However, while such Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) are of importance, it is their durability that can be considered of greater significance. The precarious nature of SME existence has been well documented. Only about 65% of small businesses are still trading after the first three years of initial start-up. After five years, fewer than 45% of businesses will have survived. Put simply, small firms are more likely to die than larger firms. Indeed, other than size per se, the higher likelihood of death is what distinguishes small from large firms. However, multiple failures can be experienced as the springboard for later success (provided learning takes place). Much of the research into small firms has focused on their failure. The danger of this approach is that it identifies what has gone wrong, but may fail to discover what they need to get right. The approach of the current study, then, is to focus on the triggers that lead to SME success, as a way of highlighting more effective strategy decisions for firms themselves, and to inform better policy decisions for government. A return of over 1,000 survey questionnaires completed by SME owners/directors or senior managers, 20 in depth interviews and 13 focus groups, makes this one of the largest surveys ever into the strategic management of SMEs in the UK. Key findings Finance Successful SMEs are likely to use more than one source of finance to both start and sustain their business However, most SMEs only use one source of finance to start the business, the main source being personal/family savings with a smaller proportion using a bank loan SMEs with a relatively large number of employees now are significantly more likely to have funded the starting of their business using: Bank loan Remortgaging personal property Business Angels/Venture Capital finance/Grant Leasing Factoring and Invoice Discounting SMEs with a relatively small number of employees now are significantly more likely to have funded the starting of their business using: Credit card Personal/family savings Success in challenging times: Key lessons for UK SMEs 7 The main sources of finance used by SMEs to fund their businesses now are: Reinvesting profit (68%) Personal/family savings (39%) Bank loan (29%) SMEs seek routes to financi
- Success in challenging times: Key lessons for UK SMEs (Summary report). London : Kingston Smith LLP , pp. 1-18.Full text is available at: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/732200/
Research Methods and Methodology
Faculty Director of Postgraduate Research Programmes (PhD and DBA)
Council Member of the British Academy of Management
Member of ABS (Association of Business Schools) Research Committee
Fellow of Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development
Fellow of Higher Education Academy
Recent clients include:
Worcestershire County Council
University of Cambridge
South East England Development Agency
Birmingham and Solihull Learning and Skills Council
Oxfordshire Primary Health Care NHS Trusts
PSL (Partnership Sourcing Ltd) Steering Group, a CBI initiative to promote collaboration and partnering in business
Visiting Professor, Worcester Business School, University of Worcester
External Examiner, Institute of Financial Services