Professor Nigel Fielding
Qualifications: BA (Sussex), MA (Kent), PhD (LSE), AcSS.
Phone: Work: 01483 68 6967
Room no: 22 AD 03
My research interests are in criminology, socio-legal studies, social research methodology, and new technologies for social research. In criminology I have particular expertise in policing, having conducted studies of police training, police occupational culture, community and neighbourhood policing, equal opportunities in the police service, police corruption, and comparative research on international police systems. In socio-legal studies I have particular interests in the criminal courts and the experiences of lay people during the criminal trial process. My study of lay participants' experience of trials of cases of physical violence won the Socio-Legal Studies Association Hart Prize 2007 for the Best Socio-Legal Book.
In social research methodology my primary expertise is in qualitative methods, particularly the practice and ethics of participant observation, the status of interview data, and software for the analysis of qualitative data, in which latter I co-direct the UK national centre for qualitative software. I also have substantial expertise in multiple-method research and methodological 'triangulation', secondary analysis of archival qualitative data, online research methods, and the application of grid and high performance computing to social research, where I have a particular interest in the use of Access Grid technology for 'virtual fieldwork'. My paper on the latter was shortlisted for the Sage Prize for Innovation and Excellence 2007.
My research has been sponsored by, inter alia, the Economic and Social Research Council, the Fulbright Commission, the US Department of Defense, the Home Office, the UK Police Foundation, the US Police Foundation, Surrey Police Authority, Surrey Police, the Metropolitan Police, the Swiss Information and Documentation Service, the Deutsche Zentral Archiv, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Thales plc, Electricite de France, Volkswagen Stiftung, and the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft.
Current and Recently Completed Research Projects
Further information on these projects is available on our Research pages by following the links available below:
* Computer Assisted Qualitative Data Analysis Software (CAQDAS)
* Virtual Collaboration: affordances and engagement
* Access Grid Node
* Signal Crimes National Roll Out Phase One
- 'Lay people in court: the experience of defendants, eyewitnesses and victims'. Wiley-Blackwell British Journal of Sociology, 64 (2), pp. 287-307. . (2013)
- 'Opening up open-ended survey data using qualitative software'. Springer Netherlands Quality & Quantity, 47 (6), pp. 3261-3276. . (2013)
- 'Integrating information from multiple methods in the analysis of perceived risk of crime: The role of geo-referenced field data and mobile methods.'. Hindawi Publishing Corporation Journal of Criminology, doi: 10.1155/2013/284259
- 'The Diverse Worlds and Research Practices of Qualitative Software'. FQS: Forum Qualitative Social Research Forum: Qualitative Social Research, 13 (2) Article number 12 Full text is available at: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/533446/
The article considers the way that digital research technologies and online environments increasingly support new forms of qualitative research that have emerged as a result of new user groups taking up the practice of social research. New practitioners of qualitative research have entered the field from societies where qualitative research is a newly-established practice, and new cadres of "citizen researchers" have turned to qualitative methods for non-academic purposes. These groups challenge accepted understandings of qualitative methods. The article uses the example of qualitative software as a case study of how qualitative research is enabled by new digital tools that help new user groups extend the application of qualitative research methods.
- 'Triangulation and Mixed Methods Designs: Data Integration With New Research Technologies'. Sage Publications Journal of Mixed Methods Research, Full text is available at: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/532394/
Data integration is a crucial element in mixed methods analysis and conceptualization. It has three principal purposes: illustration, convergent validation (triangulation), and the development of analytic density or ‘‘richness.’’ This article discusses such applications in relation to new technologies for social research, looking at three innovative forms of data integration that rely on computational support: (a) the integration of geo-referencing technologies with qualitative software, (b) the integration of multistream visual data in mixed methods research, and (c) the integration of data from qualitative and quantitative methods.
- 'User satisfaction and user experiences with Access Grid as a
medium for social science research: a research note'. Taylor & Francis International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 14 (TBC), pp. 1-13.Full text is available at: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/7330/
Access Grid (AG) is a state-of-the-art video conferencing system that operates over computer networks such as the Internet. In the research sphere it has principally been used to conduct meetings of natural scientists in large international collaborations, such as physicists collaborating over the Large Hadron Collider. Social scientists have recently begun exploring the use of AG to conduct ‘virtual fieldwork’ where researchers carry out interviews or moderate group discussions involving participants at remote sites. There have also been experiments in using AG to deliver social research methods training and to facilitate meetings between social researchers and government researchers who are collaborating on research projects. This article provides a quantitative analysis of the experiences of a sample of participants in such AG sessions. It finds a high degree of satisfaction with the technical affordances of the medium, and identifies differences in perspective according to whether a session is research-oriented or has a ‘real world’ purpose.
- 'Judges and their work'. Sage Publications Social and Legal Studies, 20 (1), pp. 97-115.Full text is available at: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/72481/
The article discusses judicial activism in the light of research into the attitudes of English judges, and a comparator group of US judges, towards judicial selection, judicial training and sentencing practice. Noting commonalities and shared perspectives, it is argued that the findings indicate enduring features of occupational culture that originate in relations within the legal workgroup and the practical craft of judging. Against the context of highly conventional attitudes, a conservative form of judicial activism is found in respect of resistance to legislative and policy innovation.
- 'Virtual Fieldwork Using Access Grid'. SAGE PUBLICATIONS INC Field Methods, 22 (3), pp. 195-216. . (2010)
- 'Elephants, gold standards and applied qualitative research'. Sage Publications Ltd Qualitative Research, 10 (1), pp. 123-127. . (2010)
- 'Mixed methods research in the real world'. Routledge, Taylor & Francis Ltd International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 13 (2), pp. 127-138. . (2010)
- 'CAQDAS-GIS Convergence Toward a New Integrated Mixed Method Research Practice?'. Sage Publications Ltd Journal of Mixed Methods Research, 3 (4), pp. 349-370. . (2009)
- 'Of Bridges and Limbs A Response to Pascale and Healy'. Sage Publications Ltd Current Sociology, 57 (3), pp. 462-465. . (2009)
- 'Going out on a Limb Postmodernism and Multiple Method Research'. Sage Publications Ltd Current Sociology, 57 (3), pp. 427-447. . (2009)
- 'Grid computing and qualitative social science'. Sage Publications review Social Science Computer Review, 26 (3), pp. 301-316. . (2008)
- 'Resistance and Adaptation to Criminal Identity: Using Secondary Analysis to Evaluate Classic Studies of Crime and Deviance'. GESIS - Leibniz-Institute for the Social Sciences, Center for Historical Social Research Historical Social Research, 33 (3), pp. 75-93. . (2008)
- 'Access grid nodes in field research'. SAGE PUBLICATIONS LTD SOCIOLOGICAL RESEARCH ONLINE, 11 (2) . (2006)
- 'Identity and intellectual work: biography, theory and research on law enforcement'. Sociology of Crime, Law and Deviance, 7, pp. 159-181. . (2006)
- 'Reassurance Policing, Community Policing and Measuring Police Performance'. Policing and Society, 16 (2), pp. 127-145. . (2006)
- 'Concepts and theory in community policing'. Howard Journal of Criminal Justice, 44 (5), pp. 460-472. . (2005)
- 'Computers and Qualitative Research: adoption, use and representation'. Social Science Computer Review (USA), 22 (2), pp. 167-178. . (2004)
- 'Getting the most from archived qualitative data: epistemological, practical and professional obstacles’, in special issue on Celebrating Classic Sociology: Pioneers of Contemporary British Qualitative Research'. International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 7 (1), pp. 97-108. . (2004)
- 'The appliance of science: the theory and practice of crime intelligence analysis'. British Journal of Criminology, 45 (1), pp. 39-57. . (2004)
- 'Theorizing community policing'. British Journal of Criminology, 42 (1), pp. 147-163. . (2002)
- 'New patterns in the adoption and use of qualitative software'. Field Methods, 14 (2), pp. 197-216. . (2002)
- 'Community policing: fighting crime or fighting colleagues'. International Journal of Police Science and Management, 3 (4), pp. 289-302. . (2001)
- 'Padroes de Adocao, Modos de Uso e Representacoes sobre Tecnologia Usuarios do CAQDAS no Reino Unido, em Meados da Decada de 90'. Sociologias, 5, pp. 20-52. . (2001)
- 'Resistance and adaptation to criminal identity: using secondary analysis to evaluate classic studies of crime and deviance'. Sociology, 34 (4), pp. 1-19. . (2000)
- 'Policing’s dark secret: the career paths of ethnic minority officers'. Sociological Research Online, 4 (1) . (1999)
- 'Research and practice in policing: a view from Europe'. Police Practice and Research (USA), 1 (1), pp. 1-29. . (1999)
- 'The norm and the text: Denzin and Lincoln’s handbooks of qualitative method'. British Journal of Sociology, 50 (3), pp. 523-532. . (1999)
- 'Crime and economic activity: a panel data approach'. British Journal of Criminology, 39 (3), pp. 391-400. . (1999)
- 'Common trends and common cycles in regional crime'. Applied Economics, 30, pp. 1407-1412. . (1998)
- 'Crime, earnings inequality and unemployment in England and Wales'. Applied Economics Letters, 5, pp. 265-267. . (1998)
- 'Comments on "The moral economics of homeless heroin addicts: confronting ethnography, HIV risk, and everyday violence in San Francisco shooting encampments'. Substance Use and Misuse, 33 (11), pp. 2361-2363. . (1998)
- 'Applications of computer software in the sociological analysis of qualitative data'. Bulletin de Methodologie Sociologique, 57, pp. 3-24. . (1997)
- 'Diffusion of a methodological innovation: Computer-assisted qualitative data analysis in the UK'. Current Sociology, 44 (3), pp. 242-258. . (1996)
- 'A national survey of the investigation of child sexual abuse'. British Journal of Social Work, 26, pp. 337-356. . (1996)
- 'Bias in criminological research'. Journal of Forensic Psychiatry: a multidisciplinary journal, 7 (1), pp. 5-14. . (1996)
- 'Qualitative data analysis: representation of a technology: a comment on Coffey, Holbrook and Atkinson'. Sociological Research Online, 1 (4) . (1996)
- 'Varieties of research interviews'. Nurse Researcher, 1 (3), pp. 4-12. . (1994)
- 'The organisational and occupational troubles of community police'. Policing and Society, 4 (4), pp. 305-322. . (1994)
- 'Interviewing child victims: police and social work investigations of child sexual abuse'. Sociology, 26 (1), pp. 103-124. . (1992)
- 'A comparative minority: female recruits to a British constabulary force'. Policing and Society, 2 (4), pp. 205-218. . (1992)
- 'Black and blue: an analysis of the influence of race on being stopped by the police'. British Journal of Sociology, 43 (2), pp. 207-224. . (1992)
- 'Police attitudes to crime and punishment: certainties and dilemmas'. British Journal of Criminology, 31 (1), pp. 39-53. . (1991)
- 'Training the boss: higher police education in Britain'. Howard Journal of Criminal Justice, 29 (3), pp. 199-205. . (1990)
- 'Mediating the message: the co-production of field research'. American Behavioral Scientist, 33 (5), pp. 608-620. . (1990)
- 'Qualitative knowledge and computing'. Qualitative Sociology, (Summer) . (1990)
- 'Competence and culture in the police'. Sociology, 22 (1), pp. 45-64. . (1988)
- 'A study of resignation during British police training'. Journal of Police Science and, 15 (1), pp. 24-36. . (1987)
- 'Being used by the police'. British Journal of Criminology, 27 (1), pp. 64-69. . (1987)
- 'Evaluating the role of training in police socialization: a UK example'. Journal of Community Psychology, 14 (3), pp. 319-330. . (1986)
- 'The politics of the police: a review symposium'. British Journal of Criminology, 26 (1), pp. 94-105. . (1986)
- 'Social control and the community'. Howard Journal of Criminal Justice, 25 (3), pp. 172-189. . (1986)
- 'Children convicted of grave crimes: Section 53 of the Children and Young Persons Act and childrens' rights'. Howard Journal of Criminal Justice, 24 (4), pp. 282-297. . (1985)
- 'Police socialisation and police competence'. British Journal of Sociology, 35 (4), pp. 568-590. . (1984)
- 'Ideology and social psychology'. Reviewing sociology, 3 (1), pp. 13-15. . (1983)
- 'Teaching the sociology of law: an empirical study'. Journal of Law and Society,, 10 (2), pp. 181-200. . (1983)
- 'Legal education for social workers'. Journal of Social Work Education, . (1982)
- 'Fielding and "Fascism": a reply to Miles'. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 5 (2) . (1982)
- 'Ideology, democracy and the National Front'. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 4 (1), pp. 56-74. . (1981)
- 'The credibility of police accountability'. Polytechnic Law Review, 6 (2), pp. 89-93. . (1981)
- 'Making, Untangling, and Forecasting the Future of Symbolic Interactionism'. in Downes D, Hobbs D, Newburn T (eds.) The Eternal Recurrence of Crime and Control: Essays in Honour of Paul Rock Oxford : Oxford University Press . (2010)
- 'The Role of Computer-Assisted Qualitative Data Analysis: Impact on Emergent Methods in Qualitative Research'. in Hesse-Biber S, Leavy P (eds.) The Handbook of Emergent Methods Guilford MA : Guilford Press Article number 32 , pp. 675-696. . (2008)
- 'The Internet as a Research Medium: An Editorial Introduction to The Sage Handbook of Online Research Methods'. in Fielding NG, Lee RM, Blank G (eds.) The Sage Handbook of Online Research Methods London; Beverly Hills, CA : Sage . (2008)
- 'Analytic density, postmodernism, and applied multiple method research'. in Bergman M (ed.) Advances in mixed method research: theories and applications Bern; London : SAGE Publications Ltd Article number 3 , pp. 37-52. . (2008)
- 'Ethnography'. in G.N. Gilbert (ed.) Researching Social Life 3rd Edition. London : Sage , pp. 145-163. . (2008)
- 'Computer Based Qualitative Methods in Case Study Research'. in Byrne D, Ragin C (eds.) Handbook of Case-Based Methods London : Sage Article number 15 . (2008)
- 'Synergy and synthesis: integrating qualitative and quantitative data'. in Alasuutari P, Brannen J, Bickman L (eds.) The SAGE Handbook of Social Research Methods
London : Sage Article number 33 , pp. 555-571.Full text is available at: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/231711/
- 'Using Computer Packages in Qualitative Research'. in Willig C, Stainton-Rogers W (eds.) Handbook of Qualitative Research in Psychology London : Sage . (2008)
- 'Qualitative interviewing'. in G.N. Gilbert (ed.) Researching Social Life 3rd Edition. London : Sage Article number 8 , pp. 123-144. . (2008)
- 'Qualitative e-Social Science/Cyber-Research'. in Fielding NG, Lee RM, Blank G (eds.) The SAGE Handbook of Online Research Methods London, Beverly Hills, CA : Sage Article number 26 , pp. 491-506. . (2008)
- 'Qualitative research: resurgence, institutionalisation and application'. in (ed.) Qualitative research: resurgence, institutionalisation and application
Paris : University of Surrey
[ Status: Unpublished ]Full text is available at: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/730716/
The way that the social sciences developed in respect of methodological preferences, and differences between European and North American approaches, helps us to understand why secondary analysis has until recently been a limited practice in qualitative research. To unravel the developments that explain the differing circumstances of secondary analysis in quantitative and qualitative research, we will initially consider the early days of qualitative method, and comment on its location in the foundational social science curriculum, represented by the Chicago School, a key centre of social science during the early twentieth century. As the Department of Sociology at the University of Chicago matured, it established a long rivalry with departments of sociology in universities on the Eastern seaboard of the US, and it began to change emphasis to more closely resemble the approach that was dominant in institutions such as Harvard and Columbia. Qualitative methodology became a methodology in retreat during the long years when structural/functionalism and quantitative analysis were dominant. Recent scholarship shows that Chicago=s methodological orientation long had a closer relation to mainstream sociology practices than is often suggested. The period when qualitative methodology was a core part of the Chicago methodological curriculum was relatively brief, and even then, these methods received little more emphasis than conventional statistical methods. Methodological trends generally take some considerable time to ripple out from their origin, though, and national communities of social scientists have their own distinct characteristics. For these reasons we will compare trends in European social science with those in North America during the period that qualitative methodology began its slow re-legitimation. The present period is one in which qualitative methodology has secured enhanced legitimation, but the position is not universal. Methods journals with generic titles, such as Sociological Methods and Research, still seldom publish anything but statistical work grounded in a positivist position, and as one moves away from the Western-centric academic circuit, the methodological picture is generally more conservative, as early US-influenced positivism has taken a long time to recede in countries whose academic system is modelled on the US and whose academics were largely trained in US graduate schools. But in North America and Western Europe, qualitative me
- Getting the best out of community policing. Police Foundation . (2009)
- From Community to Communicative Policing: “Signal Crimes” and the Problem of Public Reassurance. Sociological Research Online . (2002)
- On the compatibility between qualitative and quantitative research methods. Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung . (2001)
- The shared fate of two innovations in qualitative methodology: the relationship of qualitative software and secondary analysis of archived qualitative data. Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung/Forum: Qualitative Social Research . (2000)
My teaching interests are in criminology, qualitative research methods, and computational support for qualitative data analysis. I teach postgraduate modules in criminal justice, a postgraduate module in Field Methods, and a postgraduate module in Managing the Research and Publication Process. I also contribute to the day course programme of the Computer-Assisted Qualitative Data Analysis ('CAQDAS') Networking Project, of which I am co-director, and chair its seminar series for advanced users and software developers. Much of my teaching currently takes the form of the supervision of Masters' dissertations and doctoral theses, having supervised to successful completion 48 MSc dissertations and 22 PhD theses.
I have served as external examiner for doctoral theses at the universities of Cambridge, Cardiff, Durham, East Anglia, Exeter, LSE, Middlesex, Nottingham Trent, Queen's University Belfast, Royal Holloway University of London, Southampton, and for doctoral theses abroad at Bharathidasan University (Tamil Nadu), Cornell University, La Trobe University Melbourne, Universiti Sains Malasia, and the University of Alabama.
I was Editor of the Howard Journal of Criminal Justice from 1985 to 1998; the journal is one of the two generic criminology journals in UK and the longest established. Since 1995 I have been co-editor of the New Technologies for Social Research series published by Sage Publications. I was a founding editorial board member of the journal Qualitative Inquiry. I currently serve on the editorial boards of the Howard Journal of Criminal Justice; the International Journal of Social Research Methodology; Policing and Society; Qualitative Research; and Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung/ Forum Qualitative Social Research.
In addition to membership of the College of Assessors, I have been a member of a number of Economic and Social Research Council commissioning panels, including that of the Data Archiving and Documentation Service (UK Economic and Social Data Service); the e-Social Science Pilot Demonstrator Project Initiative; the National Centre for e-Social Science; and the Qualitative Demonstrator Programme. I also served on the JISC e-Social Science Training and Awareness Commissioning Panel, and on the ESRC Postgraduate Training Board for Statistics, Research Methods and Computing. I am a member of the ESDS Core Advisory Committee; the ESDS Qualidata Advisory Committee; and the Advisory Committee of the ESRC Qualitative Demonstrator Programme. I am an Expert Reviewer for the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council, and a peer reviewer for the Leverhulme Trust, Commission for Racial Equality, the Nuffield Foundation, the Lord Chancellor's Department, and the Home Office. I have served as an advisor to the German National Competence Centre for Qualitative Research, the Swiss Information and Documentation Service, and the Home Office National Reassurance Policing Project.
I am a member of the British Society of Criminology, the Socio-Legal Studies Association, and the Howard League for Penal Reform. I was elected into membership as an Academician of the Academy of Social Sciences in 2002.
I have served as a consultant to Surrey Probation and After Care Service, Inner London Probation and After Care Servicer, Hampshire Probation Service, Metropolitan Police, Surrey Police, Centre for Advanced Research in Education, Police Training Council, CENTREX Bramshill National Police Staff College, Home Office Research, Development and Statistics, Economic and Social Research Council, the Inquiry into the Role and Responsibilities of the Police ('The Sheehy Inquiry', Cassels Inquiry into the Future of the Police Service, the Northern Ireland Post Qualifying Education and Training Partnership and a number of UK, US and European publishers of social science.
At the University of Surrey I chaired the Research Award Programme of the University Research Committee from 1990 to 1993. I was Faculty representative on University Research Committee from 1990 to 1996. Following reorganisation I was School representative from 1997 to 2001 and again from 2006 to 2007. Following further reorganisation I was Faculty representative from 2007. I was Deputy Dean of Human Studies from 1993 to 1997 with particular responsibility for research development, chairing the Faculty Research Committee and directing its research award programme. I was also involved in staff appointments, course validations and external consultations. I have served as an elected member of Senate, and as Chair of the Student Progress and Assessment Board (Research). From 1992 to 1997 I was a member of the Research Committee of Roehampton Institute of Higher Education. I served as Acting Dean for various periods between 1993 and 1996. I am the Senate nominee for tribunals in respect of the dismissal of academic staff, a Senate nominee on Special Admissions Committee, a Senate nominee on Student Disciplinary Panels, and served from 1995 to 1998 as Senate member of the Reader/Professor Promotions Committee. I chaired the Research Committee of the Faculty of Arts & Human Sciences from 1997 to 2001 and from 2006 to 2007, taking up the Chair of Faculty Research Committee following the creation of the Faculty of Arts and Human Sciences. I served as a member of the School Management Group of the School of Human Sciences from 1997 to 2001, and from 2006 to 2007, taking up membership of the Faculty Management Committee in 2007 as Associate Dean (Research and Enterprise).
I directed the Department of Sociology's doctoral research programme from 1985 to 2000, and chaired its Departmental Research Committee from 2000 to 2007. I have served as Acting Head of Department for various periods from 1993. From its formation in 1997 I have served as co-Director of the Institute of Social Research. I have responsibility for the Institute's principal activity, the Visiting International Fellowship programme, which brings from one to three international social research methodology experts to the Department to facilitate research and publishing collaborations with departmental staff.
Institute of Social Research
CAQDAS, Computer Assisted Qualitative Data Analysis Software Networking Project
Surrey Access Grid Node