Professor Chris Jeynes

Professorial Research Fellow

Qualifications: BSc, MSc, PhD, MInstP, CPhys, CEng, MRSC

Email:
Phone: Work: 01483 68 9829
Room no: 01 WT 02

Further information

Biography

PhD: "Carbonado and the diamond polishing process", Department of Physics, University of Bristol, 1981 with Andrew Lang (Prof.A.R.Lang FRS, 1924-2008). See: C.Jeynes,A proposed diamond polishing process, Phil.Mag. A48 (1983) 169-197 and C.Jeynes, Natural polycrystalline diamond, Industrial Diamond Review, 39 (1978) 14-23

1981: oined University of Surrey to work on epitaxial silicon deposition with Ian Wilson. See: M.Milosavljević, C.Jeyens (sic), I.H.Wilson, Low-temperature epitaxial growth of (100) silicon, Elec.Letts. 19 (1983) 669-671, M Milosavljević, C Jeynes, I H Wilson, Solid phase epitaxy of evaporated amorphous silicon films, Appl. Phys. Lett. 45 (8) 874-876 (1984), M Milosavljević, C Jeynes,& I H Wilson, Epitaxial (100) silicon films grown at low temperatures in an electron-beam evaporator, J. Appl. Phys. 57 1252-1255 (1985)

1982: Joined the University of Surrey Ion Beam Centre as Liaison Fellow

1989: Promoted to Senior Liaison Fellow

Research Interests

Accurate Ion Beam Analysis

I have long believed that we do not generally get as much information from IBA spectra as we could. Our first contribution to more detailed RBS analysis was a code to fit joined half-Gaussians (JHG) to data (C Jeynes, A C Kimber, High accuracy data from Rutherford backscattering spectra: Measurements of the range and straggling of 60-400 keV As implants into Si, J. Phys. D. 18, L93-L97 (1985); A C Kimber, C Jeynes, An application of the truncated two-piece normal distribution to the measurement of depths of arsenic implants in silicon. J. Roy. Stat. Soc. C, 36(3) 352-357 (1987)).

There were a number of useful application of this JHG code: U Bangert, P J Goodhew, C Jeynes, I H Wilson, Low energy (2-5keV) argon damage in silicon, J. Physics. D. 19 (1986) 589-603; R P Webb, C Jeynes, I H Wilson, The effect of angle of incidence on interface broadening, Nucl. Instrum. Methods B,13 (1986) 449-452; Z.H.Jafri, C.Jeynes, R.P.Webb, I.H.Wilson, Observation of swelling and sputtering of a Si target under Ar ion irradiation using a double marker technique, Vacuum 39 (1989) 1119-21;  Z.H.Jafri, C.Jeynes, R.P.Webb, I.H.Wilson, Mass transport of Silicon during Argon irradiation employing a double marker system, Nucl. Instrum. Methods B, 48 (1990) 457-460.

I have also used this JHG code participating in a Round Robin to use RBS to measure the thickness of Ta2O5 layers on Ta organised by Martin Seah of the National Physical Laboratory: M P Seah, D David, J A Davies, C Jeynes, C Ortega, C Sofield, G Weber, An intercomparison of absolute measurements of the oxygen and tantalum thickness of Ta2O5 reference materials BCR 261 by Six laboratories, Nucl. Instrum. Methods B, 30 (1988) 140-51.

We were the first to critically demonstrate 1% absolute accuracy in determining the stoichiometry of InGaAs films by RBS: C.Jeynes, Z.H.Jafri, R.P.Webb, M.J.Ashwin, A.C.Kimber, Accurate RBS measurements of the In content of InGaAs thin films, Surf.Interface Anal. 25 (1997) 254-260.

We have critically demonstrated that, with care, the electronic gain of the spectroscopy system for standard He RBS can be determined to 0.5%: C.Jeynes, N.P.Barradas, M.J.Blewett, R.P.Webb, Improved ion beam analysis facilities at the University of Surrey, Nucl. Instrum. Methods B, 136-138 (1998) 1229-1234. It is surprising that in fact it is pretty difficult to get better than this; for example, Lennard (et al, Nucl. Instrum. Methods B, 45, 1990, 281) in his work on the pulse height deficit of detectors implicitly gets the same accuracy. With considerable effort we have achieved <0.1% (see A.F.Gurbich, C.Jeynes, Evaluation of non-Rutherford proton elastic scattering cross-section for magnesium, Nucl. Instrum. Methods B, 265, 2007, 447–452); a comparable accuracy has also been achieved by Munnik et al (Nucl. Instrum. Methods B, 119, 1996, 445).

We have also demonstrated ion implantation fluence determination by RBS at 2% absolute traceable accuracy, where the uncertainty is dominated by that in the silicon stopping power, used for a robust and convenient routine determination of the charge solid-angle product (Jeynes et al, Quality assurance in an implantation laboratory by high accuracy RBS, Nucl. Instrum. Methods B, 249, 2006, 482). A measurement precision of 0.5% has been demonstrated in this work.

This has been followed up by a "Round Robin" between Surrey (C.Jeynes), Lisbon (N.P.Barradas) and Budapest (E.Szilágyi) ("Accurate determination of Quantity of Material in thin films by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry") demonstrating that three labs can independently measure an implant fluence with an absolute accuracy of 1% , Analytical Chemistry 84, 2012, 6061-6069. This has been confirmed by a detailed demonstration of the robustness of the method: J.L.Colaux & C.Jeynes, High accuracy traceable Rutherford backscattering spectrometry of ion implanted samples, Analytical Methods 6, 2014, 120-129.

The IBA DataFurnace

Really, this is a continuation of the "Accurate IBA" theme. Nuno Barradas and I (with support from Roger Webb) invented the DataFurnace in 1997 as an automated way of getting depth profiles out of "hard" RBS spectra. We were the first to use the simulated annealing algorithm to do this, and no-one to date can invert IBA spectra as easily, robustly and accurately as we can.

We first published this work as: Simulated annealing analysis of Rutherford backscattering data, N.P.Barradas, C.Jeynes, R.P.Webb,Appl.Phys.Lett. 71 (1997) 291-3.
There is now a large literature on DataFurnace and a full-length Topical Review has been published (C.Jeynes et al J.Phys.D 36, 2003, R97-R126). See the DataFurnace web pages.

IBA Reviews

Ion Beam Analysis : a century of exploiting the electronic and nuclear structure of the atom for materials characterisation, C.Jeynes, R.P.Webb, A.Lohstroh, Reviews of Accelerator Science and Technology Vol. 4, (2011) 41-82(World Scientific Publishing Company) 31 Figs., 290 refs.

"Total IBA" – where are we? C.Jeynes, M.J.Bailey, N.J.Bright, M.E.Christopher, G.W.Grime, B.N.Jones, V.V.Palitsin, R.P.Webb, Nucl. Instr. Methods B, 271(2012) 107-118 (a version of an invited talk given at the 20th International Conference for Ion Beam Analysis, Itapema, Brazil, 10-15 April, 2011) 123 refs.

Research Collaborations

With Nuno Barradas (ITN, Lisbon),  creating and maintaining the DataFurnace code

Publications

Highlights

  • Colaux JL, Jeynes C, Heasman KC, Gwilliam RM. (2015) 'Certified ion implantation fluence by high accuracy RBS.'. Analyst, 140 (9), pp. 3251-3261.

    Abstract

    From measurements over the last two years we have demonstrated that the charge collection system based on Faraday cups can robustly give near-1% absolute implantation fluence accuracy for our electrostatically scanned 200 kV Danfysik ion implanter, using four-point-probe mapping with a demonstrated accuracy of 2%, and accurate Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) of test implants from our quality assurance programme. The RBS is traceable to the certified reference material IRMM-ERM-EG001/BAM-L001, and involves convenient calibrations both of the electronic gain of the spectrometry system (at about 0.1% accuracy) and of the RBS beam energy (at 0.06% accuracy). We demonstrate that accurate RBS is a definitive method to determine quantity of material. It is therefore useful for certifying high quality reference standards, and is also extensible to other kinds of samples such as thin self-supporting films of pure elements. The more powerful technique of Total-IBA may inherit the accuracy of RBS.

  • Colaux JL, Terwagne G, Jeynes C. (2015) 'On the traceably accurate voltage calibration of electrostatic accelerators'. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, 349, pp. 173-183.

    Abstract

    ©2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.We describe in detail a calibration method for the terminal voltage of small accelerators used for ion beam analysis, with the elastic resonance of 16O(α,α)16O at 3038 keV as the intrinsic measurement standard. The beam energy relative to this resonance is determined with a precision around 300 eV and an evaluated reproducibility of 1.0 keV. We show that this method is both robust and convenient, and demonstrate consistency with calibration relative to three other independent methods: using radioactive sources and using the resonant 27Al(p,γ)28Si and non-resonant 16O(p,γ)17F direct capture reactions. We re-evaluate the literature and show that the peak in the cross-section function is at 3038.1 ± 2.3 keV. By comparing the results obtained with 16O(α,α)16O to the other calibration methods we show that this uncertainty can be reduced to 1.3 keV.

  • Colaux JL, Jeynes C. (2014) 'High accuracy traceable Rutherford backscattering spectrometry of ion implanted samples'. Analytical Methods, 6 (1), pp. 120-129.

    Abstract

    There are few techniques capable of the non-destructive and model-free measurement at 1% absolute accuracy of quantity of material in thin films without the use of sample-matched standards. We demonstrate that Rutherford backscattering spectrometry can achieve this robustly, reliably and conveniently. Using 1.5 MeV He+, a 150 keV ion implant into silicon with a nominal fluence of 5 × 1015 As cm-2 has been independently measured repeatedly over a period of 2 years with a mean total combined standard uncertainty of 0.9 ± 0.3% relative to an internal standard given by the silicon stopping power (a coverage factor k = 1 is used for all uncertainties given). The stopping power factor of this beam in silicon is determined absolutely with a mean total combined standard uncertainty of 0.8 ± 0.1%, traceable to the 0.6% uncertainty of the Sb-implanted certified reference material (CRM) from IRMM, Geel. The uncertainty budget highlights the need for the accurate determination of the electronic gain of the detection system and the scattering angle, parameters conventionally regarded as trivial. This level of accuracy is equally applicable to much lower fluences since it is not dominated by any one effect; but it cannot be reached without good control of all of these effects. This analytical method is extensible to non-Rutherford scattering. The stopping power factor of 4.0 MeV lithium in silicon is also determined at 1.0% absolute accuracy traceable to the Sb-implanted CRM. This work used SRIM2003 stopping powers which are therefore demonstrated correct at 0.8% for 1.5 MeV He in Si and 1% for 4 MeV Li in Si. © 2014 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  • Howard KT, Berhanu D, Cressey G, Howard LE, Bailey MJ, Bland PA, Jeynes C, Matthewman R, Martins Z, Sephton MA, Stolojan V, Verchovsky S. (2013) 'Biomass preservation in impact melt ejecta'. Nature Geoscience, 6 (12), pp. 1018-1022.

    Abstract

    Meteorites can have played a role in the delivery of the building blocks of life to Earth only if organic compounds are able to survive the high pressures and temperatures of an impact event. Although experimental impact studies have reported the survival of organic compounds, there are uncertainties in scaling experimental conditions to those of a meteorite impact on Earth and organic matter has not been found in highly shocked impact materials in a natural setting. Impact glass linked to the 1.2-km-diameter Darwin crater in western Tasmania is strewn over an area exceeding 400 km 2 and is thought to have been ejected by a meteorite impact about 800 kyr ago into terrain consisting of rainforest and swamp. Here we use pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to show that biomarkers representative of plant species in the local ecosystem - including cellulose, lignin, aliphatic biopolymer and protein remnants - survived the Darwin impact. We find that inside the impact glass the organic components are trapped in porous carbon spheres. We propose that the organic material was captured within impact melt and preserved when the melt quenched to glass, preventing organic decomposition since the impact. We suggest that organic material can survive capture and transport in products of extreme impact processing, at least for a Darwin-sized impact event. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

  • Jeynes JCG, Jeynes C, Merchant MJ, Kirkby KJ. (2013) 'Measuring and modelling cell-to-cell variation in uptake of gold nanoparticles'. Analyst, (138), pp. 7070-7074.

    Abstract

    The cell-to-cell variation of gold nanoparticle (GNP) uptake is important for therapeutic applications. We directly counted the GNPs in hundreds of individual cells, and showed that the large variation from cell-to-cell could be directly modelled by assuming log-normal distributions of both cell mass and GNP rate of uptake. This was true for GNPs non-specifically bound to fetal bovine serum or conjugated to a cell penetrating peptide. Within a population of cells, GNP content varied naturally by a factor greater than 10 between individual cells.

  • Christopher ME, Warmenhoeven JW, Romolo FS, Donghi M, Webb RP, Jeynes C, Ward NI, Kirkby KJ, Bailey MJ. (2013) 'A new quantitative method for gunshot residue analysis by ion beam analysis.'. Analyst, , pp. 4649-4655.

    Abstract

    Imaging and analyzing gunshot residue (GSR) particles using the scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM-EDS) is a standard technique that can provide important forensic evidence, but the discrimination power of this technique is limited due to low sensitivity to trace elements and difficulties in obtaining quantitative results from small particles. A new, faster method using a scanning proton microbeam and Particle Induced X-ray Emission (μ-PIXE), together with Elastic Backscattering Spectrometry (EBS) is presented for the non-destructive, quantitative analysis of the elemental composition of single GSR particles. In this study, the GSR particles were all Pb, Ba, Sb. The precision of the method is assessed. The grouping behaviour of different makes of ammunition is determined using multivariate analysis. The protocol correctly groups the cartridges studied here, with a confidence >99%, irrespective of the firearm or population of particles selected.

  • Jeynes C, Bailey MJ, Bright NJ, Christopher ME, Grime GW, Jones BN, Palitsin VV, Webb RP. (2012) '"total IBA" - Where are we?'. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, 271, pp. 107-118.

    Abstract

    The suite of techniques which are available with the small accelerators used for MeV ion beam analysis (IBA) range from broad beams, microbeams or external beams using the various particle and photon spectrometries (including RBS, EBS, ERD, STIM, PIXE, PIGE, NRA and their variants), to tomography and secondary particle spectrometries like MeV-SIMS. These can potentially yield almost everything there is to know about the 3-D elemental composition of types of samples that have always been hard to analyse, given the sensitivity and the spacial resolution of the techniques used. Molecular and chemical information is available in principle with, respectively, MeV-SIMS and high resolution PIXE. However, these techniques separately give only partial information – the secret of “Total IBA” is to find synergies between techniques used simultaneously which efficiently give extra information. We here review how far “Total IBA” can be considered already a reality, and what further needs to be done to realise its full potential.

  • Jeynes C. (2012) "Total" Ion Beam Analysis – 3D imaging of complex samples using MeV ion beams. in Kaufmann EN (ed.) Characterization of Materials 2nd edition. Wiley Vol.3: Ion Beam Methods Article number 12(ii) , pp. 1948-1959.

    Abstract

    In this Chapter the synergy between a number of closely related techniques for thin film depth profiling are described; they all use ion beams from MV accelerators as probes. These include the nuclear methods: RBS, EBS, ERD, NRA (and see PARTICLE SCATTERING in the COMMON METHODS Chapter). But they can also include PIXE (see ATOMIC EXCITATIONS in the COMMON METHODS Chapter). See Table 1 for the expansion of the acronyms and references to the list of the detailed articles on individual techniques: this article will not describe the techniques themselves but will concentrate specifically on the synergisms available. I will use acronyms for complementary techniques freely: a Glossary for these can be found in the INTRODUCTION to this Chapter (ION BEAM METHODS). "Total IBA" is operating when multiple IBA techniques are being handled self-consistently to obtain more information than the sum of that available from each technique handled separately [ ]. We will show that the sum of the whole is far more than the sum of the parts, to the extent that new classes of samples become tractable and new types of characterisation become feasible: the various IBA techniques are in fact strongly complementary. Indeed, we believe that chemical tomography is feasible with these new techniques. The alert reader will object that we are only stating the obvious here: it is easy to find examples showing that this complementarity has always been recognised. For example, Feldman et al presented a paper combining He-RBS and He-PIXE to the first Ion Beam Analysis Conference nearly forty years ago in 1973 [ ]. The Abstract (not available electronically) is informative for us :- Anodic oxide films on GaAs have been studied by the combined use of He back-scattering [sic] and He-induced X-rays. Back-scattering is hampered by the lack of mass resolution between Ga and As. X-ray analysis has excellent mass resolution but poor depth resolution. This poor depth resolution is overcome by increasing the effective thickness of the films by entering at grazing angles and making use of the property that the He-induced X-ray cross-sections fall steeply with decreasing energy. This technique and the methods of data analysis are discussed in detail. The anodic oxide films are found to be deficient in As within 200Å of the surface and to have a Ga:As ratio of approximately 1:1 for the rest of the oxide. On heating to 650°C most of the As diffuses out of the films. This early use

  • Jeynes C. (2012) Elastic Backscattering of Ions for Compositional Analysis. in Kaufmann EN (ed.) Characterization of Materials 2nd edition. Wiley Vol.3: Ion Beam Methods Article number 12(iv) , pp. 1972-1993.

    Abstract

    Composition analyses for all of the elements in the periodic table can be performed through a combin¬ation of techniques using ion beams at MeV energies (MeV-IBA: see INTRODUCTION TO ION BEAM TECHNIQUES) including PIXE, RBS, EBS, ERD, NRA. See also PARTICLE SCATTERING and ATOMIC EXCITATION METHODS in the COMMON CONCEPTS chapter. In this unit we consider the MeV elastic backscattering techniques: RBS, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry; and EBS, elastic (non-Rutherford) backscattering. RBS, following Rutherford's treatment in 1911 of Geiger & Marsden's 1909 alpha-scattering experiment, approximates the scattering cross-section by that expected for the Coulomb interaction of point charges. This approximation is valid providing the interacting nuclei do not come too close during the interaction. As the energy is increased this approximation fails, and quantum mechanical effects become visible: then the scattering is called "EBS". BS (elastic backscattering spectrometry, either RBS or EBS) using MeV beams is used to obtain elemental depth profiles of thin films up to ~10 m thick. Depth resolution degrades with depth but can be ~1 nm at the surface. Various ion beams and various beam energies can be selected to obtain the optimal analytical conditions for particular samples. Barbour's article was on "Elastic Scattering", which included the important ERD technique now covered separately (see: ELASTIC RECOIL DETECTION ANALYSIS). We will mention the use of microbeams since many samples are small or laterally non-homogeneous, but microbeam IBA is reviewed in ION BEAM TOMOGRAPHY. We will also mention the use of ion channelling geometries for characterising defects in single crystal samples, but this is reviewed extensively in MEDIUM-ENERGY ION BEAM ANALYSIS. We should also mention that LEIS and MEIS are both RBS techniques, but they use low energy beams and will not be covered in this article (see, respectively, LOW-ENERGY ION SCATTERING and MEDIUM-ENERGY ION BEAM ANALYSIS). The Wiley Characterisation of Materials book of which this article is part has a section on Ion Beam Analysis (MeV-IBA: part of the ION BEAM TECHNIQUES section). The 2002 edition treated all the IBA techniques independently, but this 2012 edition will treat them synergistically. The present article considers the details of analysis using a particle detector placed in the backscattering direction. We explicitly distinguish between RBS and EBS, even though in any parti

  • Jeynes C, Grime GW. (2012) Atomic Excitation Exploited by Energetic-Beam Characterization Methods. in Kaufmann EN (ed.) Characterization of Materials 2nd edition. Wiley Vol.1: Common Concepts, pp. 74-90.

    Abstract

    Many disparate methods of compositional analysis of materials are underpinned by the same fundamental atomic processes: the excitation of the electronic system of the atoms followed by its subsequent relaxation. These methods include the electron spectroscopies (XPS, AES) used for surface studies, the electron microscopies used for elemental and structural characterisation (SEM using EDS and WDX; TEM using EELS), the X-ray methods (XRF, XAS) and ion beam analysis (PIXE) used for elemental and chemical characterisation. All rely on measuring the characteristic energy absorbed or emitted by the unknown target atom when its electronic system is excited by ionisation due to charged particles or electromagnetic radiation. This excitation is defined by the energy levels of the atomic electrons, determined primarily by the atomic number of the atom. (Atoms can also be excited without ionisation, as in optical and infra-red spectroscopy: this is outside the scope of this article.) The theoretical description of the electronic structure of atoms is a major intellectual triumph of the twentieth century and this body of knowledge is exploited in the theoretical description of each of these methods, but the treatment of any particular method is usually presented by specialists in that method in isolation from all others. In this chapter we present a brief synthetic overview of materials analysis using atomic excitation, highlighting those features and physical concepts which underpin all these apparently disparate analysis methods. We hope to encourage modern analysts to appreciate the truly complementary nature of the powerful methods at their disposal.

  • Jeynes C. (2012) Ion Beam Methods – Introduction. in Kaufmann EN (ed.) Characterization of Materials 2nd edition. Wiley Vol.3: Ion Beam Methods, pp. 1941-1948.

    Abstract

    Ion beam techniques are used with ion energies from eV to many MeV and a very wide range of ion species to characterise materials at length scales from sub-nm to sub-mm and in a wide variety of different ways. Many of these techniques are non destructive. Atomic concentration can be determined from matrix elements (the stoichiometry) to minor and trace elements (at ng/g sensitivity and better), in one dimension (depth profiles), two dimensions (elemental maps), and three dimensions with full tomography being feasible. There is sensitivity to the whole Periodic Table one way or another, with nuclear techniques for isotopic sensitivity, and high resolution mass spectrometry for obtaining isotopic ratios at ultra-high sensitivities of 1014 and better. Other techniques include ultra-high resolution microscopy, characterisation of semiconductor device defects at high spacial resolution, and the investigation of damage processes in the nuclear irradiation of materials. ION BEAM METHODS for thin film materials have major application areas from archaeology to zoology (including materials science, geology, cultural heritage, electronics and many others).

  • Jeynes C, Barradas NP, Szilágyi E. (2012) 'Accurate determination of quantity of material in thin films by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry'. Analytical Chemistry, 84 (14), pp. 6061-6069.

    Abstract

    Ion beam analysis (IBA) is a cluster of techniques including Rutherford and non-Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Recently, the ability to treat multiple IBA techniques (including PIXE) self-consistently has been demonstrated. The utility of IBA for accurately depth profiling thin films is critically reviewed. As an important example of IBA, three laboratories have independently measured a silicon sample implanted with a fluence of nominally 5 × 10 15 As/cm 2 at an unprecedented absolute accuracy. Using 1.5 MeV 4He + Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), each lab has demonstrated a combined standard uncertainty around 1% (coverage factor k = 1) traceable to an Sb-implanted certified reference material through the silicon electronic stopping power. The uncertainty budget shows that this accuracy is dominated by the knowledge of the electronic stopping, but that special care must also be taken to accurately determine the electronic gain of the detection system and other parameters. This RBS method is quite general and can be used routinely to accurately validate ion implanter charge collection systems, to certify SIMS standards, and for other applications. The generality of application of such methods in IBA is emphasized: if RBS and PIXE data are analysed self-consistently then the resulting depth profile inherits the accuracy and depth resolution of RBS and the sensitivity and elemental discrimination of PIXE. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  • Jeynes C, Webb RP, Lohstroh A. (2011) 'Ion Beam Analysis: A Century of Exploiting the Electronic and Nuclear Structure of the Atom for Materials Characterisation'. Reviews of Accelerator Science and Technology, 4, pp. 41-82.

    Abstract

    Analysis using MeV ion beams is a thin film characterisation technique invented some 50 years ago which has recently had the benefit of a number of important advances. This review will cover damage profiling in crystals including studies of defects in semiconductors, surface studies, and depth profiling with sputtering. But it will concentrate on thin film depth profiling using Rutherford backscattering, particle induced X-ray emission and related techniques in the deliberately synergistic way that has only recently become possible. In this review of these new developments, we will show how this integrated approach, which we might call “total IBA”, has given the technique great analytical power.

  • Abriola D, Barradas NP, Bogdanović-Radović I, Chiari M, Gurbich AF, Jeynes C, Kokkoris M, Mayer M, Ramos AR, Shi L, Vickridge I. (2011) 'Development of a reference database for Ion Beam Analysis and future perspectives'. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B, 269 (24), pp. 2972-2978.

    Abstract

    Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) is a set of material characterization techniques using energetic ion beams. IBA provides information about composition and the depth profile of elements in the near-surface layers of a sample, from the energy spectra of backscattered primary particles, recoils, nuclear reaction products or emitted γ-radiation. All IBA methods presuppose knowledge of the differential cross-section data however, only for strict Rutherford scattering is the cross-section known exactly. In order to address the data needs of the IBA community, the IAEA initiated the Coordinated Research Project (CRP) "Development of a Reference Database for Ion Beam Analysis" in 2005 which will conclude in 2010. The project focuses on the measurement, assessment, evaluation and benchmarking of elastic scattering and reaction cross sections. Data measured in this work have been incorporated in the IBANDL database (http://www-nds.iaea.org/ibandl/), whereas the evaluated cross-sections (calculated from the fit to the data of a nuclear model) are made available to the community through the on-line calculator SigmaCalc (http://www-nds.iaea.org/sigmacalc/).A summary of the results of the CRP activity is presented, and ways to further develop nuclear data for IBA are indicated. In particular, a newly proposed CRP devoted to particle induced gamma-ray emission is described.

  • Jeynes JCG, Bailey MJ, Coley H, Kirkby KJ, Jeynes C. (2010) 'Microbeam PIXE analysis of platinum resistant and sensitive ovarian cancer cells'. NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS, Univ Cambridge, Cambridge, ENGLAND: 268 (11-12), pp. 2168-2171.
  • Jeynes C, Barradas NP. (2009) Pitfalls in Ion Beam Analysis. in Wang Y, Nastasi MA (eds.) Handbook of Modern Ion Beam Materials Analysis 2nd Edition. Warrendale Pennsylvania : Materials Research Society Article number 15 , pp. 347-383.

    Abstract

    Accurate elemental depth profiling by IBA is of great value to many modern thin-film technologies. IBA is a quantitative analytical technique now capable of traceable accuracy below 1%. In this chapter we describe sources of errors in data collection and analysis (pitfalls) greater than about 1/4%.

  • Bailey MJ, Coe S, Grant DM, Grime GW, Jeynes C. (2009) 'Accurate determination of the Ca : P ratio in rough hydroxyapatite samples by SEM-EDS, PIXE and RBS - a comparative study'. X-RAY SPECTROMETRY, Cavtat, CROATIA: 38 (4), pp. 343-347.
  • Bailey MJ, Howard KT, Kirkby KJ, Jeynes C. (2009) 'Characterisation of inhomogeneous inclusions in Darwin glass using ion beam analysis'. NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS, Debrecen, HUNGARY: 267 (12-13), pp. 2219-2224.

    Abstract

    Darwin glass is an impact glass resulting from the melting of local rocks during the meteorite impact that formed the 1.2 km diameter Darwin Crater in western Tasmania. These glass samples have small spheroidal inclusions, typically a few tens of microns in diameter, that are of great interest to the geologists. We have analysed one such inclusion in detail with proton microbeam ion beam analysis (IBA). A highly heterogeneous composition is observed, both laterally and in depth, by using self-consistent fitting of photon emission and particle backscattering spectra. With various proton energies near 2 MeV we excite the C-12(p,p)C-12 resonance at 1734 keV at various depths, and thus we can probe both the C concentration, and also the energy straggling of the proton beam as a function of depth which gives information on the sample structure. This inclusion has an average composition of (C, O, Si) = (28, 56, 16) mol% with S, K, Ca, Ti and Fe as minor elements and Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn and Br as trace elements. This composition includes, at specific points, an elemental depth profile and a density variation with depth consistent with discrete quartz crystals a few microns in size. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • Bailey MJ, Jeynes C. (2009) 'Characterisation of gunshot residue particles using self-consistent ion beam analysis'. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, 267 (12-13), pp. 2265-2268.

    Abstract

    Individual particles of gunshot residue were studied with particle-induced X-ray emission and backscattering spectrometry using a 2.5 MeV H+ beam focussed to ∼4 μm and self-consistent fitting of the data. The geometry of these spherical particles was considered in order to accurately fit the corresponding particle spectrum and therefore to quantify the trace element composition of these particles. The demonstrable self-consistency of this method allows the compositions of most residue particles to be determined unambiguously and with a higher sensitivity to trace elements than conventional methods. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • Molodtsov SL, Gurbich AF, Jeynes C. (2008) 'Accurate ion beam analysis in the presence of surface roughness'. Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, 41 (20)

    Abstract

    Ion beam analysis (IBA) is a powerful materials characterization technique with very wide applicability. However, despite the fact that most natural and many industrial samples are rough, there is currently no way to correctly take severe roughness into account when processing the IBA spectra from rough samples, without resorting to Monte Carlo calculations which are too slow for routine use. In this work we demonstrate a new approach which parametrizes a Monte Carlo calculation so that the analytical codes can rapidly calculate the effect of asperities for a wide variety of rough surfaces. We successfully apply this method to real samples. This new analytical algorithm allows us to overcome the longstanding problem of the correct depth profiling of these common samples, hence dramatically increasing the power of the IBA technique. It also allows us to extract physically meaningful roughness parameters on samples whose roughness cannot be easily measured directly. © 2008 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  • Beck L, Jeynes C, Barradas NP. (2008) 'Characterization of paint layers by simultaneous self-consistent fitting of RBS/PIXE spectra using simulated annealing'. NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS, Univ Hyderabad, Sch Phys, Hyderabad, INDIA: 266 (8), pp. 1871-1874.
  • Barradas NP, Jeynes C. (2008) 'Advanced physics and algorithms in the IBA DataFurnace'. NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS, Univ Hyderabad, Sch Phys, Hyderabad, INDIA: 266 (8), pp. 1875-1879.
  • Barradas NP, Arstila K, Battistig G, Bianconi M, Dytlewski N, Jeynes C, Kotai E, Lulli G, Mayer M, Rauhala E, Szilagyi E, Thompson M. (2008) 'Summary of "IAEA intercomparison of IBA software"'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS, Univ Hyderabad, Sch Phys, Hyderabad, INDIA: 18th International Conference on Ion Beam Analysis 266 (8), pp. 1338-1342.
  • Gurbich A, Bogdanovic-Radovic I, Chiari M, Jeynes C, Kokkoris M, Ramos AR, Mayer M, Rauhala E, Schwerer O, Liqun S, Vickridge I. (2008) 'Status of the problem of nuclear cross section data for IBA'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS, Univ Hyderabad, Sch Phys, Hyderabad, INDIA: 18th International Conference on Ion Beam Analysis 266 (8), pp. 1198-1202.
  • Jeynes JCG, Jeynes C, Kirkby KJ, Ruemmeli A, Silva SRP. (2008) 'RBS/EBS/PIXE measurement of single-walled carbon nanotube modification by nitric acid purification treatment'. NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS, Univ Hyderabad, Sch Phys, Hyderabad, INDIA: 266 (8), pp. 1569-1573.
  • Gurbich AF, Jeynes C. (2007) 'Evaluation of non-Rutherford proton elastic scattering cross-section for magnesium'. NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS, 265 (2), pp. 447-452.
  • Barradas NP, Arstila K, Battistig G, Bianconi M, Dytlewski N, Jeynes C, Kotai E, Lulli G, Mayer M, Rauhala E, Szilagyi E, Thompson M. (2007) 'International Atomic Energy Agency intercomparison of ion beam analysis software'. NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS, 262 (2), pp. 281-303.
  • Pascual-Izarra C, Barradas NP, Reis MA, Jeynes C, Menu M, Lavedrine B, Jacques Ezrati J, Roehrs S. (2007) 'Towards truly simultaneous PIXE and RBS analysis of layered objects in cultural heritage'. NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS, Ft Worth, TX: 261 (1-2), pp. 426-429.
  • Clough AS, Collins SA, Gauntlett FE, Hodgson MR, Jeynes C, Rihawy MS, Todd AM, Thompson RL. (2006) 'In situ water permeation measurement using an external He-3(2+) ion beam'. JOURNAL OF MEMBRANE SCIENCE, 285 (1-2), pp. 137-143.
  • Barradas NP, Alves E, Jeynes C, Tosaki M. (2006) 'Accurate simulation of backscattering spectra in the presence of sharp resonances'. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, 247 (2), pp. 381-389.

    Abstract

    In elastic backscattering spectrometry, the shape of the observed spectrum due to resonances in the nuclear scattering cross-section is influenced by many factors. If the energy spread of the beam before interaction is larger than the resonance width, then a simple convolution with the energy spread on exit and with the detection system resolution will lead to a calculated spectrum with a resonance much sharper than the observed signal. Also, the yield from a thin layer will not be calculated accurately. We have developed an algorithm for the accurate simulation of backscattering spectra in the presence of sharp resonances. Albeit approximate, the algorithm leads to dramatic improvements in the quality and accuracy of the simulations. It is simple to implement and leads to only small increases of the calculation time, being thus suitable for routine data analysis. We show different experimental examples, including samples with roughness and porosity. © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • Seah MP, Spencer SJ, Bensebaa F, Vickridge I, Danzebrink H, Krumrey M, Gross T, Oesterle W, Wendler E, Rheinländer B, Azuma Y, Kojima I, Suzuki N, Suzuki M, Tanuma S, Moon DW, Lee HJ, Cho HM, Chen HY, Wee ATS, Osipowicz T, Pan JS, Jordaan WA, Hauert R, Klotz U, Van Der Marel C, Verheijen M, Tamminga Y, Jeynes C, Bailey P, Biswas S, Falke U, Nguyen NV, Chandler-Horowitz D, Ehrstein JR, Muller D, Dura JA. (2004) 'Critical review of the current status of thickness measurements for ultrathin SiO on Si Part V: Results of a CCQM pilot study'. Surface and Interface Analysis, 36 (9), pp. 1269-1303.

    Abstract

    A study was carried out for the measurement of ultrathin SiO on (100) and (111) orientation silicon wafer in the thickness range 1.5-8 nm. XPS, medium-energy ion scattering spectrometry (MEIS), nuclear reaction analysis (NRA), RBS, elastic backscattering spectrometry (EBS), SIMS, ellipsometry, gazing-incidence x-ray reflectometry (GIXRR), neutron reflectometry and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used for the measurements. Water and carbonaceous contamination about 1 nm were observed by ellipsometry and adsorbed oxygen mainly from water at thickness of 0.5 nm were seen by MEIS, NRA, RBS and GIXRR. The different uncertainty of the techniques for the scaling constant were also discussed.

  • Boudreault G, Elliman RG, Grotzschel R, Gujrathi SC, Jeynes C, Lennard WN, Rauhala E, Sajavaara T, Timmers H, Wang YQ, Weijers TDM. (2004) 'Round Robin: measurement of H implantation distributions in Si by elastic recoil detection'. NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS, 222 (3-4), pp. 547-566.
  • Simpson TRE, Tabatabaian Z, Jeynes C, Parbhoo B, Keddie JL. (2004) 'Influence of interfaces on the rates of crosslinking in poly(dimethyl siloxane) coatings'. JOURNAL OF POLYMER SCIENCE PART A-POLYMER CHEMISTRY, 42 (6), pp. 1421-1431.
  • Aramendia E, Mallegol J, Jeynes C, Barandiaran MJ, Keddie JL, Asua JM. (2003) 'Distribution of surfactants near acrylic latex film surfaces: A comparison of conventional and reactive surfactants (surfmers)'. LANGMUIR, 19 (8), pp. 3212-3221.
  • Jeynes C, Barradas NP, Marriott PK, Boudreault G, Jenkin M, Wendler E, Webb RP. (2003) 'Elemental thin film depth profiles by ion beam analysis using simulated annealing - a new tool'. JOURNAL OF PHYSICS D-APPLIED PHYSICS, 36 (7) Article number PII S0022-3727(03)34952-6 , pp. R97-R126.
  • Peng N, Shao G, Jeynes C, Webb RP, Gwilliam RM, Boudreault G, Astill DM, Liang WY. (2003) 'Ion beam synthesis of superconducting MgB2 thin films'. APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 82 (2), pp. 236-238.
  • Rozenberg GG, Bresler E, Speakman SP, Jeynes C, Steinke JHG. (2002) 'Patterned low temperature copper-rich deposits using inkjet printing'. APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 81 (27), pp. 5249-5251.
  • Barradas NP, Jeynes C, Webb RP, Wendler E. (2002) 'Accurate determination of the stopping power of He-4 in Si using Bayesian inference'. NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS, 194 (1) Article number PII S0168-583X(02)00494-9 , pp. 15-25.
  • Mallegol J, Gorce JP, Dupont O, Jeynes C, McDonald PJ, Keddie JL. (2002) 'Origins and effects of a surfactant excess near the surface of waterborne acrylic pressure-sensitive adhesives'. LANGMUIR, 18 (11), pp. 4478-4487.
  • Gurbich AF, Barradas NP, Jeynes C, Wendler E. (2002) 'Applying elastic backscattering spectrometry when the nuclear excitation function has a fine structure'. NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS, CAIRNS, AUSTRALIA: 190 Article number PII S0168-583X(01)01211-3 , pp. 237-240.
  • Milosavljevic M, Shao G, Bibic N, McKinty CN, Jeynes C, Homewood KP. (2002) 'Synthesis of amorphous FeSi2 by ion beam mixing'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS, UNIV SURREY, GUILDFORD, ENGLAND: 7th European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology 188, pp. 166-169.
  • Kang DJ, Burnell G, Lloyd SJ, Speaks RS, Peng NH, Jeynes C, Webb R, Yun JH, Moon SH, Oh B, Tarte EJ, Moore DF, Blamire MG. (2002) 'Realization and properties of YBa2Cu3O 7-δ Josephson junctions by metal masked ion damage technique'. Applied Physics Letters, 80 (5), pp. 814-816.

    Abstract

    We have developed a simple process to fabricate high-TC Josephson junctions by a combination of focused ion beam milling and 100 keV H2+ ion implantation. The resistively shunted junction-like current-voltage characteristics were observed in the temperature range of 48 to 4.2 K. The devices showed clear dc and ac Josephson effects. This technique is very promising in terms of simplicity and flexibility of fabrication and has potential for high-density integration. © 2002 American Institute of Physics.

  • Milosavljevic M, Shao G, Bibic N, McKinty CN, Jeynes C, Homewood KP. (2001) 'Amorphous-iron disilicide: A promising semiconductor'. APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 79 (10), pp. 1438-1440.
  • Jeynes C, Barradas NP, Rafla-Yuan H, Hichwa BP, Close R. (2000) 'Accurate depth profiling of complex optical coatings'. SURFACE AND INTERFACE ANALYSIS, SEVILLE, SPAIN: 30 (1), pp. 237-242.
  • Jeynes C, Barradas NP, Wilde JR, Greer AL. (2000) 'Composition of Ni-Ta-C thick films using simulated annealing analysis of elastic backscattering spectrometry data'. NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS, DRESEDEN, GERMANY: 161, pp. 287-292.
  • Barradas NP, Jeynes C, Jenkin M, Marriott PK. (1999) 'Bayesian error analysis of Rutherford backscattering spectra'. THIN SOLID FILMS, BIRMINGHAM, ENGLAND: 343, pp. 31-34.
  • Barradas NP, Knights AP, Jeynes C, Mironov OA, Grasby TJ, Parker EHC. (1999) 'High-depth-resolution Rutherford backscattering data and error analysis of SiGe systems using the simulated annealing and Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms'. PHYSICAL REVIEW B, 59 (7), pp. 5097-5105.
  • Jeynes C, Barradas NP, Blewett MJ, Webb RP. (1998) 'Improved ion beam analysis facilities at the University of Surrey'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS, LISBON, PORTUGAL: 13th International Conference on Ion Beam Analysis (IBA-13) 136, pp. 1229-1234.
  • Barradas NP, Jeynes C, Webb RP. (1997) 'Simulated annealing analysis of Rutherford backscattering data'. APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 71 (2), pp. 291-293.
  • Jeynes C, Jafri ZH, Webb RP, Kimber AC, Ashwin MJ. (1997) 'Accurate RBS measurements of the indium content of InGaAs thin films'. SURFACE AND INTERFACE ANALYSIS, 25 (4), pp. 254-260.
  • Jeynes C, Puttick KE, Whitmore LC, Gartner K, Gee AE, Millen DK, Webb RP, Peel RMA, Sealy BJ. (1996) 'Laterally resolved crystalline damage in single-point-diamond-turned silicon'. NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS, 118 (1-4), pp. 431-436.
  • SEAH MP, DAVID D, DAVIES JA, JACKMAN TE, JEYNES C, ORTEGA C, READ PM, SOFIELD CJ, WEBER G. (1988) 'AN INTERCOMPARISON OF ABSOLUTE MEASUREMENTS OF THE OXYGEN AND TANTALUM THICKNESS OF TANTALUM PENTOXIDE REFERENCE MATERIALS, BCR 261, BY 6 LABORATORIES'. NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS, 30 (2), pp. 140-151.

Journal articles

  • Jeynes C, Colaux JL. (2016) 'Thin film depth profiling by Ion Beam Analysis'. Analyst, 141, pp. 5944-5985.

    Abstract

    The analysis of thin films is of central importance for functional materials, including the very large and active field of nanomaterials. Quantitative elemental depth profiling is basic to analysis, and many techniques exist, but all have limitations and quantitation is always an issue. We here review recent significant advances in ion beam analysis (IBA) which now merit it a standard place in the analyst’s toolbox. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) has been in use for half a century to obtain elemental depth profiles non-destructively from the first fraction of a micron from the surface of materials: more generally, “IBA” refers to the cluster of methods including elastic scattering (RBS; elastic recoil detection, ERD; and non-Rutherford elastic backscattering, EBS), nuclear reaction analysis (NRA), particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and particle-induced gamma-ray emission (PIGE) which is a form of NRA. We have at last demonstrated what was long promised, that RBS can be used as a primary reference technique for the best traceable accuracy available for non-destructive model-free methods in thin films. Also, it has become clear over the last decade that we can effectively combine synergistically the quite different information available from the atomic (PIXE) and nuclear (RBS, EBS, ERD, NRA) methods. Although it is well known that RBS has severe limitations that curtail its usefulness for elemental depth profiling, these limitations are largely overcome when we make proper synergistic use of IBA methods. In this Tutorial Review we aim to briefly explain to analysts what IBA is and why it is now a general quantitative method of great power. Analysts have got used to the availability of the large synchrotron facilities for certain sorts of difficult problem, but there are many much more easily accessible mid-range IBA facilities also able to address (and often more quantitatively) a wide range of otherwise almost intractable thin film questions.

  • Palitsin V , Jeynes J, Jeynes C , Townley H. (2016) 'Direct quantification of rare earth doped titania nanoparticles in individual human cells'. Nanotechnology, 27 (28)

    Abstract

    There are many possible biomedical applications for titania nanoparticles (NPs) doped with rare earth elements (REEs), from dose enhancement and diagnostic imaging in radiotherapy, to biosensing. However, there are concerns that the NPs could disintegrate in the body thus releasing toxic REE ions to undesired locations. As a first step, we investigate how accurately the Ti/REE ratio from the NPs can be measured inside human cells. A quantitative analysis of whole, unsectioned, individual human cells was performed using proton microprobe elemental microscopy. This method is unique in being able to quantitatively analyse all the elements in an unsectioned individual cell with micron resolution, while also scanning large fields of view. We compared the Ti/REE signal inside cells to NPs that were outside the cells, non-specifically absorbed onto the polypropylene substrate. We show that the REE signal in individual cells co-localises with the titanium signal, indicating that the NPs have remained intact. Within the uncertainty of the measurement, there is no difference between the Ti/REE ratio inside and outside the cells. Interestingly, we also show that there is considerable variation in the uptake of the NPs from cell-to-cell, by a factor of more than 10. We conclude that the NPs enter the cells and remain intact. The large heterogeneity in NP concentrations from cell-to-cell should be considered if they are to be used therapeutically.

  • Utgenannt A, Maspero R, Fortini A , Turner R, Florescu M , Jeynes C , Kanaras A, Muskens O, Sear RPL, Keddie JL. (2016) 'Fast Assembly of Gold Nanoparticles in Large-Area 2-D Nanogrids Using a One-Step, Near-Infrared Radiation-Assisted Evaporation Process'. ACS Nano, 10 (2), pp. pp. 2232-2242.

    Abstract

    When fabricating photonic crystals from suspensions in volatile liquids using the horizontal deposition method, the conventional approach is to evaporate slowly to increase the time for particles to settle in an ordered, periodic close-packed structure. Here, we show that the greatest ordering of 10 nm aqueous gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in a template of larger spherical polymer particles (mean diameter of 338 nm) is achieved with very fast water evaporation rates obtained with near-infrared radiative heating. Fabrication of arrays over areas of a few cm2 takes only seven minutes. The assembly process requires that the evaporation rate is fast relative to the particles’ Brownian diffusion. Then a two-dimensional colloidal crystal forms at the falling surface, which acts as a sieve through which the AuNPs pass, according to our Langevin dynamics computer simulations. With sufficiently fast evaporation rates, we create a hybrid structure consisting of a two-dimensional AuNP nanoarray (or “nanogrid”) on top of a three-dimensional polymer opal. The process is simple, fast and one-step. The interplay between the optical response of the plasmonic Au nanoarray and the microstructuring of the photonic opal results in unusual optical spectra with two extinction peaks, which are analyzed via finite-difference time-domain method simulations. Comparison between experimental and modelling results reveals a strong interplay of plasmonic modes and collective photonic effects, including the formation of a high-order stop band and slow-light enhanced plasmonic absorption. The structures, and hence their optical signatures, are tuned by adjusting the evaporation rate via the infrared power density.

  • Secchi M, Demenev E, Colaux JL, Giubertoni D, Dell'Anna R, Iacob E, Gwilliam M, Jeynes C, Bersani M. (2015) 'Development of nanotopography during SIMS characterization of thin films of Ge1-xSnx alloy'. APPLIED SURFACE SCIENCE, 356, pp. 422-428.
  • Azarmi F, Kumar P, Mulheron M, Colaux JL, Jeynes C, Adhami S, Watts JF. (2015) 'Physicochemical characteristics and occupational exposure to coarse, fine and ultrafine particles during building refurbishment activities'. JOURNAL OF NANOPARTICLE RESEARCH, 17 (8)
  • Colaux JL, Jeynes C, Heasman KC, Gwilliam RM. (2015) 'Certified ion implantation fluence by high accuracy RBS.'. Analyst, 140 (9), pp. 3251-3261.

    Abstract

    From measurements over the last two years we have demonstrated that the charge collection system based on Faraday cups can robustly give near-1% absolute implantation fluence accuracy for our electrostatically scanned 200 kV Danfysik ion implanter, using four-point-probe mapping with a demonstrated accuracy of 2%, and accurate Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) of test implants from our quality assurance programme. The RBS is traceable to the certified reference material IRMM-ERM-EG001/BAM-L001, and involves convenient calibrations both of the electronic gain of the spectrometry system (at about 0.1% accuracy) and of the RBS beam energy (at 0.06% accuracy). We demonstrate that accurate RBS is a definitive method to determine quantity of material. It is therefore useful for certifying high quality reference standards, and is also extensible to other kinds of samples such as thin self-supporting films of pure elements. The more powerful technique of Total-IBA may inherit the accuracy of RBS.

  • Colaux JL, Terwagne G, Jeynes C. (2015) 'On the traceably accurate voltage calibration of electrostatic accelerators'. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, 349, pp. 173-183.

    Abstract

    ©2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.We describe in detail a calibration method for the terminal voltage of small accelerators used for ion beam analysis, with the elastic resonance of 16O(α,α)16O at 3038 keV as the intrinsic measurement standard. The beam energy relative to this resonance is determined with a precision around 300 eV and an evaluated reproducibility of 1.0 keV. We show that this method is both robust and convenient, and demonstrate consistency with calibration relative to three other independent methods: using radioactive sources and using the resonant 27Al(p,γ)28Si and non-resonant 16O(p,γ)17F direct capture reactions. We re-evaluate the literature and show that the peak in the cross-section function is at 3038.1 ± 2.3 keV. By comparing the results obtained with 16O(α,α)16O to the other calibration methods we show that this uncertainty can be reduced to 1.3 keV.

  • Colaux JL, Jeynes C. (2015) 'Accurate electronics calibration for particle backscattering spectrometry'. Analytical Methods, 7 (7), pp. 3096-3104.

    Abstract

    © The Royal Society of Chemistry.Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) is a non-destructive thin film analytical technique of the highest absolute accuracy which, when used for elemental depth profiling, depends at first order on the gain of the pulse-height spectrometry system. We show here for the first time how this gain can be reliably and robustly determined at about 0.1%. This journal is

  • James CD, Jeynes C, Barradas NP, Clifton L, Dalgliesh RM, Smith RF, Sankey SW, Hutchings LR, Thompson RL. (2015) 'Modifying polyester surfaces with incompatible polymer additives'. Reactive and Functional Polymers, 89, pp. 40-48.

    Abstract

    © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.Surface modification of amorphous PET in incompatible blends is demonstrated using fluorocarbon end-functional polystyrenes. Contact angles with water and decane were consistent with high levels of surface fluorocarbon, even for spin-cast films with no further processing required. Hydrophobicity and lipophobicity were further increased by annealing above the glass transition temperature. High resolution depth profiling using complementary ion beam analysis and specular neutron reflectometry has enabled accurate characterisation of the composition profile of the additive including the minimum in additive concentration found just below the surface enriched layer. This analysis quantified the very low compatibility between the modifying polymer and the amorphous PET and was consistent with the highly segregated nature of the adsorbing species and its sharp interface with the subphase. For these incompatible polymer blends, surfaces enriched with the surface active polymer could coexist at equilibrium with extremely low (∼0.4%) bulk loadings of the additive. This suggests that for thicker films at even lower additive concentrations than the minimum 1% that we studied, it may be possible to achieve efficient surface modification. However, at this concentration, the efficiency of surface modification is limited by the processing conditions. Finally we note that in higher loadings of surface active additive there is clear evidence for lateral phase separation into patterned domains of differing composition. The enhancement in surface properties is due to local reorganisation rather than bulk redistribution of the components within the film, as the composition versus depth distributions of the polymer blend components was observed to be relatively unaffected by annealing.

  • Jeynes C. (2015) 'Costs of open data'. PHYSICS WORLD, 28 (4), pp. 21-21.
  • Jeynes C. (2014) 'Double-blind bind'. PHYSICS WORLD, 27 (7), pp. 20-20.
  • Paneta V, Colaux JL, Gurbich AF, Jeynes C, Kokkoris M. (2014) 'Benchmarking experiments for the proton backscattering on 23Na, 31P and natS up to 3.5 MeV'. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, 328, pp. 1-7.

    Abstract

    The benchmarking procedure in IBA (Ion Beam Analysis) regards the validation of charged-particle differential cross-section data via the acquisition of EBS (Elastic Backscattering Spectrometry) spectra from uniform thick target of known composition followed by their detailed simulation. In the present work such benchmarking measurements have been performed for the elastic scattering of protons on 23Na, 31P and natS in the energy range of 1-3.5 MeV in steps of 250 keV at three backward angles, at 120.6, 148.8 and 173.5 in an attempt to validate the corresponding existing evaluated cross-section datasets from SigmaCalc and to facilitate their extension at higher energies. The EBS spectra acquired were compared with simulated ones using the DataFurnace code, along with an a posteriori treatment of the surface roughness. All the experimental parameters were thoroughly investigated and the results obtained and the discrepancies found are discussed and analyzed. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • Gurbich AF, Jeynes C. (2014) 'Evaluation of Non-Rutherford Alpha Elastic Scattering Cross-sections for Silicon'. NUCLEAR DATA SHEETS, 119, pp. 270-272.
  • Buis C, Gros D'Aillon E, Lohstroh A, Marrakchi G, Jeynes C, Verger L. (2014) 'Effects of dislocation walls on charge carrier transport properties in CdTe single crystal'. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, 735, pp. 188-192.

    Abstract

    Radiation detectors for medical imaging at room temperature have been developed thanks to the availability of large chlorine-compensated cadmium telluride (CdTe:Cl) crystals. Microstructural defects affect the performance of CdTe:Cl radiation detectors. Advanced characterization tools, such as Ion Beam Induced Current (IBIC) measurements and chemical etching on tellurium and cadmium faces were used to evaluate the influence of sub-grain-boundaries on charge carrier transport properties. We performed IBIC imaging to correlate inhomogeneities in charge collection for both types of charge carrier with distribution of dislocation walls in the sample. This information should help improve performance in medical imaging applications. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  • Colaux JL, Jeynes C. (2014) 'High accuracy traceable Rutherford backscattering spectrometry of ion implanted samples'. Analytical Methods, 6 (1), pp. 120-129.

    Abstract

    There are few techniques capable of the non-destructive and model-free measurement at 1% absolute accuracy of quantity of material in thin films without the use of sample-matched standards. We demonstrate that Rutherford backscattering spectrometry can achieve this robustly, reliably and conveniently. Using 1.5 MeV He+, a 150 keV ion implant into silicon with a nominal fluence of 5 × 1015 As cm-2 has been independently measured repeatedly over a period of 2 years with a mean total combined standard uncertainty of 0.9 ± 0.3% relative to an internal standard given by the silicon stopping power (a coverage factor k = 1 is used for all uncertainties given). The stopping power factor of this beam in silicon is determined absolutely with a mean total combined standard uncertainty of 0.8 ± 0.1%, traceable to the 0.6% uncertainty of the Sb-implanted certified reference material (CRM) from IRMM, Geel. The uncertainty budget highlights the need for the accurate determination of the electronic gain of the detection system and the scattering angle, parameters conventionally regarded as trivial. This level of accuracy is equally applicable to much lower fluences since it is not dominated by any one effect; but it cannot be reached without good control of all of these effects. This analytical method is extensible to non-Rutherford scattering. The stopping power factor of 4.0 MeV lithium in silicon is also determined at 1.0% absolute accuracy traceable to the Sb-implanted CRM. This work used SRIM2003 stopping powers which are therefore demonstrated correct at 0.8% for 1.5 MeV He in Si and 1% for 4 MeV Li in Si. © 2014 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  • Fedorenko YG, Hughes MA, Colaux JL, Jeynes C, Gwilliam RM, Homewood KP, Yao J, Hewak DW, Lee TH, Elliott SR, Gholipour B, Curry RJ. (2014) 'Electrical properties of amorphous chalcogenide/silicon heterojunctions modified by ion implantation'. Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering, 8982

    Abstract

    Doping of amorphous chalcogenide films of rather dissimilar bonding type and resistivity, namely, Ga-La-S, GeTe, and Ge-Sb-Te by means of ion implantation of bismuth is considered. To characterize defects induced by ionbeam implantation space-charge-limited conduction and capacitance-voltage characteristics of amorphous chalcogenide/silicon heterojunctions are investigated. It is shown that ion implantation introduces substantial defect densities in the films and their interfaces with silicon. This comes along with a gradual decrease in the resistivity and the thermopower coefficient. It is shown that conductivity in GeTe and Ge-Sb-Te films is consistent with the two-type carrier conduction model. It is anticipated that ion implantation renders electrons to become less localized than holes leading to electron conductivity in certain cases as, for example, in GeTe.

  • Alzanki T, Bennett N, Gwilliam R, Jeynes C, Sealy B, Bailey P, Noakes T. (2014) 'Ion beam analysis for hall scattering factor measurements in antimony implanted bulk and strained silicon'. Journal of Engineering Research, 2 (1), pp. 122-132.

    Abstract

    Rutherford back-scattering (RBS) and Medium Energy Ion Scattering (MEIS) have been used to determine the lattice site occupancy of antimony (Sb) implanted into silicon (Si) and strained silicon (sSi) for ion energies of 2keV to 40keV. After annealing in the range 600-1100°C for various times, Ilall effect measurements were used to provide a measure of the percentage electrical activity. A comparison of the lattice site occupancy with the percentage electrical activity was used to confirm whether the assumption that the Hall scattering factor is equal to unity is valid. Our results demonstrate that for 40keV implants the electrical activation is about 90%. In the case of 2keV implants the electrical activation is lower and in the range 10-80%, depending on the ion fluence and annealing conditions. This reduction in activation for lower energy implants is a result of inactive Sb close to the semiconductor/native-oxide interface, or above concentrations of 4.5×10cm . Tensile strain facilitates the lattice site occupancy and electrical activation of Sb in Si by raising the doping ceiling. For both 40keV and 2keV implants, we have carried out a comparison of RBS/MEIS and Hall effect data to show that for Sb implants into both bulk Si and strained Si the Hall scattering factor is equal to unity within experimental error.

  • Howard KT, Berhanu D, Cressey G, Howard LE, Bailey MJ, Bland PA, Jeynes C, Matthewman R, Martins Z, Sephton MA, Stolojan V, Verchovsky S. (2013) 'Biomass preservation in impact melt ejecta'. Nature Geoscience, 6 (12), pp. 1018-1022.

    Abstract

    Meteorites can have played a role in the delivery of the building blocks of life to Earth only if organic compounds are able to survive the high pressures and temperatures of an impact event. Although experimental impact studies have reported the survival of organic compounds, there are uncertainties in scaling experimental conditions to those of a meteorite impact on Earth and organic matter has not been found in highly shocked impact materials in a natural setting. Impact glass linked to the 1.2-km-diameter Darwin crater in western Tasmania is strewn over an area exceeding 400 km 2 and is thought to have been ejected by a meteorite impact about 800 kyr ago into terrain consisting of rainforest and swamp. Here we use pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to show that biomarkers representative of plant species in the local ecosystem - including cellulose, lignin, aliphatic biopolymer and protein remnants - survived the Darwin impact. We find that inside the impact glass the organic components are trapped in porous carbon spheres. We propose that the organic material was captured within impact melt and preserved when the melt quenched to glass, preventing organic decomposition since the impact. We suggest that organic material can survive capture and transport in products of extreme impact processing, at least for a Darwin-sized impact event. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

  • Jeynes JCG, Jeynes C, Merchant MJ, Kirkby KJ. (2013) 'Measuring and modelling cell-to-cell variation in uptake of gold nanoparticles'. Analyst, (138), pp. 7070-7074.

    Abstract

    The cell-to-cell variation of gold nanoparticle (GNP) uptake is important for therapeutic applications. We directly counted the GNPs in hundreds of individual cells, and showed that the large variation from cell-to-cell could be directly modelled by assuming log-normal distributions of both cell mass and GNP rate of uptake. This was true for GNPs non-specifically bound to fetal bovine serum or conjugated to a cell penetrating peptide. Within a population of cells, GNP content varied naturally by a factor greater than 10 between individual cells.

  • Romolo FS, Christopher ME, Donghi M, Ripani L, Jeynes C, Webb RP, Ward NI, Kirkby KJ, Bailey MJ. (2013) 'Integrated Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) in Gunshot Residue (GSR) characterisation'. Forensic Science International, 231 (1-3), pp. 219-228.

    Abstract

    Gunshot Residue (GSR) is residual material from the discharge of a firearm, which frequently provides crucial information in criminal investigations. Changes in ammunition manufacturing are gradually phasing out the heavy metals on which current forensic GSR analysis is based, and the latest Heavy Metal Free (HMF) primers urgently demand new forensic solutions. Proton scanning microbeam Ion Beam Analysis (IBA), in conjunction with the Scanning Electron Microscope equipped with an Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometer (SEM-EDS), can be introduced into forensic analysis to solve both new and old problems, with a procedure entirely commensurate with current forensic practice. Six cartridges producing GSR particles known to be interesting in casework by both experience and the literature were selected for this study. A standard procedure to relocate the same particles previously analysed by SEM-EDS, based on both secondary electron (SE) and X-ray imaging was developed and tested. Elemental Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) mapping of the emitted X-rays allowed relocation in a scan of 10μm×10μm of even a 1μm GSR particle. The comparison between spectra from the same particle obtained by SEM-EDS and IBA-PIXE showed that the latter is much more sensitive at mid-high energies. Results that are very interesting in a forensic context were obtained with particles from a cartridge containing mercury fulminate in the primer. Particle-induced gamma-ray emission (PIGE) maps of a particles from HMF cartridges allowed identification of Boron and Sodium in particles from hands using the 10B(p,α1γ)7Be, 11B(p,p1γ)11B and 23Na(p,p1γ)23Na reactions, which is extraordinary in a forensic context. The capability for quantitative analysis of elements within individual particles by IBA was also demonstrated, giving the opportunity to begin a new chapter in the research on GSR particles. The integrated procedure that was developed, which makes use of all the IBA signals, has unprecedented characterisation and discrimination power for GSR samples. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  • Guan W, Ghatak J, Peng Y, Bhatta UM, Inkson BJ, Möbus G, Peng N, Jeynes C, Ross IM. (2013) 'Fabrication and characterisation of embedded metal nanostructures by ion implantation with nanoporous anodic alumina masks'. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, 307, pp. 273-276.

    Abstract

    Lateral ordered Co, Pt and Co/Pt nanostructures were fabricated in SiO2 and Si3N4 substrates by high fluence metal ion implantation through periodic nanochannel membrane masks based on anodic aluminium oxides (AAO). The quality of nanopatterning transfer defined by various AAO masks in different substrates was examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in both imaging and spectroscopy modes. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • Christopher ME, Warmenhoeven JW, Romolo FS, Donghi M, Webb RP, Jeynes C, Ward NI, Kirkby KJ, Bailey MJ. (2013) 'A new quantitative method for gunshot residue analysis by ion beam analysis.'. Analyst, , pp. 4649-4655.

    Abstract

    Imaging and analyzing gunshot residue (GSR) particles using the scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM-EDS) is a standard technique that can provide important forensic evidence, but the discrimination power of this technique is limited due to low sensitivity to trace elements and difficulties in obtaining quantitative results from small particles. A new, faster method using a scanning proton microbeam and Particle Induced X-ray Emission (μ-PIXE), together with Elastic Backscattering Spectrometry (EBS) is presented for the non-destructive, quantitative analysis of the elemental composition of single GSR particles. In this study, the GSR particles were all Pb, Ba, Sb. The precision of the method is assessed. The grouping behaviour of different makes of ammunition is determined using multivariate analysis. The protocol correctly groups the cartridges studied here, with a confidence >99%, irrespective of the firearm or population of particles selected.

  • Milosavljević M, Obradović M, Grce A, Peruško D, Pjević D, Kovač J, Dražič G, Jeynes C. (2013) 'High dose ion irradiation effects on immiscible AlN/TiN nano-scaled multilayers'. Thin Solid Films,

    Abstract

    The effects of high dose Ar ion irradiation on immiscible AlN/TiN multilayered structures were studied. The structures with 30 alternate layers of a total thickness of ~ 260 nm were deposited by reactive sputtering on (100) Si wafers. Individual layer thickness was ~ 8 nm AlN and ~ 9.3 nm TiN. Irradiation was done with 180 keV Ar ions to 1 × 10-8 × 10 ions/cm, with the projected range around mid-depth of the structures. It was found that the highest applied dose induced a considerable intermixing, where the growing TiN grains consume the adjacent AlN layers, transforming partly to (TiAl)N phase. Intermixing occurs due to a high contribution of collision cascades, which was not compensated in demixing by chemical driving forces. However, a multilayered structure with relatively flat surface and interfaces is still preserved, with measured nano-hardness value above the level for the as-deposited sample. The results are compared to other systems and discussed in the light of the existing ion beam mixing models. They can be interesting towards better understanding of the processes involved and to development of radiation tolerant coatings. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • Wakeling B, Degamber B, Kister G, Lane D, Bailey MJ, Jeynes C . (2012) 'In situ analysis of cadmium sulphide chemical bath deposition by an optical fibre monitor'. Thin Solid Films, 525, pp. 1-5.

    Abstract

    The CdS window layer in thin film solar cells is frequently grown by chemical bath deposition (CBD). Deposited films are typically less than 100 nm thick and the inability to identify the exact start of the deposition can make CBD an imprecise process. This paper describes the construction and testing of a simple optical fibre sensor that detects the start of the deposition process and also allows for its mechanism to be studied. The in situ optical fibre monitoring technique utilises the change in optical reflectance off the glass/deposited film/precursor solution interfaces at an operating wavelength of 1550 nm. A theoretical expression for the reflection of light from the interface is discussed and compared with experimental results. The monitoring technique shows the presence of two different deposition mechanisms. This result is confirmed by film densities calculated by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and an optical model for ellipsometry measurements which indicates that the deposited CdS films consist of a double layer structure with a porous layer on top of a dense under layer. The application of the theoretical expression is optimised by assuming the refractive index of the CdS layer to be 2.02. The ellipsometry model shows that the refractive index of the CdS deposited is 2.14 for a two layer model of the film that included a porous upper layer through the effective medium approximation.

  • Ohe T, Zou B, Morris PM, Wogelius RA, Noshita K, Gomez-Morilla I, Jeynes C. (2012) 'Adsorption and diffusion of strontium in simulated rock fractures quantified via ion beam analysis'. Mineralogical Magazine, 76 (8), pp. 3203-3215.

    Abstract

    An experimental technique has been developed and applied to the problem of determining effective diffusion coefficients and partition coefficients of Sr in low permeability geological materials. This technique, the micro-reactor simulated channel method (MRSC), allows rapid determination of contaminant transport parameters with resulting values comparable to those determined by more traditional methods and also creates product surfaces that are amenable for direct chemical analysis. An attempt to further constrain mass flux was completed by detailed ion beam analysis of polished tuff surfaces (tuff is a polycrystalline polyminerallic aggregate dominated by silicate phases) that had been reacted with Sr solutions at concentrations of 10, 10 and 10 mol 1. Ion beam analysis was carried out using beams of both protons (using particle induced X-ray emission and elastic backscattering spectrometry or EBS) and alpha-particles (using Rutherford backscattering spectrometry). The ion beam analyses showed that increased solution concentrations resulted in increased surface concentrations and that in the highest concentration experiment, Sr penetrated to at least 4 mm below the primary interface. The Sr surface concentrations determined by EBS were 0.06 (±0.05), 0.87 (±0.30) and 2.40 (±1.0) atomic weight % in the experiments with starting solution concentrations of 10 , 10, and 10 mol 1, respectively. © 2012 The Mineralogical Society.

  • Berhanuddin DD, Lourenço MA, Jeynes C, Milosavljević M, Gwilliam RM, Homewood KP. (2012) 'Structural analysis of silicon co-implanted with carbon and high energy proton for the formation of the lasing G-centre'. Journal of Applied Physics, 112 (10)

    Abstract

    We investigate a new approach for efficient generation of the lasing G-centre (carbon substitutional-silicon self-interstitial complex) which crucially is fully compatible with standard silicon ultra-large-scale integration technology. Silicon wafers were implanted with carbon and irradiated with high energy protons to produce self-interstitials that are crucial in the formation of the G-centre. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and transmission electron microscopy were used to study the structure of the post-implanted silicon samples and to investigate the behaviour of the self-interstitials and damage introduced by the carbon and proton implantation. The effect of substrate pre-amorphisation on the G-centre luminescence intensity and formation properties was also investigated by implanting Ge prior to the carbon and proton irradiation. Photoluminescence measurements and RBS results show a significantly higher G-centre peak intensity and silicon yield, respectively, in samples without pre-amorphisation. © 2012 American Institute of Physics.

  • Jeynes C, Bailey MJ, Bright NJ, Christopher ME, Grime GW, Jones BN, Palitsin VV, Webb RP. (2012) '"total IBA" - Where are we?'. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, 271, pp. 107-118.

    Abstract

    The suite of techniques which are available with the small accelerators used for MeV ion beam analysis (IBA) range from broad beams, microbeams or external beams using the various particle and photon spectrometries (including RBS, EBS, ERD, STIM, PIXE, PIGE, NRA and their variants), to tomography and secondary particle spectrometries like MeV-SIMS. These can potentially yield almost everything there is to know about the 3-D elemental composition of types of samples that have always been hard to analyse, given the sensitivity and the spacial resolution of the techniques used. Molecular and chemical information is available in principle with, respectively, MeV-SIMS and high resolution PIXE. However, these techniques separately give only partial information – the secret of “Total IBA” is to find synergies between techniques used simultaneously which efficiently give extra information. We here review how far “Total IBA” can be considered already a reality, and what further needs to be done to realise its full potential.

  • Shtereva KS, Novotny I, Tvarozek V, Vojs M, Flickyngerova S, Sutta P, Vincze A, Milosavljević M, Jeynes C, Peng N. (2012) 'Carrier Control in Polycrystalline ZnO:Ga Thin Films via Nitrogen Implantation Electronic Materials and Processing'. ECS Journal of Solid State Science and Technology, 1 (5), pp. 237-240.

    Abstract

    The electrical characteristics of gallium-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Ga) thin films prepared by rf diode sputtering were altered via nitrogen implantation by performing two implants at 40 keV and 80 keV with doses of 1×1015 and 1×1016 cm−2 to achieve a p-type semiconductor. An implantation of 1×1015 cm−2 N+-ions yielded a p-type with hole concentrations 1017–1018 cm−3 in some as-implanted samples. The films annealed at temperatures above 200°C in O2 and above 400°C in N2 were n-type with electron concentrations 1017–1020 cm−3. The higher nitrogen concentration (confirmed by SRIM and SIMS), in the films implanted with a 1×1016 cm−2 dose, resulted in lower electron concentrations, respectively, higher resistivity, due to compensation of donors by nitrogen acceptors. The electron concentrations ratio n(1×1015)/n(1×1016) decreases with increasing annealing temperature. Hall measurements showed that 1×1016 cm−2 N-implanted films became p-type after low temperature annealing in O2 at 200°C and in N2 at 400°C with hole concentrations of 3.2×1017 cm−3 and 1.6×1019 cm−3, respectively. Nitrogen-implanted ZnO:Ga films showed a c-axes preferred orientation of the crystallites. Annealing is shown to increase the average transmittance (>80%) of the films and to cause bandgap widening (3.19–3.3 eV).

  • Jeynes C, Barradas NP, Szilágyi E. (2012) 'Accurate determination of quantity of material in thin films by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry'. Analytical Chemistry, 84 (14), pp. 6061-6069.

    Abstract

    Ion beam analysis (IBA) is a cluster of techniques including Rutherford and non-Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Recently, the ability to treat multiple IBA techniques (including PIXE) self-consistently has been demonstrated. The utility of IBA for accurately depth profiling thin films is critically reviewed. As an important example of IBA, three laboratories have independently measured a silicon sample implanted with a fluence of nominally 5 × 10 15 As/cm 2 at an unprecedented absolute accuracy. Using 1.5 MeV 4He + Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), each lab has demonstrated a combined standard uncertainty around 1% (coverage factor k = 1) traceable to an Sb-implanted certified reference material through the silicon electronic stopping power. The uncertainty budget shows that this accuracy is dominated by the knowledge of the electronic stopping, but that special care must also be taken to accurately determine the electronic gain of the detection system and other parameters. This RBS method is quite general and can be used routinely to accurately validate ion implanter charge collection systems, to certify SIMS standards, and for other applications. The generality of application of such methods in IBA is emphasized: if RBS and PIXE data are analysed self-consistently then the resulting depth profile inherits the accuracy and depth resolution of RBS and the sensitivity and elemental discrimination of PIXE. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  • Antwis L, Gwilliam R, Smith A, Jeynes C, Homewood K. (2012) 'Characterization of a-FeSi /c-Si heterojunctions for photovoltaic applications'. Semiconductor Science and Technology, 27 (3)

    Abstract

    Amorphous iron disilicide (a-FeSi ) shows potential as a photovoltaic material due to its bandgap of ∼0.9 eV and high absorption coefficient. We present a detailed characterization of a-FeSi , with particular emphasis on the electrical properties of a-FeSi /c-Si heterostructures, under both dark and illuminated conditions. The samples were prepared on quartz and silicon substrates using RF co-sputtering of an iron/silicon target. Optical transmission spectroscopy was used to confirm the bandgap of the samples. Van der Pauw measurements and currentvoltage analysis techniques were used to determine the carrier type and conduction mechanisms of the samples. The results show that a-FeSi forms a rectifying pn heterojunction on p-type crystalline silicon. The silicide is characterized by very high carrier concentrations, resulting in the depletion region being almost entirely formed within the silicon substrate. Initial JV results suggest carrier recombination within the silicide to be the dominant contribution to the conduction across the junction, with photovoltaic effects having been observed under AM1.5 conditions. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  • Guan W, Ghatak J, Peng Y, Peng N, Jeynes C, Inkson B, Moebus G. (2012) 'Patterned ion beam implantation of Co ions into a SiO2 thin film via ordered nanoporous alumina masks'. NANOTECHNOLOGY, 23 (4) Article number ARTN 045605
  • Giubertoni D, Demenev E, Gupta S, Jestin Y, Meirer F, Gennaro S, Iacob E, Pepponi G, Pucker G, Gwilliam RM, Jeynes C, Colaux JL, Saraswat KC, Bersani M. (2012) 'Solid phase epitaxial re-growth of Sn ion implanted germanium thin films'. AIP Conference Proceedings, 1496, pp. 103-106.

    Abstract

    Doping of Ge with Sn atoms by ion implantation and annealing by solid phase epitaxial re-growth process was investigated as a possible way to create Ge1-xSnx layers. Ion implantation was carried out at liquid nitrogen to avoid nano-void formation and three implant doses were tested: 5×1015, 1×1015 and 5×10 14 at/cm2, respectively. Implant energy was set to 45 keV and implants were carried out through an 11 nm SiNxOy film to prevent Sn out-diffusion upon annealing. This was only partially effective. Samples were then annealed in inert atmosphere either at 350°C varying anneal time or for 100 s varying temperature from 300 to 500°C. SPER was effective to anneal damage without Sn diffusion at 350° for samples implanted at medium and low fluences whereas the 5×1015 at/cm2 samples remained with a ∼15 nm amorphous layer even when applying the highest thermal budget. © 2012 American Institute of Physics.

  • Milosavljevic M, Stojanovic N, Perusko D, Timotijevic B, Toprek D, Kovac J, Drazic G, Jeynes C. (2012) 'Ion irradiation induced Al-Ti interaction in nano-scaled Al/Ti multilayers'. APPLIED SURFACE SCIENCE, 258 (6), pp. 2043-2046.
  • Jeynes C, Webb RP, Lohstroh A. (2011) 'Ion Beam Analysis: A Century of Exploiting the Electronic and Nuclear Structure of the Atom for Materials Characterisation'. Reviews of Accelerator Science and Technology, 4, pp. 41-82.

    Abstract

    Analysis using MeV ion beams is a thin film characterisation technique invented some 50 years ago which has recently had the benefit of a number of important advances. This review will cover damage profiling in crystals including studies of defects in semiconductors, surface studies, and depth profiling with sputtering. But it will concentrate on thin film depth profiling using Rutherford backscattering, particle induced X-ray emission and related techniques in the deliberately synergistic way that has only recently become possible. In this review of these new developments, we will show how this integrated approach, which we might call “total IBA”, has given the technique great analytical power.

  • Gilbert M, Davoisne C, Stennett MC, Hyatt NC, Peng N, Jeynes C, Lee WE. (2011) 'Krypton and helium irradiation damage in yttria-stabilised zirconia'. Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings, 1298, pp. 197-202.
  • Kaabar W, Daar E, Bunk O, Farquharson MJ, Laklouk A, Bailey M, Jeynes C, Gundogdu O, Bradley DA. (2011) 'Elemental and structural studies at the bonecartilage interface'. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, 652 (1), pp. 786-790.
  • Guan W, Ghatak J, Peng Y, Möbus G, Peng N, Jeynes C. (2011) 'XTEM characterization of modulated ion implantation through self-organized anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes'. Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings, 1411, pp. 49-54.

    Abstract

    Penetration of a nanochannel mask by 190keV Co ions is tested for the purpose of achieving laterally modulated ion implantation into a SiO thin film on a Si substrate. A 2D-nanoporous membrane of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) is chosen as the mask. Criteria and challenges for designing the mask are presented. Implantation experiments through a mask with pore diameter of 125 nm and inter-pore distance of 260 nm are carried out. Cross-sectional TEM (XTEM) is shown as an ideal tool to assess depth distribution and lateral distribution of implanted ions at the same time, complemented by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy. Using energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy linescans, a Co distribution with lateral modulation is found at 120 nm below the oxide surface. First experiments in converting the atomic distribution of Co to discrete nanoparticles by in-situ TEM annealing are presented. © 2012 Materials Research Society.

  • Abriola D, Barradas NP, Bogdanović-Radović I, Chiari M, Gurbich AF, Jeynes C, Kokkoris M, Mayer M, Ramos AR, Shi L, Vickridge I. (2011) 'Development of a reference database for Ion Beam Analysis and future perspectives'. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B, 269 (24), pp. 2972-2978.

    Abstract

    Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) is a set of material characterization techniques using energetic ion beams. IBA provides information about composition and the depth profile of elements in the near-surface layers of a sample, from the energy spectra of backscattered primary particles, recoils, nuclear reaction products or emitted γ-radiation. All IBA methods presuppose knowledge of the differential cross-section data however, only for strict Rutherford scattering is the cross-section known exactly. In order to address the data needs of the IBA community, the IAEA initiated the Coordinated Research Project (CRP) "Development of a Reference Database for Ion Beam Analysis" in 2005 which will conclude in 2010. The project focuses on the measurement, assessment, evaluation and benchmarking of elastic scattering and reaction cross sections. Data measured in this work have been incorporated in the IBANDL database (http://www-nds.iaea.org/ibandl/), whereas the evaluated cross-sections (calculated from the fit to the data of a nuclear model) are made available to the community through the on-line calculator SigmaCalc (http://www-nds.iaea.org/sigmacalc/).A summary of the results of the CRP activity is presented, and ways to further develop nuclear data for IBA are indicated. In particular, a newly proposed CRP devoted to particle induced gamma-ray emission is described.

  • Khamsuwan J, Intarasiri S, Kirkby K, Jeynes C, Chu PK, Kamwanna T, Yu LD. (2011) 'High-energy heavy ion beam annealing effect on ion beam synthesis of silicon carbide'. Surface and Coatings Technology, 206 (5), pp. 770-774.

    Abstract

    Silicon carbide (SiC) is a superior material potentially replacing conventional silicon for high-power and high-frequency microelectronic applications. Ion beam synthesis (IBS) is a novel technique to produce large-area, high-quality and ready-to-use SiC crystals. The technique uses high-fluence carbon ion implantation in silicon wafers at elevated temperatures, followed by high-energy heavy ion beam annealing. This work focuses on studying effects from the ion beam annealing on crystallization of SiC from implanted carbon and matrix silicon. In the ion beam annealing experiments, heavy ion beams of iodine and xenon, the neighbors in the periodic table, with different energies to different fluences, I ions at 10, 20, and 30MeV with 1-5×10 12ions/cm 2, while Xe ions at 4MeV with 5×10 13 and 1×10 14ions/cm 2, bombarded C-ion in implanted Si at elevated temperatures. X-ray diffraction, Raman scattering, infrared spectroscopy were used to characterize the formation of SiC. Non-Rutherford backscattering and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry were used to analyze changes in the carbon depth profiles. The results from this study were compared with those previously reported in similar studies. The comparison showed that ion beam annealing could indeed induce crystallization of SiC, mainly depending on the single ion energy but not on the deposited areal density of the ion beam energy (the product of the ion energy and the fluence). The results demonstrate from an aspect that the electronic stopping plays the key role in the annealing.

  • Davoisne C, Stennett M, Hyatt N, Peng N , Jeynes C , Lee W. (2011) 'Krypton irradiation damage in Nd-doped zirconolite and perovskite'. Journal of Nuclear Materials, 415 (1), pp. 67-73.

    Abstract

    Understanding the effect of radiation damage and noble gas accommodation in potential ceramic hosts for plutonium disposition is necessary to evaluate their long-term behaviour during geological disposal. Polycrystalline samples of Nd-doped zirconolite and Nd-doped perovskite were irradiated ex situ with 2 MeV Kr+ at a dose of 5 1015 ions cm2 to simulate recoil of Pu nuclei during alpha decay. The feasibility of thin section preparation of both pristine and irradiated samples by Focused Ion Beam sectioning was demonstrated. After irradiation, the Nd-doped zirconolite revealed a well defined amorphous region separated from the pristine material by a thin (40–60 nm) damaged interface. The zirconolite lattice was lost in the damaged interface, but the fluorite sublattice was retained. The Nd-doped perovskite contained a defined irradiated layer composed of an amorphous region surrounded by damaged but still crystalline layers. The structural evolution of the damaged regions is consistent with a change from orthorhombic to cubic symmetry. In addition in Nd-doped perovskite, the amorphisation dose depended on crystallographic orientation and possibly sample configuration (thin section or bulk). Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy revealed Ti remained in the 4+ oxidation state but there was a change in Ti coordination in both Nd-doped perovskite and Nd-doped zirconolite associated with the crystalline to amorphous transition.

  • Gurbich AF, Abriola D, Barradas NP, Ramos AR, Bogdanovic-Radovic I, Chiari M, Jeynes C, Kokkoris M, Mayer M, Shi L, Vickridge I. (2011) 'Measurements and Evaluation of Differential Cross-sections for Ion Beam Analysis'. JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN PHYSICAL SOCIETY, 59 (2), pp. 2010-2013.

    Abstract

    Ion beam analysis (IBA) methods always rely on available differential cross section data to obtain quantitative results about composition and structure of the near-surface layer of a sample. In order to meet the nuclear data needs of the IBA community, the Coordinated Research Project (CRP) ``Development of a Reference Database for Ion Beam Analysis'' was initiated by the IAEA in 2005 and will be concluded in 2010. A summary of the results of this IAEA Coordinated Research Project activity is presented, problems still existing in the field are discussed, and ways to further develop nuclear data for IBA are indicated.

  • Gilbert M, Davoisne C, Stennett M, Hyatt N, Peng N, Jeynes C, Lee WE. (2011) 'Krypton and helium irradiation damage in neodymium-zirconolite'. Journal of Nuclear Materials, 416 (1-2), pp. 221-224.
  • Jeynes JCG, Bailey MJ, Coley H, Kirkby KJ, Jeynes C. (2010) 'Microbeam PIXE analysis of platinum resistant and sensitive ovarian cancer cells'. NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS, Univ Cambridge, Cambridge, ENGLAND: 268 (11-12), pp. 2168-2171.
  • Olofinjana B, Egharevba GO, Eleruja MA, Jeynes C, Adedeji AV, Akinwunmi OO, Taleatu BA, Mordi CU, Ajayi EOB. (2010) 'Synthesis and Some Properties of Metal Organic Chemical Vapour Deposited Molybdenum Oxysulphide Thin Films'. J MATER SCI TECHNOL, 26 (6), pp. 552-557.
  • Milosavljevic M, Perusko D, Milinovic V, Stojanovic Z, Zalar A, Kovac J, Jeynes C. (2010) 'Ion irradiation stability of multilayered AlN/TiN nanocomposites'. JOURNAL OF PHYSICS D-APPLIED PHYSICS, 43 (6) Article number ARTN 065302
  • Loiacono R, Reed GT, Gwilliam R, Mashanovich GZ, O'Faolain L, Krauss T, Lulli G, Jeynes C, Jones R. (2010) 'Germanium implanted Bragg gratings in silicon on insulator waveguides'. Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering, 7606

    Abstract

    Integrated Bragg gratings are an interesting candidate for waveguide coupling, telecommunication applications, and for the fabrication of integrated photonic sensors. These devices have a high potential for optical integration and are compatible with CMOS processing techniques if compared to their optical fibre counterpart. In this work we present design, fabrication, and testing of Germanium ion implanted Bragg gratings in silicon on insulator (SOI). A periodic refractive index modulation is produced in a 1μm wide SOI rib waveguide by implanting Germanium ions through an SiO2 hardmask. The implantation conditions have been analysed by 3D ion implantation modelling and the induced refractive index change has been investigated on implanted samples by Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS) and ellipsometry analysis. An extinction ratio of up to 30dB in transmission, around the 1.55μm wavelength, has been demonstrated for Germanium implanted gratings on SOI waveguides. © 2010 Copyright SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering.

  • Davoisne C, Lee WE, Stennett MC, Hyatt NC, Peng N, Jeynes C. (2010) 'Irradiation effects in ceramics for plutonium disposition'. Ceramic Transactions, 222, pp. 3-9.
  • Bailey MJ, Coe S, Grant DM, Grime GW, Jeynes C. (2009) 'Accurate determination of the Ca : P ratio in rough hydroxyapatite samples by SEM-EDS, PIXE and RBS - a comparative study'. X-RAY SPECTROMETRY, Cavtat, CROATIA: 38 (4), pp. 343-347.
  • Bailey MJ, Jeynes C. (2009) 'Characterisation of gunshot residue particles using self-consistent ion beam analysis'. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, 267 (12-13), pp. 2265-2268.

    Abstract

    Individual particles of gunshot residue were studied with particle-induced X-ray emission and backscattering spectrometry using a 2.5 MeV H+ beam focussed to ∼4 μm and self-consistent fitting of the data. The geometry of these spherical particles was considered in order to accurately fit the corresponding particle spectrum and therefore to quantify the trace element composition of these particles. The demonstrable self-consistency of this method allows the compositions of most residue particles to be determined unambiguously and with a higher sensitivity to trace elements than conventional methods. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • Bailey MJ, Howard KT, Kirkby KJ, Jeynes C. (2009) 'Characterisation of inhomogeneous inclusions in Darwin glass using ion beam analysis'. NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS, Debrecen, HUNGARY: 267 (12-13), pp. 2219-2224.

    Abstract

    Darwin glass is an impact glass resulting from the melting of local rocks during the meteorite impact that formed the 1.2 km diameter Darwin Crater in western Tasmania. These glass samples have small spheroidal inclusions, typically a few tens of microns in diameter, that are of great interest to the geologists. We have analysed one such inclusion in detail with proton microbeam ion beam analysis (IBA). A highly heterogeneous composition is observed, both laterally and in depth, by using self-consistent fitting of photon emission and particle backscattering spectra. With various proton energies near 2 MeV we excite the C-12(p,p)C-12 resonance at 1734 keV at various depths, and thus we can probe both the C concentration, and also the energy straggling of the proton beam as a function of depth which gives information on the sample structure. This inclusion has an average composition of (C, O, Si) = (28, 56, 16) mol% with S, K, Ca, Ti and Fe as minor elements and Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn and Br as trace elements. This composition includes, at specific points, an elemental depth profile and a density variation with depth consistent with discrete quartz crystals a few microns in size. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • Peng N, Jeynes C, Bailey MJ, Adikaari D, Stolojan V, Webb RP. (2009) 'High concentration Mn ion implantation in Si'. NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS, Dresden, GERMANY: 267 (8-9), pp. 1623-1625.
  • Hashim S, Al-Ahbabi S, Bradley DA, Webb M, Jeynes C, Ramli AT, Wagiran H. (2009) 'The thermoluminescence response of doped SiO2 optical fibres subjected to photon and electron irradiations'. APPLIED RADIATION AND ISOTOPES, 67 (3), pp. 423-427.
  • Kaabar W, Daar E, Gundogdu O, Jenneson PM, Farquharson MJ, Webb M, Jeynes C, Bradley DA. (2009) 'Metal deposition at the bone-cartilage interface in articular cartilage'. APPLIED RADIATION AND ISOTOPES, 67 (3), pp. 475-479.
  • Mordi CU, Eleruja MA, Taleatu BA, Egharevba GO, Adedeji AV, Akinwunmi OO, Olofinjana B, Jeynes C, Ajayi EOB. (2009) 'Metal Organic Chemical Vapour Deposited Thin Films of Cobalt Oxide Prepared via Cobalt Acetylacetonate'. JOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, 25 (1), pp. 85-89.
  • Perusko D, Milinovic V, Mitric M, Petrovic S, Jeynes C, Milosavljevic M. (2009) 'Ion Beam Modification of Al/Ti Multilayers'. MATERIALS AND MANUFACTURING PROCESSES, 24 (10-11), pp. 1130-1133.
  • Molodtsov SL, Gurbich AF, Jeynes C. (2008) 'Accurate ion beam analysis in the presence of surface roughness'. Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, 41 (20)

    Abstract

    Ion beam analysis (IBA) is a powerful materials characterization technique with very wide applicability. However, despite the fact that most natural and many industrial samples are rough, there is currently no way to correctly take severe roughness into account when processing the IBA spectra from rough samples, without resorting to Monte Carlo calculations which are too slow for routine use. In this work we demonstrate a new approach which parametrizes a Monte Carlo calculation so that the analytical codes can rapidly calculate the effect of asperities for a wide variety of rough surfaces. We successfully apply this method to real samples. This new analytical algorithm allows us to overcome the longstanding problem of the correct depth profiling of these common samples, hence dramatically increasing the power of the IBA technique. It also allows us to extract physically meaningful roughness parameters on samples whose roughness cannot be easily measured directly. © 2008 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  • Slotte J, Rummukainen M, Tuomisto F, Markevich V, Peaker A, Jeynes C , Gwilliam RM. (2008) 'Evolution of vacancy-related defects upon annealing of ion-implanted germanium'. PHYSICAL REVIEW B, 78 (8) Article number ARTN 0
  • Beck L, Jeynes C, Barradas NP. (2008) 'Characterization of paint layers by simultaneous self-consistent fitting of RBS/PIXE spectra using simulated annealing'. NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS, Univ Hyderabad, Sch Phys, Hyderabad, INDIA: 266 (8), pp. 1871-1874.
  • Perusko D, Webb MJ, Milinovic V, Timotijevic B, Miosavljevic M, Jeynes C, Webb RP. (2008) 'On the ion irradiation stability of Al/Ti versus AlN/TiN multilayers'. NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS, Univ Hyderabad, Sch Phys, Hyderabad, INDIA: 266 (8), pp. 1749-1753.
  • Jeynes JCG, Jeynes C, Kirkby KJ, Ruemmeli A, Silva SRP. (2008) 'RBS/EBS/PIXE measurement of single-walled carbon nanotube modification by nitric acid purification treatment'. NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS, Univ Hyderabad, Sch Phys, Hyderabad, INDIA: 266 (8), pp. 1569-1573.
  • Zhao Q, Liu Y, Wang C, Wang S, Peng N, Jeynes C. (2008) 'Reduction of bacterial adhesion on ion-implanted stainless steel surfaces'. MEDICAL ENGINEERING & PHYSICS, 30 (3), pp. 341-349.
  • Barradas NP, Jeynes C. (2008) 'Advanced physics and algorithms in the IBA DataFurnace'. NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS, Univ Hyderabad, Sch Phys, Hyderabad, INDIA: 266 (8), pp. 1875-1879.
  • Gurbich AF, Jeynes C. (2007) 'Evaluation of non-Rutherford proton elastic scattering cross-section for magnesium'. NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS, 265 (2), pp. 447-452.
  • Barradas NP, Arstila K, Battistig G, Bianconi M, Dytlewski N, Jeynes C, Kotai E, Lulli G, Mayer M, Rauhala E, Szilagyi E, Thompson M. (2007) 'International Atomic Energy Agency intercomparison of ion beam analysis software'. NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS, 262 (2), pp. 281-303.
  • Zhao Q, Liu Y, Wang C, Wang S, Peng N, Jeynes C. (2007) 'Bacterial adhesion on ion-implanted stainless steel surfaces'. APPLIED SURFACE SCIENCE, 253 (21), pp. 8674-8681.
  • Pascual-Izarra C, Barradas NP, Reis MA, Jeynes C, Menu M, Lavedrine B, Jacques Ezrati J, Roehrs S. (2007) 'Towards truly simultaneous PIXE and RBS analysis of layered objects in cultural heritage'. NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS, Ft Worth, TX: 261 (1-2), pp. 426-429.
  • Eleruja MA, Egharevba GO, Abulude OA, Akinwunmi OO, Jeynes C, Ajayi EOB. (2007) 'Preparation and characterization of metalorganic chemical vapor deposited nickel oxide and lithium nickel oxide thin films'. JOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE, 42 (8), pp. 2758-2765.
  • Clough AS, Collins SA, Gauntlett FE, Hodgson MR, Jeynes C, Rihawy MS, Todd AM, Thompson RL. (2006) 'In situ water permeation measurement using an external He-3(2+) ion beam'. JOURNAL OF MEMBRANE SCIENCE, 285 (1-2), pp. 137-143.
  • Admans LL, Jeynes C, Clarke J, Spyrou NM. (2006) 'Elemental content of erythrocytes from patients undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG) surgery using PIXE analysis'. JOURNAL OF RADIOANALYTICAL AND NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY, 269 (3), pp. 619-623.
  • Jeynes C, Peng N, Barradas NP, Gwilliam RM. (2006) 'Quality assurance in an implantation laboratory by high accuracy RBS'. NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS, Seville, SPAIN: 249, pp. 482-485.
  • Webb M, Jeynes C, Gwilliam R, Royle A, Sealy B. (2006) 'Characterising ion-cut in GaAs by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy'. NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS, Seville, SPAIN: 249, pp. 429-431.
  • Lee WP, Gundabala VR, Akpa BS, Johns ML, Jeynes C, Routh AF. (2006) 'Distribution of surfactants in latex films: A Rutherford backscattering study'. LANGMUIR, 22 (12), pp. 5314-5320.
  • Barradas NP, Alves E, Jeynes C, Tosaki M. (2006) 'Accurate simulation of backscattering spectra in the presence of sharp resonances'. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, 247 (2), pp. 381-389.

    Abstract

    In elastic backscattering spectrometry, the shape of the observed spectrum due to resonances in the nuclear scattering cross-section is influenced by many factors. If the energy spread of the beam before interaction is larger than the resonance width, then a simple convolution with the energy spread on exit and with the detection system resolution will lead to a calculated spectrum with a resonance much sharper than the observed signal. Also, the yield from a thin layer will not be calculated accurately. We have developed an algorithm for the accurate simulation of backscattering spectra in the presence of sharp resonances. Albeit approximate, the algorithm leads to dramatic improvements in the quality and accuracy of the simulations. It is simple to implement and leads to only small increases of the calculation time, being thus suitable for routine data analysis. We show different experimental examples, including samples with roughness and porosity. © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • Rickerby J, Simon A, Jeynes C, Morgan TJ, Steinke JHG. (2006) '1,1,1,5,5,5-Hexafluoroacetylacetonate copper(I) poly(vinylsiloxane)s as precursors for copper direct-write'. CHEMISTRY OF MATERIALS, 18 (10), pp. 2489-2498.
  • Analytis J, Ardavan A, Blundell S, Owen R, Garman E, Jeynes C , Powell B. (2006) 'Effect of irradiation-induced disorder on the conductivity and critical temperature of the organic superconductor kappa-(BEDT-TTF)(2)Cu(SCN)(2)'. PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS, 96 (17) Article number ARTN 1

    Abstract

    We have introduced defects into clean samples of the organic superconductor �-�BEDTTTF �2Cu�SCN�2 in order to determine their effect on the temperature dependence of the interlayer conductivity � and the critical temperature Tc. We find a violation of Matthiessen’s rule that can be explained by a model of � involving a defect-assisted interlayer channel which acts in parallel with the bandlike conductivity. We observe an unusual dependence of Tc on residual resistivity, inconsistent with the generalized Abrikosov-Gor’kov theory for an order parameter with a single component, providing an important constraint on models of the superconductivity in this material.

  • Peaker AR, Markevich VP, Slotte J, Rummukainen M, Capan I, Pivac B, Gwilliam R, Jeynes C, Dobaczewski L. (2006) 'Understanding ion implantation defects in germanium'. ECS Transactions, 3 (2), pp. 67-76.

    Abstract

    The recent interest in germanium as an alternative channel material for PMOS has revealed major differences from silicon in relation to ion implantation. In this paper we describe some initial results of a fundamental study into defect creation and removal in ion implanted germanium. In this stage of the work we have used silicon and germanium implants into germanium and into germanium rich silicon-germanium. The defect evolution in these samples is compared with electron and neutron irradiated material using annealing studies in conjunction with deep level transient spectroscopy, positron annihilation and Rutherford back scattering. It is proposed that both vacancy and interstitial clustering are important mechanisms in implanted germanium and the likely significance of this is discussed. copyright The Electrochemical Society.

  • Sealy BJ, Smith AJ, Alzanki T, Bennett N, Li L, Jeynes C, Colombeau B, Collart EJH, Emerson NG, Gwilliam RM, Cowern NEB. (2006) 'Shallow junctions in silicon via low thermal budget processing'. Extended Abstracts of the Sixth International Workshop on Junction Technology, IWJT '06, , pp. 10-15.

    Abstract

    The paper summarises recent findings concerning the fabrication of ultra-shallow junctions in silicon for future generations of CMOS devices. In particular we concentrate on vacancy engineering to achieve carrier concentrations of 5-6 × 1020 cm-3 for boron in silicon without diffusion and report for the first time preliminary data for antimony implants into strained silicon in which even higher carrier concentrations were obtained. All of this can be produced at temperatures below 800°C for annealing times of 10 seconds, without the need for spike annealing, fast ramp rates or laser processing. © 2006 IEEE.

  • Webb M, Jeynes C, Gwilliam R, Too P, Kozanecki A, Domagala J, Royle A, Sealy B. (2005) 'The influence of the ion implantation temperature and the dose rate on smart-cut (c) in GaAs'. NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS, Natl Museum Folk Arts & Tradit, Paris, FRANCE: 240 (1-2), pp. 142-145.
  • Webb M, Jeynes C, Gwilliam RM, Tabatabaian Z, Royle A, Sealy BJ. (2005) 'The influence of the ion implantation temperature and the flux on smart-cut (c) in GaAs'. NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS, Taipei, TAIWAN: 237 (1-2), pp. 193-196.
  • Whelan S, Kelly MJ, Gwilliam R, Jeynes C, Bongiorno C. (2005) 'The dependence of the radiation damage formation on the substrate implant temperature in GaN during Mg ion implantation'. JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS, 98 (1) Article number ARTN 013515
  • Ilori OO, Osasona O, Eleruja MA, Egharevba GO, Adegboyega GA, Chiodelli G, Boudreault G, Jeynes C, Ajayi EOB. (2005) 'Preparation and characterization of metallorganic chemical vapour deposited molybdenum (II) oxide (MoO) thin films'. THIN SOLID FILMS, 472 (1-2), pp. 84-89.
  • Ilori OO, Osasona O, Eleruja MA, Egharevba GO, Adegboyega GA, Chiodelli G, Boudreault G, Jeynes C, Ajayi EOB. (2005) 'Preparation and characterization of metallorganic chemical vapour deposited LixMoyOz using a single source solid precursor'. IONICS, 11 (5-6), pp. 387-392.
  • Barradas NP, Added N, Arnoldbik WM, Bogdanovic-Radovic I, Bohne W, Cardoso S, Danner C, Dytlewski N, Freitas PP, Jaksic M, Jeynes C, Krug C, Lennard WN, Lindner S, Linsmeier C, Medunic Z, Pelicon P, Pezzi RP, Radtke C, Rohrich J, Sajavaara T, Salgado TDM, Stedile FC, Tabacniks MH, Vickridge I. (2005) 'A round robin characterisation of the thickness and composition of thin to ultra-thin AlNO films'. NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS, 227 (3), pp. 397-419.
  • Seah MP, Spencer SJ, Bensebaa F, Vickridge I, Danzebrink H, Krumrey M, Gross T, Oesterle W, Wendler E, Rheinländer B, Azuma Y, Kojima I, Suzuki N, Suzuki M, Tanuma S, Moon DW, Lee HJ, Cho HM, Chen HY, Wee ATS, Osipowicz T, Pan JS, Jordaan WA, Hauert R, Klotz U, Van Der Marel C, Verheijen M, Tamminga Y, Jeynes C, Bailey P, Biswas S, Falke U, Nguyen NV, Chandler-Horowitz D, Ehrstein JR, Muller D, Dura JA. (2004) 'Critical review of the current status of thickness measurements for ultrathin SiO on Si Part V: Results of a CCQM pilot study'. Surface and Interface Analysis, 36 (9), pp. 1269-1303.

    Abstract

    A study was carried out for the measurement of ultrathin SiO on (100) and (111) orientation silicon wafer in the thickness range 1.5-8 nm. XPS, medium-energy ion scattering spectrometry (MEIS), nuclear reaction analysis (NRA), RBS, elastic backscattering spectrometry (EBS), SIMS, ellipsometry, gazing-incidence x-ray reflectometry (GIXRR), neutron reflectometry and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used for the measurements. Water and carbonaceous contamination about 1 nm were observed by ellipsometry and adsorbed oxygen mainly from water at thickness of 0.5 nm were seen by MEIS, NRA, RBS and GIXRR. The different uncertainty of the techniques for the scaling constant were also discussed.

  • Boudreault G, Elliman RG, Grotzschel R, Gujrathi SC, Jeynes C, Lennard WN, Rauhala E, Sajavaara T, Timmers H, Wang YQ, Weijers TDM. (2004) 'Round Robin: measurement of H implantation distributions in Si by elastic recoil detection'. NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS, 222 (3-4), pp. 547-566.
  • Simon A, Jeynes C, Webb RP, Finnis R, Tabatabian Z, Sellin PJ, Breese MBH, Fellows DF, van den Broek R, Gwilliam RM. (2004) 'The new Surrey ion beam analysis facility'. NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS, Albuquerque, NM: 219, pp. 405-409.
  • Alzanki T, Gwilliam R, Emerson N, Tabatabaian Z, Jeynes C, Sealy BJ. (2004) 'Concentration profiles of antimony-doped shallow layers in silicon'. SEMICONDUCTOR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, 19 (6) Article number PII S0268-1242(04)71935-5 , pp. 728-732.
  • Simpson TRE, Tabatabaian Z, Jeynes C, Parbhoo B, Keddie JL. (2004) 'Influence of interfaces on the rates of crosslinking in poly(dimethyl siloxane) coatings'. JOURNAL OF POLYMER SCIENCE PART A-POLYMER CHEMISTRY, 42 (6), pp. 1421-1431.
  • Boudreault G, Claudio G, Jeynes C, Low R, Sealy BJ. (2004) 'Accurate calibration of the retained fluence from a versatile single wafer implanter using RBS'. NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS, 217 (1), pp. 177-182.
  • Dilliway GDM, Cowern NEB, Xu L, McNally PJ, Jeynes C, Mendoza E, Ashburn P, Bagnall DM. (2004) 'Influence of H2 preconditioning on the nucleation and growth of self-assembled germanium islands on silicon (001)'. Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings, 820, pp. 351-356.

    Abstract

    Understanding the effects of growth conditions on the process of self-organisation of Ge nanostructures on Si is a key requirement for their practical applications. In this study we investigate the effect of preconditioning with a high-temperature hydrogenation step on the nucleation and subsequent temporal evolution of Ge self-assembled islands on Si (001). Two sets of structures, with and without H2 preconditioning, were grown by low pressure chemical vapour deposition (LPCVD) at 650°C. Their structural and compositional evolution was characterised by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and micro-Raman (μRaman) spectroscopy. In the absence of preconditioning, we observe the known evolution of self-assembled Ge nanostructures on Si (001), from small islands with a narrow size distribution, to a bimodal size distribution, through to large islands. Surface coverage and island size increase steadily as a function of deposition time. On the H2 preconditioned surface, however, both nucleation rates and surface coverage are greatly increased during the early stages of self-assembly. After the first five seconds, the density of the islands is twice that on the unconditioned surface, and the mean island size is also larger, but the subsequent evolution is much slower than in the case of the unconditioned surface. This retardation correlates with a relatively high measured stress within the islands. Our results demonstrate that standard processes used during growth, like H2 preconditioning, can yield dramatic changes in the uniformity and distribution of Ge nanostructures self-assembled on Si. © 2004 Materials Research Society.

  • Aramendia E, Mallegol J, Jeynes C, Barandiaran MJ, Keddie JL, Asua JM. (2003) 'Distribution of surfactants near acrylic latex film surfaces: A comparison of conventional and reactive surfactants (surfmers)'. LANGMUIR, 19 (8), pp. 3212-3221.
  • Jeynes C, Barradas NP, Marriott PK, Boudreault G, Jenkin M, Wendler E, Webb RP. (2003) 'Elemental thin film depth profiles by ion beam analysis using simulated annealing - a new tool'. JOURNAL OF PHYSICS D-APPLIED PHYSICS, 36 (7) Article number PII S0022-3727(03)34952-6 , pp. R97-R126.
  • Peng N, Shao G, Jeynes C, Webb RP, Gwilliam RM, Boudreault G, Astill DM, Liang WY. (2003) 'Ion beam synthesis of superconducting MgB2 thin films'. APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 82 (2), pp. 236-238.
  • Dilliway GDM, Cowern NEB, Jeynes C, O'Reilly L, McNally PJ, Bagnall DM. (2003) 'Structural and compositional evolution of self-assembled germanium islands on silicon (001) during high growth rate LPCVD'. Materials Research Society Symposium - Proceedings, 775, pp. 275-280.

    Abstract

    Understanding the process of self-organization of Ge nanostructures on Si with controlled size distribution is a key requirement for their application to devices. In this study, we investigate the temporal evolution of self-assembled islands during the low pressure chemical vapour deposition (LPCVD) of Ge on Si at 650°C using high growth rates (6-9 nm/min). The islands were characterized by atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and micro-Raman spectroscopy. We found that the first nanostructures to assemble were small islands, with a narrow size distribution, typical of the 'lens-shaped' structures reported in previous studies. Next to form were a population of larger 'lens-shaped' islands with a similar surface density to that of the small islands, but with broad height and width distributions. These islands differ from the pyramid-shaped islands previously reported for a similar size range. On further Ge deposition, the population evolves into one of large square-based truncated pyramids with a very narrow size distribution. Such pyramidal structures were previously reported at smaller sizes. Furthermore, we see no evidence of the multifaceted domes previously reported in this size range. The small 'lens-shaped' islands appear to be strained, whilst some of the intermediate-sized islands and all the large truncated pyramids contain misfit strain relaxation induced defects. Additionally, in the both the intermediate size 'lens-shaped' islands and in the large size truncated pyramidal islands, there is evidence of Si-Ge strain-induced alloying, more significant in the first than in the latter. Our observation of 'lens shaped' islands and truncated pyramids at larger sizes than are normally observed, suggests a kinetically driven process that delays the evolution of energetically favourable island structures until larger island sizes are reached.

  • Rozenberg GG, Bresler E, Speakman SP, Jeynes C, Steinke JHG. (2002) 'Patterned low temperature copper-rich deposits using inkjet printing'. APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 81 (27), pp. 5249-5251.
  • Kang DJ, Peng NH, Webb R, Jeynes C, Yun JH, Moon SH, Oh B, Burnell G, Tarte EJ, Moore DF, Blamire MG. (2002) 'Realization and properties of MgB2 metal-masked ion damage junctions'. APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 81 (19), pp. 3600-3602.
  • Too P, Ahmed S, Jeynes C, Sealy BJ, Gwilliam R. (2002) 'Electrical isolation of n-type InP using MeV iron implantation at different doses and substrate temperatures'. ELECTRONICS LETTERS, 38 (20), pp. 1225-1226.
  • Eleruja MA, Adedeji AV, Egharevba GO, Lambi JN, Akanni MS, Jeynes C, Ajayi EOB. (2002) 'Preparation and characterization of undoped zinc oxide and uranium doped zinc oxide thin films'. OPTICAL MATERIALS, 20 (2) Article number PII S0925-3467(02)00057-5 , pp. 119-123.
  • Barradas NP, Jeynes C, Webb RP, Wendler E. (2002) 'Accurate determination of the stopping power of He-4 in Si using Bayesian inference'. NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS, 194 (1) Article number PII S0168-583X(02)00494-9 , pp. 15-25.
  • Boudreault G, Jeynes C, Wendler E, Nejim A, Webb RP, Watjen U. (2002) 'Accurate RBS measurement of ion implant doses in a silicon'. SURFACE AND INTERFACE ANALYSIS, 33 (6), pp. 478-486.
  • Mallegol J, Gorce JP, Dupont O, Jeynes C, McDonald PJ, Keddie JL. (2002) 'Origins and effects of a surfactant excess near the surface of waterborne acrylic pressure-sensitive adhesives'. LANGMUIR, 18 (11), pp. 4478-4487.
  • Gurbich AF, Barradas NP, Jeynes C, Wendler E. (2002) 'Applying elastic backscattering spectrometry when the nuclear excitation function has a fine structure'. NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS, CAIRNS, AUSTRALIA: 190 Article number PII S0168-583X(01)01211-3 , pp. 237-240.
  • Jeynes C, Rozenberg GG, Speakman SP, Steinke JHG. (2002) 'A microbeam RBS analysis of low temperature direct-write inkjet deposited copper'. NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS, UNIV SURREY, GUILDFORD, ENGLAND: 188 Article number PII S0168-583X(01)01063-1 , pp. 141-145.
  • Kang DJ, Burnell G, Lloyd SJ, Speaks RS, Peng NH, Jeynes C, Webb R, Yun JH, Moon SH, Oh B, Tarte EJ, Moore DF, Blamire MG. (2002) 'Realization and properties of YBa2Cu3O7-delta Josephson junctions by metal masked ion damage technique'. APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 80 (5), pp. 814-816.
  • Kang DJ, Burnell G, Lloyd SJ, Speaks RS, Peng NH, Jeynes C, Webb R, Yun JH, Moon SH, Oh B, Tarte EJ, Moore DF, Blamire MG. (2002) 'Realization and properties of YBa2Cu3O 7-δ Josephson junctions by metal masked ion damage technique'. Applied Physics Letters, 80 (5), pp. 814-816.

    Abstract

    We have developed a simple process to fabricate high-TC Josephson junctions by a combination of focused ion beam milling and 100 keV H2+ ion implantation. The resistively shunted junction-like current-voltage characteristics were observed in the temperature range of 48 to 4.2 K. The devices showed clear dc and ac Josephson effects. This technique is very promising in terms of simplicity and flexibility of fabrication and has potential for high-density integration. © 2002 American Institute of Physics.

  • Adedeji AV, Egharevba GO, Jeynes C, Ajayi EOB. (2002) 'Preparation and characterization of pyrolytically deposited (Co-V-O and Cr-V-O) thin films'. THIN SOLID FILMS, 402 (1-2), pp. 49-54.
  • Kang DJ, Peng NH, Webb R, Jeynes C, Yun JH, Moon SH, Oh B, Burnell G, Tarte EJ, Moore DF, Blamire MG. (2002) 'Realization and properties of MgB2 metal-masked ion damage junctions'. Applied Physics Letters, 81 (19), pp. 3600-3602.

    Abstract

    Ion beam damage combined with nanoscale focused-ion-beam direct milling was used to create manufacturable superconductor-normal-superconductor type (SNS) Josephson junctions in 100-nm-thick MgB2 with TC of 38 K. The junctions show nonhysteretic current-voltage characteristics between 36 and 4.2 K. Experimental evidence for the dc and ac Josephson effects in MgB 2 metal-masked ion damage junctions are presented. This technique is particularly useful for prototyping devices due to its simplicity and flexibility of fabrication and has a great potential for high-density integration. © 2002 American Institute of Physics.

  • Milosavljevic M, Shao G, Bibic N, McKinty CN, Jeynes C, Homewood KP. (2001) 'Amorphous-iron disilicide: A promising semiconductor'. APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 79 (10), pp. 1438-1440.
  • Surkova T, Patane A, Eaves L, Main PC, Henini M, Polimeni A, Knights AP, Jeynes C. (2001) 'Indium interdiffusion in annealed and implanted InAs/(AlGa)As self-assembled quantum dots'. JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS, 89 (11), pp. 6044-6047.
  • Ross GJ, Barradas NP, Hill MP, Jeynes C, Morrissey P, Watts JF. (2001) 'Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and computer simulation for the in-depth analysis of chemically modified poly(vinylidene fluoride)'. JOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE, 36 (19), pp. 4731-4738.
  • Vieira A, Barradas NP, Jeynes C. (2001) 'Error performance analysis of artificial neural networks applied to Rutherford backscattering'. SURFACE AND INTERFACE ANALYSIS, 31 (1), pp. 35-38.
  • Jeynes C, Barradas NP, Rafla-Yuan H, Hichwa BP, Close R. (2000) 'Accurate depth profiling of complex optical coatings'. SURFACE AND INTERFACE ANALYSIS, SEVILLE, SPAIN: 30 (1), pp. 237-242.
  • Kahlmann F, Booij WE, Blamire MG, McBrien PF, Tarte EJ, Peng NH, Jeynes C, Romans EJ, Pegrum CM. (2000) 'Transfer function and noise properties of YBa2Cu3O7-delta direct-current superconducting-quantum-interference-device magnetometers with resistively shunted inductances'. APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 77 (4), pp. 567-569.
  • Emerson NG, Gwilliam RM, Shannon JM, Jeynes C, Sealy BJ, Tsvetkova T, Tzenov N, Tzolov M, Dimova-Malinovska D. (2000) 'Electrical and optical properties of Co+ ion implanted a-Si1-xCx : H alloys'. NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS, 160 (4), pp. 505-509.
  • Jeynes C, Barradas NP, Wilde JR, Greer AL. (2000) 'Composition of Ni-Ta-C thick films using simulated annealing analysis of elastic backscattering spectrometry data'. NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS, DRESEDEN, GERMANY: 161, pp. 287-292.
  • Milosavljevic M, Bibic N, Perusko D, Jeynes C, Bangert U. (2000) 'The effects of implanted arsenic on Ti-silicide formation'. SOLID STATE PHENOMENA, 71, pp. 147-171.
  • Tzitzinou A, Keddie JL, Jeynes C, Mulder M, Geurts J, Treacher KE, Satguru R, Zhdan P. (1999) 'Molecular weight effects on film formation of latex and surfactant morphology.'. ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY, 218, pp. U609-U609.
  • Barradas NP, Jeynes C, Jenkin M, Marriott PK. (1999) 'Bayesian error analysis of Rutherford backscattering spectra'. THIN SOLID FILMS, BIRMINGHAM, ENGLAND: 343, pp. 31-34.
  • Toal SJ, Reehal HS, Webb SJ, Barradas NP, Jeynes C. (1999) 'Structural analysis of nanocrystalline SiC thin films grown on silicon by ECR plasma CVD'. THIN SOLID FILMS, BIRMINGHAM, ENGLAND: 343, pp. 292-294.
  • Barradas NP, Knights AP, Jeynes C, Mironov OA, Grasby TJ, Parker EHC. (1999) 'High-depth-resolution Rutherford backscattering data and error analysis of SiGe systems using the simulated annealing and Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms'. PHYSICAL REVIEW B, 59 (7), pp. 5097-5105.
  • Barradas NP, Almeida SA, Jeynes C, Knights AP, Silva SRP, Sealy BJ. (1999) 'RBS and ERDA study of ion beam synthesised amorphous gallium nitride'. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, 148 (1-4), pp. 463-467.

    Abstract

    Amorphous GaN was synthesised by Ga implantation into N-rich PECVD a-SiNx:H films after annealing between 200°C and 500°C. Similar implantation into Si-rich films did not form GaN. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) demonstrated the presence of GaN bonds in the former, but not the latter, case. Rutherford backscattering (RBS) and Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis (ERDA) demonstrated that implanted Ga substituted for Si in the N-rich films but not in the Si-rich ones. The RBS/ERDA analysis used self-consistent fitting of multiple spectra using the combinatorial optimisation Simulated Annealing algorithm, followed by a determination of the confidence limits on the depth profiles obtained using Bayesian Inference. © 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  • Nejim A, Jeynes C, Zhao Q, Muller-Steinhagen H. (1999) 'Ion implantation of stainless steel heater alloys for anti-fouling applications'. Proceedings of the International Conference on Ion Implantation Technology, 2, pp. 869-872.

    Abstract

    Ion implantation of fluorine and silicon ions into stainless steel heater alloys inhibits the accumulation of CaSO4 deposits when used in an saturated aqueous solution of 1.6 g/l concentration. This anti-fouling action leads to an increase in the heat transfer coefficient by more than 100% under a heat flux of 200 kW/m2 and 200% under a heat flux of 100 kW/m2 when compared to unimplanted heater elements. Heat transfer data indicate that following a heating cycle of 4000 minutes a thick layer of CaSO4 deposit remain on unimplanted heater surfaces. Similar CaSO4 deposits also formed on the implanted alloys initially but did not remain after 1000 minutes causing a significant recovery in the heat transfer coefficient. Ion implanting these alloys leads to surface energy reduction and hence the anti-fouling action observed.

  • Simonsen AC, Pohler JP, Jeynes C, Tougaard S. (1999) 'Quantification of Au deposited on Ni: XPS peak shape analysis compared to RES'. SURFACE AND INTERFACE ANALYSIS, 27 (1), pp. 52-56.
  • Barradas NP, Jeynes C, Webb RP, Kreissig U, Grotzschel R. (1999) 'Unambiguous automatic evaluation of multiple Ion Beam Analysis data with Simulated Annealing'. NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS, 149 (1-2), pp. 233-237.
  • Barradas NP, Almeida SA, Jeynes C, Knights AP, Silva SRP, Sealy BJ. (1999) 'RBS and ERDA study of ion beam synthesised amorphous gallium nitride'. NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS, ROYAL TROP INST, AMSTERDAM, NETHERLANDS: 148 (1-4), pp. 463-467.
  • Nejim A, Gwilliam RM, Emerson NG, Knights AP, Cristiano F, Barradas NP, Jeynes C. (1999) 'Electrical behaviour associated with defect tails in germanium implanted silicon'. Proceedings of the International Conference on Ion Implantation Technology, 1, pp. 506-509.

    Abstract

    In this study the impact of the defect tails generated by germanium implantation into n-type silicon wafers on the deep energy states, the doping profiles and mobilities, are investigated. 100 mm (100) silicon wafers with a base doping concentration of 3×1015/cm3 have been Implanted with 80 keV germanium on the Danfysik DF1090 high current implanter using instantaneous current density of 5 μA/cm2-95 μA/cm2, which correspond to power loading values of 0.4 and 7.6 W/cm2 respectively. Channelling Rutherford Backscattering analysis of a wafer implanted with 1×1016 Ge/cm2 and a dose rate of 80 μA/cm2 indicates a defect tail extending to 0.65 μm compared with 0.35 μm from a similar implant using 20 μA/cm2. Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS) measurements of samples implanted with 3×1014 Ge/cm2 followed by a regrowth anneal of 700 °C for 20 mins reveal a high concentration of deep levels beyond the projected range of germanium of 58 nm at depths extending from 0.15 μm to depths greater than 0.4 μm. The main peak indicate a deep level at 0.35 eV. The increase in the dose rate from 5 μA/cm2 to 95 μA/cm2 is accompanied by a 5 times reduction of the 0.35 eV trap concentration. This difference could be attributed to the dynamic annealing effects during the implant using 95 μA/cm2.

  • Kozanecki A, Stepikhova M, Lanzerstorfer S, Jantsch W, Palmetshofer L, Sealy BJ, Jeynes C. (1998) 'Excitation of Er3+ ions in silicon dioxide films thermally grown on silicon'. APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 73 (20), pp. 2929-2931.
  • Jenneson PM, Clough AS, Hollands R, Mulheron MJ, Jeynes C. (1998) 'Profiling chlorine diffusion into ordinary Portland cement and pulverized fuel ash pastes using scanning MeV proton micro-PIXE'. JOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE LETTERS, 17 (14), pp. 1173-1175.
  • Barradas NP, Jeynes C, Mironov OA, Phillips PJ, Parker EHC. (1998) 'High depth resolution Rutherford backscattering analysis of Si-Si0.78Ge0.22/(0 0 1)Si superlattices'. NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS, EINDHOVEN UNIV, EINDHOVEN, NETHERLANDS: 139 (1-4), pp. 239-243.
  • Nejim A, Knights AP, Jeynes C, Coleman PG, Patel CJ. (1998) 'Profile broadening of high dose germanium implants into (100) silicon at elevated temperatures due to channeling'. JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS, 83 (7), pp. 3565-3573.
  • Barradas NP, Jeynes C, Homewood KP, Sealy BJ, Milosavljevic M. (1998) 'RBS/simulated annealing analysis of silicide formation in Fe/Si systems'. NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS, EINDHOVEN UNIV, EINDHOVEN, NETHERLANDS: 139 (1-4), pp. 235-238.
  • Barradas NP, Jeynes C, Jackson SM. (1998) 'RBS/simulated annealing analysis of buried SiCOx layers formed by implantation of O into cubic silicon carbide'. NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS, LISBON, PORTUGAL: 136, pp. 1168-1171.
  • Barradas NP, Jeynes C, Harry MA. (1998) 'RBS/simulated annealing analysis of iron-cobalt silicides'. NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS, LISBON, PORTUGAL: 136, pp. 1163-1167.
  • Barradas NP, Jeynes C, Webb RP. (1997) 'Simulated annealing analysis of Rutherford backscattering data'. APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 71 (2), pp. 291-293.
  • Jeynes C, Jafri ZH, Webb RP, Kimber AC, Ashwin MJ. (1997) 'Accurate RBS measurements of the indium content of InGaAs thin films'. SURFACE AND INTERFACE ANALYSIS, 25 (4), pp. 254-260.
  • Osasona O, Djebah A, Ojo IAO, Eleruja MA, Adedeji AV, Jeynes C, Ajayi EOB. (1997) 'Preparation and characterization of MOCVD thin films of zinc sulphide'. OPTICAL MATERIALS, 7 (3), pp. 109-115.
  • Ashwin MJ, Pritchard RE, Newman RC, Joyce TB, Bullough TJ, Wagner J, Jeynes C, Breuer SJ, Jones R, Briddon PR, Oberg S. (1996) 'The bonding of C-As acceptors in InxGa1-xAs grown by chemical beam epitaxy using carbon tetrabromide as the source of carbon'. JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS, 80 (12), pp. 6754-6760.
  • Li YP, Kilner JA, Thomas J, Lacey D, Cohen LF, Caplin AD, Li YH, Saba FM, Quincey PG, Somekh RE, Jeynes C, Jafri ZH. (1996) 'Characterization of YBa2Cu3O7-delta thin films deposited by dc magnetron sputtering'. JOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE, 31 (23), pp. 6137-6144.
  • Jeynes C, Puttick KE, Whitmore LC, Gartner K, Gee AE, Millen DK, Webb RP, Peel RMA, Sealy BJ. (1996) 'Laterally resolved crystalline damage in single-point-diamond-turned silicon'. NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS, 118 (1-4), pp. 431-436.
  • Yousif KM, Smith BE, Jeynes C. (1996) 'Investigation of microstructure of molybdenum-copper black electrodeposited coatings with reference to solar selectivity'. JOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE, 31 (1), pp. 185-191.
  • MUTTI P, SKLAR Z, BRIGGS GAD, JEYNES C. (1995) 'ELASTIC PROPERTIES OF GAAS DURING AMORPHIZATION BY ION-IMPLANTATION'. JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS, 77 (6), pp. 2388-2392.
  • KAZOR A, JEYNES C, BOYD IW. (1994) 'FLUORINE ENHANCED OXIDATION OF SILICON AT LOW-TEMPERATURES'. APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 65 (12), pp. 1572-1574.
  • Ajayi OB, Osuntola OK, Ojo IA, Jeynes C. (1994) 'Preparation and characterization of MOCVD thin films of cadmium sulphide'. Thin Solid Films, 248 (1), pp. 57-62.

    Abstract

    A film of stoichiometric cadmium sulphide on quartz substrate was deposited by pyrolysis from bis-(morpholinodithioato-S,S') cadmium (C10H16N2O2S4Cd) (a single source precursor). The band gap of 2.4 eV was confirmed by optical absorption measurements. The stoichiometry and thickness were determined by Rutherford backscattering, and the absence of organic remmants in the film demonstrated by IR spectroscopy. © 1994.

  • Murtagh M, Beechinor JT, Herbert PAF, Kelly PV, Crean GM, Jeynes C. (1994) 'Photoreflectance characterization of reactive ion etched silicon'. Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings, 324, pp. 167-173.

    Abstract

    Reactive ion etching (RIE) of p-type 2-3 Ωcm resistivity silicon (100) was characterized using Photoreflectance (PR), Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) and Spectroscopic Ellipsometry (SE). Isochronal (5 minutes) etching was performed at various DC etch biases (0-500 V) using a SiCl4 etch chemistry. The substrate etch rate dependence on applied bias was determined using mechanical profilometry. A distinct shift in the Λ3-Λ1 Si transition and significant spectral broadening of the room temperature PR spectra was observed as a function of etch bias. Photoreflectance results are correlated with RBS, SE and etch rate analysis. It is demonstrated that the PR spectra reflect a complex, competitive, plasma-surface interaction during the RIE process.

  • CURRENT MI, OHNO N, HURLEY K, KEENAN WA, GUITNER TL, JEYNES C. (1993) 'MICROUNIFORMITY MEASUREMENTS OF ION-IMPLANTED SILICON'. SOLID STATE TECHNOLOGY, 36 (7), pp. 111-&.
  • DUNSTAN DJ, DIXON RH, KIDD P, HOWARD LK, WILKINSON VA, LAMBKIN JD, JEYNES C, HALSALL MP, LANCEFIELD D, EMENY MT, GOODHEW PJ, HOMEWOOD KP, SEALY BJ, ADAMS AR. (1993) 'GROWTH AND CHARACTERIZATION OF RELAXED EPILAYERS OF INGAAS ON GAAS'. JOURNAL OF CRYSTAL GROWTH, 126 (4), pp. 589-600.
  • SHOJAI A, REED GT, JEYNES C. (1992) 'DIFFUSION OF ION-IMPLANTED NEODYMIUM IN SILICA'. JOURNAL OF PHYSICS D-APPLIED PHYSICS, 25 (8), pp. 1280-1283.
  • FAROOQI AS, ARSHED W, AKANLE OA, JEYNES C, SPYROU NM. (1992) 'FLUORINE DETERMINATION IN DIET SAMPLES USING CYCLIC INAA AND PIGE ANALYSIS'. JOURNAL OF RADIOANALYTICAL AND NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY-ARTICLES, 161 (1), pp. 71-78.
  • SPYROU NM, ARSHED W, FAROOQI AS, IBEANU GI, AKANLE OA, JEYNES C, ASUBIOJO OI, OBIOH IB, OLUYEMI EA, OLUWOLE AF. (1992) 'USEFULNESS OF NUCLEAR AND ATOMIC-BASED ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES IN AIR-POLLUTION STUDIES IN NIGERIA'. JOURNAL OF RADIOANALYTICAL AND NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY-ARTICLES, 161 (1), pp. 189-199.
  • STRICKLAND KR, EDWARDS SC, WIGMORE JK, COLLINS RA, JEYNES C. (1992) 'STUDY OF ION-IMPLANTATION AND ANNEALING EFFECTS IN SILICON-WAFERS USING HIGH-FREQUENCY PHONON-SCATTERING'. SURFACE AND INTERFACE ANALYSIS, 18 (8), pp. 631-636.
  • TANG YS, WILKINSON CDW, JEYNES C. (1992) 'PD/TI BILAYER CONTACTS TO HEAVILY DOPED POLYCRYSTALLINE SILICON'. JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS, 72 (1), pp. 311-312.
  • MAHMOOD F, AHMED H, JEYNES C, GILLIN WP. (1992) 'REACTIVE FORMATION OF COBALT SILICIDE ON SINGLE-CRYSTAL SILICON UNDER RAPID ELECTRON-BEAM HEATING'. APPLIED SURFACE SCIENCE, 59 (1), pp. 55-62.
  • MATTHEWS AP, JEYNES C, REESON KJ, THORNTON J, SPYROU NM. (1992) 'QUANTIFICATION OF THE SEPARATE MATRIX CONSTITUENTS OF SPHEROIDAL GRAPHITE CAST-IRON IMPLANTED WITH N-15 BY NUCLEAR-REACTION ANALYSIS USING AN ION MICROPROBE'. NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS, EINDHOVEN UNIV TECHNOL, EINDHOVEN, NETHERLANDS: 64 (1-4), pp. 452-456.
  • PUTTICK KE, JEYNES C, RUDMAN M, GEE AE, CHAO CL. (1992) 'SURFACE DAMAGE IN NANOMACHINED SILICON'. SEMICONDUCTOR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, 7 (2), pp. 255-259.
  • KOZANECKI A, CHAN M, JEYNES C, SEALY B, HOMEWOOD K. (1991) 'LATTICE LOCATION OF ERBIUM IMPLANTED INTO GAAS'. SOLID STATE COMMUNICATIONS, 78 (8), pp. 763-766.
  • BALIGA CB, TSAKIROPOULOS P, JEYNES C. (1991) 'SURFACE CONTAMINATION AND ITS EFFECT ON THE CORROSION OF RAPIDLY SOLIDIFIED MG-AL ALLOY SPLATS'. JOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE, 26 (6), pp. 1497-1504.
  • DEVEIRMAN A, VANLANDUYT J, REESON KJ, GWILLIAM R, JEYNES C, SEALY BJ. (1990) 'IDENTIFICATION OF COSI INCLUSIONS WITHIN BURIED COSI2 LAYERS FORMED BY ION-IMPLANTATION'. JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS, 68 (7), pp. 3792-3794.
  • SPYROU NM, ALTAF WJ, GILL BS, JEYNES C, NICOLAOU G, PIETRA R, SABBIONI E, SURIAN M. (1990) 'FLUORINE CONCENTRATIONS IN BONE-BIOPSY SAMPLES DETERMINED BY PROTON-INDUCED GAMMA-RAY EMISSION AND CYCLIC NEUTRON-ACTIVATION'. BIOLOGICAL TRACE ELEMENT RESEARCH, 26-7, pp. 161-168.
  • ALTRIP JL, EVANS AGR, LOGAN J, JEYNES C. (1990) 'HIGH-TEMPERATURE MILLISECOND ANNEALING OF ARSENIC IMPLANTED SILICON'. SOLID-STATE ELECTRONICS, 33 (6), pp. 659-664.
  • CREAN GM, COLE PD, JEYNES C. (1990) 'RANGE DISTRIBUTIONS OF ION-IMPLANTED BORON, PHOSPHORUS AND ARSENIC DOPANTS IN THERMALLY REACTED TITANIUM SILICIDE THIN-FILMS'. SOLID-STATE ELECTRONICS, 33 (6), pp. 655-658.
  • BRUNSON KM, SANDS D, THOMAS CB, JEYNES C, WATTS JF. (1990) 'COMPOSITION AND STRUCTURE OF SEMI-INSULATING POLYCRYSTALLINE SILICON THIN-FILMS'. PHILOSOPHICAL MAGAZINE B-PHYSICS OF CONDENSED MATTER STATISTICAL MECHANICS ELECTRONIC OPTICAL AND MAGNETIC PROPERTIES, 61 (3), pp. 361-376.
  • JAFRI ZH, JEYNES C, WEBB RP, WILSON IH. (1990) 'MASS-TRANSPORT OF SILICON DURING ARGON IRRADIATION EMPLOYING A DOUBLE-MARKER SYSTEM'. NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS, AARHUS, DENMARK: 48 (1-4), pp. 457-460.
  • AJAYI OB, AKANNI MS, LAMBI JN, JEYNES C, WATTS JF. (1990) 'COMPOSITIONAL STUDIES OF VARIOUS METAL-OXIDE COATINGS ON GLASS'. THIN SOLID FILMS, 185 (1), pp. 123-136.
  • Altrip JL, Evans AGR, Logan JR, Jeynes C. (1990) 'Towards the limit of ion implantation and rapid thermal annealing as a technique for shallow junction formation'. European Solid-State Device Research Conference, , pp. 221-224.

    Abstract

    © 1990 IOP Publishing Ltd.High temperature, very short time annealing techniques have been used to study dopant activation during and immediately after solid phase epitaxial regrowth of amorphous layers produced by ion implantation of As into Si. Short annealing timescales have revealed electrically inactive As tails, correlated with a region of implant-induced excess point defects, indicating the formation of stable dopant-interstitial complexes which are not removed during the timescales of these anneals.

  • SEALY BJ, TAN BL, GWILLIAM RM, REESON KJ, JEYNES C. (1989) 'RESISTIVITY OF ION-BEAM SYNTHESIZED COSI2'. ELECTRONICS LETTERS, 25 (22), pp. 1532-1533.
  • ONEILL M, BRYCE AC, MARSH JH, DELARUE RM, ROBERTS JS, JEYNES C. (1989) 'MULTIPLE QUANTUM WELL OPTICAL WAVE-GUIDES WITH LARGE ABSORPTION-EDGE BLUE SHIFT PRODUCED BY BORON AND FLUORINE IMPURITY-INDUCED DISORDERING'. APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 55 (14), pp. 1373-1375.
  • STOEV IG, YANKOV RA, JEYNES C. (1989) 'FORMATION OF ETCH-STOP STRUCTURES UTILIZING ION-BEAM SYNTHESIZED BURIED OXIDE AND NITRIDE LAYERS IN SILICON'. SENSORS AND ACTUATORS, 19 (2), pp. 183-197.
  • REESON K, DEVEIRMAN A, GWILLIAM R, JEYNES C, SEALY B, VANLANDUYT J. (1989) 'TEM AND RBS STUDIES OF EPITAXIAL COSI2 LAYERS FORMED BY HIGH-DOSE COBALT IMPLANTATION INTO SILICON'. INST PHYS CONF SER, (100), pp. 627-634.

    Abstract

    Buried layers of CoSi2 have been fabricated by implanting high doses of energetic Co atoms, into single crystal (100) silicon substrates maintained at approximately 550-degrees-C. For doses greater-than-or-equal-to 4 x 10(17) Co-59+ cm-2, at 350 keV, a continuous buried layer of CoSi2 grows epitaxially during implantation. For lower doses the 'as implanted' structure is discontinuous and consists of discrete precipitates of both A- and B- type CoSi2. After annealing at 1000-degrees-C for 30 minutes a continuous buried layer of stoichiometric CoSi2 is produced for doses greater-than-or-equal-to 2 x 10(17) Co-59+ cm-2, at 200 keV and greater-than-or-equal-to 4 x 10(17) Co-59+ cm-2, at 350 keV. For lower doses the synthesised layer is discontinuous and consists of discrete octahedral CoSi2 precipitates which are aligned with the matrix (A-type).

  • Crean GM, Jeynes C, Somekh MG, Webb RP. (1989) 'Characterization of shallow junction ion implantation profiles: Correlation between a noncontact photodisplacement thermal wave technique and rutherford backscattering analysis'. European Solid-State Device Research Conference, , pp. 929-932.

    Abstract

    © 1989 Springer-Verlag Heidelberg. © 1989 Springer-Verlag Bcrbn Heidelberg. All Rights Reserved.This paper correlates photodisplacement thermal wave characterization of ion implanted silicon wafers with the lattice information provided by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry.

  • REESON KJ, DEVEIRMAN A, GWILLIAM R, JEYNES C, SEALY BJ, VANLANDUYT J. (1989) 'TEM AND RBS STUDIES OF EPITAXIAL COSI2 LAYERS FORMED BY HIGH-DOSE COBALT IMPLANTATION INTO SILICON'. INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS CONFERENCE SERIES, (100), pp. 627-634.
  • JAFRI ZH, JEYNES C, WEBB RP, WILSON IH. (1989) 'OBSERVATION OF SWELLING AND SPUTTERING OF A SILICON TARGET UNDER ARGON ION IRRADIATION USING A DOUBLE MARKER TECHNIQUE'. VACUUM, UNIV SURREY, GUILDFORD, ENGLAND: 39 (11-12), pp. 1119-1121.
  • RAMAN VK, MAHMOOD F, MCMAHON RA, AHMED H, JEYNES C, SARKAR D. (1989) 'RAPID ELECTRON-BEAM INDUCED TANTALUM SILICON REACTIONS'. APPLIED SURFACE SCIENCE, 36 (1-4), pp. 654-663.
  • RAMAN VK, MAHMOOD F, MCMAHON RA, AHMED H, JEYNES C. (1988) 'RAPID ELECTRON-BEAM REACTED TANTALUM TITANIUM BILAYERS ON SILICON'. JAPANESE JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS PART 1-REGULAR PAPERS SHORT NOTES & REVIEW PAPERS, 27 (12), pp. 2333-2339.
  • MATTHEWS AP, JEYNES C, REESON KJ, THORNTON J, SPYROU NM. (1988) 'NUCLEAR-REACTION STUDIES OF N-15 IMPLANTED SPHEROIDAL GRAPHITE CAST-IRON USING AN ION MICROPROBE'. NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS, 30 (3), pp. 497-502.
  • SEAH MP, DAVID D, DAVIES JA, JACKMAN TE, JEYNES C, ORTEGA C, READ PM, SOFIELD CJ, WEBER G. (1988) 'AN INTERCOMPARISON OF ABSOLUTE MEASUREMENTS OF THE OXYGEN AND TANTALUM THICKNESS OF TANTALUM PENTOXIDE REFERENCE MATERIALS, BCR 261, BY 6 LABORATORIES'. NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS, 30 (2), pp. 140-151.
  • RAMAN VK, MAHMOOD F, MCMAHON RA, AHMED H, JEYNES C, HUTT KW, COOPER N, GODFREY DJ. (1988) 'CHARACTERIZATION OF RAPID ELECTRON-BEAM ANNEALED THIN TITANIUM SILICIDE FILMS'. JOURNAL OF THE ELECTROCHEMICAL SOCIETY, 135 (3), pp. C125-C125.
  • DANN AJ, FAHY MR, JEYNES C, WILLIS MR. (1987) 'ELECTRICAL-PROPERTIES OF ION-IMPLANTED PCALF FILMS'. PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI A-APPLIED RESEARCH, 101 (1), pp. K45-K48.
  • DANN AJ, FAHY MR, WILLIS MR, JEYNES C. (1987) 'ION-IMPLANTATION OF POLYMERIC PHTHALOCYANINES'. SYNTHETIC METALS, 18 (1-3), pp. 581-584.
  • KIMBER AC, JEYNES C. (1987) 'AN APPLICATION OF THE TRUNCATED 2-PIECE NORMAL-DISTRIBUTION TO THE MEASUREMENT OF DEPTHS OF ARSENIC IMPLANTS IN SILICON'. JOURNAL OF THE ROYAL STATISTICAL SOCIETY SERIES C-APPLIED STATISTICS, 36 (3), pp. 352-357.
  • Kimber AC, Jeynes C. (1987) 'APPLICATION OF THE TRUNCATED TWO-PIECE NORMAL DISTRIBUTION TO THE MEASUREMENT OF DEPTHS OF ARSENIC IMPLANTS IN SILICON.'. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series C: Applied Statistics, 36 (3), pp. 352-357.

    Abstract

    The truncated two-piece normal distribution is applied to data obtained from backscattering experiments in order to investigate the depth of arsenic implants in silicon.

  • DANN AJ, FAHY MR, JEYNES C, WILLIS MR. (1986) 'IODINE IMPLANTATION OF POLYMERIC PHTHALOCYANINES'. JOURNAL OF PHYSICS D-APPLIED PHYSICS, 19 (11), pp. L217-L224.
  • RENNIE J, ELLIOTT S, JEYNES C. (1986) 'RUTHERFORD BACKSCATTERING STUDY OF THE PHOTODISSOLUTION OF AG IN AMORPHOUS GESE2'. APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 48 (21), pp. 1430-1432.
  • DUCKWORTH RG, HARPER RE, JEYNES C. (1986) 'BACKSCATTERING ANALYSIS OF ZRN ALLOYS'. NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS, 15 (1-6), pp. 272-274.
  • BANGERT U, GOODHEW PJ, JEYNES C, WILSON IH. (1986) 'LOW-ENERGY (2-5 KEV) ARGON DAMAGE IN SILICON'. JOURNAL OF PHYSICS D-APPLIED PHYSICS, 19 (4), pp. 589-603.
  • JEYNES C, MILES RE, BOLT M, SIMMONS JG. (1986) 'RAPID ANALYSIS OF SIPOS FILMS BY ELASTIC BACKSCATTERING AND RBS'. NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS, 15 (1-6), pp. 275-279.
  • Webb RP, Jeynes C, Wilson IH. (1986) 'The effect of angle of incidence on interface broadening'. Nuclear Inst. and Methods in Physics Research, B, 13 (1-3), pp. 449-452.

    Abstract

    The broadening of a thin (~3 nm) Au marker, sandwiched between two sputtered silicon films deposited on a single crystal silicon substrate, bombarded with 100 keV argon ions has been observed for different angles of incidence using Rutherford backscattering. The results are compared to a theory used to predict the behaviour of the sputtering yield with angle of incidence. It is found that the effect of incomplete collision cascades and anisotropy of the cascade distribution determine the behaviour of the broadening. © 1986.

  • Mynard JE, Jeynes C, Thornton J, Way A, Webb R, Albury D, Hemment PLF, Stephens KG. (1985) 'Improved facilities for ion beam surface analysis at the University of Surrey'. Nuclear Inst. and Methods in Physics Research, B, 6 (1-2), pp. 264-269.

    Abstract

    Additional, facilities, which are being installed on the 2 MeV Van de Graaff accelerator at the University of Surrey, are described. These include improvements to the microbeam equipment and optical viewing system using an image intensifier, modifications to a 3-axis goniometer to provide batch processing, a goniometer control system and new software for data collection and analysis. © 1985.

  • MILOSAVLJEVIC M, JEYNES C, WILSON IH. (1985) 'EPITAXIAL (100) SILICON FILMS GROWN AT LOW-TEMPERATURES IN AN ELECTRON-BEAM EVAPORATOR'. JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS, 57 (4), pp. 1252-1255.
  • JEYNES C, KIMBER AC. (1985) 'HIGH-ACCURACY DATA FROM RUTHERFORD BACKSCATTERING SPECTRA - MEASUREMENTS OF THE RANGE AND STRAGGLING OF 60-400 KEV AS IMPLANTS INTO SI'. JOURNAL OF PHYSICS D-APPLIED PHYSICS, 18 (8), pp. L93-L97.
  • MILOSAVLJEVIC M, JEYNES C, WILSON IH. (1984) 'SOLID-PHASE EPITAXY OF EVAPORATED AMORPHOUS-SILICON FILMS'. APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 45 (8), pp. 874-876.
  • BANGERT U, JEYNES C, GOODHEW P, WILSON IH. (1984) 'DAMAGE EFFECTS IN SILICON AND MNOS STRUCTURES CAUSED BY BEAMS OF IONIZED AND NEUTRAL ARGON ATOMS WITH ENERGIES BELOW 5 KEV'. VACUUM, 34 (1-2), pp. 163-166.
  • JEYNES C. (1983) 'A PROPOSED DIAMOND POLISHING PROCESS'. PHILOSOPHICAL MAGAZINE A-PHYSICS OF CONDENSED MATTER STRUCTURE DEFECTS AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES, 48 (2), pp. 169-197.
  • MILOSAVLJEVIC M, JEYENS C, WILSON IH. (1983) 'LOW-TEMPERATURE EPITAXIAL-GROWTH OF (100) SILICON'. ELECTRONICS LETTERS, 19 (17), pp. 669-671.
  • JEYNES C. (1978) 'NATURAL POLYCRYSTALLINE DIAMOND'. INDUSTRIAL DIAMOND REVIEW, (JAN), pp. 14-23.

Conference papers

  • Razali MA, Smith AJ, Jeynes C, Gwilliam RM. (2012) 'Temperature-dependant study of phosphorus ion implantation in germanium'. AIP Conference Proceedings, 1496, pp. 193-196.

    Abstract

    We present experimental results on shallow junction formation in germanium by phosphorus ion implantation and standard rapid thermal processing. An attempt is made to improve phosphorus activation by implanting phosphorus at high and low temperature. The focus is on studying the germanium damage and phosphorus activation as a function of implant temperature. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry with channelling and Hall Effect measurements are employed for characterisation of germanium damage and phosphorus activation, respectively. High and low temperature implants were found to be better compared to room temperature implant. © 2012 American Institute of Physics.

  • Peng N, Jeynes C, Gwilliam RM, Webb RP, Pan F, Chen X. (2012) 'On fabrication of high concentration Mn doped Si by ion implantation: problem and challenge'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV 18TH INTERNATIONAL VACUUM CONGRESS (IVC-18), Beijing, PEOPLES R CHINA: 18th International Vacuum Congress (IVC)/International Conference on Nanoscience and Technology (ICNT)/14th International Conference on Surfaces Science (ICSS)/Vacuum and Surface Sciences Conference of Asia and Australia (VASSCAA) 32, pp. 408-411.
  • Antwis L, Wong L, Smith A, Homewood K, Jeynes C, Gwilliam R. (2010) 'Optimization and characterisation of amorphous iron disilicide formed by ion beam mixing of Fe/Si multilayer structures for photovoltaic applications'. AIP Conference Proceedings, 1321, pp. 278-281.

    Abstract

    This study presents an optimization and characterization of amorphous Iron Disilicide (a-FeSi2) synthesized using Ion Beam Mixing (IBM) of Fe/Si multilayer structures. The layers were deposited using RF magnetron sputtering, and subsequently irradiated with Ar+ and Fe+ beams of 150 and 200 keV. Rutherford Back Scattering (RBS) analysis was used to determine the structure and level of silicidation of the samples. The nature of the band-gap and the optical absorption coefficients were determined by optical transmission analysis. The results demonstrate that the synthesis of a-FeSi 2 can be achieved using this technique, with the total level of silicidation being highly dependant upon the initial structure configuration and beam parameters. Direct band-gap energies of ∼0.90 eV have been observed for those samples with the highest levels of silicidation, with optical absorption coefficients of ∼104cm-1. Therefore this method of fabrication has been shown to produce a-FeSi2 layers without the need for post-synthesis treatment, using established technologies without compromising the optical properties that make this material such a promising semiconductor for the photovoltaics market. © 2010 American Institute of Physics.

  • Bailey MJ, Jeynes C, Sealy BJ, Webb RP, Gwilliam RM. (2010) 'On artefacts in the secondary ion mass spectrometry profiling of high fluence H+ implants in GaAs'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS, Univ Cambridge, Cambridge, ENGLAND: 19th International Conference on Ion Beam Analysis 268 (11-12), pp. 2051-2055.
  • Webb R, Bailey M, Jeynes C, Grime G. (2010) '19th International Conference on Ion Beam Analysis'. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, 268 (11-12)
  • Milosavljević M, Peruško D, Milinović V, Timotijević B, Zalar A, Kovač J, Jeynes C. (2009) 'High ion irradiation tolerance of multilayered AlN/TiN nanocomposites'. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Proceedings of International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Research Applications and Utilization of Accelerators, Vienna, Austria: International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Research Applications and Utilization of Accelerators
  • Bailey MJ, Kirkby KJ, Jeynes C. (2009) 'Trace element profiling of gunshot residues by PIXE and SEM-EDS: a feasibility study'. JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD X-RAY SPECTROMETRY, Cavtat, CROATIA: 13th European X-Ray Spectrometry Conference (EXRS 2008) 38 (3), pp. 190-194.
  • Stennett MC, Hyatt NC, Reid DP, Maddrell ER, Peng N, Jeynes C, Kirkby KJ, Woicik JC, Ravel B. (2009) 'Heavy ion implantation combined with grazing incidence X-ray absorption spectroscopy (GIXAS): A new methodology for the characterisation of radiation damage in nuclear ceramics'. MRS Proceedings, San Francisco, USA: MRS Spring Meeting 2009: Scientific Basis for Nuclear Waste Management XXXIII 1193, pp. 67-72.

    Abstract

    An understanding of the effect of cumulative radiation damage on the integrity of ceramic wasteforms for plutonium and minor actinide disposition is key to the scientific case for safe disposal. Alpha recoil due to the decay of actinide species leads to the amorphisation of the initially crystalline host matrix, with potentially deleterious consequences such as macroscopic volume swelling and reduced resistance to aqueous dissolution. For the purpose of laboratory studies the effect of radiation damage can be simulated by various accelerated methodologies. The incorporation of short-lived actinide isotopes accurately reproduces damage arising from both alpha-particle and the heavy recoil nucleus, but requires access to specialist facilities. In contrast, fast ion implantation of inactive model ceramics effectively simulates the heavy recoil nucleus, leading to amorphisation of the host crystal lattice over very short time-scales. Although the resulting materials are easily handled, quantitative analysis of the resulting damaged surface layer has proved challenging. In this investigation, we have developed an experimental methodology for characterisation of radiation damaged structures in candidate ceramics for actinide disposition. Our approach involves implantation of bulk ceramic samples with 2 MeV Kr+ ions, to simulate heavy atom recoil; combined with grazing incidence X-ray absorption spectroscopy (GI-XAS) to characterise only the damaged surface layer. Here we present experimental GI-XAS data acquired at the Ti and Zr K-edges of ion implanted zirconolite, as a function of grazing angle, demonstrating that this technique can be successfully applied to characterise only the amorphised surface layer. Comparison of our findings with data from metamict natural analogues provide evidence that heavy ion implantation reproduces the amorphous structure arising from naturally accumulated radiation damage.

  • Jeynes C, Zoppi G, Forbes I, Bailey MJ, Peng N. (2009) 'Characterisation of thin film chalcogenide PV materials using MeV ion beam analysis'. 1st International Conference on Sustainable Power Generation and Supply, SUPERGEN '09,

    Abstract

    There are many technical challenges in the fabrication of devices from novel materials. The characterization of these materials is critical in the development of efficient photovoltaic systems. We show how the application of recent advances in MeV IBA, providing the self-consistent treatment of RBS (Rutherford backscattering) and PIXE (particle induced X-ray emission) spectra, makes a new set of powerful complementary depth profiling techniques available for all thin film technologies, including the chalcopyrite compound semiconductors. We will give and discuss a detailed analysis of a CuInAl metallic precursor film, showing how similar methods are also applicable to other films of interest.

  • Stennett MC, Hyatt NC, Reid DP, Maddrell ER, Peng N, Jeynes C, Kirkby KJ, Woicik JC. (2009) 'Characterisation of Ion Beam Irradiated Zirconolite for Pu Disposition'. MATERIALS RESEARCH SOCIETY SCIENTIFIC BASIS FOR NUCLEAR WASTE MANAGEMENT XXXII, Boston, MA: 32nd Symposium on Scientific Basis for Nuclear Waste Management held at the 2008 MRS Fall Meeting 1124, pp. 243-248.
  • Perusko D, Milosavljevic M, Milinovic V, Timotijevic B, Zalar A, Kovac J, Pracek B, Jeynes C. (2008) 'High fluence nitrogen implantation in Al/Ti multilayers'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS, Florence, ITALY: 9th European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology 266 (10), pp. 2503-2506.
  • Lazzeri P, Oehrlein GS, Stueber GJ, McGowan R, Busch E, Pederzoli S, Jeynes C, Bersani M, Anderle M. (2008) 'Interactions of photoresist stripping plasmas with nanoporous organo-silicate ultra low dielectric constant dielectrics'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA THIN SOLID FILMS, Nagoya, JAPAN: 28th Dry Process Symposium (DPS) 516 (11), pp. 3697-3703.
  • Barradas NP, Arstila K, Battistig G, Bianconi M, Dytlewski N, Jeynes C, Kotai E, Lulli G, Mayer M, Rauhala E, Szilagyi E, Thompson M. (2008) 'Summary of "IAEA intercomparison of IBA software"'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS, Univ Hyderabad, Sch Phys, Hyderabad, INDIA: 18th International Conference on Ion Beam Analysis 266 (8), pp. 1338-1342.
  • Gurbich A, Bogdanovic-Radovic I, Chiari M, Jeynes C, Kokkoris M, Ramos AR, Mayer M, Rauhala E, Schwerer O, Liqun S, Vickridge I. (2008) 'Status of the problem of nuclear cross section data for IBA'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS, Univ Hyderabad, Sch Phys, Hyderabad, INDIA: 18th International Conference on Ion Beam Analysis 266 (8), pp. 1198-1202.
  • Peng N, Jeynes C, Gwilliam RM, Kirkby KJ, Webb RP. (2007) 'Depth profile analysis for MgB2 thin films, formed by B implantation in Mg ribbons using energetic ion backscatterings'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV PHYSICA C-SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND ITS APPLICATIONS, Dresden, GERMANY: 8th International Conference on Materials and Mechanisms of Superconductivity and High Temperature Superconductors 460, pp. 600-601.

    Abstract

    Both Rutherford backscatterings of He-4(+) beams and non-Rutherford backscatterings of He-4(+) and H+ beams have been used in this study to investigate the depth profiles of B dopant in Mg target upon B implantation and post annealing. Primitive data analysis suggests an enhanced diffusion of surface C contaminant during the B implantation process, together with enhanced surface oxidation upon implantation and thermal annealing in flowing N-2 atmosphere. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  • Mistry P, Gomez-Morilla I, Smith RC, Thomson D, Grime GW, Webb RP, Gwilliam R, Jeynes C, Cansell A, Merchant M, Kirkby KJ. (2007) 'Maskless proton beam writing in gallium arsenide'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS, Singapore, SINGAPORE: 10th International Conference on Nuclear Microprobe Technology and Applications held in Conjunction with the 2nd International Workshop on Proton Beam Writing 260 (1), pp. 437-441.
  • Simon A, Csako T, Jeynes C, Szorenyi T. (2006) 'High lateral resolution 2D mapping of the B/C ratio in a boron carbide film formed by ferntosecond pulsed laser deposition'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS, Seville, SPAIN: 17th International Conference on Ion Beam Analysis 249, pp. 454-457.
  • Yakovlev EV, Talalaev RA, Martin RW, Jeynes C, Peng N, Deatcher CJ, Watson IM. (2006) 'Modeling and experimental analysis of InGaN MOVPE in the Aixtron AIX 200/4 RF-S horizontal reactor'. WILEY-VCH, INC Physica Status Solidi C - Current Topics in Solid State Physics, Vol 3, No 6, Bremen, GERMANY: 6th International Conference on Nitride Semiconductors (ICNS-6) 3 (6), pp. 1620-1623.
  • Mistry P, Gomez-Morilla I, Grime GW, Webb R, Jeynes C, Gwilliarn R, Cansell A, Merchant M, Kirkby KJ. (2006) 'Proton beam lithography at the University of Surrey's Ion Beam Centre'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS, Pacific Grove, CA: 14th International Conference on Ion Beam Modification of Materials (IBMM 2004) 242 (1-2), pp. 387-389.
  • Sharp JA, Gwilliam RM, Sealy BJ, Jeynes C, Hamilton JJ, Kirkby KJ. (2005) 'Evaluation of BBr2+ and B++Br+ implants in silicon'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING B-SOLID STATE MATERIALS FOR ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY, Strasbourg, FRANCE: Symposium on Materials Science and Device Issues for Futrue Si-Based Technologies held at the 2005 EMRS Meeting 124, pp. 196-199.
  • Sharp JA, Gwilliam RM, Sealy BJ, Jeynes C, Hamilton JJ, Kirkby KJ. (2005) 'Comparison of elemental boron and boron halide implants into silicon'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS, Taipei, TAIWAN: 15th International Conference on Ion Implantation Technology 237 (1-2), pp. 93-97.
  • Hamilton JJ, Collart EJH, Colombeau B, Jeynes C, Bersani M, Giubertoni D, Sharp JA, Cowern NEB, Kirkby KJ. (2005) 'Electrical activation of solid-phase epitaxially regrown ultra-low energy boron implants in Ge preamorphised silicon and SOI'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS, Taipei, TAIWAN: 15th International Conference on Ion Implantation Technology 237 (1-2), pp. 107-112.
  • Xu L, McNally PJ, Dilliway GDM, Cowern NEB, Jeynes C, Mendoza E, Ashburn P, Bagnall DM. (2005) 'Raman study of the strain and H-2 preconditioning effect on self-assembled Ge island on Si (001)'. SPRINGER JOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE-MATERIALS IN ELECTRONICS, Univ Southampton, Southampton, ENGLAND: 5th International Conference on Materials for Microelectronics and Nanoengineering 16 (7), pp. 469-474.
  • Peng NH, Jeynes C, Gwilliam RM, Kirkby KJ, Webb RP, Shao GS, Astill DA, Liang WY. (2005) 'A potential integrated low temperature approach for superconducting MgB2 thin film growth and electronics device fabrication by ion implantation'. IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON APPLIED SUPERCONDUCTIVITY, Jacksonville, FL: 2004 Applied Superconductivity Conference 15 (2), pp. 3265-3268.
  • Mistry P, Gornez-Morilla I, Grime GW, Webb R, Jeynes C, Gwilliam R, Cansell A, Merchant M, Kirkby KJ. (2005) 'New developments on the Surrey microbeam applications to lithography'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS, Cavtat, CROATIA: 9th International Conference on Nuclear Microprobe Technology and Applications 231, pp. 428-432.
  • Merchant MJ, Mistry P, Browton M, Clough AS, Gauntlett FE, Jeynes C, Kirkby KJ, Grime GW. (2005) 'Characterisation of the University of Surrey Ion Beam Centre in-air scanning microbeam'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS, Cavtat, CROATIA: 9th International Conference on Nuclear Microprobe Technology and Applications 231, pp. 26-31.
  • Martinez FL, Ruiz-Merino R, del Prado A, San Andres E, Martil I, Gonzalez-Diaz G, Jeynes C, Barradas NP, Wang L, Reehal HS. (2004) 'Bonding structure and hydrogen content in silicon nitride thin films deposited by the electron cyclotron resonance plasma method'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA THIN SOLID FILMS, Berlin, GERMANY: 8th European Vacuum Congress (EVC-8)/2nd Annual Conference of the German-Vacuum-Society (DVG) 459 (1-2), pp. 203-207.
  • Chakalov RA, Jeynes C, Mikheenko P, Allsworth MD, Darlington CNW, Colclough MS, Muirhead CM. (2004) 'Difference in individual layer properties in cuprate/manganite structures deposited by laser ablation'. WILEY-V C H VERLAG GMBH ANNALEN DER PHYSIK, AUGSBAURG, GERMANY: 10th International Workshop on Oxide Electronics 13 (1-2), pp. 81-82.
  • Kang DJ, Peng NH, Jeynes C, Webb R, Lee HN, Oh B, Moon SH, Burnell G, Stelmashenko NA, Tarte EJ, Moore DF, Blamire MG. (2003) 'Josephson effects in MgB2 metal masked ion damage junctions'. IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON APPLIED SUPERCONDUCTIVITY, HOUSTON, TEXAS: Applied Superconductivity Conference 13 (2), pp. 1071-1074.
  • Peng NH, Kang DJ, Jeynes C, Webb RP, Moore DF, Blamire MG, Chakarov IR. (2003) 'High quality YBa2Cu3O7-delta Josephson junctions and junction arrays fabricated by masked proton beam irradiation damage'. IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON APPLIED SUPERCONDUCTIVITY, HOUSTON, TEXAS: Applied Superconductivity Conference 13 (2), pp. 889-892.
  • Dilliway GDM, Bagnall DM, Cowern NEB, Jeynes C. (2003) 'Self-assembled germanium islands grown on (001) silicon substrates by low-pressure chemical vapor deposition'. KLUWER ACADEMIC PUBL JOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE-MATERIALS IN ELECTRONICS, ESPOO, FINLAND: 4th International Conference on Materials for Microelectronics and Nanoengineering 14 (5-7), pp. 323-327.
  • Webb RP, Winston SH, Gwilliam RM, Sealy BJ, Boudreault G, Jeynes C, Kirkby KJ. (2003) 'Comparison of boron halide, decaborane and B implants in Si from molecular dynamics simulations'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS, DRESDEN, GERMANY: 6th International Conference on Computer Simulation of Radiation Effects in Solids 202, pp. 143-148.
  • Zurrug H, Mefo J, Sealy B, Boudreault G, Jeynes C, Webb RP, Kirkby KJ, Collart EJH. (2003) 'Characterization and enviromental impact of plasma products within an ion implanter'. IEEE IIT2002: ION IMPLANTATION TECHNOLOGY, PROCEEDINGS, TAOS, NM: 14th International Conference on Ion Implantation Technology, pp. 471-474.
  • Claudio G, Boudreault G, Jeynes C, Sealy BJ, Low R. (2003) 'Absolute dose performance of the SWIFT single wafer ion implanter'. IEEE IIT2002: ION IMPLANTATION TECHNOLOGY, PROCEEDINGS, TAOS, NM: 14th International Conference on Ion Implantation Technology, pp. 237-239.
  • Winston SH, Gwilliam RM, Sealy BJ, Boudreault G, Jeynes C, Webb RP, Kirkby KJ. (2003) 'Evaluation of the Boron activation and depth distribution using BBr2+ implants'. IEEE IIT2002: ION IMPLANTATION TECHNOLOGY, PROCEEDINGS, TAOS, NM: 14th International Conference on Ion Implantation Technology, pp. 115-118.
  • Claudio G, Jeynes C, Kirkby KJ, Sealy BJ, Gwilliam R, Low R. (2003) 'Electrical behaviour of arsenic implanted silicon wafers at large tilt angle'. IEEE IIT2002: ION IMPLANTATION TECHNOLOGY, PROCEEDINGS, TAOS, NM: 14th International Conference on Ion Implantation Technology, pp. 614-617.
  • Mefo J, Kirkby KJ, Sealy BJ, Boudreault G, Jeynes C, Collart EJH. (2003) 'Elemental analysis of residual deposits in an ion implanter using IBA techniques'. IEEE IIT2002: ION IMPLANTATION TECHNOLOGY, PROCEEDINGS, TAOS, NM: 14th International Conference on Ion Implantation Technology, pp. 467-470.
  • Simon A, Sellin P, Lohstroh A, Jeynes C. (2003) 'Ion beam indneed charge microscopy imaging of CVD diamond'. IOP PUBLISHING LTD MICROSCOPY OF SEMICONDUCTING MATERIALS 2003, Univ Cambridge, Cambridge, ENGLAND: Conference on Microscopy of Semiconducting Materials (180), pp. 449-452.
  • Gennaro S, Sealy BJ, Jeynes C, Gwilliam R, Collart EJH, Licciardello A. (2003) 'Effects of carbon content and annealing conditions on the electrical activation of indium implanted silicon'. IEEE IIT2002: ION IMPLANTATION TECHNOLOGY, PROCEEDINGS, TAOS, NM: 14th International Conference on Ion Implantation Technology, pp. 552-555.
  • Blamire MG, Kang DJ, Burnell G, Peng NH, Webb R, Jeynes C, Yun JH, Moon SH, Oh B. (2002) 'Masked ion damage and implantation for device fabrication'. PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD VACUUM, VARNA, BULGARIA: 12th International School on Vacuum, Electron and Ion Technologies 69 (1-3), pp. 11-15.
  • Peng NH, Jeynes C, Webb R, Chakarov I, Blamire M. (2002) 'Optimisation of masked ion irradiation damage profiles in YBCO thin films by Monte Carlo simulation'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV PHYSICA C-SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND ITS APPLICATIONS, TECH UNIV DENMARK, LYNGBY, DENMARK: 5th European Conference on Applied Superconductivity (EUCAS 2001) 372, pp. 55-58.
  • Kang DJ, Peng NH, Webb R, Jeynes C, Burnell G, Yun JH, Moon SH, Oh B, Tarte EJ, Moore DF, Kelly M, Blamire MG. (2002) 'Irradiation damage technology for manufacturable Josephson junctions'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS, UNIV SURREY, GUILDFORD, ENGLAND: 7th European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology 188, pp. 183-188.
  • Milosavljevic M, Shao G, Bibic N, McKinty CN, Jeynes C, Homewood KP. (2002) 'Synthesis of amorphous FeSi2 by ion beam mixing'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS, UNIV SURREY, GUILDFORD, ENGLAND: 7th European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology 188, pp. 166-169.
  • Peng NH, Jeynes C, Webb R, Chakarov I, Kang DJ, Moore D, Blamire M. (2002) 'Monte Carlo simulations of energetic proton beam irradiation damage defect productions in YBCO thin films with Au masks'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS, UNIV SURREY, GUILDFORD, ENGLAND: 7th European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology 188, pp. 189-195.
  • Breese MBH, de Kerckhove DG, Jeynes C, Peel RMA, Murray CW. (2001) 'An electrostatic beam rocking system on the Surrey nuclear microprobe'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS, BORDEAUX, FRANCE: 7th International Conference on Nuclear Microprobe Technology and Applications 181, pp. 54-59.
  • Peng NH, Jeynes C, Webb RP, Chakarov IR, Blamire MG. (2001) 'Monte Carlo simulations of masked ion beam irradiation damage profiles in YBa2Cu3O7-delta thin films'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS, STRASBOURG, FRANCE: E-MRS Spring Meeting on Materials Science with Ion Beams 178, pp. 242-246.
  • Milosavljevic M, Shao G, Gwilliam RM, Jeynes C, McKinty CN, Homewood KP. (2001) 'Properties of beta-FeSi2 grown by combined ion irradiation and annealing of Fe/Si bilayers'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS, CANELA, BRAZIL: 12th International Conference on Ion Beam Modification of Materials (IBMM2000) 175, pp. 309-313.
  • Kahlmann F, Booij WE, Blamire MG, McBrien PF, Peng NH, Jeynes C, Romans EJ, Pegrum CM, Tarte EJ. (2001) 'Performance of high-T-c dc SQUID magnetometers with resistively shunted inductances compared to "unshunted" devices'. IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON APPLIED SUPERCONDUCTIVITY, VIRGINIA BEACH, VIRGINIA: 2000 Applied Superconductivity Conference 11 (1), pp. 916-919.
  • Kang DJ, Speaks R, Peng NH, Webb R, Jeynes C, Booij WE, Tarte EJ, Moore DF, Blamire MG. (2001) 'Nanometer scale masked ion damage barriers in YBa2Cu3O7-delta'. IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON APPLIED SUPERCONDUCTIVITY, VIRGINIA BEACH, VIRGINIA: 2000 Applied Superconductivity Conference 11 (1), pp. 780-783.
  • Peng NH, Chakarov I, Jeynes C, Webb R, Booij W, Blamire M, Kelly M. (2000) '2D Monte Carlo simulation of proton implantation of superconducting YBa2Cu3O7-delta thin films through high aspect ratio Nb masks'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS, ODENSE, DENMARK: 18th International Conference on Atomic Collisions in Solids (ICACS-18) 164, pp. 979-985.
  • Peaker AR, Evans-Freeman JH, Kan PYY, Hawkins ID, Terry J, Jeynes C, Rubaldo L. (2000) 'Vacancy-related defects in ion implanted and electron irradiated silicon'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING B-SOLID STATE MATERIALS FOR ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY, STRASBOURG, FRANCE: Symposium F: Process Induced Defects in Semiconductors at the 1999 Spring Meeting of the European-Materials-Research-Society 71, pp. 143-147.
  • Riley LS, Hall S, Harris J, Fernandez J, Gallas B, Evans AGR, Clarke JF, Humphrey J, Murray RT, Jeynes C. (1999) 'SiGe nMOSFETs with gate oxide grown by low temperature plasma anodisation'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV MICROELECTRONIC ENGINEERING, KLOSTER BANZ, GERMANY: 11th Biennial Conference on Insulating Films on Semiconductors 48 (1-4), pp. 227-230.
  • Taylor JW, Saleh AS, Rice-Evans PC, Knights AP, Jeynes C. (1999) 'Depth profiling of defects in nitrogen implanted silicon using a slow positron beam'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV APPLIED SURFACE SCIENCE, CAPE TOWN, SOUTH AFRICA: 8th International Workshop on Slow-Positron Beam Techniques for Solids and Surfaces (SLOPOS-8) 149 (1-4), pp. 175-180.
  • Booij WE, Elwell CA, Tarte EJ, McBrien PF, Kahlmann F, Moore DF, Blamire MG, Peng NH, Jeynes C. (1999) 'Electrical properties of electron and ion beam irradiated YBa2Cu3O7-delta'. IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON APPLIED SUPERCONDUCTIVITY, PALM DESERT, CALIFORNIA: 1998 Applied Superconductivity Conference 9 (2), pp. 2886-2889.
  • Kozanecki A, Jeynes C, Barradas NP, Sealy BJ, Jantsch W. (1999) 'The influence of implantation and annealing conditions on optical activity of Er3+ ions in 6H SiC'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS, ROYAL TROP INST, AMSTERDAM, NETHERLANDS: 11th International Conference on Ion Beam Modification of Materials (IBMM98) 148 (1-4), pp. 512-516.
  • Marriott PK, Jenkin M, Jeynes C, Barradas NP, Webb RP, Sealy BJ. (1999) 'Rapid accurate automated analysis of complex ion beam analysis data'. AMER INST PHYSICS APPLICATION OF ACCELERATORS IN RESEARCH AND INDUSTRY, PTS 1 AND 2, UNIV N TEXAS, DENTON, TX: 15th International Conference on the Application of Accelerators in Research and Industry 475, pp. 592-595.
  • Way AS, Jeynes C, Webb RP. (1999) 'Measurement of lateral stress in argon implanted thin gold films using quartz resonator techniques'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS, ROYAL TROP INST, AMSTERDAM, NETHERLANDS: 11th International Conference on Ion Beam Modification of Materials (IBMM98) 148 (1-4), pp. 238-241.
  • Barradas NP, Jeynes C, Kusano Y, Evetts JE, Hutchings IM. (1999) 'RBS/simulated annealing and FTIR characterisation of BCN films deposited by dual cathode magnetron sputtering'. AMER INST PHYSICS APPLICATION OF ACCELERATORS IN RESEARCH AND INDUSTRY, PTS 1 AND 2, UNIV N TEXAS, DENTON, TX: 15th International Conference on the Application of Accelerators in Research and Industry 475, pp. 504-507.
  • Toal SJ, Reehal HS, Barradas NP, Jeynes C. (1999) 'Growth of microcrystalline beta-SiC films on silicon by ECR plasma CVD'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV APPLIED SURFACE SCIENCE, STRASBOURG, FRANCE: Symposium on Surface Processing - Laser, Lamp, Plasma, at the Annual Spring Meeting of the European-Materials-Society (E-MRS 96) 138, pp. 424-428.
  • Naveed AT, Huda MQ, Abd El-Rahman KF, Hartung J, Evans-Freeman JH, Peaker AR, Houghton DC, Jeynes C, Gillin WP. (1998) 'Erbium in silicon-germanium quantum wells'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV JOURNAL OF LUMINESCENCE, STRASBOURG, FRANCE: Symposium on Light Emission from Silicon - Procress Towards Si-based Optoelectronics at the Spring Meeting of the European-Materials-Research-Society 80 (1-4), pp. 381-386.
  • Sealy B, Gwilliam R, Shannon J, Jeynes C, Angelov C, Tsvetkova T. (1998) 'Surface electrical conductivity of Co+-implanted a-SiC : H films'. PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD VACUUM, VARNA, BULGARIA: 10th International Summer School on Vacuum, Electron and Ion Technologies (VEIT 97) 51 (2), pp. 281-284.
  • Bibic N, Milosavljevic M, Perusko D, Jeynes C. (1998) 'Investigation of ion beam mixing effects in Ta/Pd bilayers deposited on Si'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA THIN SOLID FILMS, UNIV SALAMANCA, SALAMANCA, SPAIN: 5th European Vacuum Conference (EVC 5) / 10th International Conference on Thin Films (ICTF 10) 317 (1-2), pp. 274-277.
  • Nejim A, Barradas NP, Jeynes C, Cristiano F, Wendler E, Gartner K, Sealy BJ. (1998) 'Residual post anneal damage of Ge and C co-implantation of Si determined by quantitative RBS-channelling'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS, EINDHOVEN UNIV, EINDHOVEN, NETHERLANDS: 5th European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology (ECAART5) 139 (1-4), pp. 244-248.
  • Jeynes C, Barradas NP, Blewett MJ, Webb RP. (1998) 'Improved ion beam analysis facilities at the University of Surrey'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS, LISBON, PORTUGAL: 13th International Conference on Ion Beam Analysis (IBA-13) 136, pp. 1229-1234.
  • Barradas NP, Marriott PK, Jeynes C, Webb RP. (1998) 'The RBS data furnace: Simulated annealing'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS, LISBON, PORTUGAL: 13th International Conference on Ion Beam Analysis (IBA-13) 136, pp. 1157-1162.
  • Kozanecki A, Jeynes C, Sealy BJ, Nejim A. (1998) 'Ion beam analysis of 6H SiC implanted with erbium and ytterbium ions'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS, LISBON, PORTUGAL: 13th International Conference on Ion Beam Analysis (IBA-13) 136, pp. 1272-1276.
  • Puttick K, Jeynes C, Gee T. (1998) 'Surface amorphization of machined silicon'. AMER SOC PRECISION ENGINEERING PROCEEDINGS OF: SILICON MACHINING, CARMEL BY THE SEA, CA: 1998 Spring Topical Meeting of the ASPE on Silicon Machining, pp. 15-18.
  • Kozanecki A, Jeynes C, Sealy BJ, Jantsch W, Lanzerstorfer S, Heiss W, Prechtl G. (1998) 'Photoluminescence and backscattering characterization of 6H SiC implanted with erbium and oxygen ions'. TRANSTEC PUBLICATIONS LTD SILICON CARBIDE, III-NITRIDES AND RELATED MATERIALS, PTS 1 AND 2, STOCKHOLM, SWEDEN: 7th International Conference on Silicon Carbide, III-Nitrides and Related Materials (ICSCIII-N 97) 264-2, pp. 501-504.
  • Stojanovic M, Milosavljevic M, Jeynes C. (1998) 'Characterization of as implanted silicides by frequency noise level measurements'. TRANSTEC PUBLICATIONS LTD ADVANCED MATERIALS AND PROCESSES, HERCEG-NOVI, YUGOSLAVIA: 2nd Yugoslav Conference on Advanced Materials (YUGOMAT II) 282-2, pp. 153-156.
  • Kozanecki N, Jantsch W, Heis W, Prechtl G, Sealy BJ, Jeynes C. (1997) 'Infrared luminescence in Er and Er+O implanted 6H SiC'. POLISH ACAD SCIENCES INST PHYSICS ACTA PHYSICA POLONICA A, JASZOWIEC, POLAND: XXVI International School on Physics of Semiconducting Compounds 92 (5), pp. 879-882.
  • Murtagh M, Lynch SM, Kelly PV, Hildebrant S, Herbert PAF, Jeynes C, Crean GM. (1997) 'Photoreflectance characterisation of Ar+ ion etched and SiCl4 reactive ion etched silicon (100)'. INST MATERIALS MATERIALS SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, BARCELONA, SPAIN: 1st International Conference on Materials for Microelectronics 13 (11), pp. 961-964.
  • Mironov OA, Phillips PJ, Parker EHC, Dowsett MG, Barradas NP, Jeynes C, Mironov M, Gnezdilov VP, Ushakov V, Eremenko VV. (1997) 'Structural and optical characterisation of undoped Si-Si0.78Ge0.22/Si(001) superlattices grown by MBE'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA THIN SOLID FILMS, WARSAW, POLAND: Workshop on Molecular Beam Expitaxy-Growth Physics and Technology (MBE-GPT 96) 306 (2), pp. 307-312.
  • DeSouza RA, Kilner JA, Jeynes C. (1997) 'The application of secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) to the study of high temperature proton conductors (HTPC)'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV SOLID STATE IONICS, GOL, NORWAY: VIII International Conference on Solid State Protonic Conductors 97 (1-4), pp. 409-419.
  • Nejim A, Jeynes C, Webb RP, Cowern NEB, Patel CJ. (1997) 'Influence of dynamic annealing on the depth distribution of germanium implanted in (100) silicon at elevated temperatures'. MATERIALS RESEARCH SOCIETY DEFECTS AND DIFFUSION IN SILICON PROCESSING, SAN FRANCISCO, CA: Symposium on Defects and Diffusion in Silicon Processing 469, pp. 387-393.
  • Wilson IH, Chen YJ, Xu JB, Devine RAB, Jeynes C. (1996) 'Ion impacts and nanostructures on Ge(111), In0.22Ga0.78As/GaAs(100) and alpha quartz surfaces observed by atomic force microscopy'. JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD SURFACE AND INTERFACE ANALYSIS, GUILDFORD, ENGLAND: QSA-9 Conference 24 (13), pp. 881-886.
  • Li YP, Kilner JA, Tate TJ, Chater RJ, Jeynes C, Jafri ZH. (1996) 'SIMS, RBS, and ion channelling studies of H-2(+) or O-18(+) irradiated LaAlO3, (100) single crystal'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS, ARIZONA STATE UNIV CAMPUS, TEMPE, AZ: 12th International Conference on Ion Beam Analysis (IBA-12) 118 (1-4), pp. 133-138.
  • Stojanovic M, Jeynes C, Bibic N, Milosavljevic M, Vasic A, Milosevic Z. (1996) 'Frequency noise level of as ion implanted TiN-Ti-Si structures'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS, LINZ, AUSTRIA: 16th International Conference on Atomic Collisions in Solids (ICACS-16) 115 (1-4), pp. 554-556.
  • Stojanovic M, Vasic A, Jeynes C. (1996) 'Ion implanted silicides studies by frequency noise level measurements'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS, STRASBOURG, FRANCE: Symposium J on Correlated Effects in Atomic and Cluster Ion Bombardment and Implantation/Symposium C on Pushing the Limits of Ion Beam Processing - From Engineering to Atomic Scale Issues, at the E-MRS 95 Spring Meeting 112 (1-4), pp. 192-195.
  • MILOSAVLJEVIC M, BIBIC N, PERUSKO D, JEYNES C. (1995) 'INFLUENCE OF ARSENIC ION-IMPLANTATION ON THE FORMATION OF TI-SILICIDES'. PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD VACUUM, UPPSALA, SWEDEN: 4th European Vacuum Conference (EVC-4)1st Swedish Vacuum Meeting (SVM-1) 46 (8-10), pp. 1009-1012.
  • BACHMANN T, WENDLER E, WESCH W, HERRE O, WILSON RJ, JEYNES C, GWILLIAM RM, SEALY BJ. (1995) 'DAMAGE PRODUCTION DURING MEV ION-IMPLANTATION IN GAAS AND INAS'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS, DENTON, TX: 13th International Conference on the Application of Accelerators in Research and Industry 99 (1-4), pp. 619-622.
  • WENDLER E, WILSON RJ, JEYNES C, WESCH W, GARTNER K, GWILLIAM RM, SEALY BJ. (1995) '2 MEV AS+ IMPLANTATION IN INAS'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS, CATANIA, ITALY: 10th International Conference on Ion Implantation Technology 96 (1-2), pp. 298-301.
  • YOUSIF KM, SMITH BE, JEYNES C. (1994) 'STUDY OF DURABILITY OF (MOLYBDENUM-COPPER)-BLACK COATINGS IN RELATION TO THEIR USE AS SOLAR SELECTIVE ABSORBERS'. PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD RENEWABLE ENERGY, READING, ENGLAND: World Renewable Energy Congress - Climate Change, Energy and the Environment 5 (1-4), pp. 324-329.
  • KOZANECKI A, SEALY BJ, JEYNES C, GILLIN WP, GREY R. (1994) 'INTERDIFFUSION AND THERMALLY-INDUCED STRAIN RELAXATION IN GAAS/IN0.2GA0.8AS/GAAS SINGLE-QUANTUM-WELL STRUCTURES'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS, BALATONFURED, HUNGARY: 11th International Conference on Ion Beam Analysis (IBA-11) 85 (1-4), pp. 192-196.
  • PEEL RMA, MILLEN D, JEYNES C, WEBB RP. (1994) 'TRANSPUTERS IN A DISTRIBUTED DATA-COLLECTION SYSTEM FOR MEV ION MICROBEAM ANALYSIS'. I O S PRESS PROGRESS IN TRANSPUTER AND OCCAM RESEARCH, BRISTOL, ENGLAND: 17th World-Occam-and-Transputer-User-Group Technical Meeting 38, pp. 87-97.
  • LYNCH S, MURTAGH M, CREAN GM, KELLY PV, OCONNOR M, JEYNES C. (1993) 'NONDESTRUCTIVE DEPTH PROFILING OF SILICON ION-IMPLANTATION INDUCED DAMAGE IN SILICON (100) SUBSTRATES'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA LAUSANNE THIN SOLID FILMS, MINIST RECH & ESPACE, PARIS, FRANCE: 1ST INTERNATIONAL CONF ON SPECTROSCOPIC ELLIPSOMETRY 233 (1-2), pp. 199-202.
  • KING BV, JEYNES C, WEBB RP, KILNER JA. (1993) 'ION-BEAM MIXING OF ISOTOPIC SILVER BILAYERS BY 200 KEV GERMANIUM'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS, HEIDELBERG, GERMANY: 8TH INTERNATIONAL CONF ON ION BEAM MODIFICATION OF MATERIALS 80-1, pp. 163-166.
  • HEMMENT PLF, SEALY BJ, STEPHENS KG, MYNARD JE, JEYNES C, BROWTON MD, WILSON RJ, MA MX, CANSELL A, MOUS DJW, KOUDIJS R. (1993) 'A 2-MV HEAVY-ION VANDEGRAAFF IMPLANTER FOR RESEARCH-AND-DEVELOPMENT'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS, UNIV FLORIDA, GAINESVILLE, FL: 9TH INTERNATIONAL CONF ON ION IMPLANTATION TECHNOLOGY 74 (1-2), pp. 27-31.
  • BIBIC N, MILOSAVLJEVIC M, PERUSKO D, SERRUYS Y, JEYNES C. (1992) 'ION-BEAM INDUCED MIXING IN PD THIN-FILMS ON SILICON'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS, UNIV SALFORD, SALFORD, ENGLAND: 14TH INTERNATIONAL CONF ON ATOMIC COLLISIONS IN SOLIDS ( ICACIS-14 ) 67 (1-4), pp. 500-503.
  • MURTAGH M, CREAN GM, FLAHERTY T, JEYNES C. (1992) 'SENSITIVITY OF A MODULATED OPTICAL REFLECTANCE PROBE TO PROCESS-INDUCED LATTICE DISORDER'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV APPLIED SURFACE SCIENCE, STRASBOURG, FRANCE: SYMP OF THE 1991 SPRING CONF OF THE EUROPEAN MATERIALS RESEARCH SOC : LASER SURFACE PROCESSING AND CHARACTERIZATION 54, pp. 497-501.
  • CURRENT MI, GUITNER T, OHNO N, HURLEY K, KEENAN WA, JOHNSON W, HILLARD RJ, JEYNES C. (1991) 'MONITORING THE MICRO-UNIFORMITY PERFORMANCE OF A SPINNING DISK IMPLANTER'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS, UNIV SURREY, GUILDFORD, ENGLAND: 8TH INTERNATIONAL CONF ON ION IMPLANTATION TECHNOLOGY 55 (1-4), pp. 173-177.
  • MILOSAVLJEVIC M, BIBIC N, PERUSKO D, WILSON IH, JEYNES C. (1990) 'PROCESSING OF TIN/TI METALLIZATION ON SILICON BY ARSENIC ION-IMPLANTATION'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA LAUSANNE SURFACE & COATINGS TECHNOLOGY, SAN DIEGO, CA: 17TH INTERNATIONAL CONF ON METALLURGICAL COATINGS / 8TH INTERNATIONAL CONF ON THIN FILMS 43-4 (1-3), pp. 996-1006.
  • REESON KJ, STANLEY CJ, JEYNES C, GRIME G, WATT F. (1990) 'PIXE ANALYSIS TO DETERMINE THE TRACE-ELEMENT CONCENTRATIONS IN A SERIES OF GALENA (PBS) SPECIMENS FROM DIFFERENT LOCALITIES'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS, QUEENS UNIV, KINGSTON, CANADA: 9TH INTERNATIONAL CONF ON ION BEAM ANALYSIS 45 (1-4), pp. 327-332.
  • SINGH M, LIGHTOWLERS EC, DAVIES G, JEYNES C, REESON KJ. (1989) 'ISOELECTRONIC BOUND EXCITON PHOTOLUMINESCENCE FROM A METASTABLE DEFECT IN SULFUR-DOPED SILICON'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA LAUSANNE MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING B-SOLID STATE MATERIALS FOR ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY, COUNCIL EUROPE & EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT, STRASBOURG, FRANCE: SYMP AT THE 1989 SPRING MEETING OF THE EUROPEAN MATERIALS SOC : SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY OF DEFECTS IN SILICON 4 (1-4), pp. 303-307.
  • JEYNES C. (1989) 'NOVEL APPLICATIONS OF ION-IMPLANTATION'. PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD VACUUM, UNIV SURREY, GUILDFORD, ENGLAND: 5TH INTERNATIONAL CONF ON LOW ENERGY ION BEAMS 39 (11-12), pp. 1047-1056.

Books

  • Jeynes C . (2013) Psalms: the Prayerbook of the Church.

    Abstract

    The biblical book of Psalms is discussed from an historical point of view. Who were the original poets, when did they write and what did they intend by their poetry? The short answer to these questions is: "we don't know for sure", but the long answer is considerably more interesting. This poetry from three millennia ago has changed the world, and has the potential to continue changing it.

  • Webb RP, Bailey MJ, Jeynes C, Grime GW. (2010) 19th International Conference on Ion Beam Analysis. 268

    Abstract

    Held in the University of Cambridge 7th-11th September 2009 to mark the first centenary of the observation of backscattering. 270 delegates from 40 countries attended the conference.

  • Jeynes C . (2002) Science and Creation.

    Abstract

    This is an abridgement of S.L.Jaki, "Science and Creation, from eternal cycles to an oscillating universe" (Scottish Academic Press, Edinburgh, 1974: 367pp, 14 chapters). Why is it that in all recorded history, modern science with all its technical success and mastery has arisen only in Europe? Science was stillborn in civilisations that thought of time as infinite in extent and cyclic in effect. Only in Europe, under the strong philosophical influence of Christianity, was time thought of as finite in extent and progressive in effect. The primary requirement for a scientific attitude to take hold is for there to be underlying presumptions that God is rational and that people matter. This essay attempts a summary of Stanley Jaki’s book, mostly in Jaki’s own words.

  • Jeynes C. (2002) Science and Creation.

    Abstract

    An abridgement of S.L.Jaki, Science and Creation, from eternal cycles to an oscillating universe, Scottish Academic Press 1974: 367pp, 14 chapters

Book chapters

  • Jeynes C , Thompson R. (2014) 'Thin Film Depth Profiling'. in Nastasi M, Mayer J, Wang Y (eds.) Ion Beam Analysis: Fundamentals & Applications Boca Raton, Florida : Taylor & Francis , pp. 197-220.

    Abstract

    A series of examples of increasing complexity is given of the unequivocal measurement of elemental depth profiles in thin films, typically with a depth resolution of 10 nm or better. The parameters of Fickian and related diffusion depth profiles can readily be obtained, reaction mechanisms under thermal annealing can be followed, layered structures can be characterised, and a robust statistical estimate of the solution uncertainties can be calculated. What is particularly interesting is that although individual IBA techniques (RBS, PIXE, etc) are powerful separately, using them together self-consistently - so-called "Total-IBA" is much more powerful, enabling the solution of complex systems inaccessible to individual techniques. There are now a number of Total-IBA examples in the literature and we choose two of them, one is the analysis by the Louvre Museum of corrosion in an iconic photograph from 1827 - one of their treasures - and the other an analysis of a geological sample 800,000 years old, from a meteor strike near Mount Darwin, Tasmania.

  • Jeynes C. (2012) '"Total" Ion Beam Analysis – 3D imaging of complex samples using MeV ion beams'. in Kaufmann EN (ed.) Characterization of Materials 2nd edition. Wiley Vol.3: Ion Beam Methods Article number 12(ii) , pp. 1948-1959.

    Abstract

    In this Chapter the synergy between a number of closely related techniques for thin film depth profiling are described; they all use ion beams from MV accelerators as probes. These include the nuclear methods: RBS, EBS, ERD, NRA (and see PARTICLE SCATTERING in the COMMON METHODS Chapter). But they can also include PIXE (see ATOMIC EXCITATIONS in the COMMON METHODS Chapter). See Table 1 for the expansion of the acronyms and references to the list of the detailed articles on individual techniques: this article will not describe the techniques themselves but will concentrate specifically on the synergisms available. I will use acronyms for complementary techniques freely: a Glossary for these can be found in the INTRODUCTION to this Chapter (ION BEAM METHODS). "Total IBA" is operating when multiple IBA techniques are being handled self-consistently to obtain more information than the sum of that available from each technique handled separately [ ]. We will show that the sum of the whole is far more than the sum of the parts, to the extent that new classes of samples become tractable and new types of characterisation become feasible: the various IBA techniques are in fact strongly complementary. Indeed, we believe that chemical tomography is feasible with these new techniques. The alert reader will object that we are only stating the obvious here: it is easy to find examples showing that this complementarity has always been recognised. For example, Feldman et al presented a paper combining He-RBS and He-PIXE to the first Ion Beam Analysis Conference nearly forty years ago in 1973 [ ]. The Abstract (not available electronically) is informative for us :- Anodic oxide films on GaAs have been studied by the combined use of He back-scattering [sic] and He-induced X-rays. Back-scattering is hampered by the lack of mass resolution between Ga and As. X-ray analysis has excellent mass resolution but poor depth resolution. This poor depth resolution is overcome by increasing the effective thickness of the films by entering at grazing angles and making use of the property that the He-induced X-ray cross-sections fall steeply with decreasing energy. This technique and the methods of data analysis are discussed in detail. The anodic oxide films are found to be deficient in As within 200Å of the surface and to have a Ga:As ratio of approximately 1:1 for the rest of the oxide. On heating to 650°C most of the As diffuses out of the films. This early use

  • Jeynes C, Grime GW. (2012) 'Atomic Excitation Exploited by Energetic-Beam Characterization Methods'. in Kaufmann EN (ed.) Characterization of Materials 2nd edition. Wiley Vol.1: Common Concepts, pp. 74-90.

    Abstract

    Many disparate methods of compositional analysis of materials are underpinned by the same fundamental atomic processes: the excitation of the electronic system of the atoms followed by its subsequent relaxation. These methods include the electron spectroscopies (XPS, AES) used for surface studies, the electron microscopies used for elemental and structural characterisation (SEM using EDS and WDX; TEM using EELS), the X-ray methods (XRF, XAS) and ion beam analysis (PIXE) used for elemental and chemical characterisation. All rely on measuring the characteristic energy absorbed or emitted by the unknown target atom when its electronic system is excited by ionisation due to charged particles or electromagnetic radiation. This excitation is defined by the energy levels of the atomic electrons, determined primarily by the atomic number of the atom. (Atoms can also be excited without ionisation, as in optical and infra-red spectroscopy: this is outside the scope of this article.) The theoretical description of the electronic structure of atoms is a major intellectual triumph of the twentieth century and this body of knowledge is exploited in the theoretical description of each of these methods, but the treatment of any particular method is usually presented by specialists in that method in isolation from all others. In this chapter we present a brief synthetic overview of materials analysis using atomic excitation, highlighting those features and physical concepts which underpin all these apparently disparate analysis methods. We hope to encourage modern analysts to appreciate the truly complementary nature of the powerful methods at their disposal.

  • Jeynes C. (2012) 'Ion Beam Methods – Introduction'. in Kaufmann EN (ed.) Characterization of Materials 2nd edition. Wiley Vol.3: Ion Beam Methods, pp. 1941-1948.

    Abstract

    Ion beam techniques are used with ion energies from eV to many MeV and a very wide range of ion species to characterise materials at length scales from sub-nm to sub-mm and in a wide variety of different ways. Many of these techniques are non destructive. Atomic concentration can be determined from matrix elements (the stoichiometry) to minor and trace elements (at ng/g sensitivity and better), in one dimension (depth profiles), two dimensions (elemental maps), and three dimensions with full tomography being feasible. There is sensitivity to the whole Periodic Table one way or another, with nuclear techniques for isotopic sensitivity, and high resolution mass spectrometry for obtaining isotopic ratios at ultra-high sensitivities of 1014 and better. Other techniques include ultra-high resolution microscopy, characterisation of semiconductor device defects at high spacial resolution, and the investigation of damage processes in the nuclear irradiation of materials. ION BEAM METHODS for thin film materials have major application areas from archaeology to zoology (including materials science, geology, cultural heritage, electronics and many others).

  • Jeynes C. (2012) 'Elastic Backscattering of Ions for Compositional Analysis'. in Kaufmann EN (ed.) Characterization of Materials 2nd edition. Wiley Vol.3: Ion Beam Methods Article number 12(iv) , pp. 1972-1993.

    Abstract

    Composition analyses for all of the elements in the periodic table can be performed through a combin¬ation of techniques using ion beams at MeV energies (MeV-IBA: see INTRODUCTION TO ION BEAM TECHNIQUES) including PIXE, RBS, EBS, ERD, NRA. See also PARTICLE SCATTERING and ATOMIC EXCITATION METHODS in the COMMON CONCEPTS chapter. In this unit we consider the MeV elastic backscattering techniques: RBS, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry; and EBS, elastic (non-Rutherford) backscattering. RBS, following Rutherford's treatment in 1911 of Geiger & Marsden's 1909 alpha-scattering experiment, approximates the scattering cross-section by that expected for the Coulomb interaction of point charges. This approximation is valid providing the interacting nuclei do not come too close during the interaction. As the energy is increased this approximation fails, and quantum mechanical effects become visible: then the scattering is called "EBS". BS (elastic backscattering spectrometry, either RBS or EBS) using MeV beams is used to obtain elemental depth profiles of thin films up to ~10 m thick. Depth resolution degrades with depth but can be ~1 nm at the surface. Various ion beams and various beam energies can be selected to obtain the optimal analytical conditions for particular samples. Barbour's article was on "Elastic Scattering", which included the important ERD technique now covered separately (see: ELASTIC RECOIL DETECTION ANALYSIS). We will mention the use of microbeams since many samples are small or laterally non-homogeneous, but microbeam IBA is reviewed in ION BEAM TOMOGRAPHY. We will also mention the use of ion channelling geometries for characterising defects in single crystal samples, but this is reviewed extensively in MEDIUM-ENERGY ION BEAM ANALYSIS. We should also mention that LEIS and MEIS are both RBS techniques, but they use low energy beams and will not be covered in this article (see, respectively, LOW-ENERGY ION SCATTERING and MEDIUM-ENERGY ION BEAM ANALYSIS). The Wiley Characterisation of Materials book of which this article is part has a section on Ion Beam Analysis (MeV-IBA: part of the ION BEAM TECHNIQUES section). The 2002 edition treated all the IBA techniques independently, but this 2012 edition will treat them synergistically. The present article considers the details of analysis using a particle detector placed in the backscattering direction. We explicitly distinguish between RBS and EBS, even though in any parti

  • Jeynes C. (2012) 'Ion Beam Techniques'. in Kaufmann EN (ed.) Characterization of Materials, 2nd edition 2nd Edition. Hoboken, New Jersey : Wiley 3 Article number 12 , pp. 1941-2161.

    Abstract

    Comprises nine sections: Low Energy Ion Scattering, Medium Energy Ion Scattering and Forward Recoil Spectrometry, Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry, Scanning Helium Ion Microscopy, Atom Probe Tomography and Field Ion Microscopy, Charged Particle Irradiation for Neutron Radiation Damage Studies, Radiation Effects Microscopy, Trace Element Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, and Total-IBA. The latter includes "Total" Ion Beam Analysis, Particle-Induced X-ray Emission, Elastic Backscattering, Elastic Recoil Detection, Nuclear Reaction Analysis and Particle-Induced Gamma-ray Emission.

  • Jeynes C, Barradas NP. (2009) 'Pitfalls in Ion Beam Analysis'. in Wang Y, Nastasi MA (eds.) Handbook of Modern Ion Beam Materials Analysis 2nd Edition. Warrendale Pennsylvania : Materials Research Society Article number 15 , pp. 347-383.

    Abstract

    Accurate elemental depth profiling by IBA is of great value to many modern thin-film technologies. IBA is a quantitative analytical technique now capable of traceable accuracy below 1%. In this chapter we describe sources of errors in data collection and analysis (pitfalls) greater than about 1/4%.

Software

  • Jeynes C, Barradas NP, Webb RP. (1997) DataFurnace for Ion Beam Analysis. University of Surrey Ion Beam Centre

    Abstract

    Code for extracting elemental depth profiles from IBA data, including Rutherford and non-Rutherford elastic scattering, nuclear reaction analysis, and particle induced X-ray emission. Designed for self-consistent fits of multiple spectra in large datasets. Validated by IAEA intercomparison, and many peer reviewed publications.

Chris Jeynes's Other Interests and Links

Doubtless few will wish to know, but this is a good place to put this stuff!

Psalms

About 3 millennia ago David introduced what was effectively a new means of human expression - the Psalm. This is poetry exploring the whole range of emotion, and sometimes in an outrageously unrestrained way. But the poetry also has a very secure underlying philosophical stance. I have been interested in the Psalms for a long time, and have now completed a book on them ("Psalms: the Prayerbook of the Church", 160pp, 2MB) in which I insist on the importance of their historical and literary context, and also on their philosophical importance to Christians (and therefore also to scientists - see "Science & Creation" below).

Science and Creation (and the Higgs Boson)

"Science and Creation" (2002, 72pp, 451kb PDF) is my abridgement of Stanley Jaki's 1974 book of the same name. It is a full-scale historical demonstration of the opinion that is now widespread among historians of science, that Christian belief underpins the scientific method. Scientists believe that the world ("the Universe") is not unintelligible in principle, and moreover that we are capable of understanding it. This corresponds to the Christian beliefs that God is not capricious, and that we are made "in the image of God", that is, able to appreciate God's handiwork. Putting it another way, God is rational, and people matter.

In particular, Jaki is interested in the philosophical attitudes to time in the various civilizations he considers, and the enormous philosophical importance of the Christian insistence on finite time. (He considers Islam at length, from a philosophical point of view -- the Muslims also believe in Creation and the Day of Judgement; but he concludes that they never succeeded in shedding their Aristotelianism - Aristotle insisted that time must necessarily be infinite in extent.)

I think that this is an important basic book, but that Jaki's expression was rather obscure (and also presupposed rather a lot of knowledge of the reader). I have tried to clarify and simplify it and hope that some may find this abridgement useful.

The Higgs Boson, (unofficially) reported by CERN in July 2012, is sometimes referred to as the "God particle" - not for very good reasons, except that it could be considered to represent our current model of the Universe. On the Higgs Boson (3rd September 2012, 78 kb PDF) is a very simple "explanation" of it, together with reasons for Christians to be interested in it.

A Christian Cosmogony (on creation and creationism)

Cosmogony is an account of the creation of the universe, where cosmogeny is an account of the evolution of the universe."A Christian Cosmogony" (2010, 19pp, 212 kb PDF) is a wide-ranging essay considering how to read the Creation accounts in Genesis. I think that a correct reading is one that the original author(s) would have recognised and is, rather surprisingly, completely consistent with modern cosmology.

Curiously, although many assert that religious beliefs are not falsifiable in a Popperian sense, it turns out that a central assertion of the monotheistic faiths (Judaism, Christianity, Islam), the Creation, is now conventional wisdom in physics. The Big Bang theory is supported by the standard theory of the Cosmic Microwave Background with the resulting observed H/He ratio in the universe, and the observed abundance of isotopes explained by stellar nucleosynthesis. The singular nature of the Big Bang is emphasised theoretically by the Penrose/Hawking gravitational collapse theorem of 1970. Thus, the Christian assertion of Creation can reasonably be said to be proved!

Although I firmly believe (with all physicists, mutatis mutandis) in Creation, I am emphatically not a "creationist" insisting on a literalist reading of Genesis. Rhis is explained in detail in a review of an unashamedly creationist book: "Creation & Change" (D.F.Kelly, 1997; 2012, 7pp, 84 kb PDF) which I conclude is "a bad book ... full of foolish nonsense."

The Historicity of the Gospels

The question of what happened at Easter is central to Christian belief. Is the story of the death and resurrection of Jesus historical? We have the testimony of the Evangelists as the primary evidence, are the Gospels reliable? These questions are investigated in an essay on the first part of the passion narrative in the Gospel of John (John chapter 18: 2012, 19pp, 190 kb PDF).

Book Reviews

Azazeel, by Prof. Youssef Ziedan (2009; tr. Jonathan Wright 2012). A novel presented as an autobiography of a fifth century monk in Syria. Brilliant but philosophically flawed (18th April 2013).

Infallible?, by Prof. Hans Küng (1970; tr. E.Mosbacher, Collins, 1971). A monograph addressing the doctrine of Papal infallibility written shortly after the Second Vatican Council by one of Rome's leading theologians. A fascinating and wonderful work of interest to all Christians (and others).

Adam, Eve and the Devil,  by Marjo C.A. Korpel & Johannes C. de Moor (Sheffield Phoenix Press 2014).  This is a deeply interesting monograph containing the reconstruction (“restoration”) and translation of the text on two important tablets found in an ancient tomb (13th century BC) near the site of the ancient port of Ugarit.  Ugaritic is closely related to Hebrew, and the decipherment and interpretation of these tablets has helped scholars to better understand many words, expressions and ideas in the Bible,  a text that remains one of pivotal cultural significance.  Korpel & de Moor have reconstructed,  translated and interpreted these important texts with impressive scholarship,  and they have explained the links with and relevance to the Hebrew canonical text with equal conviction.  This work is important!

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