Dr Jhuma Sadhukhan

Research Interests

Jhuma Sadhukhan, Founder of IBEST (Institution of Biorefinery Engineers, Scientists and Technologists), undertakes fundamental research in “Biorefinery” and “Resource Recovery from Waste”. She does modelling, simulation and design, across the scale, from molecules to systems, and techno-economic analysis, life cycle assessment, life cycle costing and life cycle sustainability assessment.


She is the Sustainability theme leader of multi-disciplinary Consortia: METEORR Consortium of the NERC “Resource Recovery from Waste” programme and  LifesCO2R Consortium of the EPSRC “Liquid Fuel and bioEnergy Supply from CO2 Reduction”. She is the Editor of the Elsevier and IChemE journal: Sustainable Production and Consumption and the Special Issue on Biorefinery Value Chain Creation Chemical Engineering Research and Design.


Read Editorial “Sustainable Availability and Utilisation of Wastes”. Sustainable Production and Consumption, 9, 2017, 1-2.
Read Editorial “Biorefinery Value Chain Creation”. Chemical Engineering Research & Design, 107, 2016, 1-3.
 

Her scholastic teaching and learning leadership includes internationally acclaimed Wiley’s Advanced (Authored) Textbook: Biorefineries and Chemical Processes: Design, integration and Sustainability Analysis consisting of 1150 pages, including 625 pages paperback and web material.

A few of the commendations on the book are as follows: “This book is designed as an advanced text for final year and postgraduate chemical engineers as well as for the teaching staff. It deals with the specialized subject matter thoroughly with good explanations of the chemistries involved and emphasizes where conventional chemical engineering principles differ from those needed to design biorefinery plant. Admirably, an “economic analysis” chapter is provided and includes the standard discounted cash flow method for evaluating the ongoing financial viability of any production unit.” – Springer (Chromatographia, DOI 10.1007/s10337-015-2843-9).


“This book aims to bridge the gap between engineering and sustainability in bio-based processes, with the help of analytical tools for economic and environmental assessment – and it succeeds in doing so. The reader will also learn how to apply these tools, thanks to the numerous problems elaborated and solved using software like ASPEN, MATLAB and GaBi (for LCA). In conclusion, this book introduces the reader to the rapidly-developing industry of biorefineries, with a multi-disciplinary approach. It is a good resource for undergraduate and post-graduate students who want to learn about biorefineries; it can also be valuable for researchers who are looking to practically apply these analytical tools in their work.” – Green Processing & Synthesis (Green Process Synth 2015; 4: 65–66)


“It looks so substantial (in the literal sense of containing a lots of tangible substance) and so high quality!  The scope and quality of the resources, including the additional web material, are extensive, and the pedagogical innovations and presentation are creative and empowering.  I believe it has the potential to be a game-changer by giving a basis for educating the biorefinery engineers who will actually bring about the power and contribution that biorefineries, correctly conceived, designed and operated, can deliver. This book is the first in this area and has done a remarkable job of synthesising process integration and sustainability approaches for application to biorefinery design and evaluation, including significantly new approaches developed by the authors. The book has been well received and promises to have a major impact in empowering the application of process integration approaches into biorefineries and in developing true biorefinery engineers who are able to exploit the power of formal process integration.” – A UK University Professor.

Her research has been funded by NERC, EPSRC, BBSRC, British Council, Royal Academy of Engineering (RAEng), Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC), European Commission, industries and overseas funding organisations.

Other research roles

  • PI of UK-India British Council / RSC Researcher Links Workshop on “Energy for Economic Development and Welfare”
  • PI of UK-Malaysia British Council / Akademi of Sains Malaysia Researcher Links Workshop on "Bioenergy, Biorefinery and Bioeconomy"
  • PI of UK-Mexico British Council / CONACYT Researcher Links Workshop on “Biorefinery Research”
  • PI of UK-Mexico RAEng Newton Collaborative Grant “Economic Value Generation and Social Welfare in Mexico by Waste Biorefining”
  • PI of NERC Grant “Life Cycle Sustainability and Policy Analyses of Plausible Systems for Resource Recovery from Waste (RRfW)”
  • PI of HEFCE Newton Fund “Biorefinery Systems for Social Welfare and Economic Development: A Focus Group Workshop on Impact Generation”
  • Winner of IChemE Junior Moulton Medal 2011 and Hanson Medal 2006 and Finalist in the WBM Bio Business Award 2015.

Research Collaborations

Her PhD graduates are:

  • Freddie Pask (2016)
  • Stefanie Reiss (2016)
  • Elias Martinez-Hernandez (2013)
  • Kok Siew Ng (2011)
  • Ankur Kapil (2009)
  • Mian Xu (2009)
  • Fernan Mateos-Salvador (2010)
  • Ta-Chen Lin (2008)
  • Yuhang Lou (2008)

Her PhDs:

  • Ms Ida Md Jaye
  • Mr Eyo Ansa, DECC

Her EngDs:

  • Mr Freddie Pask, 3M
  • Mr Jamal Miah, Nestle
  • Ms Stefanie Niekamp, TWI Ltd.
  • Mr Matthew Gear, Recycling Technologies
  • Mr Rupert Zierler, Network Rail
  • Mr Alex Tooby, Unilever
  • Ms Sophie Parsons, National Physical Laboratory

Her Research Fellows:

  • Dr Kok Siew Ng
  • Dr Rex T L Ng
  • Mr Chinedu Okoli
  • Dr Mirjam Roeder
  • Dr Shrikant Bhat
  • Dr Mustafa Mustafa

Teaching

  • Convener of Life Cycle Assessment
  • Convener of Biomass Processing Technology
  • Convener of Dissertation in Centre for Environment and Sustainability
  • Coordinator and teacher of CPD courses in Process Systems Engineering, Biorefinery Systems and Sustainability Analysis
  • See EUBCE 2016 and IChemE 2016

Affiliations

  • FIChemE (Fellow of Institution of Chemical Engineers)
  • Member of ACS (American Chemical Society)
  • Member of AIChE (American Institute of Chemical Engineers)

Contact Me

E-mail:
Phone: 01483 68 6642

Find me on campus
Room: 13 BA 02

Publications

Highlights

  • Sadhukhan J. (2015) 'A critical review of integration analysis of microbial electrosynthesis (MES) systems with waste biorefineries for the production of biofuel and chemical from reuse of CO2'. Elsevier Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,

    Abstract

    Despite some success with microbial fuel cells and microbial electrolysis cells in recovering resources from wastes, challenges with their scale and yield need to be resolved. Waste streams from biorefineries e.g. bioethanol and biodiesel plants and wastewaters are plausible substrates for microbial electrosynthesis (MES). MES integration can help biorefineries achieving the full polygeneration potentials, i.e. recovery of metals turning apparently pollutants from biorefineries into resources, production of biofuels and chemicals from reuse of CO2 and clean water. Symbiotic integration between the two systems can attain an economic and environmental upside of the overall system. We envision that electrochemical technologies and waste biorefineries can be integrated for increased efficiency and competitiveness with stillage released from the latter process used in the former as feedstock and energy resource recovered from the former used in the latter. Such symbiotic integration can avoid loss of 2 material and energy from waste streams, thereby increasing the overall efficiency, economics and environmental performance that would serve towards delivering the common goals from both the systems. We present an insightful overview of the sources of organic wastes from biorefineries for integration with MES, anodic and cathodic substrates and biocatalysts. In addition, a generic and effective reaction and thermodynamic modelling framework for the MES has been given for the first time. The model is able to predict multi-component physico-chemical behaviour, technical feasibility and best configuration and conditions of the MES for resource recovery from waste streams.

  • Wan YK, Sadhukhan J, Ng DKS. (2015) 'Techno-economic evaluations for feasibility of sago-based biorefinery, Part 2: Integrated bioethanol production and energy systems'. INST CHEMICAL ENGINEERS CHEMICAL ENGINEERING RESEARCH & DESIGN, 107, pp. 102-116.
  • Martinez-Hernandez E, Campbell GM, Sadhukhan J. (2014) 'Economic and environmental impact marginal analysis of biorefinery products for policy targets'. Journal of Cleaner Production, 74, pp. 74-85.
  • Sadhukhan J. (2014) 'Distributed and micro-generation from biogas and agricultural application of sewage sludge: Comparative environmental performance analysis using life cycle approaches'. Applied Energy, 122, pp. 196-206.
  • Ng KS, Zhang N, Sadhukhan J. (2013) 'Techno-economic analysis of polygeneration systems with carbon capture and storage and CO reuse'. Elsevier Chemical Engineering Journal, 219, pp. 96-108.

    Abstract

    Several decarbonised polygeneration schemes exploiting carbon capture and storage (CCS) or CO reuse technologies for the generation of clean fuels, chemicals, electricity and heat have been systematically analysed for techno-economic feasibility. Process simulation, energy integration and economic analysis were undertaken to analyse the effect of process configurations and operating conditions on the economic potential (EP) and risks. CO capture and reuse producing methane using Sabatier's reaction shows less favourable economics compared to the counterpart CCS based scheme, both producing electricity, hydrogen, acetic acid and methanol in common. Post-combustion CO tri-reforming into methanol production in addition to electricity generation shows overall favourable economics compared to the counterpart integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) with CCS scheme. Thus, increasing product portfolio from energy products in a cogeneration plant to chemical products evolved from thermodynamic and process integration synergies increases the techno-economic viability. Bio-oil can be processed as an alternative low carbon feedstock. While bio-oil creates environmental incentives, its economic competitiveness can be enhanced by introducing credits on product prices. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  • Ng KS, Sadhukhan J. (2011) 'Process integration and economic analysis of bio-oil platform for the production of methanol and combined heat and power'. Elsevier Biomass and Bioenergy, 35 (3), pp. 1153-1169.

    Abstract

    Process to process material and heat integration strategies for bio-oil integrated gasification and methanol synthesis (BOIG-MeOH) systems were developed to assess their technological and economic feasibility. Distributed bio-oil generations and centralised processing enhance resource flexibility and technological feasibility. Economic performance depends on the integration of centralised BOIG-MeOH processes, investigated for cryogenic air separation unit (ASU) and water electrolyser configurations. Design and operating variables of gasification, heat recovery from gases, water and carbon dioxide removal units, water-gas shift and methanol synthesis reactors and CHP network were analysed to improve the overall efficiency and economics. The efficiency of BOIG-MeOH system using bio-oil from various feedstocks was investigated. The system efficiency primarily attributed by the moisture content of the raw material decreases from oilseed rape through miscanthus to poplar wood. Increasing capacity and recycle enhances feasibility, e.g.1350MWBOIG-MeOH with ASU and 90% recycle configuration achieves an efficiency of 61.5% (methanol, low grade heat and electricity contributions by 89%, 7.9% and 3% respectively) based on poplar wood and the cost of production (COP) of methanol of 318.1 Euro/t for the prices of bio-oil of 75 Euro/t and electricity of 80.12 Euro/MWh, respectively. An additional transportation cost of 4.28e8.89 Euro/t based on 100 km distance between distributed and centralised plants reduces the netback of bio-oil to 40.9e36.3 Euro/t.

  • Sadhukhan J, Zhao Y, Shah N, Brandon NP. (2010) 'Performance analysis of integrated biomass gasification fuel cell (BGFC) and biomass gasification combined cycle (BGCC) systems'. PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SCIENCE, 65 (6), pp. 1942-1954.
  • Kapil A, Bhat SA, Sadhukhan J. (2008) 'Multiscale characterization framework for sorption enhanced reaction processes'. JOHN WILEY & SONS INC AICHE JOURNAL, 54 (4), pp. 1025-1036.
  • Sadhukhan J, Mustafa MA, Misailidis N, Mateos-Salvador F, Du C, Campbell GM. (2008) 'Value analysis tool for feasibility studies of biorefineries integrated with value added production'. PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SCIENCE, 63 (2), pp. 503-519.

Journal articles

  • Shemfe M, Gadkari S, Yu E, Rasul S, Scott K, Head I, Gu S, Sadhukhan J. (2018) 'Life cycle, techno-economic and dynamic simulation assessment of bioelectrochemical systems: A case of formic acid synthesis'. Elsevier Bioresource Technology,
    [ Status: Accepted ]

    Abstract

    A novel framework integrating dynamic simulation (DS), life cycle assessment (LCA) and techno-economic assessment (TEA) of bioelectrochemical system (BES) has been developed to study for the first time wastewater treatment by removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) by oxidation in anode and thereby harvesting electron and proton for carbon dioxide reduction reaction or reuse to produce products in cathode. Increases in initial COD and applied potential increase COD removal and production (in this case formic acid) rates. DS correlations are used in LCA and TEA for holistic performance analyses. The cost of production of HCOOH is €0.015–0.005g–1 for its production rate of 0.094–0.26kgyr–1 and a COD removal rate of 0.038–0.106kgyr–1. The life cycle (LC) benefits by avoiding fossil-based formic acid production (93%) and electricity for wastewater treatment (12%) outweigh LC costs of operation and assemblage of BES (–5%), giving a net 61MJkg-1HCOOH saving.

  • Gear M, Sadhukhan J, Thorpe R, Clift R, Seville J, Keast M. (2018) 'A life cycle assessment data analysis toolkit for the design of novel processes - A case study for a thermal cracking process for mixed plastic waste'. Elsevier Journal of Cleaner Production,

    Abstract

    The earlier in the development of a process a design change is made, the lower the cost and the higher the impact on the final performance. This applies equally to environmental and technical performance, but in practice the environmental aspects often receive less attention. To maximise sustainability, it is important to review all of these aspects through each stage, not just after the design. Tools that integrate environmental goals into the design process would enable the design of more environmentally friendly processes at a lower cost. This paper brings together approaches based on Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) including comparisons of design changes, hotspot analysis, identification of key impact categories, environmental break-even analysis, and decision analysis using ternary diagrams that give detailed guidance for design while not requiring high quality data. The tools include hotspot analysis to reveal which unit operations dominate the impacts and therefore should be the focus of further detailed process development. This approach enables the best variants to be identified so that the basic design can be improved to reduce all significant environmental impacts. The tools are illustrated by a case study on the development of a novel process with several variants: thermal cracking of mixed plastic waste to produce a heavy hydrocarbon product that can displace crude oil, naphtha, or refinery wax or be used as a fuel. The results justified continuing with the development by confirming that the novel process is likely to be a better environmental option than landfill or incineration. The general approach embodied in the toolkit should be applicable in the development of any new process, particularly one producing multiple products.

  • Miah J, Griffiths A, McNeill R, Halvorson S, Schenker U, Espinoza-Orias N, Morse S, Yang A, Sadhukhan J. (2017) 'Environmental management of confectionery products: Life cycle impacts and improvement strategies'. Elsevier Journal of Cleaner Production, 177, pp. 732-751.

    Abstract

    This paper presents the first environmental life cycle analysis for a range of different confectionery products. A proposed Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach and multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) was developed to characterise and identify the environmental profiles and hotspots for five different confectionery products; milk chocolate, dark chocolate, sugar, milk chocolate biscuit and milk-based products. The environmental impact categories are based on Nestle's EcodEX LCA tool which includes Global Warming Potential (GWP), Abiotic Depletion Potential (ADP), ecosystems quality, and two new indicators previously not considered such as land use and water depletion. Overall, it was found that sugar confectionery had the lowest aggregated environmental impact compared to dark chocolate confectionery which had the highest, primarily due to ingredients. As such, nine key ingredients were identified across the five confectionery products which are recommended for confectionery manufacturers to prioritise e.g. sugar, glucose, starch, milk powder, cocoa butter, cocoa liquor, milk liquid, wheat flour and palm oil. Furthermore, the general environmental hotspots were found to occur at the following life cycle stages: raw materials, factory, and packaging. An analysis of five improvement strategies (e.g. alternative raw materials, packaging materials, renewable energy, product reformulations, and zero waste to landfill) showed both positive and negative environmental impact reduction is possible from cradle-to-grave, especially renewable energy. Surprisingly, the role of product reformulations was found to achieve moderate-to-low environmental reductions with waste reductions having low impacts. The majority of reductions was found to be achieved by focusing on sourcing raw materials with lower environmental impacts, product reformulations, and reducing waste generating an aggregated environmental reduction of 46%. Overall, this research provides many insights of the environmental impacts for a range of different confectionery products, especially how actors across the confectionery supply chain can improve the environmental sustainability performance. It is expected the findings from this research will serve as a base for future improvements, research and policies for confectionery manufacturers, supply chain actors, policy makers, and research institutes towards an environmentally sustainable confectionery industry.

  • Miah J, Sadhukhan J, Griffiths A, McNeill R, Halvorson S, Schenker U, Espinoza-Orias N, Morse S, Yang A. (2017) 'A framework for increasing the availability of life cycle inventory data based on the role of multinational companies'. Springer Verlag International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment,

    Abstract

    Purpose The aim of the paper is to assesses the role and effectiveness of a proposed novel strategy for Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) data collection in the food sector and associated supply chains. The study represents one of the first of its type and provides answers to some of the key questions regarding the data collection process developed, managed and implemented by a multinational food company across the supply chain. Methods An integrated LCI data collection process for confectionery products was developed and implemented by Nestlé, a multinational food company. Some of the key features includes: (1) management and implementation by a multinational food company, (2) types of roles to manage, provide and facilitate data exchange, (3) procedures to identify key products, suppliers and customers, (4) LCI questionnaire and cover letter, and (5) data quality management based on the pedigree matrix. Overall, the combined features in an integrated framework provides a new way of thinking about the collection of LCI data from the perspective of a multinational food company. Results The integrated LCI collection framework spanned across five months and resulted in 87 new LCI datasets for confectionery products from raw material, primary resource use, emission and waste release data collected from suppliers across 19 countries. The data collected was found to be of medium-to-high quality compared with secondary data. However, for retailers and waste service companies only partially completed questionnaires were returned. Some of the key challenges encountered during the collection and creation of data included: lack of experience, identifying key actors, communication and technical language, commercial compromise, confidentiality protection, and complexity of multi-tiered supplier systems. A range of recommendations are proposed to reconcile these challenges which include: standardisation of environmental data from suppliers, concise and targeted LCI questionnaires, and visualising complexity through drawings. Conclusions The integrated LCI data collection process and strategy has demonstrated the potential role of a multinational company to quickly engage and act as a strong enabler to unlock latent data for various aspects of the confectionery supply chain. Overall, it is recommended that the research findings serve as the foundations to transition towards a standardised procedure which can practically guide other multinational companies to considerably increase the availability of LCI data.

  • Sadhukhan J, Martinez-Hernandez E, Murphy R, Ng D, Hassim M, Ng K, Kim W, Jaye I, Leung M, Hang P, Andiappan V. (2017) 'Role of Bioenergy, Biorefinery and Bioeconomy in Sustainable Development: Strategic Pathways for Malaysia'. Elsevier Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews, 81 (Part 2), pp. 1966-1987.

    Abstract

    Malaysia has a plethora of biomass that can be utilized in a sustainable manner to produce bio-products for circular green economy. At the 15th Conference of Parties in Copenhagen, Malaysia stated to voluntarily reduce its emissions intensity of gross domestic product by upto 40% by 2020 from 2005 level. Natural resources e.g. forestry and agricultural resources will attribute in achieving these goals. This paper investigates optimum bio-based systems, such as bioenergy and biorefinery, and their prospects in sustainable development in Malaysia, while analyzing comparable cases globally. Palm oil industry will continue to play a major role in deriving products and contributing to gross national income in Malaysia. Based on the current processing capacity, one tonne of crude palm oil (CPO) production is associated with nine tonnes of biomass generation. Local businesses tend to focus on products with low-risk that enjoy subsidies, e.g. Feed-in-Tariff, such as bioenergy, biogas, etc. CPO biomass is utilized to produce biogas, pellets, dried long fibre and bio-fertilizer and recycle water. It is envisaged that co-production of bio-based products, food and pharmaceutical ingredients, fine, specialty and platform chemicals, polymers, alongside biofuel and bioenergy from biomass is possible to achieve overall sustainability by the replacement of fossil resources. Inception of process integration gives prominent innovative biorefinery configurations, an example demonstrated recently, via extraction of recyclable, metal, high value chemical (levulinic acid), fuel, electricity and bio-fertilizer from municipal solid waste or urban waste. Levulinic acid yield by only 5 weight% of waste feedstock gives 1.5 fold increase in profitability and eliminates the need for subsidies such as gate fees paid by local authority to waste processor. Unsustainable practices include consumable food wastage, end-of-pipe cleaning and linear economy that must be replaced by sustainable production and consumption, source segregation and process integration, and product longevity and circular economy.

  • Sadhukhan J, Martinez-Hernandez E. (2017) 'Material Flow and Sustainability Analyses of Biorefining of Municipal Solid Waste'. Elsevier Bioresource Technology, 243, pp. 135-146.

    Abstract

    This paper presents material flow and sustainability analyses of novel mechanical biological chemical treatment system for complete valorization of municipal solid waste (MSW). It integrates material recovery facility (MRF); pulping, chemical conversion; effluent treatment plant (ETP), anaerobic digestion (AD); and combined heat and power (CHP) systems producing end products: recyclables (24.9% by mass of MSW), metals (2.7%), fibre (1.5%); levulinic acid (7.4%); recyclable water (14.7%), fertiliser (8.3%); and electricity (0.126 MWh/t MSW), respectively. Refuse derived fuel (RDF) and non-recyclable other waste, char and biogas from MRF, chemical conversion and AD systems, respectively, are energy recovered in the CHP system. Levulinic acid gives profitability independent of subsidies; MSW priced at 50 Euro/t gives a margin of 204 Euro/t. Global warming potential savings are 2.4 and 1.3 kg CO2 equivalent per kg of levulinic acid and fertiliser, and 0.17 kg CO2 equivalent per MJ of grid electricity offset, respectively.

  • Sadhukhan J, Joshi N, Shemfe MB, Lloyd J. (2017) 'Life Cycle Assessment of Sustainable Raw Material Acquisition for Functional Magnetite Bionanoparticle Production'. Elsevier Journal of Environmental Management, 199, pp. 116-125.

    Abstract

    Magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) have several applications, including use in medical diagnostics, renewable energy production and waste remediation. However, the processes for MNP production from analytical-grade materials are resource intensive and can be environmentally damaging. This work for the first time examines the life cycle assessment (LCA) of four MNP production cases: (i) industrial MNP production system; (ii) a state-of-the-art MNP biosynthesis system; (iii) an optimal MNP biosynthesis system and (iv) an MNP biosynthesis system using raw materials sourced from wastewaters, in order to recommend a sustainable raw material acquisition pathway for MNP synthesis. The industrial production system was used as a benchmark to compare the LCA performances of the bio-based systems (cases ii-iv). A combination of appropriate life cycle impact assessment methods was employed to analyse environmental costs and benefits of the systems comprehensively. The LCA results revealed that the state-of-the-art MNP biosynthesis system, which utilises analytical grade ferric chloride and sodium hydroxide as raw materials, generated environmental costs rather than benefits compared to the industrial MNP production system. Nevertheless, decreases in environmental impacts by six-fold were achieved by reducing sodium hydroxide input from 11.28 to 1.55 in a mass ratio to MNPs and replacing ferric chloride with ferric sulphate (3.02 and 2.59, respectively, in a mass ratio to MNPs) in the optimal biosynthesis system. Thus, the potential adverse environmental impacts of MNP production via the biosynthesis system can be reduced by minimising sodium hydroxide and substituting ferric sulphate for ferric chloride. Moreover, considerable environmental benefits were exhibited in case (iv), where Fe(III) ions were sourced from metal-containing wastewaters and reduced to MNPs by electrons harvested from organic substrates. It was revealed that 14.4 kJ and 3.9 kJ of primary fossil resource savings could be achieved per g MNP and associated electricity recoveries from wastewaters, respectively. The significant environmental benefits exhibited by the wastewater-fed MNP biosynthesis system shows promise for the sustainable production of MNPs.

  • Black M, Sadhukhan J, Day K, Drage G, Murphy R. (2016) 'Developing database criteria for the assessment of biomass supply chains for biorefinery development'. Elsevier Chemical Engineering Research and Design, , pp. 253-262.

    Abstract

    The sustainable biorefinery will only be realised with a focus on optimal combinations of feedstock-process technologies-products. For many years, industry has been looking to add value to the by-products of commercial agriculture, forestry and processing. More recently, as concerns about climate change have increased around the globe, the use of biomass as a carbon saving feedstock (compared to fossil feedstock) has led to the implementation of policies to encourage its use for bioenergy, biofuels and bio-based products. As biomass conversion technologies become reality at the commercial scale for a range of diverse end products, the need to establish bespoke biomass supply chains also becomes a reality and industrial developers will face many business-critical decisions on the sourcing of biomass and location of conversion plants (biorefineries). The research presented here, aims to address these issues through the development of a comprehensive database to aid biomass sourcing and conversion decision-making. The database covers origin, logistics, technical suitability (in this case for a proprietary organosolv pre-treatment process) and policy and other risk attributes of the system. The development of key criteria required by the business community to develop biomass supply chains for specific requirements is discussed.

  • Ng K, Head I, Premier G, Scott K, Yu E, Lloyd J, Sadhukhan J . (2016) 'A Multilevel Sustainability Analysis of Zinc Recovery from Wastes'. Elsevier Resources, Conservation & Recycling, 113, pp. 88-105.

    Abstract

    As waste generation increases with increasing population, regulations become stricter to control and mitigate environmental emissions of substances, e.g. heavy metals: zinc and copper. Recovering these resources from wastes is the key interest of industries. The objective of this paper is the sustainability and feasibility evaluations of zinc recovery from waste streams. Sustainability and feasibility of a resource recovery strategy from wastes in a circular economy are governed by avoided environmental impacts and cost-effective transformation of an environmental contaminant into a valuable resource, e.g. as a coproduct by making use of an existing infrastructure as much as possible. This study, for the first time, gives a comprehensive overview of secondary sources and processes of recovering zinc, its stock analysis by country, regional and global divisions by a Sankey diagram, policies to regulate zinc emissions and avoided environmental impacts by zinc recovery. Two representative cases are further investigated for economic feasibility analysis of zinc recovery from 1) steelmaking dust and (2) municipal solid waste (MSW). The amount and value of zinc that can be generated from dust emitted from various steelmaking technologies are estimated. Additional revenues for the steelmaking industrial sector (with electric arc furnace), at the plant, national (UK), regional (EU) and global levels are 11, 12, 169 and 1670 million tonne/y, or 19-143, 20-157, 287-2203 and 2834-21740 million €/y, respectively. The second case study entails an integrated mechanical biological treatment (MBT) system of MSW consisting of metal recovery technologies, anaerobic digestion, refuse derived fuel (RDF) incineration and combined heat and power (CHP) generation. An effective economic value analysis methodology has been adopted to analyse the techno-economic feasibility of the integrated MBT system. The value analysis shows that an additional economic margin of 500 € can be generated from the recovery of 1 tonne of zinc in the integrated MBT system enhancing its overall economic margin by 9%.

  • Sadhukhan J, Ng S, Martinez-Hernandez E. (2016) 'Novel integrated mechanical biological chemical treatment (MBCT) systems for the production of levulinic acid from fraction of municipal solid waste: A comprehensive techno-economic analysis.'. ELSEVIER SCI LTD BIORESOURCE TECHNOLOGY, 215, pp. 131-143.

    Abstract

    This paper, for the first time, reports integrated conceptual MBCT/biorefinery systems for unlocking the value of organics in municipal solid waste (MSW) through the production of levulinic acid (LA by 5wt%) that increases the economic margin by 110-150%. After mechanical separation recovering recyclables, metals (iron, aluminium, copper) and refuse derived fuel (RDF), lignocelluloses from remaining MSW are extracted by supercritical-water for chemical valorisation, comprising hydrolysis in 2wt% dilute H2SO4 catalyst producing LA, furfural, formic acid (FA), via C5/C6 sugar extraction, in plug flow (210−230°C, 25bar, 12s) and continuous stirred tank (195−215°C, 14bar, 20mins) reactors; char separation and LA extraction/purification by methyl isobutyl ketone solvent; acid/solvent and by-product recovery. The by-product and pulping effluents are anaerobically digested into biogas and fertiliser. Produced biogas(6.4MWh/t), RDF(5.4MWh/t), char(4.5MWh/t) are combusted, heat recovered into steam generation in boiler (efficiency:80%); on-site heat/steam demand is met; balance of steam is expanded into electricity in steam turbines (efficiency:35%).

  • Pask F, Lake P, Yang A, Tokos H, Sadhukhan J. (2016) 'Industrial oven improvement for energy reduction and enhanced process performance'. Springer Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy,

    Abstract

    Industrial ovens consume a considerable amount of energy and have a significant impact on product quality; therefore, improving ovens should be an important objective for manufacturers. This paper presents a novel and practical approach to oven improvement that emphasises both energy reduction and enhanced process performance. The three-phased approach incorporates product understanding, process improvement and process parameter optimisation. Cure understanding is developed using Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) and Lch-CIE colour tests, which together highlight the impact of temperature variation on cure conversion and resulting product quality. Process improvement encompasses thermodynamic modelling of the oven air to evaluate the impact of insulation on temperature uniformity and system responsiveness. Finally, process parameters, such as temperature, pressure negativity and air flow, are optimised to reduce energy consumption. The methodology has been effectively demonstrated for a 1MW festoon oven, resulting in an 87.5% reduction in cooling time, saving 202h of annual downtime and a reduction in gas consumption by 20-30%.

  • Sadhukhan J. (2016) 'Biorefinery value chain creation'. Chemical Engineering Research and Design,
  • Miah JH, Griffiths A, McNeill R, Poonaji I, Martin R, Leiser A, Morse S, Yang A, Sadhukhan J. (2015) 'Maximising the recovery of low grade heat: An integrated heat integration framework incorporating heat pump intervention for simple and complex factories'. Elsevier Applied Energy, 160, pp. 172-184.

    Abstract

    The recovery of heat has long been a key measure to improving energy efficiency and maximising the heat recovery of factories by Pinch analysis. However, a substantial amount of research has been dedicated to conventional heat integration where low grade heat is often ignored. Despite this, the sustainability challenges facing the process manufacturing community are turning interest on low grade energy recovery systems to further advance energy efficiency by technological interventions such as heat pumps. This paper presents a novel heat integration framework incorporating technological interventions for both simple and complex factories to evaluate all possible heat integration opportunities including low grade and waste heat. The key features of the framework include the role of heat pumps to upgrade heat which can significantly enhance energy efficiency; the selection process of heat pump designs which was aided by the development of ‘Heat Pump Thresholds’ to decide if heat pump designs are cost-competitive with steam generation combustion boiler; a decision making procedure to select process or utility heat integration in complex and diverse factories; and additional stream classifications to identify and separate streams that can be practically integrated. The application of the framework at a modified confectionery factory has yielded four options capable of delivering a total energy reduction of about 32% with an economic payback period of about 5 years. In comparison, conventional direct and/or indirect heat integration without heat pumps showed an energy reduction potential of only 3.7–4.3%. Despite the long payback, the role of heat pumps combined with an integrated search by direct and indirect heat exchange from zonal to factory level can provide the maximum heat recovery. The framework has the potential to be applied across the process manufacturing community to inform longer-term energy integration strategies.

  • Sadhukhan J. (2015) 'A critical review of integration analysis of microbial electrosynthesis (MES) systems with waste biorefineries for the production of biofuel and chemical from reuse of CO2'. Elsevier Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,

    Abstract

    Despite some success with microbial fuel cells and microbial electrolysis cells in recovering resources from wastes, challenges with their scale and yield need to be resolved. Waste streams from biorefineries e.g. bioethanol and biodiesel plants and wastewaters are plausible substrates for microbial electrosynthesis (MES). MES integration can help biorefineries achieving the full polygeneration potentials, i.e. recovery of metals turning apparently pollutants from biorefineries into resources, production of biofuels and chemicals from reuse of CO2 and clean water. Symbiotic integration between the two systems can attain an economic and environmental upside of the overall system. We envision that electrochemical technologies and waste biorefineries can be integrated for increased efficiency and competitiveness with stillage released from the latter process used in the former as feedstock and energy resource recovered from the former used in the latter. Such symbiotic integration can avoid loss of 2 material and energy from waste streams, thereby increasing the overall efficiency, economics and environmental performance that would serve towards delivering the common goals from both the systems. We present an insightful overview of the sources of organic wastes from biorefineries for integration with MES, anodic and cathodic substrates and biocatalysts. In addition, a generic and effective reaction and thermodynamic modelling framework for the MES has been given for the first time. The model is able to predict multi-component physico-chemical behaviour, technical feasibility and best configuration and conditions of the MES for resource recovery from waste streams.

  • Wan YK, Sadhukhan J, Ng KS, Ng DKS. (2015) 'Techno-economic evaluations for feasibility of sago-based biorefinery, Part 1: Alternative energy systems'. INST CHEMICAL ENGINEERS CHEMICAL ENGINEERING RESEARCH & DESIGN, 107, pp. 263-279.
  • Miah JH, Griffiths A, McNeill R, Poonaji I, Martin R, Morse S, Yang A, Sadhukhan J. (2015) 'A small-scale transdisciplinary process to maximising the energy efficiency of food factories: insights and recommendations from the development of a novel heat integration framework'. Springer Sustainability Science, 10 (4), pp. 621-637.

    Abstract

    The rise and uncertainty in energy prices in recent years has widened the solution search space by industry to understand the full impacts on operations and to develop a range of workable solutions to reduce risk. This has involved companies exploring alternative approaches to co-create solutions with different groups comprising varying intellectual capital, e.g. consultants, NGOs, and academia. This paper presents the small-scale transdisciplinary process adopted by Nestlé UK in partnership with the University of Surrey as part of an Engineering Doctorate (EngD) programme to co-develop a heat integration framework to improve the energy efficiency of a confectionery factory. The small-scale co-creation process—between industry and academia—for a heat integration framework is described and includes a set of criteria to evaluate the effectiveness of the process. The results of the evaluation process and a reflection of the key challenges and implications faced when trying to implement a small-scale transdisciplinary process are reported which covers the role of an EngD researcher as a manager, facilitator and researcher, time management, finance, communication, knowledge integration, mutual learning, and conflict. Some of the key recommendations for industrial practitioners include: actively engaging in the transdisciplinary process on a consistent basis, staying open minded to developing a solution even when there is a lack of progress, and building relationships with academics by supporting university activities, e.g. lecturing, research projects and funding proposals. For scientists, PhD students, research institutes, and private and public R&D, some of the key recommendations include: communicating expert knowledge to a few points rather than opening out into a lecture, contributing to the transdisciplinary process even if it is on a non-expert level but provides objective and critical input, and visiting industrial sites to gain exposure to industrial problems first-hand. Overall, the range of recommendations provided can help both industrial practitioners and scientists, especially doctoral students seeking to operate in the industry–academia domain on a small—practically manageable—scale.

  • Wan YK, Sadhukhan J, Ng DKS. (2015) 'Techno-economic evaluations for feasibility of sago-based biorefinery, Part 2: Integrated bioethanol production and energy systems'. INST CHEMICAL ENGINEERS CHEMICAL ENGINEERING RESEARCH & DESIGN, 107, pp. 102-116.
  • Niekamp S, Bharadwaj UR, Sadhukhan J, Chryssanthopoulos MK. (2015) 'A multi-criteria decision support framework for sustainable asset management and challenges in its application'. Journal of Industrial and Production Engineering, 32 (1), pp. 44-57.
  • Pask F, Sadhukhan J, Lake P, McKenna S, Perez EB, Yang A. (2014) 'Systematic approach to industrial oven optimisation for energy saving'. Applied Thermal Engineering, 71 (1), pp. 72-77.
  • Martinez-Hernandez E, Campbell GM, Sadhukhan J. (2014) 'Economic and environmental impact marginal analysis of biorefinery products for policy targets'. Journal of Cleaner Production, 74, pp. 74-85.
  • Martinez Hernandez E, SADHUKHAN J, Campbell GM, Martinez-Herrera J. (2014) 'Process integration, energy and GHG emission analyses of Jatropha-based biorefinery systems'. Springer Berlin Heidelberg Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery, 4 (2), pp. 105-124.
  • Sadhukhan J. (2014) 'Distributed and micro-generation from biogas and agricultural application of sewage sludge: Comparative environmental performance analysis using life cycle approaches'. Applied Energy, 122, pp. 196-206.
  • Pask F, Sadhukhan J, Lake P, McKenna S, Perez E, Yang A. (2014) 'Practical approach for engineers to optimise industrial ovens for energy saving'. Chemical Engineering Transactions, 39 (Special Issue), pp. 865-870.
  • Martinez-Hernandez E, Sadhukhan J, Campbell GM. (2014) 'Economic and environmental impact marginal analysis of biorefinery products for policy targets'. Journal of Cleaner Production,

    Abstract

    A simple biofuel production system can be first examined for its policy compliance in terms of GHG emission reduction target relative to fossil-based counterparts. More integrated and optimised biorefinery systems with polygeneration can then be evolved with the aid of graphical analysis of marginal emission savings vs. additional economic margins. This bottom-up approach helps to achieve greater GHG emission cut by integrated systems design and thereby setting a more stringent benchmark to support policies towards achieving climate change mitigation goals. The combined Economic Value and Environmental Impact analysis is a multi-level methodology that can be used to represent biorefinery system performances as an aggregate of differential economic and environmental impact margins of biorefinery products. The methodology is extended in this paper to support process integration strategies that allow achieving policy compliance of biorefinery products in terms of GHG emission savings. An economic and environmental impact profile of the products is introduced for a graphical visualisation of economic costs and values as well as deficits and surpluses in environmental impact savings. The effectiveness of the extended methodology has been demonstrated using a Jatropha-based biorefinery system converting Jatropha seed into biodiesel, glycerol and cake, as a case study. The biodiesel produced can achieve 53% emission cut, while glycerol and cake can achieve an emission cut by 57% by displacing similar functionality fossil based products. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • Martinez-Hernandez E, Campbell G, Sadhukhan J. (2013) 'Economic value and environmental impact (EVEI) analysis of biorefinery systems'. Chemical Engineering Research and Design, 91 (8), pp. 1418-1426.
  • Martinez-Hernandez E, Sadhukhan J, Campbell GM. (2013) 'Integration of bioethanol as an in-process material in biorefineries using mass pinch analysis'. Elsevier Applied Energy, 104, pp. 517-526.

    Abstract

    A biorefinery involving internal stream reuse and recycling (including products and co-products) should result in better biomass resource utilisation, leading to a system with increased efficiency, flexibility, profitability and sustainability. To benefit from those advantages, process integration methodologies need to be applied to understand, analyse and design highly integrated biorefineries. A bioethanol integration approach based on mass pinch analysis is presented in this work for the analysis and design of product exchange networks formed in biorefinery pathways featuring a set of processing units (sources and demands) producing or utilising bioethanol. The method is useful to identify system debottleneck opportunities and alternatives for bioethanol network integration that improve utilisation efficiency in biorefineries with added value co-products. This is demonstrated by a case study using a biorefinery producing bioethanol from wheat with arabinoxylan (AX) co-production using bioethanol for AX precipitation. The final integrated bioethanol network design allowed the reduction of bioethanol product utilisation by 94%, avoiding significant revenue losses. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  • Mateos-Salvador F, Sadhukhan J, Campbell GM. (2013) 'Extending the Normalised Kumaraswamy Breakage Function for roller milling of wheat flour stocks to Second Break'. Powder Technology, 237, pp. 107-116.
  • Ng KS, Zhang N, Sadhukhan J. (2013) 'Techno-economic analysis of polygeneration systems with carbon capture and storage and CO reuse'. Elsevier Chemical Engineering Journal, 219, pp. 96-108.

    Abstract

    Several decarbonised polygeneration schemes exploiting carbon capture and storage (CCS) or CO reuse technologies for the generation of clean fuels, chemicals, electricity and heat have been systematically analysed for techno-economic feasibility. Process simulation, energy integration and economic analysis were undertaken to analyse the effect of process configurations and operating conditions on the economic potential (EP) and risks. CO capture and reuse producing methane using Sabatier's reaction shows less favourable economics compared to the counterpart CCS based scheme, both producing electricity, hydrogen, acetic acid and methanol in common. Post-combustion CO tri-reforming into methanol production in addition to electricity generation shows overall favourable economics compared to the counterpart integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) with CCS scheme. Thus, increasing product portfolio from energy products in a cogeneration plant to chemical products evolved from thermodynamic and process integration synergies increases the techno-economic viability. Bio-oil can be processed as an alternative low carbon feedstock. While bio-oil creates environmental incentives, its economic competitiveness can be enhanced by introducing credits on product prices. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  • Martinez-Hernandez E, Ibrahim M, Campbell G, Leach MA, Sinclair P, Sadhukhan J . (2013) 'Environmental sustainability analysis of UK whole-wheat bioethanol and CHP systems'. Elsevier Biomass and Bioenergy, 50, pp. 52-64.

    Abstract

    The UK whole-wheat bioethanol and straw and DDGS-based combined heat and power (CHP) generation systems were assessed for environmental sustainability using a range of impact categories or characterisations (IC): cumulative primary fossil energy (CPE), land use, life cycle global warming potential over 100 years (GWP), acidification potential (AP), eutrophication potential (EP) and abiotic resources use (ARU). The European Union (EU) Renewable Energy Directive's target of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission saving of 60% in comparison to an equivalent fossil-based system by 2020 seems to be very challenging for stand-alone wheat bioethanol system. However, the whole-wheat integrated system, wherein the CHP from the excess straw grown in the same season and from the same land is utilised in the wheat bioethanol plant, can be demonstrated for potential sustainability improvement, achieving 85% emission reduction and 97% CPE saving compared to reference fossil systems. The net bioenergy from this system and from 172,370 ha of grade 3 land is 12.1 PJ y providing land to energy yield of 70 GJ ha y. The use of DDGS as an animal feed replacing soy meal incurs environmental emission credit, whilst its use in heat or CHP generation saves CPE. The hot spots in whole system identified under each impact category are as follows: bioethanol plant and wheat cultivation for CPE (50% and 48%), as well as for ARU (46% and 52%). EP and GWP are distributed among wheat cultivation (49% and 37%), CHP plant (26% and 30%) and bioethanol plant (25%, and 33%), respectively. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  • Martinez-Hernandez E, Campbell GM, Sadhukhan J. (2013) 'Jatropha-based biorefinery integrating chemical and thermochemical platforms for the co-production of biofuel, bioenergy and chemicals'. Sustainable Engineering Forum 2013 - Core Programming Area at the 2013 AIChE Annual Meeting: Global Challenges for Engineering a Sustainable Future, , pp. 637-638.
  • Martinez-Hernandez E, Ibrahim MH, Campbell GM, Leach M, Sinclair P, Sadhukhan J. (2013) 'Environmental sustainability analysis of UK whole-wheat bioethanol and CHP systems'. Biomass and Bioenergy,
  • Davison TJ, Okoli C, Wilson K, Lee AF, Harvey A, Woodford J, Sadhukhan J. (2013) 'Multiscale modelling of heterogeneously catalysed transesterification reaction process: an overview'. ROYAL SOC CHEMISTRY RSC ADVANCES, 3 (18), pp. 6226-6240.
  • Martinez-Hernandez E, Campbell G, Sadhukhan J. (2013) 'Economic value and environmental impact (EVEI) analysis of biorefinery systems'. Elsevier Chemical Engineering Research and Design, 91 (8), pp. 1418-1426.

    Abstract

    The selection of product portfolios, processing routes and the combination of technologies to obtain a sustainable biorefinery design according to economic and environmental criteria represents a challenge to process engineering. The aim of this research is to generate a robust methodology that assists process engineers to conceptually optimise the environmental and economic performances of biorefinery systems. A novel economic value and environmental impact (EVEI) analysis methodology is presented in this paper. The EVEI analysis is a tool that emerges from the combination of the value analysis method for the evaluation of economic potential with environmental footprinting for impact analysis. The methodology has been effectively demonstrated by providing insights into the performance of a bioethanol plant as a case study. The systematisation of the methodology allowed its implementation and integration into a computer-aided process engineering (CAPE) tool in the spreadsheet environment. © 2013 The Institution of Chemical Engineers.

  • Ng KS, Zhang N, Sadhukhan J. (2012) 'A graphical CO emission treatment intensity assessment for energy and economic analyses of integrated decarbonised production systems'. Elsevier Computers and Chemical Engineering, 45, pp. 1-14.

    Abstract

    Design of clean energy systems is highly complex due to the existence of a variety of CO abatement and integration options. In this study, an effective decision-making methodology has been developed for facilitating the selection of lowest energy or lowest cost intensity systems, from a portfolio of flowsheet configurations with different decarbonisation strategies. The fundamental aspect of the proposed methodology lies in thermodynamic feasibility assessment as well as quantification of CO emission treatment intensity using a graphical approach (CO emission balance diagram) for energy and economic performance analyses of integrated decarbonised systems. The relationship between the graphical representation and performances is established using blocks and boundaries on integrated systems. The effectiveness of the methodology has been demonstrated through a range of coal gasification based polygeneration and cogeneration systems, incorporating either of carbon capture and storage (CCS) or CO reuse options. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  • Ng KS, Zhang N, Sadhukhan J. (2012) 'Decarbonised coal energy system advancement through CO 2 utilisation and polygeneration'. Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy, 14 (3), pp. 443-451.

    Abstract

    Development of clean coal technology is highly envisaged to mitigate the CO 2 emission level whilst meeting the rising global energy demands which require highly efficient and economically compelling technology. Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) with carbon capture and storage (CCS) system is highly efficient and cleaner compared to the conventional coal-fired power plant. In this study, an alternative process scheme for IGCC system has been proposed, which encompasses the reuse of CO 2 from the flue gas of gas turbine into syngas generation, followed by methanol synthesis. The thermodynamic efficiency and economic potential are evaluated and compared for these two systems. The performances of the systems have been enhanced through systematic energy integration strategies. It has been found that the thermodynamic and economic feasibilities have attained significant improvement through the realisation of a suitably balanced polygeneration scheme. The economic potential can be enhanced from negative impact to 317 M€/y (3.6 €/GJ). The results have demonstrated promising prospects of employing CO 2 reuse technology into IGCC system, as an alternative to CCS system. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  • Sadhukhan J. (2012) 'Multiscale simulation for high efficiency biodiesel process intensification'. Elsevier Computer Aided Chemical Engineering, 30, pp. 1023-1027.

    Abstract

    Design of highly efficient multifunctional reaction processes for energy production is one of the main focus areas of Chemical Engineering. This article presents multiscale simulation frameworks for heterogeneously catalyzed reactors wherein numerous synthesis steps are integrated for high efficiency biodiesel production. The goal is the modeling of transport-adsorption-reaction-desorption phenomena through catalytic porous networks for efficient diffusion, reactions of desired pathways and elimination of side reactions and waste formation. Building upon exciting ongoing EPSRC funded research activities on 'Designer catalyst for high efficiency biodiesel production', this work proposes a simulation method to refine micro-meso porous kinetic and diffusive parameters to converge with the experimental results and for biodiesel synthesis in continuous oscillatory baffle reactor (OBR) from non-edible oils. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  • Ng KS, Zhang N, Sadhukhan J. (2012) 'Decarbonised coal energy system advancement through CO2 utilisation and polygeneration'. Springer Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy, 14 (3), pp. 443-451.

    Abstract

    Development of clean coal technology is highly envisaged to mitigate the CO2 emission level whilst meeting the rising global energy demands which require highly efficient and economically compelling technology. Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) with carbon capture and storage (CCS) system is highly efficient and cleaner compared to the conventional coal-fired power plant. In this study, an alternative process scheme for IGCC system has been proposed, which encompasses the reuse of CO2 from the flue gas of gas turbine into syngas generation, followed by methanol synthesis. The thermodynamic efficiency and economic potential are evaluated and compared for these two systems. The performances of the systems have been enhanced through systematic energy integration strategies. It has been found that the thermodynamic and economic feasibilities have attained significant improvement through the realisation of a suitably balanced polygeneration scheme. The economic potential can be enhanced from negative impact to 317 M€/y (3.6 €/GJ). The results have demonstrated promising prospects of employing CO2 reuse technology into IGCC system, as an alternative to CCS system.

  • Martinez-Hernandez E, Campbell G, Sadhukhan J. (2012) 'Economic Value and Environmental Impact analysis tool for sustainable biorefinery design'. Computer Aided Chemical Engineering, 30, pp. 11-15.
  • Ng KS, Sadhukhan J. (2011) 'Techno-economic performance analysis of bio-oil based Fischer-Tropsch and CHP synthesis platform'. Elsevier BIOMASS & BIOENERGY, 35 (7), pp. 3218-3234.

    Abstract

    The techno-economic potential of the UK poplar wood and imported oil palm empty fruit bunch derived bio-oil integrated gasification and Fischer-Tropsch (BOIG-FT) systems for the generation of transportation fuels and combined heat and power (CHP) was investigated. The bio-oil was represented in terms of main chemical constituents, i.e. acetic acid, acetol and guaiacol. The compositional model of bio-oil was validated based on its performance through a gasification process. Given the availability of large scale gasification and FT technologies and logistic constraints in transporting biomass in large quantities, distributed bio-oil generations using biomass pyrolysis and centralised bio-oil processing in BOIG-FT system are technically more feasible. Heat integration heuristics and composite curve analysis were employed for once-through and full conversion configurations, and for a range of economies of scale, 1 MW, 675 MW and 1350 MW LHV of bio-oil. The economic competitiveness increases with increasing scale. A cost of production of FT liquids of 78.7 Euro/MWh was obtained based on 80.12 Euro/MWh of electricity, 75 Euro/t of bio-oil and 116.3 million Euro/y of annualised capital cost.

  • Sadhukhan J, Ng KS. (2011) 'Economic and European Union Environmental Sustainability Criteria Assesment of Bio-Oil-Based Biofuel Systems: Refinery Integration Cases'. AMER CHEMICAL SOC INDUSTRIAL & ENGINEERING CHEMISTRY RESEARCH, 50 (11), pp. 6794-6808.

    Abstract

    The biofuel mix in transport in the U.K. must be increased from currently exploited 3.33% to the EU target mix of 10% by 2020. Under the face of this huge challenge, the most viable way forward is to process infrastructure-compatible intermediate, such as bio-oil from fast pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass, into biofuels. New facilities may integrate multiple distributed pyrolysis units producing bio-oil from locally available biomass and centralized biofuel production platforms, such as methanol or Fischer–Tropsch liquid synthesis utilizing syngas derived from gasification of bio-oil. An alternative to bio-oil gasification is hydrotreating and hydrocracking (upgrading) of bio-oil into stable oil with reduced oxygen content. The stable oil can then be coprocessed into targeted transportation fuel mix within refinery in exchange of refinery hydrogen to the upgrader. This Article focuses on the evaluation of economic and environmental sustainability of industrial scale biofuel production systems from bio-oils. An overview of bio-oil gasification-based system evaluation is presented, while comprehensive process reaction modeling (with 40 overall bio-oil hydrocracking and hydrotreating reaction steps), simulation, integration, and value analysis frameworks are illustrated for bio-oil upgrading and refinery coprocessing systems. The environmental analysis shows that the former technologies are able to meet the minimum greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction target of 60%, to be eligible for the European Union (EU) Directive’s 2020 target of 10% renewable energy in transport, while at least 20% renewable energy mix from an upgrader is required for meeting the EU GHG emission reduction target. Increases in the price of biodiesel and hydrogen make coprocessing of stable oils from bio-oil upgrader using refinery facilities economically more favorable than final biofuel blending from refineries and create win–win economic scenarios between the bio-oil upgrader and the refinery. The range of the cost of production (COP) of stable oil (328 MW or 0.424 t/t bio-oil), steam (49.5 MW or 0.926 t/t bio-oil), and off-gas or fuel gas (72.3 MW or 0.142 t/t bio-oil) from a bio-oil (LHV of 23.3 MJ/kg) upgrader process is evaluated on the basis of individual product energy values and global warming potential (GWP) impacts. The minimum and the maximum annualized capital charges predicted by the Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) analysis correspond to 25 operating years and 10% IRR, an

  • Kapil A, Wilson K, Lee AF, Sadhukhan J. (2011) 'Kinetic Modeling Studies of Heterogeneously Catalyzed Biodiesel Synthesis Reactions'. AMER CHEMICAL SOC Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, 50 (9), pp. 4818-4830.

    Abstract

    The heterogeneously catalyzed transesterification reaction for the production of biodiesel from triglycerides was investigated for reaction mechanism and kinetic constants. Three elementary reaction mechanisms Eley-Rideal (ER), Langmuir- Hinshelwood-Hougen-Watson (LHHW), andHattori with assumptions, such as quasi-steady-state conditions for the surface species andmethanol adsorption, and surface reactions as the rate-determining steps were applied to predict the catalyst surface coverage and the bulk concentration using a multiscale simulation framework. The rate expression based on methanol adsorption as the rate limiting in LHHW elementary mechanism has been found to be statistically the most reliable representation of the experimental data using hydrotalcite catalyst with different formulations.

  • Mateos-Salvador F, Sadhukhan J, Campbell GM. (2011) 'The normalised Kumaraswamy breakage function: A simple model for wheat roller milling'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA POWDER TECHNOLOGY, 208 (1), pp. 144-157.
  • Ng KS, Sadhukhan J. (2011) 'Process integration and economic analysis of bio-oil platform for the production of methanol and combined heat and power'. Elsevier Biomass and Bioenergy, 35 (3), pp. 1153-1169.

    Abstract

    Process to process material and heat integration strategies for bio-oil integrated gasification and methanol synthesis (BOIG-MeOH) systems were developed to assess their technological and economic feasibility. Distributed bio-oil generations and centralised processing enhance resource flexibility and technological feasibility. Economic performance depends on the integration of centralised BOIG-MeOH processes, investigated for cryogenic air separation unit (ASU) and water electrolyser configurations. Design and operating variables of gasification, heat recovery from gases, water and carbon dioxide removal units, water-gas shift and methanol synthesis reactors and CHP network were analysed to improve the overall efficiency and economics. The efficiency of BOIG-MeOH system using bio-oil from various feedstocks was investigated. The system efficiency primarily attributed by the moisture content of the raw material decreases from oilseed rape through miscanthus to poplar wood. Increasing capacity and recycle enhances feasibility, e.g.1350MWBOIG-MeOH with ASU and 90% recycle configuration achieves an efficiency of 61.5% (methanol, low grade heat and electricity contributions by 89%, 7.9% and 3% respectively) based on poplar wood and the cost of production (COP) of methanol of 318.1 Euro/t for the prices of bio-oil of 75 Euro/t and electricity of 80.12 Euro/MWh, respectively. An additional transportation cost of 4.28e8.89 Euro/t based on 100 km distance between distributed and centralised plants reduces the netback of bio-oil to 40.9e36.3 Euro/t.

  • Zhao Y, Sadhukhan J, Lanzini A, Brandon N, Shah N. (2011) 'Optimal integration strategies for a syngas fuelled SOFC and gas turbine hybrid'. JOURNAL OF POWER SOURCES, 196 (22), pp. 9516-9527.
  • Kapil A, Bhat SA, Sadhukhan J. (2010) 'Response to "Comments on the 'Dynamic Simulation of Sorption Enhanced Reaction Processes for Biodiesel Production"'. AMER CHEMICAL SOC INDUSTRIAL & ENGINEERING CHEMISTRY RESEARCH, 49 (22), pp. 11856-11856.
  • Sadhukhan J, Zhao Y, Leach M, Brandon NP, Shah N. (2010) 'Energy Integration and Analysis of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Based Microcombined Heat and Power Systems and Other Renewable Systems Using Biomass Waste Derived Syngas'. AMER CHEMICAL SOC INDUSTRIAL & ENGINEERING CHEMISTRY RESEARCH, 49 (22), pp. 11506-11516.
  • Sadhukhan J, Zhao Y, Shah N, Brandon NP. (2010) 'Performance analysis of integrated biomass gasification fuel cell (BGFC) and biomass gasification combined cycle (BGCC) systems'. PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SCIENCE, 65 (6), pp. 1942-1954.
  • Kapil A, Bhat SA, Sadhukhan J. (2010) 'Dynamic Simulation of Sorption Enhanced Reaction Processes for Biodiesel Production'. AMER CHEMICAL SOC INDUSTRIAL & ENGINEERING CHEMISTRY RESEARCH, 49 (5), pp. 2326-2335.
  • Ng KS, Lopez Y, Campbell GM, Sadhukhan J. (2010) 'Heat integration and analysis of decarbonised IGCC sites'. Elsevier B.V. on behalf of The Institution of Chemical Engineers Chemical Engineering Research and Design, 88 (2), pp. 170-188.

    Abstract

    Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power generation systems have become of interest due to their high combined heat and power (CHP) generation efficiency and flexibility to include carbon capture and storage (CCS) in order to reduce CO2 emissions. However, IGCC’s biggest challenge is its high cost of energy production. In this study, decarbonised coal IGCC sites integrated with CCS have been investigated for heat integration and economic value analyses. It is envisaged that the high energy production cost of an IGCC site can be offset by maximising site-wide heat recovery and thereby improving the cost of electricity (COE) of CHP generation. Strategies for designing high efficiency CHP networks have been proposed based on thermodynamic heuristics and pinch theory. Additionally, a comprehensive methodology to determine the COE from a process site has been developed. In this work, we have established thermodynamic and economic comparisons between IGCC sites with and without CCS and a trade-off between the degree of decarbonisation and the COE from the heat integrated IGCC sites. The results show that the COE from the heat integrated decarbonised IGCC sites is significantly lower compared to IGCC sites without heat integration making application of CCS in IGCC sites economically competitive.

  • Xu M, Bhat S, Smith R, Stephens G, Sadhukhan J. (2009) 'Multi-objective optimisation of metabolic productivity and thermodynamic performance'. PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD COMPUTERS & CHEMICAL ENGINEERING, 33 (9), pp. 1438-1450.
  • Misailidis N, Campbell GM, Du C, Sadhukhan J, Mustafa M, Mateos-Salvador F, Weightman RM. (2009) 'Evaluating the feasibility of commercial arabinoxylan production in the context of a wheat biorefinery principally producing ethanol Part 2. Process simulation and economic analysis'. INST CHEMICAL ENGINEERS CHEMICAL ENGINEERING RESEARCH & DESIGN, 87 (9A), pp. 1239-1250.
  • Bhat SA, Sadhukhan J. (2009) 'Process Intensification Aspects for Steam Methane Reforming: An Overview'. JOHN WILEY & SONS INC AICHE JOURNAL, 55 (2), pp. 408-422.
  • Sadhukhan J, Ng KS, Shah N, Simons HJ. (2009) 'Heat Integration Strategy for Economic Production of Combined Heat and Power from Biomass Waste'. American Chemical Society Energy Fuels, 23 (10), pp. 5106-5120.

    Abstract

    The objective of this work was to design a heat integrated, cost-effective, and cleaner combined heat and power (CHP) generation plant from low-cost, fourth-generation biomass waste feedstocks. The novelty lies in the development of systematic sitewide heat recovery and integration strategies among biomass integrated gasification combined cycle processes so as to offset the low heating value of the biomass waste feedstocks. For the biomass waste based CHP plant technical and economic analysis, the process was based on low-cost agricultural wastes like straws as the biomass feedstock and further established for a more predominant biomass feedstock, wood. The process was modeled using the Aspen simulator. Three conceptual flowsheets were proposed, based on the integration of the flue gas from the char combustor, which was separately carried out from the steam gasification of biomass volatalized gases and tars, and carbon dioxide removal strategies. The cost of energy production included detailed levelized discounted cash flow analysis and was found to be strongly influenced by the cost of feedstock. On the basis of a combined energy generation of 340−370 MW using straw wastes priced at 35.3 £/t or 40 Euro/t, with 8.5% and 8.61% by mass moisture and ash contents, respectively, the cost of electricity generation was 4.59 and 5.14 p/(kW h) for the cases without and with carbon capture respectively, with a 10% internal rate of return and 25 years of plant life. On the basis of the carbon capture value assigned by the Carbon Credits Trading scheme, a much constrained viable price of 22 £/t of such agricultural waste feedstocks for CHP generation was obtained, while up to 60 £/t of waste feedstocks can be economically viable under the UK Climate Change Levy, respectively.

  • Du C, Campbell GM, Misailidis N, Mateos-Salvador F, Sadhukhan J, Mustafa M, Weightman RM. (2009) 'Evaluating the feasibility of commercial arabinoxylan production in the context of a wheat biorefinery principally producing ethanol. Part 1. Experimental studies of arabinoxylan extraction from wheat bran'. Chemical Engineering Research and Design, 87 (9), pp. 1232-1238.
  • Xu M, Smith R, Sadhukhan J. (2008) 'Optimization of productivity and thermodynamic performance of metabolic pathways'. AMER CHEMICAL SOC INDUSTRIAL & ENGINEERING CHEMISTRY RESEARCH, 47 (15), pp. 5669-5679.
  • Kapil A, Bhat SA, Sadhukhan J. (2008) 'Multiscale characterization framework for sorption enhanced reaction processes'. JOHN WILEY & SONS INC AICHE JOURNAL, 54 (4), pp. 1025-1036.
  • Sadhukhan J, Mustafa MA, Misailidis N, Mateos-Salvador F, Du C, Campbell GM. (2008) 'Value analysis tool for feasibility studies of biorefineries integrated with value added production'. PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SCIENCE, 63 (2), pp. 503-519.
  • Xu M, Wilson K, Sadhukhan J. (2008) 'Simulation of heterogeneously Cs-doped heteropolyacid catalyzed transesterification for biodiesel production'. Catalysis and Reaction Engineering Division Conference, Presentations at the 2008 AIChE Spring National Meeting, , pp. 67-74.
  • Campbell G, Koutinas A, Wang R, Sadhukhan J, Webb C. (2006) 'Cereal potential'. INST CHEMICAL ENGINEERS TCE, (781), pp. 26-28.
  • Lou Y, Hannan A, Sadhukhan J. (2006) 'A flowsheet design methodology for the decarbonised energy systems via hydrogen from hydrocarbons'. AIChE Annual Meeting, Conference Proceedings,
  • Xu M, Smith R, Sadhukhan J. (2006) 'A bi-level optimisation approach for the productivity and thermodynamic performance of metabolic systems'. AIChE Annual Meeting, Conference Proceedings,
  • Xu M, Smith R, Sadhukhan J. (2006) 'A bi-level optimisation approach for the productivity and thermodynamic performance of metabolic systems'. AIChE Annual Meeting, Conference Proceedings,
  • Campbell G, Koutinas A, Wang R, Sadhukhan J, Webb C. (2006) 'Biofuels 1: Cereal potential'. Chemical Engineer, (781), pp. 26-28.
  • Sadhukhan J, Smith R. (2005) 'Synthesis of industrial system based on value analysis'. Computer Aided Chemical Engineering, 20 (C), pp. 793-798.
  • Sadhukhan J, Simons HJ. (2005) 'Cleaner technology evolutions for refineries'. 7th World Congress of Chemical Engineering, GLASGOW2005, incorporating the 5th European Congress of Chemical Engineering,
  • Sadhukhan J, Smith R. (2005) 'Analytical optimisation of industrial ms based on economic analysis'. 7th World Congress of Chemical Engineering, GLASGOW2005, incorporating the 5th European Congress of Chemical Engineering,
  • Sadhukhan J, Zhang N, Zhu XX. (2004) 'Analytical optimisation of industrial systems and applications to refineries, petrochemicals'. Chemical Engineering Science, 59 (20), pp. 4169-4192.
  • Sadhukhan J, Zhang N, Zhu XX, Smith R. (2004) 'Value analysis of industrial systems'. AIChE Annual Meeting, Conference Proceedings,
  • Sadhukhan J, Zhang N, Zhu XX, Smith R. (2004) 'Analytical optimisation of industrial systems and applications to refineries, petrochemicals'. AIChE Annual Meeting, Conference Proceedings, , pp. 7619-7626.
  • Sadhukhan J, Zhang N, Zhu XX, Smith R. (2004) 'Analytical optimisation of industrial systems and applications to refineries, petrochemicals'. AIChE Annual Meeting, Conference Proceedings,
  • Sadhukhan J, Zhang N, Zhu XX, Smith R. (2004) 'Value analysis of industrial systems'. AIChE Annual Meeting, Conference Proceedings, , pp. 7327-7334.
  • Sadhukhan J, Zhang N, Zhu XX. (2003) 'Value analysis of complex systems and industrial application to refineries'. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, 42 (21), pp. 5165-5181.
  • Sadhukhan J, Zhu XX. (2002) 'Integration strategy of gasification technology: A gateway to future refining'. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, 41 (6), pp. 1528-1544.

Conference papers

  • Miah JH, Griffiths A, McNeill R, Poonaji I, Martin R, Morse S, Yang A, Sadhukhan J. (2015) 'Creating an environmentally sustainable food factory: A case study of the Lighthouse project at Nestlé'. Procedia CIRP, Johor Bahru, Malaysia: 12th Global Conference on Sustainable Manufacturing (GCSM) 2014 26, pp. 229-234.

    Abstract

    Many manufacturing companies recognise the need to produce products that are cleaner, greener, and environmentally sustainable, yet they are only at the early stages of this transition in addressing the symptoms of unsustainability at their direct operations by reducing waste and the use of energy, water and material. The implementation of reductions in these areas can be disparate and minimal given the life cycle of a product. Bridging the gap between the rhetoric of sustainable manufacturing and reality requires a holistic, systems thinking approach to ensure the implementation of sustainability is unified and strategic. This paper presents a novel environmentally sustainable manufacturing framework that encompasses energy, water, waste, biodiversity, and people & community. It adopts a systems thinking perspective to address the factories ‘environmental life cycle impact to deliver factory and supply chain benefits. The insights from the application at a Nestlé confectionery factory are reported.

  • Ng KS, Zhang N, Sadhukhan J. (2011) 'Process Synthesis with Heat Integration of Decarbonised Coal Energy Systems'. PRES 2011: 14TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON PROCESS INTEGRATION, MODELLING AND OPTIMISATION FOR ENERGY SAVING AND POLLUTION REDUCTION, PTS 1 AND 2: Chemical Enginnering Transactions, Florence, Italy: 14th Conference on Process Integration, Modelling and Optimisation 25, pp. 387-392.
  • Kapil A, Masters A, Sadhukhan J. (2009) 'A multiscale model for determination of kinetic rate constants for hydrotalcite catalyzed biodiesel synthesis'. Conference Proceedings - 2009 AIChE Spring National Meeting, Tampa, USA: Advances in Biofuel Technologies
  • Xu M, Sadhukhan J, Wilson K. (2008) 'Dynamic modeling of transesterification in a simulated moving bed chromatographic reactor for biodiesel production'. 2008 AIChE Annual Meeting, Conference Proceedings, Philadelphia, USA: Biobased Fuels and Chemicals I
  • Xu M, Wilson K, Sadhukhan J. (2008) 'Simulation of heterogeneously Cs-doped heteropolyacid catalyzed transesterification for biodiesel production'. 2008 AIChE Spring National Meeting, Conference Proceedings, New Orleans, USA: Reaction Engineering: Analysis, Design and Modeling
  • Xu M, Sadhukhan J. (2008) 'Kinetics of heterogeneously catalyzed triglyceride transesterification: A new simulation framework for biodiesel production'. 2008 AIChE Spring National Meeting, Conference Proceedings, New Orleans, USA: Petrochemicals and Derivatives II
  • Xu M, Wilson K, Sadhukhan J. (2008) 'Simulation process of biodiesel production over heterogeneous catalysts'. 2008 AIChE Spring National Meeting, Conference Proceedings, New Orleans, USA: Advances in Catalysis and Biocatalysis in Refining
  • Lou Y, Smith R, Sadhukhan J. (2008) 'Decarbonisation in process sites'. 2008 AIChE Spring National Meeting, Conference Proceedings, New Orleans, USA: 11th Topical on Refinery Processing
  • Xu M, Wilson K, Sadhukhan J. (2008) 'Simulation process of biodiesel production over heterogeneous catalysts'. ACS National Meeting Book of Abstracts, New Orleans, USA: ACS 2008: 235th National Meeting
  • Sadhukhan J, Smith R. (2007) 'Synthesis of industrial systems based on value analysis'. PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD COMPUTERS & CHEMICAL ENGINEERING, Barcelona, SPAIN: 15th European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering (ESCAPE-15) 31 (5-6), pp. 535-551.

Books

  • Sadhukhan J, Ng KS, Martinez Hernandez E. (2014) Biorefineries and Chemical Processes: Design, Integration and Sustainability Analysis. 1st Edition. International : Wiley , pp. 1-625.

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