Research projects

Postgraduate projects

Supervisor: Prof. Prashant Kumar
Co-supervisor: Dr. Devendra Saroj

Research theme

Global Centre for Clean Air Research

Techniques used

  • Coupled dispersion-deposition model
  • Air pollutant-green infrastructure interaction model
  • Air pollutant health risk assessment
  • Social-economic impact assessment.

Objectives

  1. Develop the atmospheric air pollution dispersion model at city scale for assessing the impact of green infrastructure on urban air quality under different scenarios
  2. Develop the exposure assessment model for health and social-economic benefits though urban green infrastructure
  3. Set-up the field experiment for estimating the personal exposure based on individuals’ activities near traffic sources
  4. Develop a new methodology for nanoparticles dispersion and interaction with green infrastructure under urban condition
  5. Integrate and develop a new methodology for estimating the personal exposure though combination of macro and micro scale air pollutant dispersion model.

Project description

Postgraduate researcher: Mr. Arvind Tiwari.

Dispersion modelling of reactive air pollutants such as nanoparticles (<100nm) is challenging due to their complex particle dynamics. Currently, most dispersion models do not take into account this particle transformation, making them unsuitable for their dispersion and exposure estimates. This work aims to develop a new methodology for the prediction of pollutant concentration in urban areas by means of numerical and field investigations. This new approach will allow pollution mapping of urban areas, identify nanoparticle “hotspots” under certain atmospheric and emission conditions, help assess the impacts of various scenarios (e.g. business as usual, policy interventions), assess effects of roadside vegetation on the pollutant transport in the diverse urban environment, and develop mitigation strategies for sustainable urban planning and building design to limit public exposure.

Techniques used

Statistical methods, mechanical and numerical methods (FEA).

Objectives

  • Investigate Compressive Membrane Action (CMA)
  • Catalogue previous tests, to develop a grading system for the tests to demonstrate their quality, and to analyse key tests using a variety of methods
  • Develop the theoretical analysis of CMA using a 3-Phase approach
  • Compare current code methods of utilising CMA with tests and theory and prepare a technical note consistent with current Eurocodes.

Project description

Postgraduate researcher: David Collings.

Compressive Membrane Action (CMA) in concrete slab like structures, derived from the restraint to expansion of the strains caused by cracking of the concrete, enhances the collapse load.

Methods of taking Arching action and CMA into account have been developed; however, the methods are usually complex, only applicable at the collapse, or not compatible with modern computerised analysis methods.

This project aims to give designers the ability to more readily visualise and use CMA in the design of buildings and bridges.

Techniques used

  • Constrict and tests of composite beans in concrete laboratory
  • Analytical and numerical simulation
  • computer software for structural analysis and drawing
  • ABAQUS
  • AutoCAD
  • Excel.

Objectives

• Perform bending tests on beams with different forms of lightweight shear connection systems to evaluate the degree of composite action that can be achieved
• Finite element modeling of composite cold formed steel and concrete
• Adapt the shear connection system to be able to optimise the performance for the minimum degree of composite action
• Develop a calculation procedure consistent with the composite design principles of Eurocode but applying to light steel framing. This will consider both the cross-sectional resistance and stiffness for partial shear connection.

Project description

Postgraduate researcher: Mr Hogr Almuhandesi.

This research has the potential to create a new construction system, based on an understanding of the basic structural behavior of the light steel composite members that is evaluated by testing, finite element modelling and practical evaluation of installation processes.

A new form of composite cold formed steel and concrete construction is developed in this work, a use C-sections as reinforcement for both beams and columns. The perforations acts as shear connectors between the two materials.

Techniques used

Dynamic models such as mass-spring-dashpot models, energy balance methods and flat slab failure mechanical models for punching, flexure and large deformations.

Objectives

1: Assessing failure and post failure mechanisms in flat slabs structures and their propagation
2: Development of theoretical model for progressive collapse
3: Development of numerical models to verify theoretical models
4: Development of design recommendations for robustness of flat slabs.

Project description

Postgraduate researcher: Mr Nsikak William Ulaeto.

This project focuses on the development of innovative theoretical methods to assess robustness of reinforced concrete flat slab structures.

Robustness is a key concept in structural engineering which looks at controlling the propagation of damage and failure of a structure subjected to local damage.

Previous research has focused mainly on frames (i.e. Beam-column structures) whereas there is a gap of knowledge for flat slab construction.

The work will involve computational modelling of specific structural typologies, validation using experimental data, and a wider appreciation of the role of workmanship and quality control on robustness evaluation.

Techniques used

  • Static and dynamic finite element analysis (LUSAS, RUAUMOKO)
  • Nonlinear static pushover analysis (2D)
  • 3D multi degree of freedom modelling using nonlinear transient dynamic analysis.

Objectives

  • Develop a rational method that calculates the service stiffness and yield strength of reinforced concrete voided biaxial flat slab diaphragms
  • 2D nonlinear static pushover parametric studies to determine the required diaphragm shear strength relative to the design flexural strength
  • Use the available complete experimental data to construct, calibrate and validate a 3D, multi-degree-of-freedom, finite element model of a real-life, experimental concrete-framed test structure seismically tested at the University of California, San Diego. Use the model as the testing platform for the 3D nonlinear transient dynamic analysis of the various diaphragm configurations
  • Accomplish the performance target of elastic diaphragm response in the design basis earthquake (DBE) event through the introduction of appropriate diaphragm design multipliers in the form of Design Safety Factors.

Project description

Postgraduate researcher: James Farrugia.

Hybrid concrete voided biaxial flat slab diaphragms combine the use of reinforced or post-tensioned concrete with recycled plastics spherical void formers to take the best advantage of their different inherent qualities for speed, quality and economy in buildings. Despite the success of this state-of-the-art construction system, there exist lacunae in the knowledge on the behaviour of voided biaxial slab systems when subject to seismic induced ground motion.

Voided biaxial slab diaphragms having different configurations (reinforced, post-tensioned, including precast edge beams and with timber or precast concrete permanent formwork) shall be evaluated by comparing the expected seismic demands to the expected seismic capacities.

The research shall seek confirmation, through the introduction of design safety factors, that each diaphragm configuration satisfies the key role of structural integrity by preserving the floor system’s gravity load-carrying capacity while undergoing seismic induced diaphragm action.

Techniques used

Advanced finite element modelling, lab testing.

Objectives

A better understanding of the current foundations used, and accurate predictions of the response of novel foundations under different scenarios in a cost effective manner.

Project description

Postgraduate researcher: Mr Saleh Jalbi.

As the ever-growing demands for clean energy rises, it is currently the duty of Engineers to design and operate new methods of energy transformation. Wind energy is currently considered one of the most sustainable and clean sources of energy.

New concept models will be investigated where it is necessary to evaluate the systems to achieve the required TRL (Technology Readiness Level) for use.

The main focus will revolve around sites with softer/looser ground overlaying stiffer material (stiff chalk or rock). These novel foundation methods should avoid longer length and more importantly, the expensive drilling of rock.

I wish to carry out experiments (scaled model tests in SAGE laboratory – Surrey Advanced Geotechnical Engineering) as well as element testing in the laboratory to validate the concept where the different site conditions and loadings can be simulated and compared. This will be based on the methodology developed by Prof Bhattacharya and myself. Consequently Numerical models using software packages of SAP2000 and ANSYS will also be carried out to compare with the experiments. Finally, an overall comprehensive study of the proposed solution will be presented and discussed under close supervision of the university.

Techniques used

  • Scaled model testing
  • Element testing
  • Numerical modelling.

Objectives

Understand the long term performance of offshore wind turbines and link the scaled model test results to prototype prediction via element tests.

Project description

Postgraduate researcher: George Nikitas.

In an effort to reduce the CO2 emissions and cover its energy needs, the UK has turned to renewable sources of energy and more specifically to wind harvesting by using Offshore Wind Turbines.

The wind turbines are currently designed to have a life of 25 to 30 years, but there is no track record of long term performance. These structures are dynamically sensitive because a heavy rotating mass rest on a long slender column and the whole system is subject to wind and wave loading. Due to the close proximity of the natural frequency of the system to the forcing frequency, the structure is expected to consistently vibrate and therefore the fatigue damage must be considered.

In order to understand better the long term performance of these systems under cyclic loading, experiments were conducted at the premises of The Geomechanics Lab at the University of Surrey.

The test results show the natural frequency of the wind turbine structure increases with the number of cycles, but with a reduced rate of increase with the accumulation of soil strain level. The change is found to be dependent on the shear strain level in the soil next to the pile which matches with the expectations from element testing of the soil.

Techniques used

  • Field studies using monitoring stations and collection of bulk samples
  • PM source apportionment
  • Emission modeling of natural and anthropogenic sources.

Objectives

The aim of this research work is to study fugitive Particulate Matter (PM) emissions, improve existing emission models and develop new emission inventories applicable for dry and arid regions dominated by fugitive PM.

Project description

Postgraduate researcher: Ms Hala Hassan.

Fugitive Particulate Matter (PM) is a major source of airborne pollution in dry and arid regions (such as Middle East and Africa). Studies have documented that high concentrations of airborne particulate matter (PM), emitted by anthropogenic and natural sources, does not only affect the air quality around industrial and construction areas, but also at workplaces and living environments. There is evidence that airborne particulate matter (PM) have severe effects on human health including causing premature death. Air Quality Management (AQM) tools, such as field monitoring, emission factors and dispersion modeling have been used to analyze the release and impacts of airborne pollutants in these regions. The cornerstone of each (AQM) system is an emission inventory, but these are currently only available for areas of temperate climate such as European and North American domains. Therefore, theses inventories cannot be reliable to use for other regions of hot and arid climate.

In this study, three PM sources will be investigated: natural sources (wind-blown dust, sea salt), construction activities (building, recycling and demolition) and road traffic (breaks, street surface, tire abrasion and dust re-suspension). Field studies, lab work and emission modeling will be conducted to develop a comprehensive understanding of the fugitive PM behavior and its impacts on air quality and public health. Field studies for construction activities and traffic sources will collect source related information and atmospheric measurements of ambient size resolved PM. Chemical characterization of the collected PM samples during these field studies, together with the use of receptor models, will accomplish the source apportionment and contribution by individual PM sources. Finally, the developed online emission inventory will provide essential background information for use in the AQM systems - dispersion models - and will be one of the most useful tools for the development of abatement strategies and policies.

Techniques used

  1. Research studies
  2. Literature studies
  3. Interviews.

Objectives

  1. Study the condition of municipal solid waste and electricity supply in Bauchi
  2. Investigate the technique of waste incineration plant and energy recovery
  3. Determine the law system governing the construction of waste incineration plant in Nigeria and compare with that of China
  4. Identify the financial implications in municipal solid waste management and waste incineration plant.

Project description

Postgraduate researcher: Mr. Salihu Jarmajo, Ahmed.

This study establish the current state of municipal solid waste treatment and management in the region of Bauchi State with a view to develop an integrated and sustainable strategy/approach that may rely on a combination of treatment including the generation of energy from waste via incineration.

Techniques used    

  • Chlorination of authentic and simulated drinking water samples under controlled laboratory conditions
  • Analysis of formed compounds by a range of analytical techniques.

Objectives

  • Identify currently unknown or overlooked products which arise from the aqueous chlorination of organic compounds
  • Search for selected products in authentic drinking water samples
  • Gain understanding of the mechanisms of reactions between organic matter and chlorine
  • Make recommendations about how to control formation of selected disinfection by-products in drinking water.

Project description

Postgraduate researcher: Marine Diana.

Epidemiological studies have shown long-term consumption of chlorinated drinking water is associated with an enhanced risk of developing bladder cancer.

The cause of this link remains obscure, although it is assumed that disinfection by-products are implicated. These are generated during drinking water treatment from reactions between precursor compounds (both organic and inorganic) and disinfectants (chlorine being the commonest).

Many hundreds of disinfection by-products are known to occur in drinking water, which reflects both precursor diversity and the complexity of the chemistry involved. However, there are no definite bladder carcinogens amongst their number.

Thus, there is a mismatch between the evidence from analytical chemistry, toxicology and epidemiology. A plausible explanation is that bladder carcinogens in drinking water are being missed or overlooked.

Objectives

This study investigates the failure modes of pipe bends subjected to external pressure and bending moments and presents a guideline on how to model, analyse and design these vital components for the subsea oil and gas fields developments.

Project description

Postgraduate researcher: Mr Sherif El-Gebaly.

The last four decades have witnessed a significant change in the oil and gas offshore industry where field developments have moved from shallow water (10 metres to 100 metres) to deep water (100 metres to 1000 metres) and currently ultra deep water, 1000 metre and deeper. The subsea structures, components and pipelines have to stand such high external hydrostatic pressure which becomes in some cases the governing design criteria rather than the well pressure and temperature.

This study focus on pipe bends which is a vital element in any ultra deep water subsea system. Bends are mainly used in the tie-in spools to connect pipeline end structures to manifolds or to well head trees.

A significant amount of work has been conducted to study the behaviour of pipe bends under internal pressure in the last 150 years for its widely used application in power plants, processing facilities and generic industrial use, however, minimal work has been conducted for pipe bends under external pressure for its rare applications until oil and gas explorations and developments started to increase the demand to better understand the pipe bend behaviour under high external pressure. As a result of knowledge lack in this area codes and standards have either considered it as a piping component or recommended quite stringent criteria.  Designers end up with required pipe wall thicknesses that exceed the manufacturing capabilities and the practical welding limits.

Project description

Postgraduate researcher: Miss Joan Pauline Talubo.

This PhD research aims to develop new approaches to strengthen the resilience of an island community, by means of a case-study in the Philippines. The PhD research will focus on analyzing the relationship between the people and its landscape.

The term “resilience” is a broad, heavily debated concept and it is influenced by several factors. At the outset, it seems largely determined by the physical environment but this research seeks to bridge its human and physical components.

Through the PhD studentship based in the Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Surrey, a framework will be established and various scenarios will be evaluated through companion/participatory modelling. Using this scientific framework, the end users (communities or agencies) can decide what the best option for a particular location is, considering the aggregate of factors.

The findings should be able to aid decision-makers in disaster risk and recovery planning for the community. The scholarship will be a vital instrument for the applicant to learn from the expertise of the host institution and be able to apply it in in the future for the economic development and social welfare of the Philippines, an ODA partner country. It will serve as a door of opportunity for more research collaboration in this research area between the home and host institutions

Techniques used

  • Formex Configuration Processing
  • Surface Sphere Packing.

Objectives

Creating regular patterns on different surfaces which have a high proportion of elements with the same length, and limited element length variations. Also, providing parametric formulation for generating such patterns.

Defining indicators to compare the degree of regularity in a pattern.

Project description

Postgraduate researcher: Mr S Alireza Behnejad.

Design of a lattice structure usually leads to elements of many different lengths. However, this is undesirable from the point of view of manufacture, sorting and assembly of the structure. Although the construction of lattice structures is simplified by digital facilities and software, the problems with excessive element length variations still exist.

The ultimate aim of this research is providing a number of regular patterns on different surfaces. The research provides a methodology for finding regular patterns on surfaces based on the ‘Surface Sphere Packing’ concept. Also, parametric formulation for generating such patterns will be discussed. The technique provides an opportunity for creating more regular patterns with different parameters, using the programming language Formian. Since it is necessary to compare the regularity of different patterns, some indicators should be defined to quantify the degree of regularity in a pattern.

Techniques used

  • Various physical tests on wall panels performed in University of Surrey laboratories
  • Finite element analysis modelling using Abaqus
  • AutoCAD, Python, MATLAB, Abaqus FEA.

Objectives

  • Develop a design model for the stiffening effect of various types of plasterboard on light steel C-sections
  • Develop a finite element model of fixings into plasterboard
  • Set up a series of wall panel tests in our laboratory (subjected to flexure, tension, compression and wind pressure)
  • Develop an analytical model for panel flexural behavior including non-linear characteristics of fixings
  • Work together with Siniat International to collect existing test information to be correlated with the FEA models.

Project description

Postgraduate researcher: Mr Marios Stergiopoulos.

This project is addressing the stiffening effect of plasterboards on light steel framing members in load-bearing, infill wall and high partition applications, which takes account of the practical aspects, such as window openings, fixing density and joint location.

The project will link into a series of flexural tests on infill walls underway at the Siniat Technical Development Centre in Avignon in southern France and its UK office is in Bristol. Some of the testing will be performed at The University of Surrey for data correlation.

Finite Element Analysis will be used to validate the technical data and to model the behaviour of fixings on various types of plasterboard on light steel C-sections.

Techniques used

  • Finite Element Method
  • Abaqus Simulia Package.

Objectives

Quantify and compare fatigue damage accumulation predicted through S-N approach as well as the Theory of Critical Distances (TCD) method in order to investigating the applicability and validity of the TCD on high-cycle fatigue life prediction of riveted bridge details.

Later a framework for the TCD method application in fatigue assessment of old metallic bridge details will be developed for a more reliable fatigue life estimation.

Project description

Fatigue is one of the main causes of in-service failures in metallic bridges. In old riveted railway bridges built before the middle of 20th century the remaining life span is governed by this phenomenon.

Modern bridge fatigue codes of practice contain good databases for fatigue classification of modern details such as welded and bolted according to their fatigue criticality. However, since old metallic bridges, comprising of riveted components, were constructed way before standardisation of bridge fatigue codes, the application of the modern fatigue assessment methodologies poses a number of challenges.

The S-N method, which is the most widely used fatigue assessment method, is far from straightforward to apply to riveted details due to the difficulties in defining nominal stresses as well as capturing secondary-induced stresses; this may lead to unreliable fatigue life predictions when used with complex details often found in old metallic bridges.

The Theory of Critical Distances (TCD), which is a local stress method based on finite element (FE) analysis, has been shown to successfully estimate fatigue life for various materials and stress concentrations. This research is the first novel attempt to employ the TCD method within the context of fatigue assessment of old metallic bridges towards more reliable remaining life estimates.

Techniques used

Finite Element Analysis (ABAQUS), Monte Carlo and Latin Hypercube sample generation, First Order Reliability Methods (FORM), Python.

Objectives

  • Develop design rules for SCS connections under various loading conditions
  • Apply and develop the reliability assessment method given in BS EN 1990 Annex D for use with composite structures
  • Apply Stochastic Finite Element Analysis (SFEA) techniques to obtain better estimates for structure reliability when extensive test data is lacking.

Project description

Postgraduate researcher: Mr Philip Francis.

Steel-Concrete-Steel (SCS) sandwich panels constitute a robust and effective solution for buildings subject resist to blast and impact. Typical applications have included shear walls, blast protection, security fencing and core walls[i]. The technology is now being investigated for use in nuclear power plant (NPP), where reductions in reinforcement requirements and faster construction time present a significant opportunity for cost savings.

Design of SCS panels is not currently covered explicitly by the Eurocodes, meaning designers must make use of existing design rules, typically for conventional reinforced concrete. This PHD project forms a component of the RFCS project SCIENCE, which aims to address this deficiency through an extensive test program.

Techniques used

Structural Health Monitoring - Guided Wave Method using Piezo-Electrical Material.

Objectives

  1. Develop a method of monitoring the condition (structural health) of existing offshore installations
  2. Be able to predict with confidence the remaining life of aging offshore installations during and after their original design lives
  3. Suggest input parameters to be incorporated into the design of future offshore installations so as to facilitate future late life usage.

Project description

Postgraduate researcher: Mr Esu Obukho.

Many offshore installations are reaching or are beyond their original design life. As life extension decisions become increasingly important, research is needed that brings together advances in structural health monitoring (SHM) with improved methods for performance assessment, especially in considering the combined effects of corrosion and fatigue.

This project will focus on the role that SHM can play in improving our ability to predict with confidence the performance of offshore structures with emphasis on Offshore Jackets. The research will involve investigating the parameters that could be monitored, the algorithms that may be used for data processing, and the modelling tools that can be utilised to integrate SHM with performance assessment and prediction. In addition, the research will recommend methods to be adopted for managing offshore structures during their late life while ensuring they are operated within acceptably safe limits.

Techniques used

  • Vibration-based structural health monitoring
  • Finite element model
  • Data analytics
  • Soil structure interaction.

Objectives

  1. Identifying the most critical failure mode in offshore wind turbines
  2. Using finite element model to simulate the failure mechanism
  3. Using the vibration-based structural health monitoring techniques to identify damage in offshore wind turbines
  4. Developing analytics methods for the monitoring of offshore wind turbines
  5. Development of recommendations for designs and maintenance of offshore wind turbines.

Project description

Postgraduate researcher: Mr Aliyu Abdullahi.

This project focuses on the assessment of the structural integrity of offshore wind turbines, which are becoming popular in the renewable energy industry.

The first task will be to identify the various forces such a structure is subjected to, along with the damages and ultimately, failures they experience. Physics-based models of the failure mechanisms, including soil structure interaction at the foundation, will be developed using finite element method. Innovative analytics methods will be developed using vibration-based structural health monitoring system.

The outcome of this project will lead to recommendations for designs and maintenance of offshore wind turbines.

Techniques used

Experimental investigation.

Objectives

  1. To investigate the optimum limiting dosage of the admixture on the mechanical properties of concrete
  2. To investigate the thermal performance of the modified concrete based on the method of admixture incorporation
  3. To investigate the thermal response of the admixture modified geothermal concrete energy pile
  4. To investigate the thermal cycles effect on the thermo-mechanical response of the admixture modified geothermal concrete energy pile.

Project description

Postgraduate researcher: Isaac Olaniyi Olawoore.

63 per cent of total final energy consumption in the UK is currently used for space heating purposes with approximately 80 per cent derived from fossil fuels. The domestic sector is responsible for 57 per cent of total heat use with 77.5 per cent being for space heating.

Water heating accounts for 14 per cent of total energy consumption while the remaining 23 per cent is for other purposes like cooking/catering, drying/separation. Due to the large seasonal variation in space heating requirements, the annual heat load profile is far from constant, with the peak winter heat load being several times that of the average heat load.

Geothermal energy pile is a proven source of renewable energy for space heating and cooling. It harness the constant ground temperature for human comfort due to its thermal inertia. Geothermal energy pile is defined as dual-purpose structural element and an innovative way of reducing carbon footprint of any new building constructed on pile foundations. Geothermal energy piles are a direct adoption of vertical borehole closed loop ground source heat pump (GSHP) technology into pile foundations where closed heat exchanging loops are installed within the pile. Despite many studies in the past on geothermal energy pile, there are still unanswered questions regarding how to increase it thermal performance. To increase the thermal performance of geothermal energy pile, there is a need to improve its thermal energy storage capacity. In this study, different types of heat exchanger piles will be designed with the aim of investigating their thermal performance, and thermo-mechanical behaviour under heating - cooling cycles.

Techniques used

Analytical and numerical simulation.

Objectives

  1. Review standards used for the assessment of scour in the UK for highway and railway bridges and appraise their capability of capturing climate change effects
  2. Examine the effects of uncertainties in different parameters on the scour risk ranking of bridges
  3. Assess the effect of increase in river discharges due to climate change on scour risk of bridges.

Project description

Postgraduate researcher Mr Friday Ekuje.

Climate change is expected to result in changes in both the magnitude and frequency of extreme events. This project studies the potential effect of increases in river discharges on the scour risk of railway and highways bridges by using the UK scour assessment codes, with the aim of identifying the most climate change sensitive bridges in terms of scour risk.

Techniques used

Intensive laboratory-scale studies and experimentation.

Objectives

  1. Develop a model and well representative wastewater streams, including domestic and industrial wastewaters, and characterization of the wastewater matrix
  2. Apply biological and membrane processes to improve the quality of the wastewater matrix
  3. Investigate and adjust operating conditions to optimize the treatment processes and improve efficiency.

Project description

Postgraduate researcher: Precious Egbuikwem.

Environmental pollution arising from industrial and domestic wastewater discharges has been a serious global challenge and it is more prevalent in the developing countries. Wastewater purification has always been treated separately with little or no focus on mixed industrial and domestic wastewater streams which is the case in most developing societies.

Therefore this study focuses on development of model industrial and domestic wastewater streams and applying biological and membrane processes to improve the water quality. Optimum operating conditions for improved system efficiency would be investigated and identified. Similar studies would also be performed on real domestic and industrial wastewater mix.

Techniques used

  • Scaled modelling testing
  • Element testing
  • Numerical modelling.

Objectives

  1. Understand the behaviour pipeline subjected to permanent ground deformation (PGD) caused by earthquakes
  2. Link the scaled model test results to prototype prediction via element test
  3. Validate finite element models by using scaled model test results
  4. Develop a numerical model to simulate pipeline response to PGD.

Project description

Postgraduate researcher: Mr Hasan Demirci.

Pipelines are subjected to external loading due to earthquakes, leading to different types of failure mechanisms in the pipeline. The failure of pipelines resulted in devastating effects on world industry, economy and society as observed from past major earthquakes. A huge number of research including analytical, numerical and experimental have been conducted to understand the behaviour of pipeline during earthquake.

The parameters influencing pipeline performance during earthquake have been evaluated in order to propose design criteria which mitigate effects of external loading due to earthquake. As most of pipelines are buried below the ground, soil-structure interaction concept has been utilized for investigating earthquake performance of pipelines. Researchers have concentrated on determining force-displacement relations for various soils which enable engineers to use practical soil springs in order to simulate soil-pipe interaction with the aid of finite element softwares. Soil spring concept suggested in ASCE 1984 is often used for practical purposes since 3D modeling of soil-pipe model is not time efficient.

The soil spring models in ASCE 1984 were verified by several researchers based on large-scale tests and centrifuge based tests. All tests have been carried out under static loading by using split-box test setup. Therefore, the soil spring models obtained under static loading conditions may not fully represent soil-pipe interaction under seismic loading. Definition of force-displacement relations for different soils under various earthquake loading is essential to simulate soil-pipe interaction accurately.

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Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
University of Surrey
Guildford
Surrey
GU2 7XH