Clive Smee graduated from the London School of Economics in 1963. He then obtained his MBA at Indiana University, after which he spent a period carrying out research on the economics of education at the Centre for Commonwealth Studies at Oxford University. He first became interested in health economics questions when working in Nigeria in the 1960s as part of UK technical assistance. As an economist he subsequently worked on manpower planning in developing countries (for ODA); on social security issues (for DHSS); on employment policies (for the Central Policy Review Staff); on industrial and agricultural issues (for the Treasury); and finally on health issues for the Department of Health. He was Chief Economic Adviser at DHSS/DH from 1984 to 2002. From 2002 to 2004 he was a Principal Adviser on Social Policy to the New Zealand Treasury. He has particular interest in health reforms both nationally and internationally and has also worked as a consultant for the governments of Norway, Poland, Russia and Turkey. He was made a C.B. in 1997 for service to health. Since retirement from the UK public service in 2002 part time consultancies have included a wide range of work for DH, (current (2016) responsibilities include member of National Care Models Evaluation Oversight Group and member of Integrated Care Policy Evaluation Reference Group); and for the Home Office (2006-8); DFID (2007-10); and the 0ECD. From 2006 -13 he was a Trustee for the Pharmacy Practice Research Trust.