Dr Ana Frankenberg-Garcia

Research Interests

My current research focuses on applied uses of corpora (in translation, lexicography and  language learning), dictionary use and second language writing. 

Externally-funded projects
In 2016, I was awarded an AHRC-UK grant of 36 months to carry out research on combining learner needs, lexicographic data and digital writing environments to help writers produce more idiomatic texts (Principal Investigator). For further information on this project, see Collocaid TM

Between 2011 and 2015, I worked as Chief Editor of the new Oxford Portuguese Dictionary.

Between 1999 and 2008, I was jointly responsible for creating COMPARA, a 3-million-word parallel corpus of English and Portuguese fiction funded by the European Union and the Portuguese Government. The corpus is open access at www.linguateca.pt/COMPARA.

Between 1999 and 2000, I was a visiting fellow at the University of Oxford with a grant from the Portuguese Foundation of Science and Technology, where I set up a Portuguese-English parallel corpus that was later to become the above  COMPARA corpus.

Between 1991 and 1993, I was principal investigator of an international survey funded by the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation (Portugal) mapping the profile of learners of Portuguese as a Foreign Language around the world. 

Between 1987 and 1990, I received a full-time scholarship from the Brazilian CNPQ research-funding agency to carry out my PhD research on second language writing at the University of Edinburgh.

PhD Supervision 
I welcome applications from prospective PhD candidates, and would be particularly interested in hearing from students wishing to develop research on dictionary use and on corpus-based approaches to translation, lexicography and language learning.

Teaching

I am currently teaching the following postgraduate modules: 

  • Language & Translation
  • Translation Technologies
  • Corpora & Translation
  • Introduction to Translation Methodology
  • Research Methods in Translation Studies

Departmental Duties

Programme Director of the MA in Translation

Invited presentations and keynotes

2017
II TechLing, University of Bologna, Italy, 10-11 November 2017.

International Postgraduate Conference in Translation and Interpreting Studies, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, 9-10 November 2017.

28th Annual Conference of the Society for Proofreaders and Editors, Bedford, UK, 16-18 September 2017.

IX EBRALC (Brazilian School of Computational Linguistics), UFRGS/UNISINOS, Brazil, 15-16 August 2017: "Como uar o Sketch Engine para analisar o comportamento das palavras" 

Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil, 22 August 2017: "Utilizações da ferramenta Sketch Engine na prática da tradução"

Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Portugal, 24 April 2017: "Corpora in Translation Practice" 

2016
University of Portsmouth, UK, 30 November 2016, "The Use of Corpora in Language Learning and Translation"  

Workshop Usos y Aplicaciones de Sketch Engine a la Descripción Combinatoria del Léxico, University of Santiago de Compostela, Spain, 17-18 November 2016, “Researching Terminology and Phraseology with Corpora” 

IV Congresso Intenacional de Fraseologia e Paremiologia, State University of São Paulo, Brazil, 21-25 March 2016: “Phraseology and Corpus Linguistics”

Traduction & Qualité 2016, University of Lille, France, 4 February 2016: “Corpus & Enseignement”

2015
26th annual conference of the Society for Editors and Proofreaders, University of York, 5–7 September 2015: “Revising and Editing with the Help of Corpora”

University of Seville, 24 September 2015, “Corpora and the Sketch Engine”

University of Stirling, 5 June 2015, “Advantages and Challenges of Using Corpora in Translation Practice”

University of Birmingham, 18 March 2015: “Using Corpora to Translate”

University of Huddersfield, 11 February 2015: “How can Language Learners Benefit from Corpora, or not”

University College London, 27 January 2015: “Translation and Corpora”

2014
University of Glasgow, 2 December 2014: “Corpora in Translation Practice”

University of Portsmouth, 19 November 2014: “Language Learners and Corpora”

University of Oxford, 28 January 2014: “Understanding Portuguese Translations with the Help of Corpora”

2013
Journée NeQ 2013, Notions en Questions en didactique des langues, University of Lorraine, France, 13 November 2013: “Corpus et Perspectives pour l’Apprenant”

2011 
IntelliText workshop, University of Leeds, 11 March 2011: “Integrating Corpora with Everyday Language (and Translation) Teaching” 

Authenticating Language Learning: Web collaboration Meets Pedagogic Corpora Symposium, University of Tübingen, Germany, 17-19 February 2011: “Corpora and Language Learning”.


2010
TaLC 2010, 9th Teaching and Language Corpora Conference, Masaryk University, Czech Republic, 30 June-3 July 2010: "Using Corpora Routinely"

Using Corpus Evidence in the Classroom: Working with Teachers and Learners, University of Birmingham, 24-25 June 2010: “Encouraging EFL Teachers to Use Corpora in the Classroom”

2008
New Trends in Corpus Linguistics for Language Teaching and Translation Studies. In Honour of John Sinclair, University of Granada, 22-24 September 2008: "Compiling and Using a Parallel Corpus for Translation Studies" 

University of São Paulo, 26 August 2008: "A Utilização do Corpus COMPARA nos Estudos Linguísticos e Literários"

 State University of Rio de Janeiro, 20 August 2008: "A Utilização de um Corpus Paralelo de Português e Inglês nos Estudos Linguísticos e Literários"

2007
Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Lisbon, 23 October 2007: “COMPARA e Tradução”

Universitat Jaume I, Spain, November 2007: "Building a Parallel Corpus for Translation Research and Much More" 

IV Congresso Ibero-Americano de Tradução e Interpretação, Unibero, Brazil, 14-17 May 2007: "Que Referências Consultam os Estudantes de Tradução?" 

2006
TaLC 2006, 7th Teaching and Language Corpora Conference, Bibliothèque nationale de France, 1-4 July 2006: "Raising Teachers´ Awareness of Corpora"

University of São Paulo, 25 August 2006: "A Usabilidade de Corpora Paralelos"  

2004
1º Encontro de Oficinas de Escrita no Ensino de Línguas, University of Aveiro, Portugal, 28-29 October 2004: "Oficina de Autonomia na Escrita"

3rd Brazilian International Translation Forum, Federal University of Ceará, Brazil, 30 August–3 September 2004: "A Corpus Perspective of Portuguese and English Translations" and round table on "Corpora for Research in Translation "

University of São Paulo, 23 August 2004:"A Utilização de um Corpus Paralelo nos Estudos de Tradução"

Colóquio Internacional de Tradução, Lusófona University, Portugal, 3-5 May 2004: "Uma Visão Automática da Tradução Humana"

External Activities

Hands-on corpus workshops

2017
Yorkshire Institute of Translation and Interpreting, UK

2016
European Commission DG-Translation, Brussels 
University of Santiago de Compostela, Spain
Institute of Translation and Interpreting, UK
ScotNet Workshop, UK
Teaching and Language Corpora conference, Giessen

2015
Institute of Translation and Interpreting, UK
University of Seville, Spain

2014
Institute of Translation and Interpreting, UK
Teaching and Language Corpora conference, Lancaster

Other

Linguistic consultancy, Oxford University Press, Dictionary Division, since 2011

Linguistic consultancy, Harper Collins, Dictionary Division, 2016

Invited Professor, MA in Translation Studies by distance learning, Universitat Jaume I, Castellon, Spain, since 2010

External Translator for the European Parliament, 2006-2011

Contact Me

E-mail:
Phone: 01483 68 9003

Find me on campus
Room: 10 LC 03


My office hours

Semester 2 on research leave

Publications

Highlights

  • Frankenberg-Garcia A. (2015) 'Dictionaries and Encoding Examples to Support Language Production'. Oxford university Press International Journal of Lexicography,

    Abstract

    Learners’ dictionaries can help users not just with meanings, but also with collocations, syntax and common errors. Although there are several ways in which information for language production can be presented, previous research has shown that learners tend to prefer to obtain it from examples. However, early studies on the effects of dictionary examples did not disclose much evidence of their value. This could be because dictionaries do not distinguish between examples to reinforce comprehension and examples to support production, and also because learners may need more than one example to figure out how words are used. Following recent findings by Frankenberg-Garcia (2012, 2014), where encoding examples appeared to help language production, the present study aimed to further investigate the effects of such examples by refining previous elicitation procedures, by using a different and larger population sample, and by testing whether learners react better to an optimum number of examples.

  • Frankenberg-Garcia A. (2015) 'Training translators to use corpora hands-on: challenges and reactions by a group of 13 students at a UK university'. EUP Corpora, 210 (3), pp. 351-380.

    Abstract

    The use of corpora is no longer restricted to a small community of researchers working on language description and natural language processing. Anyone with an internet connection is now able to access corpora to help them with everyday questions about language, including questions for which dictionaries, grammars and other language resources do not always have clear answers. Translators are among those who have much to gain from using corpora, as widely acknowledged in the literature. Yet much of the research at the crossroads of translation and corpora seems to focus on the use of corpora in Translation Studies, and there does not seem to be enough information on the use of corpora in actual translation training and practice. This paper discusses some of the challenges of training translators to use corpora and then describes how a group of 13 students studying for an MA in Translation at the University of Surrey reacted to a hands-on module on learning to use corpora in everyday translation. The latter is based on the students’ responses to a questionnaire and on a corpus of self-reports containing authentic examples of students using corpora in translation practice.

  • Frankenberg-Garcia AL. (2014) 'The use of corpus examples for language comprehension and production'. Special Issue Edition. Cambridge University Press ReCALL, 26 (2), pp. 128-146.

    Abstract

    One of the many new features of English language learners’ dictionaries derived from the technological developments that have taken place over recent decades is the presence of corpus-based examples to illustrate the use of words in context. However, empirical studies have generally not been able to disclose conclusive evidence about their actual worth. In Frankenberg-Garcia (2012a), I argued that these studies – and indeed learners’ dictionaries themselves – do not distinguish sufficiently between examples meant to aid language comprehension and examples that focus on enhancing language production. The present study reports on an experiment with secondary school students carried out to test the usefulness of separate corpus examples for comprehension and production. The results support the need for different types of examples for comprehension and production, and provide evidence in support of data-driven learning, particularly if learners have access to more than one example.

  • Frankenberg-Garcia A. (2012) 'Raising Teachers' Awareness of Corpora'. Cambridge University Press Language Teaching, 45 (4), pp. 475-489.

    Abstract

    The last couple of decades have seen a dramatic increase in corpus availability and a steady growth in the number of supporters of the use of corpora in language teaching. Yet there still seems to be a long way to go before corpora can be understood and used by language teachers in general. Novice corpus users often fail to grasp that corpora do not work in the same way as the more familiar language learning resources – such as dictionaries, grammar books and textbooks – that they are accustomed to using. I therefore propose a series of task-based, consciousness-raising exercises to help teachers (who are not corpus linguists) understand the basics of corpora. The tasks proposed are not about learning how to use a specific corpus or software, but about learning how to use corpora in genera

  • Frankenberg-Garcia A. (2012) 'Learners' use of corpus examples'. International Journal of Lexicography, 25 (3), pp. 273-296.

    Abstract

    One of the distinguishing characteristics of corpus-based dictionaries is that most entries contain example sentences or phrases that have been copied or adapted from corpora. Although examples are generally regarded as positive and have high face validity among learners, the body of evidence about their actual benefits is limited and inconclusive. My aim in the present study is to revisit the idea of testing the usefulness of corpus examples. However, unlike previous research, in the present study different words are used to test language comprehension and the ability to correct typical language production errors, and a distinction is also drawn with regard to examples intended to facilitate decoding and examples meant to benefit encoding. In addition to this, because a single example might not be enough to help people understand what a word means or how it is used, in this study I also test the value of presenting learners with multiple corpus examples. © 2012 Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  • Frankenberg-Garcia A. (2012) Integrating corpora with everyday language teaching. in Thomas J, Boulton A (eds.) Input, Process and Product: developments in teaching and language corpora Brno : Masaryk University Press , pp. 36-53.
  • Frankenberg-Garcia AL. (2011) 'Beyond L1-L2 Equivalents: Where do Users of English as a Foreign Language Turn for Help?'. Oxford University Press International Journal of Lexicography, 24 (1), pp. 97-123.

    Abstract

    Current research shows that learners use dictionaries mainly to look up meanings, and generally prefer bilingual over monolingual look-ups. Despite the remarkable advances that have taken place in pedagogical lexicography over the past decades, many features of learners’ dictionaries remain underexploited. Based on the premise that these dictionaries tend to be underused primarily because learners are insufficiently aware of their reference needs, this exploratory study examines what resources a group of 211 non-native speakers of English would choose to use when confronted with the demand to look up other types of linguistic information, beyond L1-L2 equivalents. The results suggest that reference preferences can change dramatically under these circumstances (the bilingual dictionary no longer being a favourite), and that learners do not know where to look up much of the information they need.

  • Frankenberg-Garcia A. (2009) Are translations longer than source texts? A corpus-based study of explicitation. in Beeby A, Rodríguez P, Sánchez-Gijón P (eds.) Corpus use and translating Amsterdam and Philadelphia : John Benjamins

    Abstract

    Explicitation is the process of rendering information which is only implicit in the source text explicit in the target text, and is believed to be one of the universals of translation (Blum-Kulka 1986, Olohan and Baker 2000, Øverås 1998, Séguinot 1988, Vanderauwera 1985). The present study uses corpus technology to attempt to shed some light on the complex relationship between translation, text length and explicitation. An awareness of what makes translations longer (or shorter) and more explicit than source texts can help trainee translators make more informed decisions during the translation process. This is felt to be an important component of translator education.

  • Frankenberg-Garcia A. (2008) 'Suggesting rather special facts. A corpus-based study of distinctive lexical distributions in translated texts'. Edinburgh University Press Corpora: corpus-based language learning, language processing and linguistics, 3 (2), pp. 195-211.

    Abstract

    It is well-known that translated texts read differently from texts that have been written without the constraints imposed by source texts from another language. One of the features that can confer a distinctive feel to translations is the frequency with which certain lexical items are represented in them. Previous research has compared the frequency of specific words in translations and in texts that are not translations, and unveiled substantial differences in their distributions. Most of these studies adopt a bottom-up approach. Their starting point is a given word whose frequency in translated and non-translated texts is then compared. In this study, I adopt an explorative, top-down approach instead. I begin with a Portuguese language corpus of translated and non-translated literary texts, and attempt to identify lemmas which are markedly over- and under-represented in the translations. Our results not only appear to support existing bottom-up intuitions regarding distinctive lexical distributions, but also disclose a number of unexpected contrasts that would not have been discernible without recourse to corpora.

  • Santos D, Frankenberg-Garcia . (2007) 'The corpus, its users and their needs: a user-oriented evaluation of COMPARA'. John Benjamins Publishing Company International Journal of Corpus Linguistics, 12 (3), pp. 335-374.

    Abstract

    COMPARA is a bidirectional parallel corpus of English and Portuguese, currently with 3 million words. The corpus was launched in 2000 and at present it is possibly the largest edited parallel corpus publicly available on the Web, with roughly 6,000 corpus queries per month. This paper summarizes an analysis of six years of corpus use. We begin by looking at user studies for language resources, especially corpora, and then we provide a snapshot of COMPARA's users and their behaviour based on log analysis. Particular emphasis is given to the language interface preferred by users (Portuguese and English are possible), the choice between the Simple and Complex Search modes, the reasons underlying null-results and behaviour after restricted output. The data has pointed us to cases where COMPARA's Web interface can be improved, and provided insights about our users and the problems they face, although further studies that distinguish between different kinds of users remain necessary.

  • Frankenberg-Garcia AL. (2005) 'A Peek into What Today's Language Learners as Researchers Actually Do'. International Journal of Lexicography, 18 (3), pp. 335-355.

    Abstract

    Language learners today have a much wider choice of reference materials than in the past. In addition to dictionaries, grammar books and encyclopaedias, nowadays it is also possible for students to look things up on the Internet, in term banks and in corpora. Much of the literature on the pedagogical value of these resources focuses on what each of them can achieve separately. However, little has been said about how learners as researchers actually cope with all of it together. Modelling itself on Varantola's (1998) analysis of how translators use dictionaries, the aim of this study was to find out more about how a group of advanced learners of English were grappling with the use of paper references and new technology together. The results indicate that while there was no clear competition between paper and digital references, there was a marked preference for bilingual over monolingual support, for materials mediated by terminologists and lexicographers over ones requiring more autonomous user interpretation, and for more prestigious over lesser-known resources. The study also made it clear that more resources does not necessarily mean better research, and that in addition to training learners to use separate resources, it is essential to teach them how to integrate their skills at using them together, particularly with respect to combining bilingual with monolingual research.

  • Frankenberg-Garcia A. (2005) 'Pedagogical uses of monolingual and parallel concordances'. ELT Journal, 59 (3), pp. 189-198.

    Abstract

    This paper discusses the use of concordances in the classroom, with particular reference to the pedagogical implications of the differences between parallel and monolingual concordances. Examples are given of using the two kinds of concordances in activities that involve language production, reception, correction, and testing. It is concluded that monolingual and parallel concordances have non-conflicting, complementary roles to play.

  • Frankenberg-Garcia A. (2004) Lost in Parallel Concordances. in Aston G, Bernardini S, Stewart D (eds.) Corpora and language learners Amsterdam and Philadelphia : John Benjamins , pp. 213-229.
  • Frankenberg-Garcia A. (1999) 'Providing Student Writers with Pre-Text Feedback'. ELT Journal: an international journal for teachers of English to speakers of other languages, 53 (2), pp. 100-106.

    Abstract

    This paper argues that the best moment for responding to student writing is before any draft is completed. It analyses ways in which this can be put into practice in the composition classroom, and reports on how a group of EFL writers reacted to the kind of pre-text feedback proposed.

Journal articles

  • Frankenberg-Garcia AL. (2017) 'A corpus study of splitting and joining sentences in translation'. Edinburgh University Press Corpora,
    [ Status: Accepted ]

    Abstract

    The use of corpora in translation studies has risen dramatically over the past years, contributing towards a growing body of empirical research focusing not only on what differentiates translated from non-translated language, but also on the changes or shifts that translators make from source to target texts. Most of the latter studies are centred on sub-sentential elements, such as the contrastive use of particular lexis or grammar. However, translation shifts can transcend the level of the sentence. For example, sentences can be split or joined in translation, or there can be complex shifts that combine the two. While there is some research on sentence splitting, there do not seem to be many studies about sentence joining, or indeed sentence splitting and joining together. The present study seeks to address this gap. Using a bidirectional parallel corpus of Portuguese and English fiction, over 90 thousand source-text sentences and their corresponding text in translation were analysed from a quantitative perspective, and a closer look was taken at a sample of over one thousand parallel text segments involving sentence joining and splitting. The main findings were that in both translation directions (1) there was a strong tendency for sentence preservation, (2) the differences between sentence splitting and joining were not significant, and (3) changes in sentence boundaries were predominantly associated with the standardization or normalization of syntax and a tendency for explicitation.

  • Frankenberg-Garcia A. (2015) 'Dictionaries and Encoding Examples to Support Language Production'. Oxford university Press International Journal of Lexicography,

    Abstract

    Learners’ dictionaries can help users not just with meanings, but also with collocations, syntax and common errors. Although there are several ways in which information for language production can be presented, previous research has shown that learners tend to prefer to obtain it from examples. However, early studies on the effects of dictionary examples did not disclose much evidence of their value. This could be because dictionaries do not distinguish between examples to reinforce comprehension and examples to support production, and also because learners may need more than one example to figure out how words are used. Following recent findings by Frankenberg-Garcia (2012, 2014), where encoding examples appeared to help language production, the present study aimed to further investigate the effects of such examples by refining previous elicitation procedures, by using a different and larger population sample, and by testing whether learners react better to an optimum number of examples.

  • Frankenberg-Garcia A. (2015) 'Training translators to use corpora hands-on: challenges and reactions by a group of 13 students at a UK university'. EUP Corpora, 210 (3), pp. 351-380.

    Abstract

    The use of corpora is no longer restricted to a small community of researchers working on language description and natural language processing. Anyone with an internet connection is now able to access corpora to help them with everyday questions about language, including questions for which dictionaries, grammars and other language resources do not always have clear answers. Translators are among those who have much to gain from using corpora, as widely acknowledged in the literature. Yet much of the research at the crossroads of translation and corpora seems to focus on the use of corpora in Translation Studies, and there does not seem to be enough information on the use of corpora in actual translation training and practice. This paper discusses some of the challenges of training translators to use corpora and then describes how a group of 13 students studying for an MA in Translation at the University of Surrey reacted to a hands-on module on learning to use corpora in everyday translation. The latter is based on the students’ responses to a questionnaire and on a corpus of self-reports containing authentic examples of students using corpora in translation practice.

  • Frankenberg-Garcia AL. (2014) 'The use of corpus examples for language comprehension and production'. Special Issue Edition. Cambridge University Press ReCALL, 26 (2), pp. 128-146.

    Abstract

    One of the many new features of English language learners’ dictionaries derived from the technological developments that have taken place over recent decades is the presence of corpus-based examples to illustrate the use of words in context. However, empirical studies have generally not been able to disclose conclusive evidence about their actual worth. In Frankenberg-Garcia (2012a), I argued that these studies – and indeed learners’ dictionaries themselves – do not distinguish sufficiently between examples meant to aid language comprehension and examples that focus on enhancing language production. The present study reports on an experiment with secondary school students carried out to test the usefulness of separate corpus examples for comprehension and production. The results support the need for different types of examples for comprehension and production, and provide evidence in support of data-driven learning, particularly if learners have access to more than one example.

  • Frankenberg-Garcia A. (2014) 'How Language Learners Can Benefit From Corpora, Or Not'. Recherches en didatique des langues et des cultures: les cahiers de l'Acedle,

    Abstract

    This paper discusses how learners can come into contact with corpora and the different ways in which corpora can be useful to them. There are three main ways in which this can be done, and rather than competing against each other, I see these three different gateways to corpora as being complementary. I also wish to show that, as with any kind of materials and activities developed under the aegis of a particular methodology and approach to learning, some uses of corpora in the classroom can be very effective, while others may not work at all.

  • Frankenberg-Garcia A. (2012) 'Raising Teachers' Awareness of Corpora'. Cambridge University Press Language Teaching, 45 (4), pp. 475-489.

    Abstract

    The last couple of decades have seen a dramatic increase in corpus availability and a steady growth in the number of supporters of the use of corpora in language teaching. Yet there still seems to be a long way to go before corpora can be understood and used by language teachers in general. Novice corpus users often fail to grasp that corpora do not work in the same way as the more familiar language learning resources – such as dictionaries, grammar books and textbooks – that they are accustomed to using. I therefore propose a series of task-based, consciousness-raising exercises to help teachers (who are not corpus linguists) understand the basics of corpora. The tasks proposed are not about learning how to use a specific corpus or software, but about learning how to use corpora in genera

  • Frankenberg-Garcia A. (2012) 'Learners' use of corpus examples'. International Journal of Lexicography, 25 (3), pp. 273-296.

    Abstract

    One of the distinguishing characteristics of corpus-based dictionaries is that most entries contain example sentences or phrases that have been copied or adapted from corpora. Although examples are generally regarded as positive and have high face validity among learners, the body of evidence about their actual benefits is limited and inconclusive. My aim in the present study is to revisit the idea of testing the usefulness of corpus examples. However, unlike previous research, in the present study different words are used to test language comprehension and the ability to correct typical language production errors, and a distinction is also drawn with regard to examples intended to facilitate decoding and examples meant to benefit encoding. In addition to this, because a single example might not be enough to help people understand what a word means or how it is used, in this study I also test the value of presenting learners with multiple corpus examples. © 2012 Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  • Frankenberg-Garcia AL. (2011) 'Beyond L1-L2 Equivalents: Where do Users of English as a Foreign Language Turn for Help?'. Oxford University Press International Journal of Lexicography, 24 (1), pp. 97-123.

    Abstract

    Current research shows that learners use dictionaries mainly to look up meanings, and generally prefer bilingual over monolingual look-ups. Despite the remarkable advances that have taken place in pedagogical lexicography over the past decades, many features of learners’ dictionaries remain underexploited. Based on the premise that these dictionaries tend to be underused primarily because learners are insufficiently aware of their reference needs, this exploratory study examines what resources a group of 211 non-native speakers of English would choose to use when confronted with the demand to look up other types of linguistic information, beyond L1-L2 equivalents. The results suggest that reference preferences can change dramatically under these circumstances (the bilingual dictionary no longer being a favourite), and that learners do not know where to look up much of the information they need.

  • Frankenberg-Garcia A. (2011) 'O léxico diferenciado da tradução / The distinctive lexis of translation'. UNICAMP. Departamento de Linguística Aplicada TLA, Trabalhos em Linguística Aplicada, 51 (2), pp. 321-340.

    Abstract

    Ao lermos uma tradução, é comum termos a clara noção de que estamos perante um texto traduzido, ao contrário do que acontece quando lemos um texto original, produzido sem as limitações impostas por um texto-fonte escrito num idioma diferente. Uma das características que poderá conferir esta sensação de diferença em relação às traduções é a frequência fora do comum de determinado léxico. Pesquisas existentes comparando a frequência de certas palavras em traduções e em textos que não são traduções revelam diferenças de distribuição significativas. A maioria dos estudos em causa tem como base uma abordagem de baixo para cima. Seleciona-se uma dada palavra específica, cuja frequência é então comparada em textos traduzidos e não traduzidos. No presente estudo, invertemos essa metodologia e adotamos uma abordagem exploratória de cima para baixo. Começamos com um corpus de textos literários em português traduzido e português não traduzido e, a partir daí, procuramos identificar palavras sobre e sub-representadas nas traduções. Os resultados obtidos não só reforçam a nossa intuição relativamente ao léxico característico da tradução, como também revelam uma série de contrastes inesperados, que provavelmente não teriam sido detectados se não se tivesse utilizado a presente metodologia. / It is a well-known fact that translated texts read differently from texts that have been written without the constraints imposed by source texts from another language. One of the features that can confer a distinctive feel to translations is the frequency with which certain lexical items are represented in them. Previous research has compared the frequency of specific words in translations and in texts that are not translations and unveiled substantial differences in their distributions. Most of these studies adopt a bottom-up approach. Their starting point is a given word whose frequency in translated and non-translated texts is then compared. In the present study, we adopt an explorative, top-down approach instead. We begin with a Portuguese language corpus of translated and non-translated literary texts and attempt to identify lemmas which are markedly over and under-represented in the translations. Our results not only appear to support existing bottom-up intuitions regarding distinctive lexical distributions, but also disclose a number of unexpected contrasts that would not have been discernible without recourse to corpora.

  • Frankenberg-Garcia A. (2010) 'Overview of pedagogical lexicography'. OXFORD UNIV PRESS INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF LEXICOGRAPHY, 23 (2), pp. 233-236.
  • Frankenberg-Garcia A. (2009) 'Utilização de empréstimos na tradução literária'. Anhanguera Tradução & Comunicação – Revista Brasileira de Tradutores, 18, pp. 43-62.

    Abstract

    O uso de empréstimos é um tema envolto em controvérsia. Os falantes de uma língua recorrem a palavras estrangeiras ora quando não conseguem encontrar um equivalente na sua própria língua, ora quando querem, proposita-damente, evocar significados que ultrapassam os meros significados proposicionais das palavras utilizadas. Enquanto o primeiro caso é frequentemente associado a um empobrecimento linguístico, o uso intencional de empréstimos pode também ser sinal de erudição e enriquecimento da língua. No entanto, não parece haver muitos estudos sobre o uso de palavras estrangeiras na tradução. As referências existentes mencionam apenas o uso de empréstimos como estratégia para se lidar com conceitos difíceis de traduzir, ou como maneira de ser preservar valores culturais da língua-fonte. Pouco se sabe sobre a relação entre o uso de empréstimos na língua-fonte e na língua-alvo. Até que ponto diferem? Neste trabalho, analisou-se o uso de empréstimos num corpus eletrônico de literatura original e traduzida. A análise centra-se na frequência dos empréstimos e na sua distribuição por língua.

  • Frankenberg-Garcia A. (2009) 'Compiling and using a parallel corpus for research in translation'. John Benjamin Publishing Company Babel: international journal of translation, XXI (1), pp. 57-71.

    Abstract

    There are so many variables underlying translation that examining anything longer than a few paragraphs of translated text at a time can become quite a daunting task. The advent of corpus linguistics, however, has made it possible to analyse enormous quantities of translated text in unprecedented ways. In line with these advances, parallel corpora can provide access to many aspects of translation that had previously not been possible to study in a systematic way. The first part of this paper discusses different types of decisions that have to be made when building a parallel corpus, with particular emphasis to compilation questions that are unique to parallel corpora as opposed to corpora in general. This is followed by an account of the choices made when creating COMPARA - a post-edited, bi-directional parallel corpus of English and Portuguese literary texts with 3 million words, freely available for research and education at http://www.linguateca.pt/COMPARA/. Finally, examples of how this parallel corpus can be (and has been) used in translation research are presented.

  • Frankenberg-Garcia A. (2008) 'Suggesting rather special facts. A corpus-based study of distinctive lexical distributions in translated texts'. Edinburgh University Press Corpora: corpus-based language learning, language processing and linguistics, 3 (2), pp. 195-211.

    Abstract

    It is well-known that translated texts read differently from texts that have been written without the constraints imposed by source texts from another language. One of the features that can confer a distinctive feel to translations is the frequency with which certain lexical items are represented in them. Previous research has compared the frequency of specific words in translations and in texts that are not translations, and unveiled substantial differences in their distributions. Most of these studies adopt a bottom-up approach. Their starting point is a given word whose frequency in translated and non-translated texts is then compared. In this study, I adopt an explorative, top-down approach instead. I begin with a Portuguese language corpus of translated and non-translated literary texts, and attempt to identify lemmas which are markedly over- and under-represented in the translations. Our results not only appear to support existing bottom-up intuitions regarding distinctive lexical distributions, but also disclose a number of unexpected contrasts that would not have been discernible without recourse to corpora.

  • Santos D, Frankenberg-Garcia . (2007) 'The corpus, its users and their needs: a user-oriented evaluation of COMPARA'. John Benjamins Publishing Company International Journal of Corpus Linguistics, 12 (3), pp. 335-374.

    Abstract

    COMPARA is a bidirectional parallel corpus of English and Portuguese, currently with 3 million words. The corpus was launched in 2000 and at present it is possibly the largest edited parallel corpus publicly available on the Web, with roughly 6,000 corpus queries per month. This paper summarizes an analysis of six years of corpus use. We begin by looking at user studies for language resources, especially corpora, and then we provide a snapshot of COMPARA's users and their behaviour based on log analysis. Particular emphasis is given to the language interface preferred by users (Portuguese and English are possible), the choice between the Simple and Complex Search modes, the reasons underlying null-results and behaviour after restricted output. The data has pointed us to cases where COMPARA's Web interface can be improved, and provided insights about our users and the problems they face, although further studies that distinguish between different kinds of users remain necessary.

  • Frankenberg-Garcia AL. (2005) 'A Peek into What Today's Language Learners as Researchers Actually Do'. International Journal of Lexicography, 18 (3), pp. 335-355.

    Abstract

    Language learners today have a much wider choice of reference materials than in the past. In addition to dictionaries, grammar books and encyclopaedias, nowadays it is also possible for students to look things up on the Internet, in term banks and in corpora. Much of the literature on the pedagogical value of these resources focuses on what each of them can achieve separately. However, little has been said about how learners as researchers actually cope with all of it together. Modelling itself on Varantola's (1998) analysis of how translators use dictionaries, the aim of this study was to find out more about how a group of advanced learners of English were grappling with the use of paper references and new technology together. The results indicate that while there was no clear competition between paper and digital references, there was a marked preference for bilingual over monolingual support, for materials mediated by terminologists and lexicographers over ones requiring more autonomous user interpretation, and for more prestigious over lesser-known resources. The study also made it clear that more resources does not necessarily mean better research, and that in addition to training learners to use separate resources, it is essential to teach them how to integrate their skills at using them together, particularly with respect to combining bilingual with monolingual research.

  • Frankenberg-Garcia A. (2005) 'Pedagogical uses of monolingual and parallel concordances'. ELT Journal, 59 (3), pp. 189-198.

    Abstract

    This paper discusses the use of concordances in the classroom, with particular reference to the pedagogical implications of the differences between parallel and monolingual concordances. Examples are given of using the two kinds of concordances in activities that involve language production, reception, correction, and testing. It is concluded that monolingual and parallel concordances have non-conflicting, complementary roles to play.

  • Fonseca R. (2001) 'Lúcia McCartney'. Cambridge University Press Comparative Criticism, 23, pp. 317-332.
  • Frankenberg-Garcia A, Santos D. (2001) 'COMPARA, um corpus paralelo de português e inglês na Web'. Cadernos de Tradução, 1 (9), pp. 61-79.
  • Frankenberg-Garcia A. (2000) 'Using a Translation Corpus to Teach English to Native Speakers of Portuguese'. Op.Cit. A Journal of Anglo-American Studies, 3, pp. 65-78.

    Abstract

    Working with Portuguese learners of English has brought to my attention aconsiderable number of errors of English which have to do with my students´ priorknowledge of Portuguese. Identifying those errors and interpreting them in the light of contrastive linguistics can help indicating ways in which a Portuguese–Englishtranslation corpus can be harnessed to prepare English as a second language teachingmaterials for native speakers of Portuguese. This paper reports on a few typicalexamples of Portuguese-English crosslinguistic influence and explains how they can beused as a key to extracting from a Portuguese-English translation corpus comparablefacts of linguistic performance which are particularly relevant to Portuguese learners of English.

  • Frankenberg-Garcia A. (1999) 'Providing Student Writers with Pre-Text Feedback'. ELT Journal: an international journal for teachers of English to speakers of other languages, 53 (2), pp. 100-106.

    Abstract

    This paper argues that the best moment for responding to student writing is before any draft is completed. It analyses ways in which this can be put into practice in the composition classroom, and reports on how a group of EFL writers reacted to the kind of pre-text feedback proposed.

  • Frankenberg-Garcia A, Rosário J, Pires MC. (1994) 'Português Língua Estrangeira: que materiais didácticos vamos produzir?'. Associação das universidades de Língua Portuguesa Revista Internacional de Língua Portuguesa, Portugal: 11, pp. 155-164.

Conference papers

  • Frankenberg-Garcia AL. (2015) 'Corpus examples for writers'. Herstmonceaux Castle, Sussex: e-Lex 2015

    Abstract

    Modern learners’ dictionaries can help users not just with language reception, but also with language production, assisting writers select appropriate collocations, use the correct syntax and even avoid common errors. Although there are several ways in which this kind of information can be presented in dictionaries, previous research has shown that dictionary users tend to favour obtaining information on language production from examples (e.g., see Bogaards and van de Kloot 2002, Chan 2011, and Dziemianko 2006 and 2012). However, as noted by Humblé (2001), dictionary examples as they are today can be confusing to learners, as they do not normally distinguish systematically between decoding examples to reinforce language comprehension and encoding examples to support language production. This could be one of the reasons why early studies on dictionary examples (e.g., see Summers 1988, Laufer 1993, Nesi 1996 and Al-Ajmi 2008) failed to produce much evidence about their benefits. In contrast, recent findings by Frankenberg-Garcia (2012) and (2014) suggest that presenting learners with separate corpus-based examples for language comprehension and language production can indeed be beneficial, especially if learners are presented with more than one example of the same type. In the present paper, I will not concern myself with examples for language comprehension, for information on meaning is also effectively available from the definitions in monolingual dictionaries and from the translations in bilingual dictionaries. Instead, the paper focuses on the value of examples for language production, which, as pointed out above, seem to very appreciated by writers looking for information on collocation, syntax and so on. In particular, this study further investigates the use of encoding examples to support language production by (1) carrying out a large-scale experiment with 161 participants, (2) refining the elicitation procedure used in previous studies and (3) testing whether learners react better to an optimum number of examples. The results obtained lend further support to the notion that encoding examples are indeed useful to writers. However, it was not possible to establish what constitutes an ideal number of examples, as there seems to be considerable learner variability with regard to how individual writers react. Keywords: learners’ dictionaries, dictionary examples, second language writing, corpora, corpus examples References Al-Ajmi, H. (2008) ‘Th

  • Frankenberg-Garcia A. (2015) 'Training translators to use corpora hands-on'. Books of Abstracts of the 5th IATIS Conference, Belo Horizonte, Brazil: International Association for Translation & Intercultural Studies, IATIS 2015

    Abstract

    With the proliferation of online off-the-peg corpora over the past decade or so, the use of corpora is no longer restricted to a small community of researchers working on language description and natural language processing. Anyone with an internet connection is now able to access corpora to help them with everyday questions about language, including questions for which dictionaries, grammars and other language resources do not always have clear answers. Translators are among those who have much to gain from using corpora, as widely acknowledged in the literature (see, for example, Zanettin 1998, Maia 2002, Bowker and Pearson 2002, Zanettin et al 2003, and Beeby et al 2009). Yet in contrast to the pressure that exists to train translators in the use of computer-assisted translation tools, there seems to be little or no incentive to teach translators to use corpora. Moreover, most of the research at the crossroads of translation and corpora seems to focus on the use of corpora in Translation Studies, and there is not yet enough information about the use of corpora in actual translation training and practice. This paper discusses some of the challenges of training translators to use corpora, and then describes how a group of 13 students studying for an MA in Translation at the University of Surrey reacted to a hands-on module on learning to use corpora in everyday translation. The analysis of the students’ reactions draws on (1) their responses to an anonymous questionnaire and (2) a corpus of graded assignments, where the students were required to write a report on their use of corpora in translation (after having been asked from day one to keep a diary with examples of using corpora in their everyday translation practice). The corpus of student reports was submitted to both a quantitative and a qualitative analysis. The quantitative analysis focuses on verifying the extent to which the students made reference to terms such as concordance, lemma, collocation, part-of-speech tagging, normalized frequency and so on, and the extent to which the actual queries described in the reports involved the use of those concepts. The qualitative analysis details a selection of examples of how different students used corpora and also their views of the experience. The students’ opinions of corpora were generally very favourable, despite the steep learning curve entailed. The analysis also indicated that while some students remained underusers of corpora, others were qu

  • Frankenberg-Garcia AL. (2015) 'Training translators: challenges and reactions by a group of 13 students at a UK university'.
  • Frankenberg-Garcia A. (2013) 'Sentence Splitting and Sentence Joining in Translation'. University of Ghent: 3. ICLC 7 - UCCTS 3 on contrastive linguistics and corpus-based translation studies
  • Kilgarriff A, Kovar V, Frankenberg-Garcia A. (2013) 'Bilingual word sketches: three flavours VIDEO https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n9RKQ4Nm9r4'. Tallinn: Electronic lexicography in the 21st century: thinking outside the paper
  • Frankenberg-Garcia A. (2013) 'Learners’ use of corpus examples revisited'. Tallinn: Electronic lexicography in the 21st century: thinking outside the paper
  • Frankenberg-Garcia A. (2012) 'Are examples useful for Portuguese learners of English?'. Lisbon: 4nd International Conference on Teaching English as a Foreign Language
  • Frankenberg-Garcia A. (2012) 'Getting Help from Corpus Examples'. Proceedings of the 10th Teaching and Language Corpora Conference, Warsaw: 10th Teaching and Language Corpora Conference
  • Frankenberg-Garcia A. (2011) 'Beyond L1-L2 Equivalents'. Beijing: 16th AILA (World Congress of Applied Linguistics)
  • Frankenberg-Garcia A. (2011) 'Sentence Boundaries in Translation'. University of Birmingham: Corpus Linguistics 2011
  • Frankenberg-Garcia A. (2011) 'Integrating corpora with everyday language (and translation) teaching'. University of Leeds: IntelliText Workshop
  • Frankenberg-Garcia A. (2011) 'Corpora and Language Learning'. University of Tübingen: Authenticating Language Learning: Web collaboration Meets Pedagogic Corpora
  • Frankenberg-Garcia A. (2010) 'Using Corpora Routinely'. Brno: 9th Teaching and Language Corpora Conference
  • Frankenberg-Garcia A. (2010) 'Encouraging EFL Teachers to Use Corpora in the Classroom'. Birmingham: BAAL Seminar Using Corpus Evidence in the Classroom: Working with Teachers and Learners
  • Frankenberg-Garcia A. (2009) 'Using Monolingual and Parallel Corpora to Teach English in Portugal'. Lisbon: 10. 2nd International Conference on Teaching English as a Foreign Language
  • Frankenberg-Garcia A. (2009) 'A Corpus-Driven Approach to Identifying Distinctive Lexis in Translation'. University of Liverpool: Corpus Linguistics 2009
  • Frankenberg-Garcia A. (2009) 'What Makes Translations Different? A Top-Down Approach to Identifying Distinctive Lexis'. University of Ghent: Methodological Advances in Translation Methodological Advances in Corpus-Based Translation Studies
  • Frankenberg-Garcia A. (2008) 'Compiling and Using a Parallel Corpus for Translation Studies'. Granada: New Trends in Corpus Linguistics for Language Teaching and Translation Studies. In Honour of John Sinclair
  • Frankenberg-Garcia A. (2005) 'A Corpus-Based Study of Loan Words in Original and Translated texts'. Proceedings from the Corpus Linguistics Conference Series, Birmingham: Corpus Linguistics 2005

Books

  • Dictionaries O, Lopez S, Frankenberg-Garcia A, Newstead H. (2015) Oxford Portuguese Dictionary.
  • Frankenberg-Garcia A, Aston G, Flowerdew L. (2011) New Trends in Corpora and Language Learning. Bloomsbury

    Abstract

    This book provides an up-to-date snapshot of recent research and developments in the use of corpora for language learning and teaching. It is divided into three parts. Part I focusses on innovative uses of corpora by language teachers and learners. These cover the world's first corpus-based TV program for the teaching of English conversation, as well as corpus-based approaches to the teaching of EAP, cultural studies and translation. Part II focuses on new corpus-based tools for LSP learning. Part III illustrates research findings from corpora consisting of language learner data and discusses their implications for language teaching and learning. It will appeal to scholars in both language teaching and learning and corpus and computational linguistics.

  • Frankenberg-Garcia A, Rkibi T, Cruz MR, Carvalho R, Direito C, Santos-Rosa D. (2008) Proceedings of TaLC 8 - Lisbon, 8th Teaching and Language Corpora Conference. Lisboa : Associação de Estudos e de Investigação do ISLA-Lisboa

    Abstract

    Teaching and Language Corpora (TaLC) conferences are now a well-established biennial event. TaLC began at the University of Lancaster sixteen years ago and, after being held there twice, and then successively at the universities of Oxford, Graz, Bologna, Granada, and Paris 7, we are delighted that, for the present occasion, we have been asked to bring the 8th Teaching and Language Corpora (TaLC 8) conference to the Instituto Superior de Línguas e Administração in Portugal. The use of corpora in teaching has been growing steadily in the past couple of decades. This increased interest is reflected in the 110 proposals from 28 different countries that we received for TaLC 8. The present volume is a compilation of the 3 invited talks, 48 papers, 22 posters, 4 software demonstrations and 4 workshops that were finally presented at TaLC 8, Lisbon, between 3 and 6 July 2008. Just by looking at their titles, it is easy to see how diversified and widespread the domain of teaching and language corpora has become. We have presentations about teaching advanced learners as well as beginners, and this includes university students, school children and even pre-schoolers. If in the beginning corpora was used mainly to teach English, on this occasion we also have presentations that draw on corpora of Portuguese, Mandarin, Cantonese, Spanish, Greek, Russian, Ukranian, Persian, Japanese, Czech, French, German, Italian, Lithuanian and Romanian. And it is not just different languages that are represented here, but also different types of languages: academic discourse, classroom discourse, youth language, learner language, translated language and even the discourse of diplomacy and of subtitles. Whereas corpora used to be mostly about the written medium, in TaLC 8 there is no shortage of presentations about corpora and speech. In addition to grammar and lexis, many of the papers in these proceedings are about phraseology, translation, literature and culture. Another point to be made is that this conference is not just about putting existing corpora to use in the classroom, but also about compiling different types of corpora for teaching, exploring novel types of pedagogical tagging, developing accessible corpus tools for education, using corpora for language assessment and training novice users how to use corpora. Of course, not everyone needs to learn how to use corpora. We have here both presentations that focus on the direct use of corpora by learners and presentations about

  • Frankenberg-Garcia A. (2001) Translation of Ignácio de Loyola Brandão (2001) Dutra - 50 Years: four centuries in five hours. Portuguese-English bilingual edition. São Paulo: DBA.. São Paulo, Brazil : DBA
  • Frankenberg-Garcia A. (2001) Translation of Lygia Fagundes Telles et al. (2001) Embratel, 21 Brazilian Short Stories. Portuguese-English bilingual edition. São Paulo: DBA.. São Paulo, Brazil : DBA

Book chapters

  • Frankenberg-Garcia AL. (2020) 'The Lexicography of Portuguese'. in Hanks P, de Schryver G-M (eds.) International Handbook of Modern Lexis and Lexicography Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg
    [ Status: In preparation ]
  • Frankenberg-Garcia AL. (2016) 'A corpus study of loans in translated and non-translated texts'. in Corpas Pastor G, Seghiri M (eds.) Corpus based Approaches to Translation and Interpreting: from theory to applications Frankfurt : Peter Lang
    [ Status: In preparation ]

    Abstract

    Students training to become translators are usually taught that there are a number of strategies other than literal translation that professional translators employ to transfer meanings from one language to another. One such strategy is simply to borrow words from the source language. There are times when loans are used simply because the target language does not have a word for a culture-specific item that is expressed lexically in the source language, but loans can also be employed deliberately, to convey a foreign flavour to the translation. In order to help translators decide whether the use of loans is appropriate in a given context, it is essential that they be given a translation brief. Knowledge of the target readership and of the purpose of the translation will allow the translator to make informed decisions regarding the appropriateness of employing words that are foreign to the target language. However, there does not seem to be much discussion among translation scholars of the fact that the use of loan words is not a prerogative of translational language. Texts that are not translations may also contain loans, which means translators are sometimes confronted with the presence of foreign words in source texts. Yet little has been written about the relationship between loan words in source texts and translations. How different are translations from source texts in their use of loan words? Are there more loans in translational or non-translational language? What loan languages are used? To what extent do translators preserve loans when they encounter them in source texts? And what happens to source-text loans that have been borrowed from the target translation language? Without the help of a corpus, any attempt to answer questions such as these systematically would be practically impossible. Using a bidirectional parallel corpus of Portuguese and English, the present study compares the use of loan words in translated and non-translated fiction, and investigates the shifts that occur from source to target text in relation to the use of loans. The analysis focuses on the frequency and on the language distribution of loans utilized in a corpus of Portuguese and English literary texts published from 1975 onwards. The results indicate that comparable Portuguese and English literary traditions contrast quite substantially in this respect, and that despite the fact that professional translators seem to be guided by similar norms when working from Portugu

  • Frankenberg-Garcia A. (2016) 'Corpora in ELT'. in (ed.) Routledge Encyclopedia of ELT Routledge
  • Frankenberg-Garcia A. (2014) 'Understanding Portuguese Translations with the Help of Corpora'. in Sardinha T, Ferreira T (eds.) Working with Portuguese Corpora Bloomsbury , pp. 161-176.
  • Frankenberg-Garcia A. (2012) 'Integrating corpora with everyday language teaching'. in Thomas J, Boulton A (eds.) Input, Process and Product: developments in teaching and language corpora Brno : Masaryk University Press , pp. 36-53.
  • Frankenberg-Garcia A. (2012) 'Prefácio'. in Shepherd T, Sardinha T, Veirano Pinto M (eds.) Caminhos da Linguística de Corpus Campinas, Brazil : Mercado das Letras , pp. 11-14.
  • Frankenberg-Garcia A. (2009) 'Are translations longer than source texts? A corpus-based study of explicitation'. in Beeby A, Rodríguez P, Sánchez-Gijón P (eds.) Corpus use and translating Amsterdam and Philadelphia : John Benjamins

    Abstract

    Explicitation is the process of rendering information which is only implicit in the source text explicit in the target text, and is believed to be one of the universals of translation (Blum-Kulka 1986, Olohan and Baker 2000, Øverås 1998, Séguinot 1988, Vanderauwera 1985). The present study uses corpus technology to attempt to shed some light on the complex relationship between translation, text length and explicitation. An awareness of what makes translations longer (or shorter) and more explicit than source texts can help trainee translators make more informed decisions during the translation process. This is felt to be an important component of translator education.

  • Frankenberg-Garcia A. (2008) 'Compilação e uso de corpora paralelos'. in Tagnin S, Vale O (eds.) Avanços da linguística de corpus no Brasil São Paulo, Brazil : Humanitas , pp. 117-136.
  • Frankenberg-Garcia A. (2007) 'Lost in Parallel Concordances'. in Teubert W (ed.) Corpus Linguistics London : Routledge IV, pp. 176-190.
  • Frankenberg-Garcia A. (2004) 'Lost in Parallel Concordances'. in Aston G, Bernardini S, Stewart D (eds.) Corpora and language learners Amsterdam and Philadelphia : John Benjamins , pp. 213-229.
  • Frankenberg-Garcia A, Santos D. (2003) 'Introducing COMPARA: the Portuguese-English Parallel Corpus'. in Zanettin F, Bernardini S, Stewart D (eds.) Corpora in Translator Education Manchester : St Jerome , pp. 71-87.
  • Frankenberg-Garcia A. (2002) 'COMPARA, language learning and translation training'. in Maia B, Haller J, Ulrych M (eds.) Training the Language Service Provider for the New Millennium Porto, Portugal : FLUP , pp. 187-198.
  • Frankenberg-Garcia A. (2000) 'Using Portuguese in the Teaching of English'. in Pina A, Duarte J, Serôdio MH (eds.) Do Esplendor na Relva: Elites e cultura comum de expressão inglesa. Lisboa : Cosmos , pp. 425-432.
  • Frankenberg-Garcia A. (1995) 'Reading, Revising, Editing'. in White RV (ed.) New Ways in Teaching Writing TESOL , pp. 114-114.

Software

  • Frankenberg-Garcia A, Santos D. (2001) COMPARA, bidirectional English-Portuguese parallel corpus.

Theses and dissertations

  • Farhan A. (2017) Ideological manipulation in the translation of political discourse : a study of presidential speeches after the Arab Spring based on corpora and critical discourse analysis..
    [ Status: Approved ]

    Abstract

    Abstract The present study explains that ideology can affect translators’ linguistic selections which can consequently shape the receivers’ worldviews. Owing to the fact that after the Arab Spring, new leaders with different ideologies and belonging to different political movements sprung forth, their political discourse has become a subject of increasing interest. The language these leaders use to promote their own political and ideological visions and the way to interpret them requires analysis to detect the possibility of translators’ intervention in the translation of these speeches. Adopting a mixed approach of corpus linguistics and critical discourse analysis, the present study focuses on investigating the manipulation of the source text ideology in the translation of presidential speeches after the Arab Spring. The source texts analysed in this study are 20 speeches by the former Egyptian president Morsi translated into English by five translators of various ideological backgrounds. The analysis of these source texts is based on the extraction of keywords and a selection of keywords with ideological content. The analysis of the target texts, on the other hand, focuses on the use of ideological keywords in lexical patterns and grammatical structures to detect ideological manipulation in translation. The thesis aims to describe systematically the means through which translations transfer, strengthen, or mitigate the ideology underlying the source texts. Using five parallel corpora of the source texts and their translations, the thesis also aims to ascertain whether the lexical choices and the syntactic structures employed in the target texts engender changes in the ideological content of the source texts and their underlying ideology. The results reveal that two out of the five translations project a manipulated ideology that is at variance with the ideology underlining the original texts. One translation strengthens the ideology of the source texts, whereas the other two translations aim to maintain the original ideology unchanged. This indicates that instances of ideological manipulation are probable even in the translation of presidential speeches due to the nature of the source texts, the ideology underlying them as well as the possibility of an ideological clash.

  • Frankenberg-Garcia AL. (1991) Second Language Writing Instruction: a study of the effects of a discourse-oriented programme upon the ability of skilled writers to improve their written production. University of Edinburgh

Working Papers

  • Frankenberg-Garcia A. (1990) Do the similarities between L1 and L2 writing processes conceal important differences?. Edinburgh Working Papers in Applied Linguistics, 1, pp. 91-102.

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