Dr Doris Dippold

Research Interests

  • SMEs and their language management strategies (Project "Arctic")
  • Interaction in linguistically and culturally diverse university classrooms
  • Intercultural communication; Intercultural Pragmatics
  • Teaching and learning languages in Higher Education
  • Computer-mediated communication and computer-assisted language learning

Research Collaborations

In 2012, Doris was a currently principal investigator on an AHRC-funded project on businesses' language and cultural barriers in international trade (Project "Arctic").

She has also conducted research on communication in culturally diverse university classrooms and has developed a web-based resource on professional communication as part of a SCEPTrE fellowship.


Professional Communication (UG)

German Business Environment (UG)

Contemporary Germany II (UG)

Teaching Intercultural Communication (PG)

GGA German Stage 1 & 3

Departmental Duties

Doris is PGR Director and PGR admissions tutor for the school.


British Association of Applied Linguistics (BAAL)

International Pragmatics Association (IPRA)

Contact Me

Phone: 01483 68 3059

Find me on campus
Room: 06 LC 03

My office hours

Monday 10-12 

Friday 12-1 


Journal articles

  • Dippold D. (2014) '"That's wrong": Repair and rapport in culturally diverse higher education classrooms'. Modern Language Journal, 98 (1), pp. 402-416.
  • Dippold D. (2013) 'Exploring professional communication. Language in action'. Elsevier Journal of Pragmatics, 51, pp. 87-88.
  • Dippold D. (2013) 'Interaction for learning in the Anglophone university classroom: Mastering interactional challenges through reflective practice'. Association for Academic Language and Learning Journal of Academic Language and Learning, 7 (1), pp. A14-A25.


    In the internationalised classroom of the Anglophone world, tutors as well as students face the challenge of negotiating the norms of classroom interaction which frequently remain opaque, potentially leading to feelings of alienation and lost learning opportunities. After reviewing the literature on academic classroom talk in international and multilingual/multicultural settings, this paper uses episodes from one UK higher education classroom and the retrospective comments by the classroom tutor to discuss the challenges faced by students and tutors in today's “internationalised” Anglophone university. It ends by suggesting that the principle of “reflective practice”, if implemented in staff development courses and in courses for all members of the classroom community, can train students to use spoken academic language more effectively in the internationalised Anglophone university. The paper further hopes to be able to bring together the discourses on internationalisation used in applied linguistics and education studies in the interest of more intensive collaboration between the two fields of research.

  • Dippold D. (2012) 'Pragmatics for Language Educators. Virginia LoCastro, Routledge, New York/London, 2012, 331 pp., ISBN: 978-0-415-80116-4, €40.99 (paperback)'. Elsevier Journal of Pragmatics, 44 (4), pp. 532-534.
  • Dippold D. (2011) 'Argumentative Discourse in L2 German: A Sociocognitive Perspective on the Development of Facework Strategies'. Wiley Modern Language Journal, 95 (2), pp. 171-187.


    This study contributes to the growing field of research on interlanguage pragmatic development with a study on the development of argumentative discourse ability by second-language learners of German. I will be focusing on facework—that is, the use of verbal strategies that allow the speaker to have his or her social identities, particular personal qualities, and attributes validated by others. The study approaches the data, which were gathered from learners of German at 3 levels of proficiency, from the perspective of sequential and preference organisation. The analysis shows that argumentative sequences develop from a simple 2- or 3-turn structure, which consists of merely 1 “core” adjacency pair (assessment/opinion–agreement/disagreement), to being extended by postsequences and insertion sequences. It is only for learners of higher proficiency, however, that these extensions serve to further the argument rather than merely building on agreement. When disagreeing, learners increasingly use agreement turns to sharpen forthcoming disagreement or use their interlocutors’ turns to serve that purpose. These developments are then explained from a sociocognitive perspective. I will argue that developments are due to learners overcoming processing constraints as proficiency progresses as well as their changing frames of reference for the task.

  • Dippold D. (2009) 'Peer feedback through blogs: Student and tutor perceptions in an advanced German class'. Cambridge University Press ReCall, 21 (1), pp. 18-36.


    Recent years have seen the emergence of Web2.0, in which users are not only passive recipients of the featured content, but actively engaged in constructing it. Sites such as ‘Facebook’, ‘Myspace’ are typical examples of this, as are blogs that allow users to present themselves online, to write about their daily lives or even to establish themselves as an authority on a particular subject. Due to the opportunities for self-reflection and interactive learning offered by blogs, they have also become one of the emerging tools in language pedagogy and higher education. At the same time, peer feedback is a technique that is increasingly used by educators instead of, or in addition to, tutor feedback, due to its potential to develop students’ understanding of standards, to initiate peer feedback, and to engage the student in the process of learning and assessment. This paper is concerned with the question to what extent blogs can facilitate peer feedback and what issues need to be addressed for them to be a valuable tool in this process. After reviewing the recent literature on peer feedback and the specific issues emerging from providing feedback through computer mediated communication (CMC) technologies, the 2 paper presents the results from a pedagogic research project in an advanced German language class in which blogs were used for this purpose. Drawing on students’ blogs as well as the responses given by students in questionnaires and focus groups and responses by experienced tutors in interviews, the paper argues that blogs are potentially valuable tools for peer feedback, but entail the need to address specific issues regarding the choice of CMC tool for feedback tasks, training in the use of interactive online tools and the roles of teachers and students.

  • Dippold D. (2009) 'Face and self-presentation in spoken L2 discourse: Renewing the research agenda in interlanguage pragmatics'. MOUTON DE GRUYTER INTERCULT PRAGMAT, 6 (1), pp. 1-28.


    This paper introduces a more nuanced view of face and facework than the commonly used frameworks in interlanguage pragmatics. It argues that ILP not only prioritizes research on the expression of politeness in the L2 and the acquisition of politeness strategies, but that the field also does that in at? extremely decontextualized manner that takes little account of the situatedness of linguistic discourse. Moreover, the paper suggests that existing accounts office and facework with their focus on politeness alone may not be sufficient to capture speakers' projection of other aspects of self-hood, i.e. the social identities and/or attributes that they want to foreground and be attributed with in particular situations.By analyzing an argumentative conversation of two L2 learners of German, the paper shows different ways in which self-presentation is performed, e.g., by the way speakers organize their turns, the way they modalize their discourse, and the way they use markers of reference and identity. It then argues that the field of interlanguage pragmatic should move away from its focus on politeness in a limited set of speech acts and focus also on self-presentation.

  • Dippold D. (2007) 'Using speech frames to research interlanguage pragmatics: facework strategies in L2 German argument'. Equinox Journal of Applied Linguistics, 4 (3), pp. 285-308.


    This paper approaches data from L2 German argumentative discourse from Goffman’s related notions of face and frames. Face as the social identities and qualities speakers want to have upheld is seen to be associated frames, i.e. the way speakers frame and interpret an event. Comparing three examples from a cross-sectional data set of discussions on issues associated with university life, the paper shows that, in each of these cases, speakers applied different frames to the task, resulting in different patterns of turn-taking and modalisation. These differences can be explained with the varying degrees of exposure to the target language in classroom and out-of-classroom situations as well as the educational environment in which the data were collected. The paper ends with a number of proposals for research in the field of interlanguage pragmatics, suggesting that politeness and speech act perspectives are insufficient to grasp learners’ real pragmatic intent. Instead, the question of how tasks and situations are interpreted by learners need to be at the forefront of inquiry, with methods for data collection and analysis appropriate to that agenda following suit.


  • Dippold D. (2015) Classroom Interaction The Internationalized Anglophone University. Palgrave Macmillan

Book chapters

  • Dippold D. (2012) 'Students’ rights in higher education classrooms: An exploration of tutors’ beliefs and their turn-taking practices'. in (ed.) Multilingual Theory and Practice in Applied Linguistics Proceedings of the 45th Annual Meeting of the British Association for Applied Linguistics Article number 13 , pp. 51-51.
  • Dippold D. (2008) 'Reframing one's experience: Face, identity and roles in L2 argumentative discourse'. in Pütz M, Neff-van Aertselaer J (eds.) Developing Contrastive Pragmatics: Interlanguage and Cross-Cultural Pragmatics Mouton de Gruyter 31, pp. 131-154.


    This paper argues that the field of interlanguage pragmatics – the study of L2 use and development – has neglected facework strategies that are directed towards the speaker rather than the hearer. These strategies serve to present particular identities and qualities of the speaker. This is exemplified through examples from L2 learners of German at three different levels of proficiency taking part in an argumentation task and retrospective interviews with thee learners. The analysis shows that, the lower learners’ level of proficiency is, the more likely it is that the organisation of the discourse and the use of epistemic verbs such as ‘ich denke’ (I think) are oriented towards the maintenance of a ‘good L2 speaker’ face. Learners in essence play the role of a language learner rather than the role imposed on them by the argumentative task, and ‘politeness’ towards the interlocutor is not at the forefront of their mind. As a consequence, the paper suggests that interlanguage pragmatics needs to integrate perspectives which see face management as more than the mere enactment of politeness.

  • Dippold D. (2006) 'Face in L2 argumentative discourse: Psycholinguistic constraints on the construction of identity'. in Kiely R, Woodfield H, Rea-Dickins P, Clibbon G (eds.) Language, Culture and Identity in Applied Linguistics Equinox 21 Article number 10 , pp. 163-180.


    This paper introduces Goffman’ theory of ‘face’ as a theory of identity, arguing that individual speakers retain agency for the kind of self-image they want to construct in terms of their qualities and social roles. Drawing on data elicited through elicitation tasks (argumentative conversations) by learners of German at three levels of proficiency, as well as retrospective interviews with these learners, the paper shows that linguistic limitations and limitations in processing control mean that learners at lower levels or proficiency are more likely to use their limited resources in the service of constructing a ‘good L2 speaker’ identity rather than an identity associated with the argumentative task. The paper thus argues that labelling learners’ performance as deficient is not helpful. Rather, their attention is simply diverted to aspects of ‘face’ that are salient and important to them.


  • Dippold D, Angorui J, Hagen S, Aponte-Morone M. (2013) ARCTIC: Assessing and Reviewing Cultural Transaction in International Companies. in (ed.) ARCTIC: Assessing and Reviewing Cultural Transaction in International Companies

Other publications

  • Dippold D, Hagen S, Angouri J, Aponte-Moreno M. (2013) Addressing Cultural and Language Barriers in International Business.
  • Dippold D. (2013) ARCTIC: A study of communication practices in England and Wales. ARCTIC Networking Event, Guildford :

Theses and dissertations

  • Wilson D. (2017) An investigation into the comprehensive development of L2 pragmatic competence in the EFL classroom : a case of advanced Serbian EFL learners..
    [ Status: Approved ]


    Pragmatic competence is a component of language knowledge; therefore, it is as intrinsic to the ability to successfully communicate for a foreign language (FL) learner as it is for a native speaker, especially where perceptions of politeness may vary between cultures. Despite this, pragmatics is under-represented in FL course materials and assessments, and consequently educators are often left unsure as to how to include it in their classes. The result of this is that learners may achieve proficiency in the linguistic competences (knowledge of lexis, syntax, phonology), but remain pragmatically underdeveloped and susceptible to pragmatic failure. The present study seeks to investigate how second language (L2) pragmatic competence can be comprehensively developed in the ordinary EFL classroom, using an explicit teaching method which fundamentally integrates assessment into the instructional process. To conduct this investigation, a novel method was designed and implemented with the participation of advanced Serbian EFL learners. Data sources, including role-play and video-based assessments, interviews, discussions and observations, were then obtained for the purposes of cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis to address three research questions. The first two questions explore how the components of pragmatic competence develop as a result of the instructional method and the role of pragmatic awareness in this. The third question investigates the practicality (validity and feasibility) of incorporating such a method in the classroom context. Findings suggest that the assessment-integrated instructional method constitutes a practical and effective means of comprehensively developing L2 pragmatic competence in the ordinary EFL classroom, as evidenced by the demonstrable development of participants’ conscious knowledge and ability to apply contextually appropriate Head act and External modification strategies. L2 pragmatic awareness appears to be key to the process of developing particular pragmatic sub-competences. Findings also serve to indicate further implications for pragmatics-related instructional methods, such as the phenomenon of ‘pragmatic fossilisation’.

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