Professor Simon Archer

Featured Stories

Research Interests

Dr Archer is a member of the Sleep, Chronobiology & Addiction research group

Main research interests include individual differences in sleep and circadian rhythms and the genetics underlying these phenotypic differences. This pioneering research has been at the forefront of the field of the genetics of sleep and circadian rhythms (Archer, Sleep, 2003) and has identified significant associations between genetic variation and the timing of sleep and wake activity (including delayed sleep phase disorder), sleep homeostasis, vulnerability to sleep loss, cognitive performance and brain function (assessed by fMRI), cardiac function, and the phase angle of gene expression in peripheral leukocytes. During this research, techniques have been developed to study whole-genome expression in peripheral blood across a time series and this has led to significant findings in the effects of sleep-wake, sleep deprivation, and mistimed sleep on the regulation of gene expression (Archer et al., Sleep, 2008; Möller-Levet, Archer et al, PNAS, 2013; Archer et al, PNAS, 2014). Transgenic humanised animal models have also been developed to further investigate these mechanisms (Hasan et al., FASEB, 2014).

Research Collaborations

Prof John Groeger, Department of Psychology, University of Hull, UK
Dr Alice Gregory, Psychology Department, Goldsmiths, University of London, UK
Dr Nicola Barclay, Department of Psychology, Northumbria University, UK
Dr Patrick Nolan, MRC Harwell, UK
Dr Luc Schlangen, Philips Lighting, Eindhoven, The Netherlands
Prof Christian Cajochen, Centre for Chronobiology, University of Basel, Switzerland
Prof Pierre Maquet, Cyclotron Research Centre, University of Liege, Belgium

Teaching

BMS1025 Cell Biology
BMS2043 Analytical Biochemistry
BMS2048 Neuroscience, from Neurones to Behaviour
BMS2062 Animal Biology
BMS3066 Biological Rhythms

Departmental Duties


Biochemistry Admissions Tutor

Affiliations

European Biological Rhythms Society
Society for Research on Biological Rhythms (member of Trainee Awards Committee 2011-present)
European Sleep Research Society (member of Scientific Committee 2010-2014, Chair Scientific Committee 2012-2014, member of Research Network Committee 2010-2014)

Selected Conference/Seminar Invitations

2009 ‘Genetics of sleep, EEG, and vulnerability to sleep loss’, Sanofi-Aventis 7th International Sleep Disorders Forum, Art of Good Sleep Congress, Cannes, France

2010 ‘PER3 and the genetics of sleep and circadian phenotypes in mice and men’, 20th Annual Congress, European Sleep Research Society, Lisbon, Portugal

2011 ‘Genetics of sleep and circadian rhythms in mice’, 6th Quadrennial Worldsleep Congress, Kyoto, Japan

2012 ‘Circadian rhythm disorders’, Royal Society of Medicine conference on ‘Genetics of sleep & sleep disorders’, London, UK

2012 ‘Interaction between sleep & circadian rhythms’, joint ESRS-EBRS symposium, 21st Congress of the European Sleep Research Society, Paris, France

2012 ‘Sleep, body clocks, and health’, University of Surrey Council & Executive meeting, UK

2013 ‘The human clock’, Marie Curie Research Training Network, CNRS, Paris

2014 ‘The contribution of sleep and circadian systems to the regulation of peripheral gene expression – relevance to jet lag, shift work, and circadian disorders’, Royal Society of Medicine conference on ‘Hot topics for healthcare scientists in sleep medicine’, London, UK

2014 ‘Chronotype, sleep, and the human transcriptome’, German Institute of Human Nutrition, Berlin

2014 ‘Mistimed sleep disrupts the circadian regulation of the human transcriptome’, 22nd Congress of the European Sleep Research Society, Tallinn, Estonia

Contact Me

E-mail:
Phone: 01483 68 6408

Find me on campus
Room: 07 AY 02


My office hours

Please contact me for an appointment

Publications

Highlights

  • Muto V, Jaspar M, Meyer C, Kusse C, Chellappa SL, Degueldre C, Balteau E, Shaffii-Le Bourdiec A, Luxen A, Middleton B, Archer SN, Phillips C, Collette F, Vandewalle G, Dijk D-J, Maquet P. (2016) 'Local modulation of human brain responses by circadian rhythmicity and sleep debt'. AMER ASSOC ADVANCEMENT SCIENCE SCIENCE, 353 (6300), pp. 687-690.
  • Laing EE, Johnston JD, Möller-Levet CS, Bucca G, Smith CP, Dijk D-J, Archer SN. (2015) 'Exploiting human and mouse transcriptomic data: Identification of circadian genes and pathways influencing health'. BioEssays,
  • Archer SN, Laing EE, Möller-Levet CS, van der Veen DR, Bucca G, Lazar AS, Santhi N, Slak A, Kabiljo R, von Schantz M, Smith CP, Dijk DJ. (2014) 'Mistimed sleep disrupts circadian regulation of the human transcriptome.'. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A,

    Abstract

    Circadian organization of the mammalian transcriptome is achieved by rhythmic recruitment of key modifiers of chromatin structure and transcriptional and translational processes. These rhythmic processes, together with posttranslational modification, constitute circadian oscillators in the brain and peripheral tissues, which drive rhythms in physiology and behavior, including the sleep-wake cycle. In humans, sleep is normally timed to occur during the biological night, when body temperature is low and melatonin is synthesized. Desynchrony of sleep-wake timing and other circadian rhythms, such as occurs in shift work and jet lag, is associated with disruption of rhythmicity in physiology and endocrinology. However, to what extent mistimed sleep affects the molecular regulators of circadian rhythmicity remains to be established. Here, we show that mistimed sleep leads to a reduction of rhythmic transcripts in the human blood transcriptome from 6.4% at baseline to 1.0% during forced desynchrony of sleep and centrally driven circadian rhythms. Transcripts affected are key regulators of gene expression, including those associated with chromatin modification (methylases and acetylases), transcription (RNA polymerase II), translation (ribosomal proteins, initiation, and elongation factors), temperature-regulated transcription (cold inducible RNA-binding proteins), and core clock genes including CLOCK and ARNTL (BMAL1). We also estimated the separate contribution of sleep and circadian rhythmicity and found that the sleep-wake cycle coordinates the timing of transcription and translation in particular. The data show that mistimed sleep affects molecular processes at the core of circadian rhythm generation and imply that appropriate timing of sleep contributes significantly to the overall temporal organization of the human transcriptome.

  • Möller-Levet CS, Archer SN, Bucca G, Laing EE, Slak A, Kabiljo R, Lo JC, Santhi N, von Schantz M, Smith CP, Dijk DJ. (2013) 'Effects of insufficient sleep on circadian rhythmicity and expression amplitude of the human blood transcriptome.'. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, United States: 110 (12), pp. E1132-E1141.

    Abstract

    Insufficient sleep and circadian rhythm disruption are associated with negative health outcomes, including obesity, cardiovascular disease, and cognitive impairment, but the mechanisms involved remain largely unexplored. Twenty-six participants were exposed to 1 wk of insufficient sleep (sleep-restriction condition 5.70 h, SEM = 0.03 sleep per 24 h) and 1 wk of sufficient sleep (control condition 8.50 h sleep, SEM = 0.11). Immediately following each condition, 10 whole-blood RNA samples were collected from each participant, while controlling for the effects of light, activity, and food, during a period of total sleep deprivation. Transcriptome analysis revealed that 711 genes were up- or down-regulated by insufficient sleep. Insufficient sleep also reduced the number of genes with a circadian expression profile from 1,855 to 1,481, reduced the circadian amplitude of these genes, and led to an increase in the number of genes that responded to subsequent total sleep deprivation from 122 to 856. Genes affected by insufficient sleep were associated with circadian rhythms (PER1, PER2, PER3, CRY2, CLOCK, NR1D1, NR1D2, RORA, DEC1, CSNK1E), sleep homeostasis (IL6, STAT3, KCNV2, CAMK2D), oxidative stress (PRDX2, PRDX5), and metabolism (SLC2A3, SLC2A5, GHRL, ABCA1). Biological processes affected included chromatin modification, gene-expression regulation, macromolecular metabolism, and inflammatory, immune and stress responses. Thus, insufficient sleep affects the human blood transcriptome, disrupts its circadian regulation, and intensifies the effects of acute total sleep deprivation. The identified biological processes may be involved with the negative effects of sleep loss on health, and highlight the interrelatedness of sleep homeostasis, circadian rhythmicity, and metabolism.

  • Adan A, Archer SN, Hidalgo MP, Di Milia L, Natale V, Randler C. (2012) 'Circadian typology: A comprehensive review'. Chronobiology International, 29 (9), pp. 1153-1175.

    Abstract

    The interest in the systematic study of the circadian typology (CT) is relatively recent and has developed rapidly in the two last decades. All the existing data suggest that this individual difference affects our biological and psychological functioning, not only in health, but also in disease. In the present study, we review the current literature concerning the psychometric properties and validity of CT measures as well as individual, environmental and genetic factors that influence the CT. We present a brief overview of the biological markers that are used to define differences between CT groups (sleepwake cycle, body temperature, cortisol and melatonin), and we assess the implications for CT and adjustment to shiftwork and jet lag. We also review the differences between CT in terms of cognitive abilities, personality traits and the incidence of psychiatric disorders. When necessary, we have emphasized the methodological limitations that exist today and suggested some future avenues of work in order to overcome these. This is a new field of interest to professionals in many different areas (research, labor, academic and clinical), and this review provides a state of the art discussion to allow professionals to integrate chronobiological aspects of human behavior into their daily practice. Copyright © Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.

  • Vandewalle G, Archer SN, Wuillaume C, Balteau E, Degueldre C, Luxen A, Maquet P, Dijk D-J. (2009) 'Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Assessed Brain Responses during an Executive Task Depend on Interaction of Sleep Homeostasis, Circadian Phase, and PER3 Genotype'. SOC NEUROSCIENCE JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE, 29 (25), pp. 7948-7956.

Journal articles

  • Wehrens S, Christou S, Isherwood C, Middleton B, Gibbs M, Archer S, Skene D, Johnston J. (2017) 'Meal Timing Regulates the Human Circadian System'. Elsevier (Cell Press) Current Biology, 27 (12), pp. 1768-1775e3.

    Abstract

    Circadian rhythms, metabolism and nutrition are intimately linked [1, 2], although effects of meal timing on the human circadian system are poorly understood. We investigated the effect of a 5-hour delay in meals on markers of the human master clock and multiple peripheral circadian rhythms. Ten healthy young men undertook a 13-day laboratory protocol. Three meals (breakfast, lunch, dinner) were given at 5-hour intervals, beginning either 0.5 (early) or 5.5 (late) hours after wake. Participants were acclimated to early meals and then switched to late meals for 6 days. After each meal schedule, participants' circadian rhythms were measured in a 37-hour constant routine that removes sleep and environmental rhythms while replacing meals with hourly isocaloric snacks. Meal timing did not alter actigraphic sleep parameters before circadian rhythm measurement. In constant routines, meal timing did not affect rhythms of subjective hunger and sleepiness, master clock markers (plasma melatonin and cortisol), plasma triglycerides, or clock gene expression in whole blood. Following late meals, however, plasma glucose rhythms were delayed by 5.69 ± 1.29 hours (p < 0.001) and average glucose concentration decreased by 0.27 ± 0.05 mM (p < 0.001). In adipose tissue, PER2 mRNA rhythms were delayed by 0.97 ± 0.29 hours (p < 0.01), indicating that human molecular clocks may be regulated by feeding time and could underpin plasma glucose changes. Timed meals therefore play a role in synchronising peripheral circadian rhythms in humans, and may have particular relevance for patients with circadian rhythm disorders, shift workers, and transmeridian travellers.

  • Laing E, Moller-Levet C, Poh N, Santhi N, Archer S, Dijk D. (2017) 'Blood transcriptome based biomarkers for human circadian phase'. eLife Sciences Publications Ltd eLife, , pp. 1-26.

    Abstract

    Diagnosis and treatment of circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders requires assessment of circadian phase of the brain’s circadian pacemaker. The gold-standard univariate method is based on collection of a 24 h time series of plasma melatonin, a suprachiasmatic nucleus driven pineal hormone. We developed and validated a multivariate whole-blood mRNA based predictor of melatonin phase which requires few samples. Transcriptome data were collected under normal, sleep-deprivation and abnormal sleep-timing conditions to assess robustness of the predictor. Partial least square regression (PLSR), applied to the transcriptome, identified a set of 100 biomarkers primarily related to glucocorticoid signaling and immune function. Validation showed that PLSR-based predictors outperform published blood-derived circadian phase predictors. When given one sample as input, the R2 of predicted vs observed phase was 0.74, whereas for two samples taken 12 h apart, R2 was 0.90. This blood transcriptome based model enables assessment of circadian phase from a few samples.

  • Martynhak BJ, Hogben AL, Zanos P, Georgiou P, Andreatini R, Kitchen I, Archer SN, von Schantz M, Bailey A, Van Der Veen DR. (2017) 'Transient anhedonia phenotype and altered circadian timing of behaviour during night-time dim light exposure in Per3-/- mice, but not wildtype mice'. Nature Publishing Group Scientific Reports, 7 Article number 40399

    Abstract

    Industrialisation greatly increased human night-time exposure to artificial light, which in animal models is a known cause of depressive phenotypes. Whilst many of these phenotypes are ‘direct’ effects of light on affect, an ‘indirect’ pathway via altered sleep-wake timing has been suggested. We have previously shown that the Period3 gene, which forms part of the biological clock, is associated with altered sleep-wake patterns in response to light. Here, we show that both wild-type and Per3-/- mice showed elevated levels of circulating corticosterone and increased hippocampal Bdnf expression after 3 weeks of exposure to dim light at night, but only mice deficient for the PERIOD3 protein (Per3-/-) exhibited a transient anhedonia-like phenotype, observed as reduced sucrose preference, in weeks 2-3 of dim light at night, whereas WT mice did not. Per3-/- mice also exhibited a significantly smaller delay in behavioural timing than WT mice during weeks 1, 2 and 4 of dim light at night exposure. When treated with imipramine, neither Per3-/- nor WT mice exhibited an anhedonia-like phenotype, and neither genotypes exhibited a delay in behavioural timing in responses to dLAN. While the association between both Per3-/- phenotypes remains unclear, both are alleviated by imipramine treatment during dim night-time light.

  • Chellappa S, Gaggioni G, Ly J, Papachilleos S, Borsu C, Brzozowski A, Rosanova M, Sarasso S, Luxen A, Middleton BA, Archer S, Dijk D, Massimini M, Maquet P, Phillips C, Moran R, Vandewalle G. (2016) 'Circadian dynamics in measures of cortical excitation and inhibition balance'. Nature Publishing Group Scientific Reports, 6 Article number 33661

    Abstract

    Several neuropsychiatric and neurological disorders have recently been characterized as dysfunctions arising from a ‘final common pathway’ of imbalanced excitation to inhibition within cortical networks. How the regulation of a cortical E/I ratio is affected by sleep and the circadian rhythm however, remains to be established. Here we addressed this issue through the analyses of TMS-evoked responses recorded over a 29h sleep deprivation protocol conducted in young and healthy volunteers. Spectral analyses of TMS-evoked responses in frontal cortex revealed non-linear changes in gamma band evoked oscillations, compatible with an influence of circadian timing on inhibitory interneuron activity. In silico inferences of cell-to-cell excitatory and inhibitory connectivity and GABA/Glutamate receptor time constant based on neural mass modeling within the Dynamic causal modeling framework, further suggested excitation/inhibition balance was under a strong circadian influence. These results indicate that circadian changes in EEG spectral properties, in measure of excitatory/inhibitory connectivity and in GABA/glutamate receptor function could support the maintenance of cognitive performance during a normal waking day, but also during overnight wakefulness. More generally, these findings demonstrate a slow daily regulation of cortical excitation/inhibition balance, which depends on circadian-timing and prior sleep-wake history.

  • Muto V, Jaspar M, Meyer C, Kusse C, Chellappa SL, Degueldre C, Balteau E, Shaffii-Le Bourdiec A, Luxen A, Middleton B, Archer SN, Phillips C, Collette F, Vandewalle G, Dijk D-J, Maquet P. (2016) 'Local modulation of human brain responses by circadian rhythmicity and sleep debt'. AMER ASSOC ADVANCEMENT SCIENCE SCIENCE, 353 (6300), pp. 687-690.
  • Ly J, Gaggioni G, Chellappa S, Papachilleos S, Brzozowski A, Borsu C, Rosanova M, Sarasso S, Middleton BA, Luxen A, Archer S, Phillips C, Dijk D, Maquet P, Massimini M, Vandewalle G. (2016) 'Circadian regulation of human cortical excitability'. Nature Publishing Group Nature Communications, Article number 11828

    Abstract

    Prolonged wakefulness alters cortical excitability, which is essential for proper brain function and cognition. However, besides prior wakefulness, brain function and cognition are also affected by circadian rhythmicity. Whether the regulation of cognition involves a circadian impact on cortical excitability is unknown. Here, we assessed cortical excitability from scalp EEG-responses to transcranial magnetic stimulation in 22 participants during 29-h of wakefulness under constant conditions. Data reveal robust circadian dynamics of cortical excitability that were strongest in those individuals with highest endocrine markers of circadian amplitude. In addition, the time course of cortical excitability correlated with changes in EEG synchronization and cognitive performance. These results demonstrate that the crucial factor for cortical excitability, and basic brain function in general, is the balance between circadian rhythmicity and sleep need, rather than sleep homeostasis alone. These findings have implications for clinical applications such as noninvasive brain stimulation in neurorehabilitation.

  • Meyer C, Muto V, Jaspar M, Kusse C, Lambot E, Chellappa SL, Degueldre C, Balteau E, Luxen A, Middleton B, Archer SN, Collette F, Dijk D-J, Phillips C, Maquet P, Vandewalle G. (2016) 'Seasonality in human cognitive brain responses'. NATL ACAD SCIENCES PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, 113 (11), pp. 3066-3071.
  • Archer SN, Oster H. (2015) 'How sleep and wakefulness influence circadian rhythmicity: effects of insufficient and mistimed sleep on the animal and human transcriptome.'. J Sleep Res, England: 24 (5), pp. 476-493.
  • Laing EE, Johnston JD, Moller-Levet CS, Bucca G, Smith C, Dijk D, Archer S . (2015) 'Exploiting human and mouse transcriptomic data: Identification of circadian genes and pathways influencing health'. Wiley BioEssays, 37 (5), pp. 544-556.

    Abstract

    The power of the application of bioinformatics across multiple publicly available transcriptomic data sets was explored. Using 19 human and mouse circadian transcriptomic data sets, we found that NR1D1 and NR1D2 which encode heme-responsive nuclear receptors are the most rhythmic transcripts across sleep conditions and tissues suggesting that they are at the core of circadian rhythm generation. Analyzes of human transcriptomic data show that a core set of transcripts related to processes including immune function, glucocorticoid signalling, and lipid metabolism is rhythmically expressed independently of the sleep-wake cycle. We also identify key transcripts associated with transcription and translation that are disrupted by sleep manipulations, and through network analysis identify putative mechanisms underlying the adverse health outcomes associated with sleep disruption, such as diabetes and cancer. Comparative bioinformatics applied to existing and future data sets will be a powerful tool for the identification of core circadian- and sleep-dependent molecules.

  • Laing EE, Johnston JD, Möller-Levet CS, Bucca G, Smith CP, Dijk D-J, Archer SN. (2015) 'Exploiting human and mouse transcriptomic data: Identification of circadian genes and pathways influencing health'. BioEssays,
  • Laing EE, Johnston JD, Moller-Levet CS, Bucca G, Smith CP, Dijk DJ, Archer SN. (2015) 'Exploiting human and mouse transcriptomic data: identification of circadian genes and pathways influencing health'. BioEssays, 36 Article number 10.1002/bies.201400193
    [ Status: Accepted ]
  • Parsons MJ, Lester KJ, Barclay NL, Archer SN, Nolan PM, Eley TC, Gregory AM. (2014) 'Polymorphisms in the circadian expressed genes PER3 and ARNTL2 are associated with diurnal preference and GNβ3 with sleep measures'. Journal of Sleep Research, 23 (5), pp. 595-604.
  • Wu C, Sui G, Archer SN, Sassone-Corsi P, Aitken K, Bagli D, Chen Y. (2014) 'Local receptors as novel regulators for peripheral clock expression.'. FASEB J, United States: 28 (11), pp. 4610-4616.
  • Hasan S, van der Veen DR, Winsky-Sommerer R, Hogben A, Laing EE, Koentgen F, Dijk DJ, Archer SN. (2014) 'A human sleep homeostasis phenotype in mice expressing a primate-specific PER3 variable-number tandem-repeat coding-region polymorphism.'. FASEB J,

    Abstract

    In humans, a primate-specific variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) polymorphism (4 or 5 repeats 54 nt in length) in the circadian gene PER3 is associated with differences in sleep timing and homeostatic responses to sleep loss. We investigated the effects of this polymorphism on circadian rhythmicity and sleep homeostasis by introducing the polymorphism into mice and assessing circadian and sleep parameters at baseline and during and after 12 h of sleep deprivation (SD). Microarray analysis was used to measure hypothalamic and cortical gene expression. Circadian behavior and sleep were normal at baseline. The response to SD of 2 electrophysiological markers of sleep homeostasis, electroencephalography (EEG) θ power during wakefulness and δ power during sleep, were greater in the Per3(5/5) mice. During recovery, the Per3(5/5) mice fully compensated for the SD-induced deficit in δ power, but the Per3(4/4) and wild-type mice did not. Sleep homeostasis-related transcripts (e.g., Homer1, Ptgs2, and Kcna2) were differentially expressed between the humanized mice, but circadian clock genes were not. These data are in accordance with the hypothesis derived from human data that the PER3 VNTR polymorphism modifies the sleep homeostatic response without significantly influencing circadian parameters.-Hasan, S., van der Veen, D. R., Winsky-Sommerer, R., Hogben, A., Laing, E. E., Koentgen, F., Dijk, D.-J., Archer, S. N. A human sleep homeostasis phenotype in mice expressing a primate-specific PER3 variable-number tandem-repeat coding-region polymorphism.

  • Archer SN, Laing EE, Moeller-Levet CS, van der Veen DR, Bucca G, Lazar AS, Santhi N, Slak A, Kabiljo R, von Schantz M, Smith CP, Dijk D-J. (2014) 'Mistimed sleep disrupts circadian regulation of the human transcriptome'. PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, 111 (6), pp. E682-E691.
  • Archer SN, Laing EE, Möller-Levet CS, van der Veen DR, Bucca G, Lazar AS, Santhi N, Slak A, Kabiljo R, von Schantz M, Smith CP, Dijk DJ. (2014) 'Mistimed sleep disrupts circadian regulation of the human transcriptome.'. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A,

    Abstract

    Circadian organization of the mammalian transcriptome is achieved by rhythmic recruitment of key modifiers of chromatin structure and transcriptional and translational processes. These rhythmic processes, together with posttranslational modification, constitute circadian oscillators in the brain and peripheral tissues, which drive rhythms in physiology and behavior, including the sleep-wake cycle. In humans, sleep is normally timed to occur during the biological night, when body temperature is low and melatonin is synthesized. Desynchrony of sleep-wake timing and other circadian rhythms, such as occurs in shift work and jet lag, is associated with disruption of rhythmicity in physiology and endocrinology. However, to what extent mistimed sleep affects the molecular regulators of circadian rhythmicity remains to be established. Here, we show that mistimed sleep leads to a reduction of rhythmic transcripts in the human blood transcriptome from 6.4% at baseline to 1.0% during forced desynchrony of sleep and centrally driven circadian rhythms. Transcripts affected are key regulators of gene expression, including those associated with chromatin modification (methylases and acetylases), transcription (RNA polymerase II), translation (ribosomal proteins, initiation, and elongation factors), temperature-regulated transcription (cold inducible RNA-binding proteins), and core clock genes including CLOCK and ARNTL (BMAL1). We also estimated the separate contribution of sleep and circadian rhythmicity and found that the sleep-wake cycle coordinates the timing of transcription and translation in particular. The data show that mistimed sleep affects molecular processes at the core of circadian rhythm generation and imply that appropriate timing of sleep contributes significantly to the overall temporal organization of the human transcriptome.

  • Pereira DS, Van Der Veen DR, Gonçalves BSB, Tufik S, Von Schantz M, Archer SN, Pedrazzoli M. (2014) 'The effect of different photoperiods in circadian rhythms of Per3 knockout mice'. BioMed Research International, 2014

    Abstract

    The aim of this study was to analyse the circadian behavioural responses of mice carrying a functional knockout of the Per3 gene (P e r 3 - / -) to different light: dark (L: D) cycles. Male adult wild-type (WT) and P e r 3 - / - mice were kept under 12-hour light: 12-hour dark conditions (12L: 12D) and then transferred to either a short or long photoperiod and subsequently released into total darkness. All mice were exposed to both conditions, and behavioural activity data were acquired through running wheel activity and analysed for circadian characteristics during these conditions. We observed that, during the transition from 12L: 12D to 16L: 8D, P e r 3 - / - mice take approximately one additional day to synchronise to the new L: D cycle compared to WT mice. Under these long photoperiod conditions, P e r 3 - / - mice were more active in the light phase. Our results suggest that P e r 3 - / - mice are less sensitive to light. The data presented here provides further evidence that Per3 is involved in the suppression of behavioural activity in direct response to light. © 2014 D. S. Pereira et al.

  • Parsons MJ, Nolan PM, Lester KJ, Eley TC, Barclay NL, Archer SN, Gregory AM. (2014) 'Polymorphisms in the circadian expressed genes PER3 and ARNTL2 are associated with diurnal preference and GNβ3 with sleep measures'. Journal of Sleep Research,
  • Lazar AS, Santhi N, Hasan S, Lo JCY, Johnston JD, Schantz MV, Archer SN, Dijk DJ. (2013) 'Circadian period and the timing of melatonin onset in men and women: Predictors of sleep during the weekend and in the laboratory'. Journal of Sleep Research, 22 (2), pp. 155-159.

    Abstract

    Sleep complaints and irregular sleep patterns, such as curtailed sleep during workdays and longer and later sleep during weekends, are common. It is often implied that differences in circadian period and in entrained phase contribute to these patterns, but few data are available. We assessed parameters of the circadian rhythm of melatonin at baseline and in a forced desynchrony protocol in 35 participants (18 women) with no sleep disorders. Circadian period varied between 23 h 50 min and 24 h 31 min, and correlated positively (n = 31, rs = 0.43, P = 0.017) with the timing of the melatonin rhythm relative to habitual bedtime. The phase of the melatonin rhythm correlated with the Insomnia Severity Index (n = 35, rs = 0.47, P = 0.004). Self-reported time in bed during free days also correlated with the timing of the melatonin rhythm (n = 35, rs = 0.43, P = 0.01) as well as with the circadian period (n = 31, rs = 0.47, P = 0.007), such that individuals with a more delayed melatonin rhythm or a longer circadian period reported longer sleep during the weekend. The increase in time in bed during the free days correlated positively with circadian period (n = 31, rs = 0.54, P = 0.002). Polysomnographically assessed latency to persistent sleep (n = 34, rs = 0.48, P = 0.004) correlated with the timing of the melatonin rhythm when participants were sleeping at their habitual bedtimes in the laboratory. This correlation was significantly stronger in women than in men (Z = 2.38, P = 0.017). The findings show that individual differences in circadian period and phase of the melatonin rhythm associate with differences in sleep, and suggest that individuals with a long circadian period may be at risk of developing sleep problems.

  • Möller-Levet CS, Archer SN, Bucca G, Laing EE, Slak A, Kabiljo R, Lo JC, Santhi N, von Schantz M, Smith CP, Dijk DJ. (2013) 'Effects of insufficient sleep on circadian rhythmicity and expression amplitude of the human blood transcriptome.'. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, United States: 110 (12), pp. E1132-E1141.

    Abstract

    Insufficient sleep and circadian rhythm disruption are associated with negative health outcomes, including obesity, cardiovascular disease, and cognitive impairment, but the mechanisms involved remain largely unexplored. Twenty-six participants were exposed to 1 wk of insufficient sleep (sleep-restriction condition 5.70 h, SEM = 0.03 sleep per 24 h) and 1 wk of sufficient sleep (control condition 8.50 h sleep, SEM = 0.11). Immediately following each condition, 10 whole-blood RNA samples were collected from each participant, while controlling for the effects of light, activity, and food, during a period of total sleep deprivation. Transcriptome analysis revealed that 711 genes were up- or down-regulated by insufficient sleep. Insufficient sleep also reduced the number of genes with a circadian expression profile from 1,855 to 1,481, reduced the circadian amplitude of these genes, and led to an increase in the number of genes that responded to subsequent total sleep deprivation from 122 to 856. Genes affected by insufficient sleep were associated with circadian rhythms (PER1, PER2, PER3, CRY2, CLOCK, NR1D1, NR1D2, RORA, DEC1, CSNK1E), sleep homeostasis (IL6, STAT3, KCNV2, CAMK2D), oxidative stress (PRDX2, PRDX5), and metabolism (SLC2A3, SLC2A5, GHRL, ABCA1). Biological processes affected included chromatin modification, gene-expression regulation, macromolecular metabolism, and inflammatory, immune and stress responses. Thus, insufficient sleep affects the human blood transcriptome, disrupts its circadian regulation, and intensifies the effects of acute total sleep deprivation. The identified biological processes may be involved with the negative effects of sleep loss on health, and highlight the interrelatedness of sleep homeostasis, circadian rhythmicity, and metabolism.

  • Santhi N, Groeger JA, Archer SN, Gimenez M, Schlangen LJ, Dijk DJ. (2013) 'Morning sleep inertia in alertness and performance: effect of cognitive domain and white light conditions.'. PLoS One, United States: 8 (11)

    Abstract

    The transition from sleep to wakefulness entails a temporary period of reduced alertness and impaired performance known as sleep inertia. The extent to which its severity varies with task and cognitive processes remains unclear. We examined sleep inertia in alertness, attention, working memory and cognitive throughput with the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS), the Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT), n-back and add tasks, respectively. The tasks were administered 2 hours before bedtime and at regular intervals for four hours, starting immediately after awakening in the morning, in eleven participants, in a four-way cross-over laboratory design. We also investigated whether exposure to Blue-Enhanced or Bright Blue-Enhanced white light would reduce sleep inertia. Alertness and all cognitive processes were impaired immediately upon awakening (p<0.01). However, alertness and sustained attention were more affected than cognitive throughput and working memory. Moreover, speed was more affected than accuracy of responses. The light conditions had no differential effect on performance except in the 3-back task (p<0.01), where response times (RT) at the end of four hours in the two Blue-Enhanced white light conditions were faster (200 ms) than at wake time. We conclude that the effect of sleep inertia varies with cognitive domain and that it's spectral/intensity response to light is different from that of sleepiness. That is, just increasing blue-wavelength in light may not be sufficient to reduce sleep inertia. These findings have implications for critical professions like medicine, law-enforcement etc., in which, personnel routinely wake up from night-time sleep to respond to emergency situations.

  • Lazar AS, Santhi N, Hasan S, Lo JC, Johnston JD, Von Schantz M, Archer SN, Dijk DJ. (2012) 'Circadian period and the timing of melatonin onset in men and women: predictors of sleep during the weekend and in the laboratory.'. J Sleep Res,
  • Adan A, Archer SN, Hidalgo MP, Di Milia L, Natale V, Randler C. (2012) 'Circadian typology: A comprehensive review'. Chronobiology International, 29 (9), pp. 1153-1175.

    Abstract

    The interest in the systematic study of the circadian typology (CT) is relatively recent and has developed rapidly in the two last decades. All the existing data suggest that this individual difference affects our biological and psychological functioning, not only in health, but also in disease. In the present study, we review the current literature concerning the psychometric properties and validity of CT measures as well as individual, environmental and genetic factors that influence the CT. We present a brief overview of the biological markers that are used to define differences between CT groups (sleepwake cycle, body temperature, cortisol and melatonin), and we assess the implications for CT and adjustment to shiftwork and jet lag. We also review the differences between CT in terms of cognitive abilities, personality traits and the incidence of psychiatric disorders. When necessary, we have emphasized the methodological limitations that exist today and suggested some future avenues of work in order to overcome these. This is a new field of interest to professionals in many different areas (research, labor, academic and clinical), and this review provides a state of the art discussion to allow professionals to integrate chronobiological aspects of human behavior into their daily practice. Copyright © Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.

  • Viola AU, Chellappa SL, Archer SN, Pugin F, Götz T, Dijk DJ, Cajochen C. (2012) 'Interindividual differences in circadian rhythmicity and sleep homeostasis in older people: effect of a PER3 polymorphism.'. Neurobiology of aging, 33 (5)
  • Lázár AS, Slak A, Lo JC, Santhi N, von Schantz M, Archer SN, Groeger JA, Dijk DJ. (2012) 'Sleep, diurnal preference, health, and psychological well-being: a prospective single-allelic-variation study.'. Chronobiol Int, England: 29 (2), pp. 131-146.
  • Hasan S, Santhi N, Lazar AS, Slak A, Lo J, von Schantz M, Archer SN, Johnston JD, Dijk DJ. (2012) 'Assessment of circadian rhythms in humans: comparison of real-time fibroblast reporter imaging with plasma melatonin.'. FASEB J,
  • Lo JC, Groeger JA, Santhi N, Arbon EL, Lazar AS, Hasan S, von Schantz M, Archer SN, Dijk DJ. (2012) 'Effects of partial and acute total sleep deprivation on performance across cognitive domains, individuals and circadian phase.'. PLoS One, United States: 7 (9)

    Abstract

    Cognitive performance deteriorates during extended wakefulness and circadian phase misalignment, and some individuals are more affected than others. Whether performance is affected similarly across cognitive domains, or whether cognitive processes involving Executive Functions are more sensitive to sleep and circadian misalignment than Alertness and Sustained Attention, is a matter of debate.

  • Hasan S, van der Veen DR, Winsky-Sommerer R, Dijk DJ, Archer SN. (2011) 'Altered sleep and behavioral activity phenotypes in PER3-deficient mice.'. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol,
  • Santhi N, Thorne HC, van der Veen DR, Johnsen S, Mills SL, Hommes V, Schlangen LJ, Archer SN, Dijk DJ. (2011) 'The spectral composition of evening light and individual differences in the suppression of melatonin and delay of sleep in humans.'. J Pineal Res,
  • Barclay NL, Eley TC, Mill J, Wong CCY, Zavos HMS, Archer SN, Gregory AM. (2011) 'Sleep Quality and Diurnal Preference in a Sample of Young Adults: Associations With 5HTTLPR, PER3, and CLOCK 3111'. WILEY-BLACKWELL AMERICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICAL GENETICS PART B-NEUROPSYCHIATRIC GENETICS, 156B (6), pp. 681-690.
  • Vandewalle G, Archer SN, Wuillaume C, Balteau E, Degueldre C, Luxen A, Dijk DJ, Maquet P. (2011) 'Effects of light on cognitive brain responses depend on circadian phase and sleep homeostasis.'. Sage J Biol Rhythms, United States: 26 (3), pp. 249-259.

    Abstract

    Light is a powerful modulator of cognition through its long-term effects on circadian rhythmicity and direct effects on brain function as identified by neuroimaging. How the direct impact of light on brain function varies with wavelength of light, circadian phase, and sleep homeostasis, and how this differs between individuals, is a largely unexplored area. Using functional MRI, we compared the effects of 1 minute of low-intensity blue (473 nm) and green light (527 nm) exposures on brain responses to an auditory working memory task while varying circadian phase and status of the sleep homeostat. Data were collected in 27 subjects genotyped for the PER3 VNTR (12 PER3(5/5) and 15 PER3(4/4) ) in whom it was previously shown that the brain responses to this task, when conducted in darkness, depend on circadian phase, sleep homeostasis, and genotype. In the morning after sleep, blue light, relative to green light, increased brain responses primarily in the ventrolateral and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and in the intraparietal sulcus, but only in PER3(4/4) individuals. By contrast, in the morning after sleep loss, blue light increased brain responses in a left thalamofrontoparietal circuit to a larger extent than green light, and only so in PER3(5/5) individuals. In the evening wake maintenance zone following a normal waking day, no differential effect of 1 minute of blue versus green light was observed in either genotype. Comparison of the current results with the findings observed in darkness indicates that light acts as an activating agent particularly under those circumstances in which and in those individuals in whom brain function is jeopardized by an adverse circadian phase and high homeostatic sleep pressure.

  • Dijk D-J, Archer SN. (2010) 'PERIOD3, circadian phenotypes, and sleep homeostasis'. W B SAUNDERS CO LTD SLEEP MEDICINE REVIEWS, 14 (3), pp. 151-160.
  • Archer SN, Carpen JD, Gibson M, Lim GH, Johnston JD, Skene DJ, von Schantz M. (2010) 'Polymorphism in the PER3 Promoter Associates with Diurnal Preference and Delayed Sleep Phase Disorder'. AMER ACAD SLEEP MEDICINE SLEEP, 33 (5), pp. 695-701.

    Abstract

    Study Objectives: To screen the PER3 promoter for polymorphisms and investigate the phenotypic associations of these polymorphisms with diurnal preference, delayed sleep phase disorder/syndrome (DSPD/DSPS), and their effects on reporter gene expression. Design: Interspecific comparison was used to define the approximate extent of the PER3 promoter as the region between the transcriptional start site and nucleotide position −874. This region was screened in DNA pools using PCR and direct sequencing, which was also used to screen DNA from individual participants. The different promoter alleles were cloned into a luciferase expression vector and a deletion library created. Promoter activation was measured by chemiluminescence. Setting: N/A Patients or Participants: DNA samples were obtained from volunteers with defined diurnal preference (3 x 80, selected from a pool of 1,590), and DSPD patients (n = 23). Interventions: N/A Measurements and Results: We verified three single nucleotide polymorphisms (G −320T, C −319A, G −294A), and found a novel variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphism (−318 1/2 VNTR). The −320T and −319A alleles occurred more frequently in DSPD compared to morning (P = 0.042 for each) or evening types (P = 0.006 and 0.033). The allele combination TA2G was more prevalent in DSPD compared to morning (P = 0.033) or evening types (P = 0.002). Luciferase expression driven by the TA2G combination was greater than for the more common GC2A (P < 0.05) and the rarer TA1G (P < 0.001) combinations. Deletion reporter constructs identified two enhancer regions (−703 to −605, and −283 to −80). Conclusions: Polymorphisms in the PER3 promoter could affect its expression, leading to potential differences in the observed functions of PER3.

  • van der Veen DR, Archer SN. (2010) 'Light-Dependent Behavioral Phenotypes in PER3-Deficient Mice'. SAGE PUBLICATIONS INC JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL RHYTHMS, 25 (1), pp. 3-8.
  • Barclay NL, Eley TC, Buysse DJ, Archer SN, Gregory AM. (2010) 'DIURNAL PREFERENCE AND SLEEP QUALITY: SAME GENES? A STUDY OF YOUNG ADULT TWINS'. TAYLOR & FRANCIS INC CHRONOBIOLOGY INTERNATIONAL, 27 (2), pp. 278-296.
  • Van der Veen DR, Archer SN. (2010) 'Light-dependent behavioral phenotypes in PER3-deficient mice (vol 25, pg 3, 2010)'. SAGE PUBLICATIONS INC JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL RHYTHMS, 25 (2), pp. 150-150.
  • Staples VSL, Archer SN, Arber S, Skene DJ. (2009) 'Daily light exposure profiles in older non-resident extreme morning and evening types'. WILEY-BLACKWELL PUBLISHING, INC JOURNAL OF SLEEP RESEARCH, 18 (4), pp. 466-471.
  • Vandewalle G, Archer SN, Wuillaume C, Balteau E, Degueldre C, Luxen A, Maquet P, Dijk D-J. (2009) 'Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Assessed Brain Responses during an Executive Task Depend on Interaction of Sleep Homeostasis, Circadian Phase, and PER3 Genotype'. SOC NEUROSCIENCE JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE, 29 (25), pp. 7948-7956.
  • Dijk D, Archer S . (2009) 'Light, Sleep, and Circadian Rhythms: Together Again'. PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE PLOS BIOL, 7 (6) Article number e10001
  • Ackermann K, Sletten TL, Revell VL, Archer SN, Skene DJ. (2009) 'Blue-Light Phase Shifts PER3 Gene Expression in Human Leukocytes'. TAYLOR & FRANCIS INC CHRONOBIOLOGY INTERNATIONAL, 26 (4) Article number PII 911212256 , pp. 769-779.
  • Thorne HC, Jones KH, Peters SP, Archer SN, Dijk D-J. (2009) 'Daily and Seasonal Variation in the Spectral Composition of Light Exposure in Humans'. TAYLOR & FRANCIS INC CHRONOBIOLOGY INTERNATIONAL, 26 (5) Article number PII 913454756 , pp. 854-866.
  • Ellis J, von Schantz M, Jones KHS, Archer SN. (2009) 'Association between Specific Diurnal Preference Questionnaire Items and PER3 VNTR Genotype'. TAYLOR & FRANCIS INC CHRONOBIOLOGY INTERNATIONAL, 26 (3) Article number PII 910356950 , pp. 464-473.
  • Dijk DJ, Archer SN. (2009) 'Circadian and Homeostatic Regulation of Human Sleep and Cognitive Performance and Its Modulation by PERIOD3'. Sleep Medicine Clinics, 4 (2), pp. 111-125.
  • Skene DJ, Sletten TL, Ackermann K, Herljevic M, Lederle KA, Middleton B, Archer SN, Revell VL. (2009) 'LIGHT AND THE HUMAN CIRCADIAN TIMING SYSTEM: AGE-RELATED CHANGES'. SPRINGER TOKYO JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGICAL SCIENCES, 59, pp. 37-37.
  • Pugin F, Viola AU, Chellappa SL, Archer S, Dijk DJ, Cajochen C. (2009) 'Can Per3 Length Polymorphism Predict Sleep Duration in Older Individuals?'. KARGER NEUROPSYCHOBIOLOGY, 59 (4), pp. 255-255.
  • Viola AU, James LM, Archer SN, Dijk D-J. (2008) 'PER3 polymorphism and cardiac autonomic control: effects of sleep debt and circadian phase'. AMER PHYSIOLOGICAL SOC AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY-HEART AND CIRCULATORY PHYSIOLOGY, 295 (5), pp. H2156-H2163.
  • Sahnd J, Partridge JC, Archer S, Potts GW, Lythgoe JN. (2008) 'Spectral absorbance changes in the violet/blue sensitive cones of the juvenile pollack, Pollachius pollachius'. Springer Journal of Comparative Physiology A: sensory, neural, and behavioral physiology, 163 (5), pp. 699-703.
  • Groeger JA, Viola AU, Lo JCY, von Schantz M, Archer SN, Dijk D-J. (2008) 'Early morning executive functioning during sleep deprivation is compromised by a PERIOD3 polymorphism'. AMER ACAD SLEEP MEDICINE SLEEP, 31 (8), pp. 1159-1167.
  • Archer SN, Viola AU, Kyriakopoulou V, von Schantz M, Dijk DJ. (2008) 'Inter-individual differences in habitual sleep timing and entrained phase of endogenous circadian rhythms of BMAL1, PER2 and PER3 mRNA in human leukocytes'. AMER ACAD SLEEP MEDICINE SLEEP, 31 (5), pp. 608-617.

    Abstract

    Study Objectives: Individual sleep timing differs and is governed partly by circadian oscillators, which may be assessed by hormonal markers, or by clock gene expression. Clock gene expression oscillates in peripheral tissues, including leukocytes. The study objective was to determine whether the endogenous phase of these rhythms, assessed in the absence of the sleep-wake and light-dark cycle, correlates with habitual sleep-wake timing. Design: Observational, cross-sectional. Setting: Home environment and Clinical Research Center. Participants: 24 healthy subjects aged 25.0 ± 3.5 (SD) years. Measurements: Actigraphy and sleep diaries were used to characterize sleep timing. Circadian rhythm phase and amplitude of plasma melatonin, cortisol, and BMAL1, PER2, and PER3 expression were assessed during a constant routine. Results: Circadian oscillations were more robust for PER3 than for BMAL1 or PER2. Average peak timings were 6:05 for PER3, 8:06 for PER2, 15:06 for BMAL1, 4:20 for melatonin, and 10:49 for cortisol. Individual sleep-wake timing correlated with the phases of melatonin and cortisol. Individual PER3 rhythms correlated significantly with sleep-wake timing and the timing of melatonin and cortisol, but those of PER2 and BMAL1 did not reach significance. The correlation between sleep timing and PER3 expression was stronger in individuals homozygous for the variant of the PER3 polymorphism that is associated with morningness. Conclusions: Individual phase differences in PER3 expression during a constant routine correlate with sleep timing during entrainment. PER3 expression in leukocytes represents a useful molecular marker of the circadian processes governing sleep-wake timing.

  • Viola AU, Archer SN, James LM, Groeger JA, Lo JCY, Skene DJ, von Schantz M, Dijk D-J. (2007) 'PER3 polymorphism predicts sleep structure and waking performance'. CELL PRESS CURRENT BIOLOGY, 17 (7), pp. 613-618.
  • Jones KHS, Ellis J, Von Schantz M, Skene DJ, Dijk D-J, Archer SN. (2007) 'Age-related change in the association between a polymorphism in the PER3 gene and preferred timing of sleep and waking activities'. BLACKWELL PUBLISHING JOURNAL OF SLEEP RESEARCH, 16 (1), pp. 12-16.
  • Hogben AL, Ellis J, Archer SN, Von Schantz M. (2007) 'Conscientiousness is a predictor of diurnal preference'. Chronobiology International, 24 (6), pp. 1249-1254.

    Abstract

    The relationship between diurnal preference, as measured by the Horne-Östberg questionnaire, and quantifiable personality traits was investigated in 617 participants. A hierarchical multiple regression analysis demonstrated that out of the personality variables, conscientiousness was the single biggest predictor of diurnal preference (β=0.246), after controlling for depression, sleep disorders, shift work, age, gender, and demographic characteristics. Morningness has previously been associated with physiological parameters of the circadian clock and with polymorphisms in circadian clock genes, suggesting the possibility that conscientiousness, too, may be linked to the same parameters. Copyright © Informa Healthcare.

  • von Schantz M, Jenkins A, Archer SN. (2006) 'Evolutionary history of the vertebrate Period genes'. SPRINGER JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR EVOLUTION, 62 (6), pp. 701-707.
  • Archer SN, Dijk DJ. (2006) 'Clock polymorphisms associated with human diurnal preference'. , pp. 197-207.
  • Von Schantz M, Jenkins A, Archer SN. (2006) 'Evolutionary history of the vertebrate Period genes'. Journal of Molecular Evolution, 62 (6), pp. 701-707.
  • Archer SN, Dijk DJ. (2006) 'Delayed sleep phase disorder, circadian genes, sleep homeostasis and light sensitivity'. , pp. 327-334.
  • Carpen JD, von Schantz M, Smits M, Skene DJ, Archer SN. (2006) 'A silent polymorphism in the PER1 gene associates with extreme diurnal preference in humans'. SPRINGER TOKYO JOURNAL OF HUMAN GENETICS, 51 (12), pp. 1122-1125.
  • Jenkins A, Archer SN, von Schantz M. (2005) 'Expansion during primate radiation of a variable number tandem repeat in the coding region of the circadian clock gene Period3'. SAGE PUBLICATIONS LTD JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL RHYTHMS, 20 (5), pp. 470-472.
  • Carpen JD, Archer SN, Skene DJ, Smits M, von Schantz M. (2005) 'A single-nucleotide polymorphism in the 5 '-untranslated region of the hPER2 gene is associated with diurnal preference'. BLACKWELL PUBLISHING JOURNAL OF SLEEP RESEARCH, 14 (3), pp. 293-297.
  • Van Der Heijden KB, Blok MJ, Spee K, Archer SN, Smits MG, Curfs LM, Gunning WB. (2005) 'No evidence to support an association of PER3 clock gene polymorphism with ADHD-related idiopathic chronic sleep onset insomnia'. Biological Rhythm Research, 36 (5), pp. 381-388.
  • Carpen JD, Archer SN, Skene DJ, Smits M, Von Schantz M. (2005) 'A single-nucleotide polymorphism in the 5′-untranslated region of the hPER2 gene is associated with diurnal preference'. Journal of Sleep Research, 14 (3), pp. 293-297.
  • Jenkins A, Archer SN, Von Schantz M. (2005) 'Expansion during primate radiation of a variable number tandem repeat in the coding region of the circadian clock gene Period3'. Journal of Biological Rhythms, 20 (5), pp. 470-472.
  • Archer SN, Ahuja P, Caffe R, Mikol C, Foster RG, van Veen T, von Schantz M. (2004) 'Absence of phosphoglucose isomerase-1 in retinal photoreceptor, pigment epithelium and Muller cells'. BLACKWELL PUBLISHING LTD EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE, 19 (11), pp. 2923-2930.
  • von Schantz M, Archer SN. (2003) 'Clocks, genes and sleep'. ROYAL SOC MEDICINE PRESS LTD JOURNAL OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF MEDICINE, 96 (10), pp. 486-489.
  • Von Schantz M, Archer SN. (2003) 'Clocks, genes and sleep'. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 96 (10), pp. 486-489.
  • Archer SN, Robilliard DL, Skene DJ, Smits M, Williams A, Arendt J, Von Schantz M. (2003) 'A length polymorphism in the circadian clock gene Per3 is linked to delayed sleep phase syndrome and extreme diurnal preference'. Sleep, 26 (4), pp. 413-415.

    Abstract

    Study Objectives: To investigate the link between extreme diurnal preference, delayed sleep phase syndrome, and a length polymorphism in Per3. Design: Subjects were genotyped using polymerase chain reaction. Patients or Participants: Subjects with defined diurnal preference as determined by the Horne-Östberg questionnaire and patients with delayed sleep phase syndrome. Measurements and Results: The Per3 polymorphism correlated significantly with extreme diurnal preference, the longer allele associating with morningness and the shorter allele with eveningness. The shorter allele was strongly associated with the delayed sleep phase syndrome patients, 75% of whom were homozygous. Conclusion: The length of the Per3 repeat region identifies a potential genetic marker for extreme diurnal preference.

  • Robilliard DL, Archer SN, Arendt J, Lockley SW, Hack LM, English J, Leger D, Smits MG, Williams A, Skene DJ, Von Schantz M. (2002) 'The 3111 Clock gene polymorphism is not associated with sleep and circadian rhythmicity in phenotypically characterized human subjects'. Journal of Sleep Research, 11 (4), pp. 305-312.
  • Bozzano A, Murgia R, Vallerga S, Hirano J, Archer S. (2001) 'The photoreceptor system in the retinae of two dogfishes, Scyliorhinus canicula and Galeus melastomus: possible relationship with depth distribution and predatory lifestyle'. ACADEMIC PRESS LTD JOURNAL OF FISH BIOLOGY, 59 (5), pp. 1258-1278.
  • Diss JKJ, Archer SN, Hirano J, Fraser SP, Djamgoz MBA. (2001) 'Expression profiles of voltage-gated Na+ channel alpha-subunit genes in rat and human prostate cancer cell lines'. WILEY-LISS PROSTATE, 48 (3), pp. 165-178.
  • Archer SN, Thompson S, Lucas RJ, Foster RG, von Schantz M. (2000) 'Analysis of differentially expressed genes in the wildtype and rd mouse retina by macroarray screening.'. ASSOC RESEARCH VISION OPHTHALMOLOGY INC INVESTIGATIVE OPHTHALMOLOGY & VISUAL SCIENCE, 41 (4), pp. S27-S27.
  • Lintas C, Hirano J, Archer S. (1998) 'Genetic variation of the European eel (Anguilla anguilla)'. SPRINGER VERLAG MOLECULAR MARINE BIOLOGY AND BIOTECHNOLOGY, 7 (4), pp. 263-269.
  • Archer S, Hirano J, Diss JKJ, Fraser SP, Djamgoz MBA. (1998) 'Expression and localization in the fish retina of a homologue of the Alzheimer's related PS1 gene'. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS NEUROREPORT, 9 (13), pp. 3115-3122.
  • Archer S, Hirano J, Diss JKJ, Fraser SP, Djamgoz MBA. (1998) 'Expression and localization in the fish retina of a homologue of the Alzheimer's related PS1 gene'. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS NEUROREPORT, 9 (9), pp. 2049-2056.
  • Archer S. (1998) 'Eels see in multicolour'. EDITIONS SCIENTIFIQUES MEDICALES ELSEVIER BIOFUTUR, (179), pp. 30-32.
  • Diss JKJ, Stewart D, Fraser SP, Black JA, Dib-Hajj S, Waxman SG, Archer SN, Djamgoz MBA. (1998) 'Expression of skeletal muscle-type voltage-gated Na+ channel in rat and human prostate cancer cell lines'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV FEBS LETTERS, 427 (1), pp. 5-10.
  • Archer SN, Hirano J. (1998) 'Rod opsin sequence in the John Dory: further evidence for the spectral tuning of rhodopsin'. ACADEMIC PRESS LTD JOURNAL OF FISH BIOLOGY, 52 (1), pp. 209-212.
  • Hirano J, Archer SN, Djamgoz MBA. (1998) 'Dopamine receptor subtypes expressed in vertebrate (carp and eel) retinae: Cloning, sequencing and comparison of five D-1-like and three D-2-like receptors'. HARWOOD ACAD PUBL GMBH RECEPTORS & CHANNELS, 5 (6), pp. 387-404.
  • Djamgoz MBA, Hankins MW, Hirano J, Archer SN. (1997) 'Neurobiology of retinal dopamine in relation to degenerative states of the tissue'. PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD VISION RESEARCH, 37 (24), pp. 3509-3529.
  • Archer SN, Hirano J. (1997) 'Opsin sequences of the rod visual pigments in two species of Poeciliid fish'. ACADEMIC PRESS LTD JOURNAL OF FISH BIOLOGY, 51 (1), pp. 215-219.
  • Archer S, Hirano J. (1996) 'Absorbance spectra and molecular structure of the blue-sensitive rod visual pigment in the conger eel (Conger conger)'. ROYAL SOC PROCEEDINGS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY B-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES, 263 (1371), pp. 761-767.
  • Archer S, Hope A, Partridge JC. (1995) 'The molecular basis for the green-blue sensitivity shift in the rod visual pigments of the European eel'. ROYAL SOC PROCEEDINGS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY B-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES, 262 (1365), pp. 289-295.
  • ARCHER SN, LYTHGOE JN, HALL L. (1992) 'ROD OPSIN CDNA SEQUENCE FROM THE SAND GOBY (POMATOSCHISTUS-MINUTUS) COMPARED WITH THOSE OF OTHER VERTEBRATES'. ROYAL SOC PROCEEDINGS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY B-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES, 248 (1321), pp. 19-25.
  • PARTRIDGE JC, ARCHER SN, VANOOSTRUM J. (1992) 'SINGLE AND MULTIPLE VISUAL PIGMENTS IN DEEP-SEA FISHES'. CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS JOURNAL OF THE MARINE BIOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION OF THE UNITED KINGDOM, 72 (1), pp. 113-130.
  • ARCHER SN, LYTHGOE JN. (1990) 'THE VISUAL PIGMENT BASIS FOR CONE POLYMORPHISM IN THE GUPPY, POECILIA-RETICULATA'. PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD VISION RESEARCH, 30 (2), pp. 225-233.
  • Partridge JC, Shand J, Archer SN, Lythgoe JN, van Groningen-Luyben WAHM. (1989) 'Interspecific variation in the visual pigments of deep-sea fishes'. Journal of Comparative Physiology A, 164 (4), pp. 513-529.
  • PARTRIDGE JC, ARCHER SN, LYTHGOE JN. (1988) 'VISUAL PIGMENTS IN THE INDIVIDUAL RODS OF DEEP-SEA FISHES'. SPRINGER VERLAG JOURNAL OF COMPARATIVE PHYSIOLOGY A-SENSORY NEURAL AND BEHAVIORAL PHYSIOLOGY, 162 (4), pp. 543-550.
  • ARCHER SN, ENDLER JA, LYTHGOE JN, PARTRIDGE JC. (1987) 'VISUAL PIGMENT POLYMORPHISM IN THE GUPPY POECILIA-RETICULATA'. PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD VISION RESEARCH, 27 (8), pp. 1243-1252.

Conference papers

  • Muto V, Jaspar M, Meyer C, LeBourdiec AS, Kussee C, Chellappa SL, Vandewalle G, Degueldre C, Luxen A, Collette F, Phillips C, Middleton B, Archer SN, Dijk D-J, Maquet P. (2014) 'Neural correlates of sustained attention under sleep deprivation during a constant routine: circadian and homeostatic interaction'. WILEY-BLACKWELL JOURNAL OF SLEEP RESEARCH, Tallinn, ESTONIA: 22nd Congress of the European-Sleep-Research-Society 23, pp. 61-61.
  • Ly JQM, Gaggioni G, Chellappa SL, Papachilleos S, Brzozowski A, Borsu C, Archer SN, Rosanova M, Sarrasso S, Dijk D-J, Phillips C, Maquet P, Massimini M, Vandewalle G. (2014) 'Human cortical excitability depends on time awake and circadian phase'. WILEY-BLACKWELL JOURNAL OF SLEEP RESEARCH, Tallinn, ESTONIA: 22nd Congress of the European-Sleep-Research-Society 23, pp. 9-10.
  • Jaspar M, Meyer C, Muto V, Shaffii-LeBourdiec A, Chellappa SL, Kussee C, Vandewalle G, Collette F, Middleton B, Archer S, Dijk DJ, Maquet P. (2014) 'Sleep loss changes executive brain responses in the wake maintenance zone'. WILEY-BLACKWELL JOURNAL OF SLEEP RESEARCH, Tallinn, ESTONIA: 22nd Congress of the European-Sleep-Research-Society 23, pp. 61-61.
  • Archer SN, Laing EE, Moller-Levet CS, van der Veen DR, Bucca G, Lazar AS, Lo JCY, Santhi N, Slak A, Kabiljo R, von Schantz M, Smith CP, Dijk DJ. (2014) 'Mistimed sleep disrupts the circadian regulation of the human transcriptome'. WILEY-BLACKWELL JOURNAL OF SLEEP RESEARCH, Tallinn, ESTONIA: 22nd Congress of the European-Sleep-Research-Society 23, pp. 15-15.
  • Chellappa SL, Ly JQM, Gaggioni G, Papachilleos S, Borsu C, Brzozowski A, Archer SN, Rosanova M, Sarasso S, Dijk D-J, Maquet P, Massimini M, Phillips C, Moran RJ, Vandewalle G. (2014) 'Dynamics of human cortical ensembles are set by circadian system and sleep homeostasis'. WILEY-BLACKWELL JOURNAL OF SLEEP RESEARCH, Tallinn, ESTONIA: 22nd Congress of the European-Sleep-Research-Society 23, pp. 79-79.
  • Archer SN, Kitamura S, Santhi N, Dijk D-J. (2014) 'Effects of circadian typology and partial and total sleep deprivation on the human transcriptome'. WILEY-BLACKWELL JOURNAL OF SLEEP RESEARCH, Tallinn, ESTONIA: 22nd Congress of the European-Sleep-Research-Society 23, pp. 55-55.
  • Gaggioni G, Ly JQM, Wallant DC, Muto V, Borsu C, Papachilleos S, Brzozowski A, Sarasso S, Rosanova M, Archer SN, Maquet P, Dijk D-J, Phillips C, Massimini M, Vandewalle G, Chellappa SL. (2014) 'Sleep slow-wave activity predicts changes in human cortical excitability during extended wakefulness'. WILEY-BLACKWELL JOURNAL OF SLEEP RESEARCH, Tallinn, ESTONIA: 22nd Congress of the European-Sleep-Research-Society 23, pp. 267-267.
  • Santhi N, Lazar AS, Mccabe P, Archer SN, Groeger JA, Dijk D-J. (2014) 'Circadian regulation in cognition and subjective assessment of waking function in humans'. WILEY-BLACKWELL JOURNAL OF SLEEP RESEARCH, Tallinn, ESTONIA: 22nd Congress of the European-Sleep-Research-Society 23, pp. 48-48.
  • Borsu C, Gaggioni G, Ly JQM, Papachilleos S, Brzozowski A, Rosanova M, Sarasso S, Archer SN, Dijk D-J, Phillips C, Maquet P, Massimini M, Chellappa SL, Vandewalle G. (2014) 'Cortical excitability dynamics during extended wakefulness set PVT performance'. WILEY-BLACKWELL JOURNAL OF SLEEP RESEARCH, Tallinn, ESTONIA: 22nd Congress of the European-Sleep-Research-Society 23, pp. 176-176.
  • Meyer C, Jaspar M, Muto V, Kusse C, Chellappa SL, Degueldre C, Balteau E, Luxen A, Collette F, Middleton B, Phillips C, Archer SN, Dijk D-J, Vandewalle G, Maquet P. (2014) 'Seasonal variation in human executive brain responses'. WILEY-BLACKWELL JOURNAL OF SLEEP RESEARCH, Tallinn, ESTONIA: 22nd Congress of the European-Sleep-Research-Society 23, pp. 171-171.
  • Shaffii-Le Bourdiec A, Muto V, Jaspar M, Kusse C, Foret A, Archer SN, Le Bourdiec F, Vandewalle G, Collette F, Dijk DJ, Maquet P. (2012) 'Difference in neural correlates of discrimination during sleep deprivation in PER3 homozygous'. WILEY-BLACKWELL JOURNAL OF SLEEP RESEARCH, Paris, FRANCE: 21st Congress of the European-Sleep-Research-Society 21, pp. 82-82.
  • Hasan S, Winsky-Sommerer R, Dijk D-J, Archer SN. (2012) 'Sleep in transgenic mouse models for a polymorphism in the human PER3 gene'. WILEY-BLACKWELL JOURNAL OF SLEEP RESEARCH, Paris, FRANCE: 21st Congress of the European-Sleep-Research-Society 21, pp. 79-79.
  • Van der Veen DR, Dijk D-J, Archer SN. (2012) 'A role for PERIOD3 in sleep/wake rhythms: photic responses in humanised knock-in mice and gene expression correlates of PER3 expression'. WILEY-BLACKWELL JOURNAL OF SLEEP RESEARCH, Paris, FRANCE: 21st Congress of the European-Sleep-Research-Society 21, pp. 333-333.
  • Muto V, Meyer C, Jaspar M, Shaffii-Le Bourdiec A, Kusse C, Foret A, Vandewalle G, Collette F, Archer S, Dijk D-J, Maquet P. (2012) 'Influence of sleep homeostasis and circadian rhythm on waking EEG oscillations during a constant routine'. WILEY-BLACKWELL JOURNAL OF SLEEP RESEARCH, Paris, FRANCE: 21st Congress of the European-Sleep-Research-Society 21, pp. 327-328.
  • Lazar A, Santhi N, Lo J, Slak A, Hasan S, Von Schantz M, Archer S, Dijk D-J. (2012) 'The circadian and homeostatic regulation of sleep spindle activity: effect of the PER3 VNTR polymorphism'. WILEY-BLACKWELL JOURNAL OF SLEEP RESEARCH, Paris, FRANCE: 21st Congress of the European-Sleep-Research-Society 21, pp. 82-82.
  • Groeger JA, Lo JC, Santhi N, Arbon EL, Lazar A, Hasan S, Von Schantz M, Archer SN, Dijk DJ. (2012) ''Trait-like' susceptibility to sleep loss varies with circadian phase and the task used to index vulnerable-resilient sleep-deprived performance'. WILEY-BLACKWELL JOURNAL OF SLEEP RESEARCH, Paris, FRANCE: 21st Congress of the European-Sleep-Research-Society 21, pp. 36-37.
  • Lo JC, Groeger JA, Santhi N, Arbon EL, Lazar AS, Hasan S, Von Schantz M, Archer SN, Dijk DJ. (2012) 'Effects of circadian phase and prior partial sleep deprivation on executive functions during total sleep deprivation are modulated by PER3 polymorphism'. WILEY-BLACKWELL JOURNAL OF SLEEP RESEARCH, Paris, FRANCE: 21st Congress of the European-Sleep-Research-Society 21, pp. 41-41.
  • Jaspar M, Meyer C, Muto V, Shaffii-Le Bourdiec A, Kusse C, Vandewalle G, Collette F, Archer S, Dijk D-J, Maquet P. (2012) 'Influence of sleep homeostasis and circadian rhythm on executive discriminative ability during a constant routine'. WILEY-BLACKWELL JOURNAL OF SLEEP RESEARCH, Paris, FRANCE: 21st Congress of the European-Sleep-Research-Society 21, pp. 328-328.
  • Arbon EL, Lazar AS, Lo JC, Slak A, Mccabe PJ, Boyle J, Archer SN, Dijk D-J. (2012) 'Individual differences in sleep revisited: stability across sleep restriction, extension and total sleep loss'. WILEY-BLACKWELL JOURNAL OF SLEEP RESEARCH, Paris, FRANCE: 21st Congress of the European-Sleep-Research-Society 21, pp. 207-208.
  • Groeger JA, Finnan CA, Zoeller S, Mcgregor KM, Archer SN. (2012) 'Effects of genotype and chronotype on time use on work and rest days'. WILEY-BLACKWELL JOURNAL OF SLEEP RESEARCH, Paris, FRANCE: 21st Congress of the European-Sleep-Research-Society 21, pp. 333-334.
  • Schwarz JF, Ingre M, Anund A, Fors C, Karlsson JG, Kecklund G, Van der Veen DR, Archer SN, Dijk D, Akerstedt T. (2012) 'PERIOD3 VNTR POLYMORPHISM MODIFIES SLEEPINESS DURING REAL ROAD DRIVING'. AMER ACAD SLEEP MEDICINE SLEEP, Boston, MA: 26th Annual Meeting of the Association-of-Professional-Sleep-Societies (APSS) 35, pp. A109-A109.
  • Vandewalle G, Archer SN, Wuillaume C, Balteau E, Degueldre C, Luxen A, Dijk D, Maquet P. (2009) 'MODULATION OF FMRI ASSESSED BRAIN RESPONSES TO BLUE AND GREEN LIGHT BY SLEEP HOMFOSTASIS, CIRCADIAN PHASE AND PER3 POLYMORPHISM'. AMER ACAD SLEEP MEDICINE SLEEP, Seattle, WA: 23rd Annual Meeting of the Associated-Professional-Sleep-Societies 32, pp. A1-A1.
  • James LM, Viola AU, Archer SN, Dijk D. (2008) 'Topography of the effects of a PER3 polymorphism on alpha activity in REM sleep under baseline and recovery conditions'. WILEY-BLACKWELL PUBLISHING, INC JOURNAL OF SLEEP RESEARCH, Glasgow, SCOTLAND: 19th Congress of the European-Sleep-Research-Society 17, pp. 1-1.
  • Groeger JA, Lo JC, Viola AU, Schantz MV, Archer SN, Dijk D. (2008) 'Period3 and the effects of sleep deprivation on executive function: the importance of circadian phase'. WILEY-BLACKWELL PUBLISHING, INC JOURNAL OF SLEEP RESEARCH, Glasgow, SCOTLAND: 19th Congress of the European-Sleep-Research-Society 17, pp. 38-38.
  • Vandewalle G, Archer S, Wuillaume C, Balteau E, Degueldre C, Luxen A, Maquet P, Dijk D. (2008) 'Polymorphism in period3 predicts fMRI-assessed inter-individual differences in the effects of sleep deprivation'. WILEY-BLACKWELL PUBLISHING, INC JOURNAL OF SLEEP RESEARCH, Glasgow, SCOTLAND: 19th Congress of the European-Sleep-Research-Society 17, pp. 38-38.
  • Von Schantz W, Carpen JD, Gibson M, Lim G, Johnston J, Skene DJ, Archer SN. (2008) 'Analysis of the PER3 promoter and haplotypes that associate with diurnal preference and delayed sleep phase disorder'. WILEY-BLACKWELL PUBLISHING, INC JOURNAL OF SLEEP RESEARCH, Glasgow, SCOTLAND: 19th Congress of the European-Sleep-Research-Society 17, pp. 80-80.
  • Vaughan V, Archer S, Skene DJ, Arber S. (2008) 'Daily light exposure profiles in older extreme morning and evening types'. WILEY-BLACKWELL PUBLISHING, INC JOURNAL OF SLEEP RESEARCH, Glasgow, SCOTLAND: 19th Congress of the European-Sleep-Research-Society 17, pp. 73-73.
  • Viola AU, James LM, Archer SN, Duk D. (2008) 'PER3 polymorphism affects cardiac autonomic control in healthy people'. WILEY-BLACKWELL PUBLISHING, INC JOURNAL OF SLEEP RESEARCH, Glasgow, SCOTLAND: 19th Congress of the European-Sleep-Research-Society 17, pp. 82-82.
  • Vandewalle G, Archer SN, Wuillaume C, Balteau E, Degueldre C, Luxen A, Maquet P, Dijk D. (2008) 'A period 3 polymorphism predicts FMRI assessed brain responses following sleep loss'. AMER ACAD SLEEP MEDICINE SLEEP, Baltimore, MD: 22nd Annual Meeting of the Associated-Professional-Sleep-Societies 31, pp. A111-A111.
  • James LM, Viola AU, Archer SN, Dijk D. (2008) 'Topography of the effects of a PER3 polymorphism on alpha activity in REM sleep under baseline and recovery conditions'. AMER ACAD SLEEP MEDICINE SLEEP, Baltimore, MD: 22nd Annual Meeting of the Associated-Professional-Sleep-Societies 31, pp. A107-A107.
  • Archer S, Viola A, Von Schantz M, Dijk D. (2007) 'Endogenous circadian rhythm of PER3 RNA in human leucocytes: Association with sleep timing, melatonin rhythm, and PER3 genotype'. AMER ACADEMY SLEEP MEDICINE SLEEP, Minneapolis, MN: 21st Annual Meeting of the Association-Professional-Sleep-Societies 30, pp. A54-A55.
  • Groeger J, Lo J, Viola A, Von Schantz M, Archer S, Dijk D. (2007) 'PER3 polymorphism predictssusceptibility to sleep deprivation-induced impairment of early morning executive performance'. AMER ACADEMY SLEEP MEDICINE SLEEP, Minneapolis, MN: 21st Annual Meeting of the Association-Professional-Sleep-Societies 30, pp. A54-A54.
  • Viola AU, Archer SN, Groeger JA, Skene DJ, Von Schantz M, Dijk DJ. (2006) 'Polymorphism in the clock gene PER3 predicts sleep structure and EEG power spectra'. BLACKWELL PUBLISHING JOURNAL OF SLEEP RESEARCH, Innsbruck, AUSTRIA: 18th Congress of the European-Sleep-Research-Society 15, pp. 53-53.
  • Vaughan V, Meadows R, Archer SN, Skene DJ, Arber S. (2006) 'Diurnal preference in couples: negotiating sleep timing'. BLACKWELL PUBLISHING JOURNAL OF SLEEP RESEARCH, Innsbruck, AUSTRIA: 18th Congress of the European-Sleep-Research-Society 15, pp. 95-95.
  • Jones KH, Ellis J, Von Schantz M, Skene DJ, Dijk D, Archer SN. (2006) 'Age-related change in the association between a variable number tandem repeat polymorphism in the (PER3) gene and preferred timing of sleep and waking activities'. BLACKWELL PUBLISHING JOURNAL OF SLEEP RESEARCH, Innsbruck, AUSTRIA: 18th Congress of the European-Sleep-Research-Society 15, pp. 97-98.
  • Von Schantz M, Archer SN. (2006) 'Genetic aspects of delayed sleep phase syndrome (DSPS)'. BLACKWELL PUBLISHING JOURNAL OF SLEEP RESEARCH, Innsbruck, AUSTRIA: 18th Congress of the European-Sleep-Research-Society 15, pp. 5-5.
  • Archer S, Robillard D, Skene D, Smits M, Williams A, Arendt J, von Schantz M. (2003) 'A length polymorphism in the circadian clock gene Per3 is linked to delayed sleep phase syndrome and extreme diurnal preference'. AMER ACADEMY SLEEP MEDICINE SLEEP, CHICAGO, ILLINOIS: 17th Annual Meeting of the Associated-Professional-Sleep-Societies 26, pp. A109-A109.
  • Ahuja P, Archer SN, van Veen T, von Schantz M. (2003) 'Neuroleukin/AMF is present around cones and in various spatially restricted cell types of the mouse retina'. ASSOC RESEARCH VISION OPHTHALMOLOGY INC INVESTIGATIVE OPHTHALMOLOGY & VISUAL SCIENCE, FT LAUDERDALE, FLORIDA: Annual Meeting of the Association-for-Research-in-Vision-and-Ophthalmology 44, pp. U459-U459.
  • Archer SN, Lucas RJ, Thompson S, Foster RG, von Schantz M. (2002) 'Identification of a novel retinal kinase with promoter elements affected by circadian clock proteins'. ASSOC RESEARCH VISION OPHTHALMOLOGY INC INVESTIGATIVE OPHTHALMOLOGY & VISUAL SCIENCE, FT LAUDERDALE, FLORIDA: Annual Meeting of the Association-for-Research-in-Vision-and-Ophthalmology 43, pp. U308-U308.
  • von Schantz M, Archer SN, Ahuja P, van Veen T. (2002) 'Identification of transcripts enriched in the inner retina by differential macroarray hybridization'. ASSOC RESEARCH VISION OPHTHALMOLOGY INC INVESTIGATIVE OPHTHALMOLOGY & VISUAL SCIENCE, FT LAUDERDALE, FLORIDA: Annual Meeting of the Association-for-Research-in-Vision-and-Ophthalmology 43, pp. U321-U321.

Books

  • Archer S. (1999) Adaptive Mechanisms in the Ecology of Vision. Springer Science & Business Media

Book chapters

  • Archer SN. (1999) 'Visual pigments and photoreception'. in (ed.) Adaptive Mechanisms in the Ecology of Vision Springer Science & Business Media

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