Dr Laurence Carnall

Postgraduate Research Student


My research project


This study examined posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), complex PTSD, depression, and anxiety among U.K. rail workers. A cross-sectional survey examining exposure to seven psychosocial hazards (bullying/harassment; verbal abuse; physical and sexual assault; and hearing about, seeing the aftermath of, or witnessing a fatality), working conditions, physical health, and the impact of COVID-19 was administered to 3,912 participants. Outcome measures were the ITQ, PHQ-9, and GAD-7. Among trauma-exposed participants, 24.3% met the criteria for PTSD or CPTSD; 38.6% and 29.2% of all participants scored in the moderate-to-severe range on the PHQ-9 and GAD-7, respectively. Data were analyzed using logistic and linear regression. Bullying/harassment was positively associated with GAD-7 scores, f 2 = .001, and PTSD and CPTSD, ORs = 1.83–2.02. Hearing about and witnessing a fatality were associated with PTSD and CPTSD, ORs = 1.77–2.10. Poorer ergonomics at work were positively associated with PHQ-9 and GAD-7 scores, f 2 = .001. Higher job satisfaction was associated with lower odds of PTSD and CPTSD, ORs = 0.87–0.91, and negatively associated with PHQ-9 and GAD-7 scores, f 2 = .008–.01. Work intensity was associated with PTSD and CPTSD, ORs = 1.79–1.83, and positively associated with PHQ-9 and GAD-7 scores, f 2 = .02–.03. Reporting more physical health problems was associated with PTSD, OR = 1.07, and positively associated with GAD-7 and PHQ-9 scores, f 2 = .008–.01. The results suggest bullying/harassment and work intensity are important variables in employee mental health and could drive future research and industry initiatives.