Dr Konstanze Hild

Research Fellow

Qualifications: Dipl. Phys. (Dortmund) PhD (Surrey)

Phone: Work: 01483 68 9409
Room no: 08 ATI 02

Further information



Currently working as a project facilitator helping researchers to develop new techniques to address to antimicrobial resistance challenge. Also working as a teaching fellow in the physics department.

From January 2011 working as a Research Fellow on the optical characterisation of bismuth containing semiconductors. Applications for this range from more temperature sensitive telecommunications lasers to novel solar cell designs.

Recently also getting involved into research of solid state lighting, not only from the technology side but also with respect to the human response.

2005-2008 Research Assistant (University of Surrey) working on GaAsSb based lasers for emission at 1.3 microns.

2000-2003 University of Surrey. The PhD work (Surrey 2003) concerned the spectroscopy (photomodulated reflectance) and device measurements of Resonant Cavity LEDs emitting at 650nm.

1994-2000 Universität Dortmund. Working on the spectroscopy of single excitonic states in II-VI semiconductor structures for the Diplom obtained in January 2000. 

Research Interests

Improving the performance of LEDs and lasers.

Influence of light on humans.

New ways of addressing the antimicrobial resistance challenge.


Journal articles

  • Broderick C, Jin S, Marko I, Hild K, Ludewig P, Bushell ZL, Stolz W, Rorison J, O’Reilly E, Volz K, Sweeney S . (2017) 'GaAs1−xBix/GaNyAs1−y type-II quantum wells: novel strain-balanced heterostructures for GaAs-based near- and mid-infrared photonics'. Scientific Reports, 7 Article number 46371


    The potential to extend the emission wavelength of photonic devices further into the near- and midinfrared via pseudomorphic growth on conventional GaAs substrates is appealing for a number of communications and sensing applications. We present a new class of GaAs-based quantum well (QW) heterostructure that exploits the unusual impact of Bi and N on the GaAs band structure to produce type-II QWs having long emission wavelengths with little or no net strain relative to GaAs, while also providing control over important laser loss processes. We theoretically and experimentally demonstrate the potential of GaAs1−xBix/GaNyAs1−y type-II QWs on GaAs and show that this approach offers optical emission and absorption at wavelengths up to ~3 μm utilising strain-balanced structures, a first for GaAs-based QWs. Experimental measurements on a prototype GaAs0.967Bi0.033/GaN0.062As0.938 structure, grown via metal-organic vapour phase epitaxy, indicate good structural quality and exhibit both photoluminescence and absorption at room temperature. The measured photoluminescence peak wavelength of 1.72 μm is in good agreement with theoretical calculations and is one of the longest emission wavelengths achieved on GaAs to date using a pseudomorphically grown heterostructure. These results demonstrate the significant potential of this new class of III-V heterostructure for longwavelength applications.

  • Bonmati-Carrion MA, Hild K, Isherwood C, Sweeney SJ, Revell VL, Skene DJ, Rol MA, Madrid JA. (2016) 'Relationship between Human Pupillary Light Reflex and Circadian System Status'. PLoS One, 11 (9) Article number e0162476


    Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs), whose photopigment melanopsin has a peak of sensitivity in the short wavelength range of the spectrum, constitute a common light input pathway to the olivary pretectal nucleus (OPN), the pupillary light reflex (PLR) regulatory centre, and to the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN), the major pacemaker of the circadian system. Thus, evaluating PLR under short wavelength light (λmax 500 nm) and creating an integrated PLR parameter, as a possible tool to indirectly assess the status of the circadian system, becomes of interest. Nine monochromatic, photon-matched light stimuli (300 s), in 10 nm increments from λmax 420 to 500 nm were administered to 15 healthy young participants (8 females), analyzing: i) the PLR; ii) wrist temperature (WT) and motor activity rhythms (WA), iii) light exposure (L) pattern and iv) diurnal preference (Horne- Östberg), sleep quality (Pittsburgh) and daytime sleepiness (Epworth). Linear correlations between the different PLR parameters and circadian status index obtained from WT, WA and L recordings and scores from questionnaires were calculated. In summary, we found markers of robust circadian rhythms, namely high stability, reduced fragmentation, high amplitude, phase advance and low internal desynchronization, were correlated with a reduced PLR to 460–490 nm wavelengths. Integrated circadian (CSI) and PLR (cp-PLR) parameters are proposed, that also showed an inverse correlation. These results demonstrate, for the first time, the existence of a close relationship between the circadian system robustness and the pupillary reflex response, two non-visual functions primarily under melanopsin-ipRGC input.

  • Marko I, Sweeney S, Hild K. (2016) 'Temperature stable mid-infrared GaInAsSb/GaSb Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers (VCSELs)'. Scientific Reports, 6 Article number 19595


    GaInAsSb/GaSb based quantum well vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) operating in mid-infrared spectral range between 2 and 3 micrometres are of great importance for low cost gas monitoring applications. This paper discusses the efficiency and temperature sensitivity of the VCSELs emitting at 2.6 μm and the processes that must be controlled to provide temperature stable operation. We show that non-radiative Auger recombination dominates the threshold current and limits the device performance at room temperature. Critically, we demonstrate that the combined influence of non-radiative recombination and gain peak – cavity mode de-tuning determines the overall temperature sensitivity of the VCSELs. The results show that improved temperature stable operation around room temperature can only be achieved with a larger gain peak – cavity mode de-tuning, offsetting the significant effect of increasing non-radiative recombination with increasing temperature, a physical effect which must be accounted for in mid-infrared VCSEL design.

  • Marko IP, Jin SR, Hild K, Batool Z, Bushell ZL, Ludewig P, Stolz W, Volz K, Butkute R, Pacebutas V, Geizutis A, Krotkus A, Sweeney SJ. (2015) 'Properties of hybrid MOVPE/MBE grown GaAsBi/GaAs based near-infrared emitting quantum well lasers'. SEMICONDUCTOR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, 30 (9) Article number ARTN 094008
  • Marko IP, Ludewig P, Bushell ZL, Jin SR, Hild K, Batool Z, Reinhard S, Nattermann L, Stolz W, Volz K, Sweeney SJ. (2014) 'Physical properties and optimization of GaBiAs/(Al)GaAs based near-infrared laser diodes grown by MOVPE with up to 4.4% Bi'. Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, 47 (34)


    This paper reports on progress in the development of GaAsBi/(Al)GaAs based lasers grown using metal-organic vapour phase epitaxy and focuses on the underlying processes governing their efficiency and temperature dependence. Room temperature lasing has been achieved in devices with 2.2% Bi and lasing in devices with 4.4% Bi was observed up to 180 K. We show that the device performance can be improved by optimizing both electrical and optical confinement in the laser structures. Analysis of the temperature dependence of the threshold current together with pure spontaneous emission and high hydrostatic pressure measurements indicate that device performance is currently dominated by non-radiative recombination through defects (>80% of the threshold current at room temperature in 2.2% Bi samples) and that to further improve the device performance and move towards longer wavelengths for optical telecommunications (1.3-1.5 μ m) further effort is required to improve and optimize material quality. © 2014 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  • Bushell ZL, Ludewig P, Knaub N, Batool Z, Hild K, Stolz W, Sweeney SJ, Volz K. (2014) 'Growth and characterisation of Ga(NAsSi) alloy by metal-organic vapour phase epitaxy'. JOURNAL OF CRYSTAL GROWTH, 396, pp. 79-84.
  • Chai GMT, Hosea TJC, Fox NE, Hild K, Ikyo AB, Marko IP, Sweeney SJ, Bachmann A, Arafin S, Amann M-C. (2014) 'Characterization of 2.3 mu m GaInAsSb-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser structures using photo-modulated reflectance'. JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS, 115 (1) Article number ARTN 013102
  • Sweeney SJ, Marko IP, Jin SR, Hild K, Batool Z, Ludewig P, Natterman L, Bushell Z, Stolz W, Volz K, Broderick CA, Usman M, Harnedy PE, Oreilly EP, Butkute R, Pacebutas V, Geiutis A, Krotkus A. (2014) 'Electrically injected GaAsBi quantum well lasers'. Conference Digest - IEEE International Semiconductor Laser Conference, , pp. 80-81.


    © 2014 IEEE.GaAsBi QWs have the potential to remove inherent recombination losses thereby increasing the efficiency and reducing the temperature sensitivity of near-infrared telecommunications lasers. GaAsBi QW lasers are reported and prospects for 1550nm operation are discussed.

  • Ludewig P, Knaub N, Hossain N, Reinhard S, Nattermann L, Marko IP, Jin SR, Hild K, Chatterjee S, Stolz W, Sweeney SJ, Volz K. (2013) 'Electrical injection Ga(AsBi)/(AlGa)As single quantum well laser'. Applied Physics Letters, 102 (24)


    The Ga(AsBi) material system opens opportunities in the field of high efficiency infrared laser diodes. We report on the growth, structural investigations, and lasing properties of dilute bismide Ga(AsBi)/(AlGa)As single quantum well lasers with 2.2% Bi grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy on GaAs (001) substrates. Electrically injected laser operation at room temperature is achieved with a threshold current density of 1.56 kA/cm2 at an emission wavelength of ∼947 nm. These results from broad area devices show great promise for developing efficient IR laser diodes based on this emerging materials system. © 2013 AIP Publishing LLC.

  • Usman M, Broderick CA, Batool Z, Hild K, Hosea TJC, Sweeney SJ, O'Reilly EP. (2013) 'Impact of alloy disorder on the band structure of compressively strained GaBixAs1-x'. Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, 87 (11)


    The incorporation of bismuth (Bi) in GaAs results in a large reduction of the band gap energy (Eg) accompanied with a large increase in the spin-orbit splitting energy (SO), leading to the condition that SO>Eg, which is anticipated to reduce hot-hole producing Auger recombination losses whereby the energy and momentum of a recombining electron-hole pair are given to a second hole which is excited into the spin-orbit band. We theoretically investigate the electronic structure of experimentally grown GaBixAs1-x samples on (100) GaAs substrates by directly comparing our data with room temperature photomodulated reflectance (PR) measurements. Our atomistic theoretical calculations, in agreement with the PR measurements, confirm that Eg is equal to SO for x≈ 9%. We then theoretically probe the inhomogeneous broadening of the interband transition energies as a function of the alloy disorder. The broadening associated with spin-split-off transitions arises from conventional alloy effects, while the behavior of the heavy-hole transitions can be well described using a valence band-anticrossing model. We show that for the samples containing 8.5% and 10.4% Bi the difficulty in identifying a clear light-hole-related transition energy from the measured PR data is due to the significant broadening of the host matrix light-hole states as a result of the presence of a large number of Bi resonant states in the same energy range and disorder in the alloy. We further provide quantitative estimates of the impact of supercell size and the assumed random distribution of Bi atoms on the interband transition energies in GaBixAs1-x. Our calculations support a type-I band alignment at the GaBixAs 1-x/GaAs interface, consistent with recent experimental findings. © 2013 American Physical Society.

  • Hossain N, Hild K, Jin SR, Yu SQ, Johnson SR, Ding D, Zhang YH, Sweeney SJ. (2013) 'The influence of growth conditions on carrier recombination mechanisms in 1.3 μm GaAsSb/GaAs quantum well lasers'. Applied Physics Letters, 102 (4)


    We investigate the temperature and pressure dependence of the threshold current density of edge-emitting GaAsSb/GaAs quantum well (QW) lasers with different device characteristics. Thermally activated carrier leakage via defects is found to be very sensitive to the growth conditions of GaAsSb QWs. An optimization of the growth conditions reduces the nonradiative recombination mechanisms from 93% to 76% at room temperature. This improvement in carrier recombination mechanisms leads to a large improvement in the threshold current density from 533 Acm-2/QW to 138 Acm-2/QW and the characteristic temperature, T0 (T1), from 51 ± 5 K (104 ± 16 K) to 62 ± 2 K (138 ± 7 K) near room temperature. © 2013 American Institute of Physics.

  • Batool Z, Chatterjee S, Chernikov A, Duzik A, Fritz R, Gogineni C, Hild K, Hosea TJC, Imhof S, Johnson SR, Jiang Z, Jin S, Koch M, Koch SW, Kolata K, Lewis RB, Lu X, Masnadi-Shirazi M, Millunchick JM, Mooney PM, Riordan NA, Rubel O, Sweeney SJ, Thomas JC, Thränhardt A, Tiedje T, Volz K. (2013) 'Bismuth-containing III-V semiconductors: Epitaxial growth and physical properties'. , pp. 139-158.
  • Sweeney SJ, Hild K, Jin S. (2013) 'The potential of GaAsBiN for multi-junction solar cells'. Conference Record of the IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, , pp. 2474-2478.


    The use of multiple connected absorbing junctions (MJ-solar cells) is currently the best approach to maximize the efficiency of solar cells. Increasing the number of junctions leads to a larger theoretical efficiency. To achieve this requires the development of materials appropriate band gaps, which can be grown to a sufficient thickness to absorb light while current matched to other junctions and at the same time minimizing strain and defect generation by lattice matching. We report on modelling of the quaternary alloy GaAsBiN which has the potential to cover a wide range of band gaps below 1.42eV. In addition, this material can also be grown completely lattice matched onto GaAs or Ge with controllable band offsets which makes it very attractive for solar cell applications. © 2013 IEEE.

  • Marko IP, Batool Z, Hild K, Jin SR, Hossain N, Hosea TJC, Petropoulos JP, Zhong Y, Dongmo PB, Zide JMO, Sweeney SJ. (2012) 'Temperature and Bi-concentration dependence of the bandgap and spin-orbit splitting in InGaBiAs/InP semiconductors for mid-infrared applications'. Applied Physics Letters, 101 (22)


    Replacing small amounts of As with Bi in InGaBiAs/InP induces large decreases and increases in the bandgap, Eg, and spin-orbit splitting, ΔSO, respectively. The possibility of achieving ΔSO > Eg and a reduced temperature (T) dependence for Eg are significant for suppressing recombination losses and improving performance in mid-infrared photonic devices. We measure E g(x, T) and ΔSO (x, T) in In0.53Ga 0.47BixAs1-x/InP samples for 0 x 0.039 by various complementary optical spectroscopic techniques. While we find no clear evidence of a decreased dEg/dT (≈0.34 ± 0.06 meV/K in all samples) we find ΔSO > Eg for x > 3.3-4.3. The predictions of a valence band anti-crossing model agree well with the measurements. © 2012 American Institute of Physics.

  • Blume G, Hild K, Marko IP, Hosea TJC, Yu SQ, Chaparro SA, Samal N, Johnson SR, Zhang YH, Sweeney SJ. (2012) 'Cavity mode gain alignment in GaAsSb-based near-infrared vertical cavity lasers studied by spectroscopy and device measurements'. Journal of Applied Physics, 112 (3)


    We present a combination of spectroscopy and device measurements on GaAsSb/GaAs vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) structures to determine the temperature at which the wavelength of the VCSEL cavity mode (CM) aligns with that of the quantum well (QW) ground-state transition (GST), and therefore the gain peak. We find that, despite the achievement of room temperature (RT) continuous wave lasing in VCSEL devices, the QW transition and the CM are actually slightly misaligned at this temperature; room temperature electroluminescence measurements from a cleaved edge of the VCSEL wafer indicate that the 300 K QW GST energy is at 0.975 ± 0.005 eV, while the CM measured in the VCSEL surface reflectivity spectra is at 0.9805 ± 0.0002 eV. When the wafer sample is cooled, the CM and QW GST can be brought into alignment at 270 ± 10 K, as confirmed by temperature-dependent electro-modulated reflectance (ER) and edge-electroluminescence spectroscopic studies. This alignment temperature is further confirmed by comparing the temperature dependence of the emission energy of a fabricated VCSEL device with that of an edge-emitting laser structure with a nominally identical active region. The study suggests that for further device improvement, the room temperature CM and QW GST energies should be more closely matched and both designed to a smaller energy of about 0.95 eV, somewhat closer to the 1.31 μm target. The study amply demonstrates the usefulness of non-destructive ER characterisation techniques in VCSEL manufacturing with GaAsSb-based QWs. © 2012 American Institute of Physics.

  • Batool Z, Hild K, Hosea TJC, Lu X, Tiedje T, Sweeney SJ. (2012) 'The electronic band structure of GaBiAs/GaAs layers: Influence of strain and band anti-crossing'. JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS, 111 (11) Article number ARTN 113108
  • Hossain N, Marko IP, Jin SR, Hild K, Sweeney SJ, Lewis RB, Beaton DA, Tiedje T. (2012) 'Recombination mechanisms and band alignment of GaAs1-xBix/GaAs light emitting diodes'. APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 100 (5) Article number ARTN 051105
  • Hild K, Marko IP, Johnson SR, Yu S-Q, Zhang Y-H, Sweeney SJ. (2011) 'Influence of de-tuning and non-radiative recombination on the temperature dependence of 1.3 mu m GaAsSb/GaAs vertical cavity surface emitting lasers'. APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 99 (7) Article number ARTN 071110
  • Hild K, Sweeney SJ, Wright S, Lock DA, Jin SR, Marko IP, Johnson SR, Chaparro SA, Yu S-Q, Zhang Y-H. (2006) 'Carrier recombination in 1.3 mu m GaAsSb/GaAs quantum well lasers'. APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 89 (17) Article number ARTN 173509
  • Hild K, Sale TE, Sweeney SJ, Hirotani M, Mizuno Y, Kato T. (2004) 'Modulation speed resonant-cavity and leakage current in 650 nm light emitting diodes'. IEE PROCEEDINGS-OPTOELECTRONICS, CARDIFF, WALES: 151 (2), pp. 94-97.
  • Hild K, Sale TE, Hirotani M, Mizuno Y, Kato T. (2003) 'Leakage current and self-heating in 650 nm resonant-cavity LEDs'. Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe - Technical Digest,


    This paper investigates the contributions of leakage current and self-heating to the temperature sensitivity. The amount of self-heating and leakage current is estimated and plotted for a constant light output with increasing temperature for both CW and pulsed operation, and the radiative current density for 650 nm emitting GaInP based resonant cavity light emitting diodes (RCLEDs) is calculated using a drift diffusion model (DDM).The model simulates the distribution of charge carriers within the structure and their recombination mechanisms. The radiative current in GaInP quantum wells is also extracted and plotted. © 2003 IEEE.

  • Hild K, Sale TE, Hosea TJC, Hirotani M, Hirotani M, Kato T. (2001) 'Spectral and thermal properties of red AlGaInP RCLEDs for polymer optical fibre applications'. IEE PROCEEDINGS-OPTOELECTRONICS, 148 (5-6), pp. 220-224.

Conference papers

  • Sweeney SJ, Marko IP, Jin SR, Hild K, Batool Z, Ludewig P, Natterman L, Bushell Z, Stolz W, Volz K, Broderick CA, Usman M, Harnedy PE, O'Reilly EP, Butkute R, Pacebutas V, Geizutis A, Krotkus A. (2014) 'Electrically injected GaAsBi Quantum Well Lasers'. IEEE COMPUTER SOC 2014 24TH IEEE INTERNATIONAL SEMICONDUCTOR LASER CONFERENCE (ISLC 2014), Palma de Mallorca, SPAIN: 24th IEEE International Semiconductor Laser Conference (ISLC), pp. 80-81.
  • Hild K, Batool Z, Jin SR, Hossain N, Marko IP, Hosea TJC, Lu X, Tiedje T, Sweeney SJ. (2013) 'Auger Recombination Suppression And Band Alignment In GaAsBi/GaAs Heterostructures'. AMER INST PHYSICS PHYSICS OF SEMICONDUCTORS, Zurich, SWITZERLAND: 31st International Conference on the Physics of Semiconductors (ICPS) 1566, pp. 488-489.
  • Ikyo BA, Marko IP, Hild K, Adams AR, Arafin S, Amann MC, Sweeney SJ. (2013) 'The effect of hole leakage and auger recombination on the temperature sensitivity of GaInAsSb/GaSb mid-infrared lasers'. Optics InfoBase Conference Papers,
  • Hosea TJC, Marko IP, Batool Z, Hild K, Jin SR, Hossain N, Chai GMT, Sweeney SJ, Petropoulos JP, Zhong Y, Dongmo PB, Zide JMO. (2012) 'InGaBiAs/InP semiconductors for mid-infrared applications: Dependence of bandgap and spin-orbit splitting on temperature and bismuth content'. ICP 2012 - 3rd International Conference on Photonics 2012, Proceedings, , pp. 154-158.


    Replacing small amounts of As with Bi in InGaBiAs/InP induces large decreases and increases in the bandgap, Eg, and spin-orbit splitting, ΔSO, respectively. The possibility of achieving ΔSO>Eg and a reduced temperature (T) dependence for Eg are significant for suppressing recombination losses and improving performance in mid-infrared photonic devices. We measure E g(x, T) and ΔSO(x, T) in In0.53Ga 0.47BixAs1-x/InP samples for 0≤x≤0.032 by optical spectroscopy. While we find no clear evidence of a decreased dE g/dT (≈0.33±0.07meV/K in all samples) we find ΔSO>Eg for x>3.3-4.3%. The predictions of a valence band anti-crossing model agree well with the measurements. © 2012 IEEE.

  • Sweeney SJ, Batool Z, Hild K, Jin SR, Hosea TJC. (2011) 'The Potential Role of Bismide Alloys in Future Photonic Devices'. IEEE 13TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON TRANSPARENT OPTICAL NETWORKS, Stockholm, Sweden: 13th ICTON


    In a similar manner to the dilute nitrides, the incorporation of Bismuth in semiconductors such as GaAs is predicted to lead to a band-anti-crossing effect (in the valence band) causing a large band gap bowing. In addition, the large size of Bismuth atoms gives rise to a large spin-orbit splitting. This opens-up interesting new possibilities for efficient photonic devices, such as near- and mid-infrared lasers which are more thermally stable and less susceptible to losses compared to conventional InP-based devices. Since Bismuth principally influences the valence band, while nitrogen influences the conduction band, combining Bismuth and Nitrogen in III-V alloys offers huge potential for engineering the conduction and valence band offsets, the band gap and spin-orbit splitting, with wide scope for the design of photonic devices.

  • Hossain N, Hild K, Jin SR, Sweeney SJ, Yu S-Q, Johnson SR, Ding D, Zhang Y-H. (2010) 'Influence of device structures on carrier recombination in GaAsSb/GaAs QW lasers'. Proceedings of Photonics Global Conference, Orchard, Singapore: PGC 2010


    We investigate the temperature and pressure dependence of carrier recombination processes occurring in various GaAsSb/GaAs QW laser structures grown under similar growth conditions. Thermally activated carrier leakage via defects is found to be very sensitive to the strain induced interface imperfections. Nonradiative recombination is found to be sensitive to the number of QWs. A strain compensated MQW structure leads to a reduced contribution of non-radiative recombination to the threshold current density (Jth) and a high characteristic temperature (T0) of 73K at room temperature.

  • Hossain N, Hild K, Jin S, Sweeney SJ, Yu S-Q, Johnson SR, Ding D, Zhang Y-H. (2010) 'Role of growth temperature on the physical characteristics of GaAsSb/GaAs QW lasers'. IEEE 23rd Annual Meeting of the IEEE Photonics Society, Denver, USA: Photonics 2010, pp. 59-60.


    Thermally activated carrier leakage via defects is found to be very sensitive to the growth temperature of GaAsSb quantum wells. Optimization of the growth temperature leads to a low Jth/QW of 138A/cm2 at RT.

  • Sweeney SJ, Hild K, Marko IP, Yu S-Q, Johnson SR, Zhang Y-H. (2008) 'Thermal characteristics of 1.3 mu m GaAsSb/GaAs-based Edge- and Surface-emitting Lasers'. IEEE 2008 IEEE 21ST INTERNATIONAL SEMICONDUCTOR LASER CONFERENCE, Sorrento, ITALY: IEEE 21st International Semiconductor Laser Conference, pp. 83-84.
  • Hild K, Sweeney SJ, Marko IP, Jin SR, Johnson SR, Chaparro SA, Yu S, Zhang Y-H. (2007) 'Temperature and pressure dependence of carrier recombination processes in GaAsSb/GaAs quantum well lasers'. WILEY-V C H VERLAG GMBH PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI B-BASIC SOLID STATE PHYSICS, Barcelona, SPAIN: 12th International Conference on High Pressure Semiconductor Physics (HPSP-12) 244 (1), pp. 197-202.
  • Hild K, Sweeney SJ, Jin SR, Healy SB, O'Rellly EP, Johnson SR, Wang J-B, Zhang Y-H. (2007) 'Band alignment and carrier recombination in GaAsSb/GaAs quantum wells'. AMER INST PHYSICS Physics of Semiconductors, Pts A and B, Vienna, AUSTRIA: 28th International Conference on the Physics of Semiconductors (ICPS-28) 893, pp. 1431-1432.
  • Hosea TJC, Cripps SA, Sale TE, Hild K. (2006) 'Analysis of reflectance and modulation spectroscopic lineshapes in optoelectronic device structures'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV APPLIED SURFACE SCIENCE, Strasbourg, FRANCE: Symposium P of the Spring Meeting of the European-Materials-Research-Society entitled Curent Trends in Optical and X-ray Meterology of Advanced Materials for Nanoscale Devices 253 (1), pp. 70-79.
  • Hild K, Sweeney S, Lock D, Wright S, Wang J, Johnson S, Zhang Y. (2005) 'On the thermal stability of 1.3 mu m GaAsSb/GaAs-based lasers'. IEEE 2005 IEEE LEOS Annual Meeting Conference Proceedings (LEOS), , pp. 330-331.


    In spite of the almost ideal variation of the radiative current of 1.3 mu m GaAsSb/GaAs-based lasers, the threshold current, J(th), is high due to non-radiative recombination accounting for 90% J(th) near room temperature. This also gives rise to low T-0 values similar to 60K close to room temperature, similar to that for InGaAsP/InP.

  • Sale TE, Hild K, Hosea TJC, Hirotani M, Kato Y. (2004) 'Reflectivity fitting for accurate thickness and compositional determination in RCLEDs'. SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING LIGHT -EMITTING DIODES: RESEARCH, MANUFACTURING, AND APPLICATIONS VIII, San Jose, CA: 8th Conference on Light-Emitting Diodes 5366, pp. 191-199.
  • Hild K, Sale TE, Hosea TJC, Hirotani M, Mizuno Y, Kato T. (2001) 'Influence of quantum well and cavity features on the spectral, angle- and temperature-dependent emission of 650 mn resonant cavity LEDs'. WILEY-V C H VERLAG GMBH PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI A-APPLIED RESEARCH, UNIV PADERBORN, PADERBORN, GERMANY: International Workshop on Microcavity Light Sources 188 (3), pp. 937-941.


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