Dr Patrice Rusconi
Lecturer in Psychology - MSc Social Psychology Programme Leader
Qualifications: PhD in Social, Cognitive and Clinical Psychology (University of Milano-Bicocca, 2011), MSc in Psychology (University of Milano-Bicocca, 2005)
Phone: Work: 01483 68 9582
Room no: 27 AC 04
Tuesdays, 2-4pm during term time.
Please email me to make an appointment at other times.
Office hours will be from 2.30pm to 4.30pm on Tuesday 14 March 2017
I received my MSc and my PhD in Psychology at the University of Milano-Bicocca (Italy) under the supervision of Professor Paolo Cherubini. I conducted part of my PhD research as a visiting scholar at the University of California, San Diego, with Professors Craig McKenzie and David Huber. I earned my PhD in Social, Cognitive and Clinical Psychology in January 2011 with a thesis on the psychological mechanisms involved in hypothesis testing. I continued to work at the University of Milano-Bicocca as a Postdoctoral Research Fellow before joining the University of Surrey as a Lecturer A in Cognitive Psychology in October 2013.
My main research interests lie in probabilistic reasoning and hypothesis testing with either abstract or more contextualized materials. In particular, I am interested in looking at how people search for information and evaluate the acquired data to confirm or disconfirm a hypothesis, whether it is a hypothesized personality trait of a target person or a hypothesized category membership.
This strand of research might inform our understanding of relevant thinking processes that are also involved in processes such as medical diagnosis, legal investigations, and impression formation.
In this research, I often use normative criteria that are based on Bayes’ rule, a mathematical theorem that allows to quantify how people should revise their initial beliefs in light of the informativeness conveyed by the new, incoming data.
My current research projects concern problem solving and computational modelling, judgment and decision making, social cognition, and health psychology.
Marco Brambilla, Department of Psychology, University of Milano-Bicocca.
Paolo Cherubini, Department of Psychology, University of Milano-Bicocca.
Davide Crepaldi, Department of Psychology, University of Milano-Bicocca.
Marco D’Addario, Department of Psychology, University of Milano-Bicocca.
David Huber, Department of Psychology, University of Massachusetts, Amherst.
Marco Marelli, Center for Mind/Brain Sciences, University of Trento.
Tom Ormerod, School of Psychology, University of Sussex.
Paolo Riva, Department of Psychology, University of Milano-Bicocca.
Simona Sacchi, Department of Psychology, University of Milano-Bicocca.
- 'You are fair, but I expect you to also behave unfairly: Positive asymmetry in trait-behavior relations for moderate morality information'.
PLoS ONE, 12 (7)Repository URL: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/id/eprint/841636
Trait inference in person perception is based on observers' implicit assumptions about the relations between trait adjectives (e.g., fair) and the either consistent or inconsistent behaviors (e.g., having double standards) that an actor can manifest. This article presents new empirical data and theoretical interpretations on people' behavioral expectations, that is, people's perceived trait-behavior relations along the morality (versus competence) dimension. We specifically address the issue of the moderate levels of both traits and behaviors almost neglected by prior research by using a measure of the perceived general frequency of behaviors. A preliminary study identifies a set of competence- and morality-related traits and a subset of traits balanced for valence. Studies 1±2 show that moral target persons are associated with greater behavioral flexibility than immoral ones where abstract categories of behaviors are concerned. For example, participants judge it more likely that a fair person would behave unfairly than an unfair person would behave fairly. Study 3 replicates the results of the first 2 studies using concrete categories of behaviors (e.g., telling the truth/ omitting some information). Study 4 shows that the positive asymmetry in morality-related trait-behavior relations holds for both North-American and European (i.e., Italian) individuals. A small-scale meta-analysis confirms the existence of a positive asymmetry in traitbehavior relations along both morality and competence dimensions for moderate levels of both traits and behaviors. We discuss these findings in relation to prior models and results on trait-behavior relations and we advance a motivational explanation based on selfprotection.
- 'Evidence Evaluation: Measure Z Corresponds to Human Utility Judgments Better than Measure L and Optimal-Experimental-Design Models'.
Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 40 (3), pp. 703-723.doi: 10.1037/a0035549Repository URL: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/804772/
Evidence evaluation is a crucial process in many human activities, spanning from medical diagnosis to impression formation. The present experiments investigated which, if any, normative model best conforms to people’s intuition about the value of the obtained evidence. Psychologists, epistemologists, and philosophers of science have proposed several models to account for people’s intuition about the utility of the obtained evidence with respect either to a focal hypothesis or to a constellation of hypotheses. We pitted against each other the so called optimal-experimental-design models (i.e., Bayesian diagnosticity, log10 diagnosticity, information gain, Kullback-Leibler distance, probability gain, and impact) and measures L and Z to compare their ability to describe humans’ intuition about the value of the obtained evidence. Participants received words-and-numbers scenarios concerning two hypotheses and binary features. They were asked to evaluate the utility of “yes” and “no” answers to questions about some features possessed in different proportions (i.e., the likelihoods) by two types of extraterrestrial creatures (corresponding to two mutually exclusive and exhaustive hypotheses). Participants evaluated either how an answer was helpful or how an answer decreased/increased their beliefs with respect either to a single hypothesis or to both hypotheses. We fitted mixed-effects models and we used the Akaike information criterion (AIC) and the Bayesian information criterion (BIC) values to compare the competing models of the value of the obtained evidence. Overall, the experiments showed that measure Z was the best-fitting model of participants’ judgments of the value of obtained answers. We discussed the implications for the human hypothesis-evaluation process.
- 'Effects of asymmetric questions on impression formation:
A trade-off between evidence diagnosticity and frequency'.
Social Psychology, 45 (1), pp. 41-53.
When examining social targets, people may ask asymmetric questions, that is, questions for which “yes” and “no” answers are neither equally diagnostic nor equally frequent. The consequences of this information-gathering strategy on impression formation deserve empirical investigation. The present work explored the role played by the trade-off between the diagnosticity and frequency of answers that follow asymmetric questions. In Study 1, participants received answers to symmetric/asymmetric questions on an anonymous social target. In Study 2, participants read answers to a specific symmetric/asymmetric question provided by different group members. Overall, the results of both studies indicate that asymmetric questions had less impact on impressions than did symmetric questions, suggesting that individuals are more sensitive to data frequency than diagnosticity when forming impressions.
- 'Missing the dog that failed to bark in the nighttime: On the overestimation of occurrences over non-occurrences in hypothesis testing'.
Psychological Research, 77 (3), pp. 348-370.
In three studies, we investigated whether and to what extent the evaluation of two mutually exclusive hypotheses is affected by a feature-positive effect, wherein present clues are weighted more than absent clues. Participants (N = 126) were presented with abstract problems concerning the most likely provenance of a card that was drawn from one of two decks. We factored the correct response (the hypothesis favored by the consideration of all clues) and the ratio of present-to-absent features in each set of observations. Furthermore, across the studies, we manipulated the presentation format of the features' probabilities by providing the probability distributions of occurrences (Study 1), non-occurrences (Study 3) or both (Study 2). In all studies, both participant preference and accuracy were mostly determined by an over-reliance on present features. Moreover, across participants, both confidence in the responses and the informativeness of the present clues correlated positively with the number of responses given in line with an exclusive consideration of present features. These results were mostly independent of both the rarity of the absent clues and the presentation format. We concluded that the feature-positive effect influences hypothesis evaluation, and we discussed the implications for confirmation bias. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.
- 'Integration of base rates and new information in an abstract hypothesis-testing task.'.
Br J Psychol, England: 104 (2), pp. 193-211.
In two studies, we investigated how people use base rates and the presence versus the absence of new information to judge which of two hypotheses is more likely. Participants were given problems based on two decks of cards printed with 0-4 letters. A table showed the relative frequencies of the letters on the cards within each deck. Participants were told the letters that were printed on or absent from a card the experimenter had drawn. Base rates were conveyed by telling participants that the experimenter had chosen the deck by drawing from an urn containing, in different proportions, tickets marked either 'deck 1' or 'deck 2'. The task was to judge from which of the two decks the card was most likely drawn. Prior probabilities and the evidential strength of the subset of present clues (computed as 'weight of evidence') were the only significant predictors of participants' dichotomous (both studies) and continuous (Study 2) judgments. The evidential strength of all clues was not a significant predictor of participants' judgments in either study, and no significant interactions emerged. We discuss the results as evidence for additive integration of base rates and the new present information in hypothesis testing.
- 'Insensitivity and oversensitivity to answer diagnosticity in hypothesis testing'.
Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 66 (12), pp. 2443-2464.
Two experiments examined how people perceive the diagnosticity of different answers ("yes" and "no") to the same question. We manipulated whether the "yes" and the "no" answers conveyed the same amount of information or not, as well as the presentation format of the probabilities of the features inquired about. In Experiment 1, participants were presented with only the percentages of occurrence of the features, which most straightforwardly apply to the diagnosticity of "yes" answers. In Experiment 2, participants received in addition the percentages of the absence of features, which serve to assess the diagnosticity of "no" answers. Consistent with previous studies, we found that participants underestimated the difference in the diagnosticity conveyed by different answers to the same question. However, participants' insensitivity was greater when the normative (Bayesian) diagnosticity of the "no" answer was higher than that of the "yes" answer. We also found oversensitivity to answer diagnosticity, whereby participants valued as differentially diagnostic two answers that were normatively equal in terms of their diagnosticity. Presenting to participants the percentages of occurrence of the features inquired about together with their complements increased their sensitivity to the diagnosticity of answers. We discuss the implications of these findings for confirmation bias in hypothesis testing. © 2013 © 2013 The Experimental Psychology Society.
- 'New knowledge for old credences: asymmetric information search about in-group and out-group members.'.
Br J Soc Psychol, England: 51 (4), pp. 606-625.
Three experiments examined how people gather information on in-group and out-group members. Previous studies have revealed that category-based expectancies bias the hypothesis-testing process towards confirmation through the use of asymmetric-confirming questions (which are queries where the replies supporting the prior expectancies are more informative than those falsifying them). However, to date there is no empirical investigation of the use of such a question-asking strategy in an intergroup context. In the present studies, participants were asked to produce (Study 1) or to choose (Studies 2 and 3) questions in order to investigate the presence of various traits in an in-group or an out-group member. Traits were manipulated by valence and typicality. The results revealed that category-based expectancies do not always lead to asymmetric-confirming testing: whereas participants tended to ask questions that confirmed positive in-group and negative out-group stereotypical attributes, they used a more symmetric strategy when testing for the presence of negative in-group or positive out-group traits. Moreover, Study 3 also revealed a moderation effect of in-group identification. The findings point to the role played by motivational factors associated with preserving a positive social identity. Possible consequences of these hypothesis-testing processes in preserving a positive social identity for intergroup relations are discussed.
- 'Moderators of the feature-positive effect in abstract hypothesis-evaluation tasks'.
Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, 66 (3), pp. 181-192.doi: 10.1037/a0028173Repository URL: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/804774/
Three studies using abstract materials tested possible moderators of the feature-positive effect in hypothesis evaluation whereby people use the presence of features more than their absence to judge which of 2 competing hypotheses is more likely. Drawing on a distinction made in visual perception research, we tested whether the feature-positive effect emerges both when using nonsubstitutive features, which can be removed without replacement by other features, and substitutive features, the absence of which implies the presence of other features (e.g., the colour red, the absence of which entails the presence of another colour). Furthermore, we tested whether presenting to participants both the clue occurrence probabilities (which are needed to consider clue presence) and their complements (which are needed to gauge the impact of the absent clues) decreased the featurepositive effect. The results showed that regardless of the type of feature (i.e., nonsubstitutive vs. substitutive), participants provided more responses consistent with an evaluation of the subset of present clues compared to all other kinds of responses. However, the use of substitutive features combined with an explicit presentation format of probabilistic information had a debiasing effect. Furthermore, the use of substitutive features negated participant sensitivity to the rarity of clues, whereby the feature-positive effect decreased when there was one absent clue and two present clues for problems in which the exclusive consideration of the presence of features did not suggest the correct response. © 2012 Canadian Psychological Association.
- 'You want to give a good impression? Be honest! Moral traits dominate group impression formation'.
British Journal of Social Psychology, 51 (1), pp. 149-166.Repository URL: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/805930/
Research has shown that warmth and competence are core dimensions on which perceivers judge others and that warmth has a primary role at various phases of impression formation. Three studies explored whether the two components of warmth (i.e., sociability and morality) have distinct roles in predicting the global impression of social groups. In Study 1 (N= 105) and Study 2 (N= 112), participants read an immigration scenario depicting an unfamiliar social group in terms of high (vs. low) morality, sociability, and competence. In both studies, participants were asked to report their global impression of the group. Results showed that global evaluations were better predicted by morality than by sociability or competence-trait ascriptions. Study 3 (N= 86) further showed that the effect of moral traits on group global evaluations was mediated by the perception of threat. The importance of these findings for the impression-formation process is discussed. © 2011 The British Psychological Society.
- 'Confirming expectations in asymmetric and symmetric social hypothesis testing.'.
Exp Psychol, Germany: 59 (5), pp. 243-250.Repository URL: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/805934/
This article examines individuals' expectations in a social hypothesis testing task. Participants selected questions from a list to investigate the presence of personality traits in a target individual. They also identified the responses that they expected to receive and the likelihood of the expected responses. The results of two studies indicated that when people asked questions inquiring about the hypothesized traits that did not entail strong a priori beliefs, they expected to find evidence confirming the hypothesis under investigation. These confirming expectations were more pronounced for symmetric questions, in which the diagnosticity and frequency of the expected evidence did not conflict. When the search for information was asymmetric, confirming expectations were diminished, likely as a consequence of either the rareness or low diagnosticity of the hypothesis-confirming outcome. We also discuss the implications of these findings for confirmation bias.
- 'The influence of anchoring on pain judgment'.
Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, 42 (2), pp. 265-277.
Context: Research on decision making suggests that a wide range of spontaneous processes may influence medical judgment. Objectives: We considered an easily accessible strategy, anchoring and insufficient adjustment, which might contribute to health care professionals' miscalibration of patients' pain. Methods: A sample (n = 423) of physicians, nurses, medical students, and nursing students participated in a computerized task that showed 16 vignettes featuring fictitious patients reporting headache. In the experimental condition, participants were asked to evaluate the severity of the patient's pain before and after knowing the patient's rating. In the control condition, participants were shown all information about the patient at the same time and were required to make judgments in a single stage. Results: When participants could express an initial impression before knowing the patient's rating, they fully anchored to their initial impressions in almost half of the responses. Moreover, even among those who revised their initial impression, the extent of the revision was often insufficient. Greater anchoring was associated with patients' ratings that were higher than the participants' initial impression. Finally, we provided evidence that anchoring increased pain miscalibration. We discuss our findings in terms of their contribution to the understanding of the cognitive processes involved in pain assessment. Conclusion: When estimating patients' pain intensity, observers are driven by anchoring, a rule of thumb that might have pernicious consequences in terms of unwarranted overreliance on initial impressions and insufficient revision in light of relevant disconfirming evidence. Taking this heuristic into account might foster accurate pain assessment and treatment. © 2011 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
- 'Looking for honesty: The primary role of morality (vs. sociability and competence) in information gathering'.
European Journal of Social Psychology, 41 (2), pp. 135-143.doi: 10.1002/ejsp.744Repository URL: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/805931/
Research on the two fundamental dimensions of social judgment, namely warmth and competence, has shown that warmth has a primary and a dominant role in information gathering about others. In two studies we examined whether the sociability and morality components of warmth play distinct roles in such a process. Study 1 (N=60) investigated which traits were mostly selected when forming impressions about others. The results showed that, regardless of the task goal, traits related to morality and sociability were differently processed. Furthermore, participants were more interested in obtaining information about morality than about sociability when asked to form a global impression about others. Study 2 (N=98) explored the adoption of asymmetric/symmetric strategies when asking questions to make inferences on others. As predicted, participants adopted an asymmetrically disconfirming strategy on morality traits, while they looked for more symmetrical evidence on sociability or competence traits. Overall, our findings indicated a distinct and a dominant role of the moral component of warmth in the information-gathering process. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- 'Preferences for different questions when testing hypotheses in an abstract task: positivity does play a role, asymmetry does not.'.
Acta Psychol (Amst), Netherlands: 134 (2), pp. 162-174.
Previous studies on hypothesis-testing behaviour have reported systematic preferences for posing positive questions (i.e., inquiries about features that are consistent with the truth of the hypothesis) and different types of asymmetric questions (i.e., questions where the hypothesis confirming and the hypothesis disconfirming responses have different evidential strength). Both tendencies can contribute - in some circumstances - to confirmation biases (i.e., the improper acceptance or maintenance of an incorrect hypothesis). The empirical support for asymmetric testing is, however, scarce and partly contradictory, and the relative strength of positive testing and asymmetric testing has not been empirically compared. In four studies where subjects were asked to select (Experiment 1) or evaluate (Experiments 2-4) questions for controlling an abstract hypothesis, we orthogonally balanced the positivity/negativity of questions by their symmetry/asymmetry (Experiments 1-3), or by the type of asymmetry (confirmatory vs disconfirmatory; Experiment 4). In all Experiments participants strongly preferred positive to negative questions. Their choices were on the other hand mostly unaffected by symmetry and asymmetry in general, or - more specifically - by different types of asymmetry. Other results indicated that participants were sensitive to the diagnosticity of the questions (Experiments 1-3), and that they preferred testing features with a high probability under the focal hypothesis (Experiment 4). In the discussion we argue that recourse to asymmetric testing - observed in some previous studies using more contextualized problems - probably depends on context-related motivations and prior knowledge. In abstract tasks, where that knowledge is not available, more simple strategies - such as positive testing - are prevalent.
- 'Taking into account the observers' uncertainty: A graduated approach to the credibility of the patient's pain evaluation'.
Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 33 (1), pp. 60-71.
This article presents two experiments aiming to investigate the adoption of a graduated measure to describe credibility attribution by observers who evaluate patients' pain accounts. A total of 160 medical students were required to express a credibility judgment on the pain intensity level of hypothetical patients. We used 16 vignettes based on a factorial mixed-design. Within-participants factors were the reported pain, the presence of a physical sign, the patient's facial expression and the patient's gender, and between-groups factors were the patient's age and the geographical distribution of the patient's name. Results confirm the well-established tendency not to believe patients' self-reports and provide information regarding the evaluators' uncertainty. The findings suggest that a graduated measure is useful for assessing the degree of uncertainty of the observers and subtle effects of different factors upon the judgment of patient's pain. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.
- 'Response demands and the recruitment of heuristic strategies in syllogistic reasoning'.
Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 62 (3), pp. 513-530.
Two experiments investigated whether dealing with a homogeneous subset of syllogisms with time-constrained responses encouraged participants to develop and use heuristics for abstract (Experiment 1) and thematic (Experiment 2) syllogisms. An atmosphere-based heuristic accounted for most responses with both abstract and thematic syllogisms. With thematic syllogisms, a weaker effect of a belief heuristic was also observed, mainly where the correct response was inconsistent with the atmosphere of the premises. Analytic processes appear to have played little role in the time-constrained condition, whereas their involvement increased in a self-paced, unconstrained condition. From a dual-process perspective, the results further specify how task demands affect the recruitment of heuristic and analytic systems of reasoning. Because the syllogisms and experimental procedure were the same as those used in a previous neuroimaging study by Goel, Buchel, Frith, and Dolan (2000), the result also deepen our understanding of the cognitive processes investigated by that study. © 2008 The Experimental Psychology Society.
- 'When Eye-tracking Meets Cognitive Modeling: Applications to Cyber Security Systems'. Springer
LNCS: Proceedings of HCI International 2017, Vancouver, Canada: Human Aspects of Information Security, Privacy and Trust: 5th International Conference, HAS 2017; part of HCI International 2017 10292, pp. pp. 251-264.
[ Status: Accepted ]Repository URL: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/id/eprint/813689
Human cognitive modeling techniques and related software tools have been widely used by researchers and practitioners to evalu- ate the e ectiveness of user interface (UI) designs and related human performance. However, they are rarely used in the cyber security eld despite the fact that human factors have been recognized as a key ele- ment for cyber security systems. For a cyber security system involving a relatively complicated UI, it could be di cult to build a cognitive model that accurately captures the di erent cognitive tasks involved in all user interactions. Using a moderately complicated user authentication system as an example system and CogTool as a typical cognitive modeling tool, this paper aims to provide insights into the use of eye-tracking data for facilitating human cognitive modeling of cognitive tasks more e ectively and accurately.We used visual scan paths extracted from an eye-tracking user study to facilitate the design of cognitive modeling tasks. This al- lowed us to reproduce some insecure human behavioral patterns observed in some previous lab-based user studies on the same system, and more importantly, we also found some unexpected new results about human behavior. The comparison between human cognitive models with and without eye-tracking data suggests that eye-tracking data can provide useful information to facilitate the process of human cognitive modeling as well as to achieve a better understanding of security-related human behaviors. In addition, our results demonstrated that cyber security re- search can bene t from a combination of eye-tracking and cognitive mod- eling to study human behavior related security problems.
- 'Can Humans Detect the Authenticity of Social Media Accounts?'.
Exeter, UK: 3rd IEEE International Conference on Cybernetics (CYBCONF-2017)Repository URL: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/id/eprint/841313
This study investigates the influence of verbal and non-verbal cues on people’s credibility judgments of fake Twitter profiles generated by an information hiding mobile app solely for transmitting secret messages. We tested the hypotheses that the trustworthiness conveyed by the profile picture, morality-related trait adjectives included in the profile summary and the profile owner’s gender would increase people’s credibility judgments of those fake Twitter profiles. 24 participants assessed 16 fake profiles on their credibility. They also expressed their confidence in their credibility judgements and they answered an open-ended question on which parts of the profile influenced their credibility judgements. The results showed that overall participants did not trust the Twitter profiles. Furthermore, confidence judgements were higher when profiles included competence-related traits in the profile summaries. Verbal rather than non-verbal cues had thus more influence on participants’ judgements. The openended responses revealed a large reliance on the content of the profile, which is what the mobile app relies on. We discussed these findings in light of the relative lack of credibility of the profiles generated by the mobile app. The new insights can help improve designs of systems depending on automated social media accounts and will provide useful clues about other applications where cognitive computing plays a role.
Semester 2 2016-17:
Social Cognition (Final Year UG and PG Module Convener) PSY3101-PSYM108
Crafting Research: Linking Theories and Methods (PG Module Convener) PSYM028Semester 1 2016-17:
Social Psychology with Research Methods 2/Social Psychology 2/ Fundamental Concepts in Social Psychology with Research Methods (UG and PG Contributing Lecturer) PSY2016-PSY2023-PSY2028-PSYM093
Psychology Dissertation (Final Year UG Contributing Lecturer) PSY3065
Semester 2 2015-16:
Thinking and reasoning (Final Year UG Contributing Lecturer) PSY3099
Crafting Research: Linking Theories and Methods (PG Module Convener) PSYM028
Semester 1 2015-16:
Social Cognition (Final Year UG and PG Module Convener) PSY3101-PSYM108
Social Psychology with Research Methods 2/Social Psychology 2/ Fundamental Concepts in Social Psychology with Research Methods (UG and PG Contributing Lecturer) PSY2016-PSY2023-PSYM093
Psychology Dissertation (Final Year UG Contributing Lecturer) PSY3065
Semester 2 2014-15:
Problem solving and decision making (Final Year UG Module Convener) PSY3099
Crafting Research: Linking Theories and Methods (PG Contributing Lecturer) PSYM028
Undergraduate and Postgraduate Dissertation Supervisor.
Professional Training Year Tutor.
Lab Token Scheme Administrator.
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Volunteer Research Apprentice (VRA) Scheme Administrator - Second Year Psychology Student Scheme.
2016 - Shujun Li (PI), and Patrice Rusconi (Co-Investigator), "COMMANDO-HUMANS: COMputational Modelling and Automatic Non-intrusive Detection Of HUMan behAviour based iNSecurity", funded by EPSRC (Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council). Funding amount: £209,485.6 (EPSRC contribution). Duration: 1 April 2016 – 30 April 2018.
2015 - Lada Timotijevic (PI), Adrian Banks, Heather Gage, Thomas Ormerod, Ellen Seiss, and Patrice Rusconi (Co-Investigator),"PD_manager: mhealth platform for Parkinson's disease management", funded by the European Commission, Horizon 2020 - Research and Innovation Framework Programme. Funding amount: €4,345,500.00 (Surrey share €577,125). Duration: 1 January 2015 – 31 December 2017.