Dr Julie Gore
Senior Lecturer in Organisational Behaviour
Qualifications: BSc, DPM, CertEd, PhD, CPsychol, FBPsS, FHEA
Phone: Work: 01483 68 6375
Room no: 60 MS 03
Office hoursI am currently on an awarded research sabbatical - please contact me via e-mail and I will reply when possible. Thank you.
Julie Gore is a Senior Lecturer in Organisational Behaviour. She has previously had several senior academic roles as Deputy Director of Undergraduate studies and Director of the DBA programme. Julie is a Chartered Psychologist, Fellow of the British Psychological Society (CPsychol, FBPsS) and is registered as a member of the BPS Occupational test assessors (MBTI). In addition to being a Fellow of the Higher Education Academy, Julie is a nominated ESRC Peer-Review College Member, elected Member of Council for the British Academy of Management and also serves as a member of the editorial board of the British Journal of Management and is an Associate Editor of the Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology.
Julie is interested in explaining how people take decisions in professional contexts and how this knowledge can be used to improve the quality of these activities for individuals and organisations. Her research focus is on managerial cognition and naturalistic decision making (NDM); eliciting and documenting expertise in ill-defined organisational contexts. This work has captured the cognitive processes of professionals in engineering, day trading, aviation and human resource management. In recent years her research has explored the psychology of the decision making associated with executive reward. Julie has published her work in international psychology and management publications including: The Psychologist, Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, The Journal of Cognitive Engineering & Decision Making, Review of General Psychology, Organization Studies, Human Resource Management Journal, The Journal of Management, The Journal of World Business and a range of service management journals associated with the Tourism, Hospitality & Retail industries.
Prior to joining the University of Surrey Julie had lectured at Oxford Brookes University where she was awarded her PhD in Applied Psychology. Julie has also lectured as a visiting scholar at the University of Cranfield, taught overseas in Hong Kong, Germany, Bulgaria and Switzerland and has been an external examiner in Organisational Behaviour for several UK universities including The London School of Economics and Political Science. During a short-time away from academic life Julie travelled in the USA and worked for JW Marriott Hotels in Rhode Island, Boston and Washington DC.
Julie is happy to consider PhD and DBA applications in the following areas:
Managerial Cognition (including critical thinking)
Naturalistic Decision Making
Knowledge elicitation techniques - accessing professional expertise
In general, Julie is very interested in the application of behavioural science to management research, in particular cognitive psychology, naturalistic decision making (NDM) and qualitative research methodology including applied cognitive task analysis. Her research projects with doctoral students have focussed upon these applied areas of psychology with Day Traders, HR Directors and Senior Executives.
- 'Naturalistic decision making and organizations: Reviewing pragmatic science'.
ORGANIZATION STUDIES, 27 (7), pp. 925-942.Full text is available at: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/236229/
- 'Applications for naturalistic decision-making'.
Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 88, pp. 223-230.doi: 10.1111/joop.12121
- 'Fairness, envy, guilt and greed – building equity considerations into agency theory'.
[ Status: Accepted ]
- 'The economic psychology of incentives: An international study of top managers'.
Journal of World Business, 49 (3), pp. 350-361.
The world-wide inflation in executive compensation in recent years has been accompanied by an increase in the prevalence of long-term incentives. This article demonstrates how the subjectively perceived value of long-term incentives is affected by risk aversion, uncertainty aversion, and time preferences. Based on a unique empirical study which involved collecting primary data on executive preferences from around the world, and using a theoretical framework which draws on behavioral agency theory, we conclude that, while long-term incentives are perceived by executives to be effective, they are not in fact an efficient form of reward, and that this outcome is not significantly affected by cross-cultural differences. We conjecture that boards of directors, acting on behalf of shareholders, increase the size of long-term incentive awards in order to compensate executives for the perceived loss of value when compared with less risky, more certain and more immediate forms of reward. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
- 'Understanding preferences in experience-based choice: a study of cognition in the `wild''. Journal of Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making, . (2012)
- 'Behavioral Agency theory: new foundations for theorising about executive compensation'.
Journal of Management, Full text is available at: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/791728/
This article describes new micro-foundations for theorizing about executive compensation, drawing on the behavioral economics literature and based on a more realistic set of behavioral assumptions than those that have typically been made by agency theorists. We call these micro-foundations “behavioral agency theory.” In contrast to the standard agency framework, which focuses on monitoring costs and incentive alignment, behavioral agency theory places agent performance at the center of the agency model, arguing that the interests of shareholders and their agents are most likely to be aligned if executives are motivated to perform to the best of their abilities. We develop a line of argument first advanced by Wiseman and Gomez-Mejia and put the case for a more general reassessment of the behavioral assumptions underpinning agency theory. A model of economic man predicated on bounded rationality is proposed, adopting Wiseman and Gomez-Mejia’s assumptions about risk preferences, but incorporating new assumptions about time discounting, inequity aversion, and the trade-off between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. We argue that behavioral agency theory provides a better framework for theorizing about executive compensation, an enhanced theory of agent behavior, and an improved platform for making recommendations about the design of executive compensation plans.
- 'Are long-term incentive plans an effective and
efficient way of motivating senior executives?'. On line in advance Edition.
Human Resource Management Journal,
Research on senior executive reward has typically explored the connection between pay, performance and the alignment of interests of executives and shareholders. This article examines the relationship between reward and motivation, drawing on the psychological, behavioural economics and decision-making literatures. Based on an empirical study of FTSE 350 senior executives, the research examines whether long-term incentive plans are an effective and efficient way of motivating executives, taking into account risk, time discounting, uncertainty and fairness. The article concludes that the way executives frame choices, perceive value, assess probability, evaluate temporal effects and respond to uncertainty means that long-term incentive plans (LTIPs) are generally not efficient and are often not effective in meeting their objectives. It proposes that, in its current form, agency theory does not provide a sound basis for modelling senior executive reward, and suggests five areas for development.
- 'Unpacking Intuition: A Process and Outcome Framework'.
Review of General Psychology, 15 (4), pp. 304-316.doi: 10.1037/a0025069Full text is available at: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/791731/
In recent years, the topic of intuition has become an important focus of attention in psychology. It is often assumed to be a unitary construct; however, recent research suggests that intuition is multifaceted. This article disaggregates intuition by discriminating between domain-general mechanisms and domain-specific processes of intuiting and primary types of intuition and secondary types of intuition. The theoretical relationships between and within processes and types are examined and analyzed at behavioral and information processing levels, noting the importance in advances in social cognition research. As a result of this analysis, we provide a conceptual framework that connects intuitive processes and outcomes. The article concludes by outlining some of the implications of the framework and in particular highlights future methodological challenges faced by intuition researchers in laboratory and organizational field settings. © 2011 American Psychological Association.
- 'Guest Editorial, Critical thinking'.
Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science, 12 (3), pp. 204-209.Full text is available at: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/791730/
- 'Accessing Expert Cognition'. The Psychologist, 22 (3), pp. 218-219. . (2009)
- '`Convince me’ : Modelling Naturalistic Decision Making'. Journal of Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making, 3 (2), pp. 156-175. . (2009)
- 'Naturalistic decision making and organizations: Reviewing pragmatic science'.
ORGANIZATION STUDIES, 27 (7), pp. 925-942.Full text is available at: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/236229/
- 'Learning by example: benchmarking organisational culture in hospitality, tourism and leisure SMEs'. Benchmarking: an International Journal, 12 (3), pp. 192-206. . (2005)
- 'Transformational leadership and effective small hospitality business'. The Hospitality Review, , pp. 43-46. . (2003)
- 'A study of the perceptions of the labour market by human resource managers in the UK hotel industry: a cognitive approach.'. Tourism and Hospitality Research: the Surrey quarterly review, 2 (3), pp. 232-241. . (2000)
- 'Economic determinism and human resource management practice in the hospitality and tourism industry'. 2nd Edition. International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, 2, pp. 118-128. . (2000)
- 'An examination of the reciprocal affects of occupation culture and organisation culture: The case of chefs in hotels'.
International Journal of Hospitality Management, 18 (3), pp. 225-234.
A reciprocal and adversarial relationship between occupation and organisation culture is hypothesised and illustrated by the example of chef culture. The paper argues that the relationship is dominated by one construct; the ability to confer identity. This suggestion is examined in detail and the discussion progresses to centre around the output of chefs in terms of standards and skills, and the threat to them brought about by marketing and economics. The discussion then outlines the adaptive nature of culture. The paper concludes that the key differential between occupation culture and organisation culture may be associated with concepts of time and change. © 1999 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
- 'Hotel managers' decision making: can psychology help?'. International Jouranl of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 7 (2/3), pp. 19-23. . (1995)
- 'Eliciting professional expertise'. Florida, USA: American Academy of Management . (2013)
- 'Transforming knowledge: capturing engineers’ cognitive expertise.'. Marseille, France: 11th International conference on Naturalistic Decision Making . (2013)
- 'Taking stock of long-term incentive plans: Effective and efficient ways of motivating senior executives'. University of Auckland, New Zealand: Executive Remuneration Conference . (2012)
- 'Towards a behavioural agency theory: new micro foundations for theorising about senior executive reward'. Brussels: 3rd European Reward Management Conference.EIASM . (2011)
- 'Creative and aesthetic intuitions in the creative industries'. University of Aston: British Academy of Mangagmetn Conference . (2011)
- 'Are long-term incentive plans an effective and efficient way of motivating senior executives?'. London School of Economics, UK: British Academy of Management HRM Conference . (2010)
- 'Motivated agents? Behavioural aspects of senior executive reward systems.'. University of Sheffield: British Academy of Management . (2010)
- 'Motivated agents? senior executive reward'. University of Cologne, Germany: International Association for Research in Economic Psychology . (2010)
- 'Communities of practice: developing applied cognitive task analysis'. University of Brighton, UK: British Academy of Management . (2009)
- 'Day Traders, Computers & the trading floor – interactional expertise?'. Covent Garden, UK: 9th Conference on Naturalistic Decision Making . (2009)
- 'Decision making in selection interviews'. Covent Garden, UK: 9th Conference on Naturalistic Decision Making . (2009)
- 'Investigating ways of handling downsizing more positively: A focus group study'. Harrogate, UK: British Academy of Management . (2008)
- 'Methodological insights in managerial cognition: applied cognitive task analysis'. Auckland, New Zealand: Australia New Zealand Academy of Management . (2008)
- 'Employee perceptions when organisations downsize: a qualitative case study of survivors and casualties'. University of Warwick, UK: British Academy of Management . (2007)
- 'Managerial cognition through the looking glass: collaborations with cognitive psychology'. University of Warwick, UK: British Academy of Management . (2007)
- '“Convince Me…” An Inter-Disciplinary Study of NDM and Investment Managers'. Pacific Grove, California: 8th Conference on Naturalistic Decision Making . (2007)
- 'Organisational justice and trust when organisations downsize'. Belfast, Northern Ireland: British Academy of Management . (2006)
- 'Converging frameworks: NDM foresight and organizational becoming'. Belfast, Northern Ireland: British Academy of Management . (2006)
- 'Bridging paradoxes in managerial cognition: contributions from NDM'. Atlanta, USA: Academy of Management . (2006)
- 'NDM: methodological crossroads'. Said Business School, Oxford, UK: British Academy of Management . (2005)
- 'The RPD model: a validation study using ACT-R cognitive architecture software'. Amsterdam, Holland: 7th Conference on Naturalistic Decision Making . (2005)
- 'Mapping expertise in management: applied cognitive task analysis'. Strathclyde, UK: British Academy of Management . (2004)
- 'Cognition and Functional Flexibility'. Harrogate, UK: British Academy of Management . (2003)
- 'The occupational and organisational identity of chefs: discourses on commitment'. Harrogate, UK: British Academy of Management . (2003)
- 'Untying commitment: examining the occupational and organizational identity of chefs'. Lisbon, Portugal: 11th European Congress on Work and Organizational Psychology . (2003)
- 'Representing expertise in civil aviation'. Pensacola, Florida, USA: 6th International Conference on Naturalistic Decision Making . (2003)
- '‘Gin clear’: Representing expertise in civil aviation'. Bournemouth, UK: British Psychological Society Conference of the Division and Section of Occupational Psychology . (2003)
- 'Functional Flexibility and the Intensification of Work: transformation within service industries'. Centre d’Etudes de l’Emploi, Paris, France: Intensification of work . (2002)
- 'Leadership within small management enterprises: transformational or transactional?'. Hammersmith, London, UK: British Academy of Management . (2002)
- 'Flexible work contracts and International Experiences'. Torronto, Cananda: International Industrial Relations Association 4th Regional Congress of the Americas . (2002)
- 'Re-framing Functional Flexibility'. University of Strathclyde, UK: 20th Annual International Labour Process Conference . (2002)
- 'Leadership practice within small management enterprises: Transformational or transactional?'. Oxford, UK: The European Institute for Advanced Studies in Management Workshop on Leadership Research . (2002)
- 'Leadership within small management enterprises: transformational or transactional?'. London, UK: British Academy of Management: Fast tracking performance through partnership . (2002)
- 'The Commitment of Chefs within 4-5 Star Hotels from a Cultural Perspective of Organization and Occupation'. Southbank University, UK: 10th CHME Annual Hospitality Research Conference . (2001)
- 'Functional Flexibility: Implementation and Outcomes'. Oslo, Norway: International Industrial Relations Association Study Group 10: Flexible Work Patterns . (2001)
- 'The commitment of chefs within 4-5 star hotels from a cultural perspective of organization and occupation'. South Bank Business School, London, UK: Council for Hospitality Management Education Research . (2001)
- 'The diffusion of identity and culture within dynamics of self, group and organisation'. University of Huddersfield, UK: 9th CHME Annual Hospitality Research Conference. Workshop presentation . (2000)
- 'Recruitment and selection in hotels: experiencing cognitive task analysis'. National Defence College, Stockholm, Sweden: 5th Conference of Naturalistic Decision Making: How do professionals make decisions? . (2000)
- 'Methodology in Question: Experiencing Cognitive Task Analysis'. University of Huddersfield, UK: Council for Hospitality Management Education . (2000)
- 'Human Resource Strategies: a cognitive approach'. University of Surrey, UK: Council for Hospitality Management Education Research . (1999)
- 'Hotel managers’ decision making training: combining traditional approaches and NDM to improve decision thinking'. Warrenton, Virginia, USA.: 4th Conference on Naturalistic decision making . (1998)
- 'Naturalistic decision making'. Oxford University, UK: Council for Hospitality Management Education Research . (1998)
- 'Hospitality managers cognition'. University of Leeds, UK: 16th Conference of Subjective Probability Utility Decision Making (European Association of Decision Makers) . (1997)
- 'Real world decision making and the problems of qualitative analysis'. University of Stockholm, Sweden: European Group for Process Studies of Decision Making . (1996)
- 'Hotel managers' decision making: can psychology help?'. Norwich, UK: Council for Hospitality Management Education Research . (1995)
- 'Evaluating hotel managers' decision making'. The Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Israel: 15th Conference of Subjective Probability Utility & Decision Making (European Association of Decision Makers) . (1995)
- 'Eliciting expertise: the decision making processes of hotel managers'. University of Amsterdam, Holland: European Group for Process Studies of Decision Making . (1994)
- '"Convince Me..." An Inter-Disciplinary Study of NDM and Portfolio Managers'. in Mosier KL, Fischer UM (eds.) Informed by Knowledge: Expert Performance in Complex Situations
, pp. 353-369.
The focus of this book is on how experts adapt to complexity, synthesize and interpretinformation in context, and transform or "fuse" disparate items of ...
- 'Bridging macro cognitive/micro cognitive methods: ACT-R under review'. in Schraagen JM, Militello L, Omerod T, Lipshitz R (eds.) Naturalistic Decision Making and Macro Cognition Ashgate , pp. 277-301. . (2008)
- 'La flexibilite fonctionalle et l'intensification du travail: transformation a l'interieur des industries de service'. in Askenazt A, Cartron D, de Coninck F, Gollac M (eds.) Organisation et Intensite du Travail . (2006)
- 'Recruitment and selection in hotels: experiencing cognitive task analysis'. in Montgomery H, Lipshitz R, Brehmer B (eds.) How professionals make decisions New Jersey : Lawrence Erlbaum . (2004)
- 'Transformational leadership and effective small hospitality business'. in Bowen A, Jones P, Lockwood A (eds.) Best Practice in Tourism, Hospitality and Leisure . (2003)
- 'Functional flexibility: implementation and outcomes'. in Zeytinoglu IU (ed.) Flexible Work Arrangements: Conceptualisation and International Experiences Studies of Employment and Public Policy The Hague, the Netherlands : Kluwer Law International . (2003)
Decision Making; Organisational Behaviour Psychology & Work,
PhD/ DBA Qualitative Research Methods
University of Cranfield, Decisions and Actions, MSc Organisational Performance.
International Business School, Lippstadt (IBS) DBA
Julie was recently the Director of the DBA programme and has previously had several senior administration roles as Deputy Undergraduate Programme Director, Programme Leader for Business Management, Programme Leader for International Hospitality Management and Programme Leader for International Hospitality and Tourism Management.
Chartered Member of the British Psychological Society (CPsychol) http://www.bps.org.uk/
Fellow of British Psychological Society (FBPsS)
Member of the British Academy of Management (BAM)
Member of the organising committee BAM SIG Research Methods
Member of the American Academy of Management http://www.aomonline.org/
Member of the Australian & New Zealand Academy of Management http://www.anzam.org/