My current research interest is experimental consumer behaviour, with particular interest in how new innovation and technology influences consumptions and informs marketing education. I have special interest in mobile Internet and digital products including organisation and control of financial retail services.
Within this domain I am interested in mobile as payment device and its influence on consumption, the use of contactless smart cards, mobile Internet, location based advertising, and social media that are transcending consumption landscape and redefining the meaning of consumption in our society; as well as retailing sector is facing new reality where shopping is becoming more and more mobile and digital in character.
Based on these assumptions, my research focus is on the impact of new innovation and technologies on various facets of consumption and consumer behaviour, particularly spending, living, health and well-being. In addition to sustainability related research, I have special interest in marketing theories, interest in ethics and methodological issues in quantitative and qualitative research.
My work appears in Journal of Business Research, Association for Consumer Research, Journal of Business and Economics, and International Business and Economic Review.
1. A cross-country invariance and performance of payment mode perceptions scale between New Zealand, France, China, and Australia.
Studies suggest that the mode of payment affects purchase behaviour. Though extant scales assess perception of money per se, none capture the mental and emotional experiences that the corporal quality of the payment mode generates. The authors compare factorial structure of PPPM scale using more than 800 participants from New Zealand, 400 from France and 100 participants from Australia and 200 from China. This study addresses whether perceptions of payment mode differs between individualist cultures. Invariance analysis assess for structural, metric and scalar invariance. The presentation of empirical work is followed by a discussion of how PPM scale could be used in better understanding consumer behaviour across different culture.
2. Development and Validation of a Scale for Perceptions of Mobile Interaction.
The proliferation of mobile devices and social media shape a new business environment with unprecedented challenges. Understanding mobile consumer behaviour is vital in order to entice consumers to interact with companies from their mobile devices, using a company’s social media and location-based services and making purchases from these devices. Although an increasing amount of attention has been given to user behaviour in various mobile contexts, there is a scarcity of literature on consumer interaction with mobile devices integrating social media, location-based services and shopping activities. This paper presents the conceptualization, development, and validation of a new scale measuring perceptions of mobile interaction (PMI) with social media, location-based services and m-commerce. The PMI scale comprises five factors, positive and negative attitude towards location based services, mobile social media ease-of-use, mobile shopping perceptions and m-commerce website loyalty attributes. The scale has been developed and tested using four samples, establishing construct validity, reliability, internal consistency, criterion validity and external validity. Our findings are of value to marketing and information systems research and practice, offering a springboard for further studies on mobile consumer behaviour and for successful mobile business strategies.
3. Role of fellow-feeling and organizational harmony in the relationship between market orientation and performance for logistics firms
The aim of this research is to study the influence of organisational harmony and fellow-feeling in the relationship between market orientation and performance of logistics firms. The theory of market orientation suggests that intelligence generation, dissemination and responsiveness influence organizational performance. Current market orientation conceptualizations lump these three business actions together and do not explain how market orientation impacts certain aspects of organisational behaviour which in turn leads to performance. We specifically target this important gap in this conceptualisation and propose that market oriented actions such as intelligence dissemination and responsiveness lead to organisational harmony within the organisation and fellow-feeling among its employees. Results indicate that market orientation dimensions and business performance relationship is stronger via fellow-feeling and organisational harmony. Top level management in 108 logistics service providing organisations were surveyed and we found support for the above mentioned prepositions.
4. In pursuit of a theoretical underpinning of ablution in Islamic prayer
Ablution is not just a mere cleansing exercise performed before Islamic prayer but also deeply rooted in human nature of nurturing cleanliness irrespective of culture, religious beliefs and humankind. The act of ablution offers a way to manage cognition and emotions; cleanse the body, mind and soul. This study examines theoretical underpinning of ablution in Islamic prayer. The phenomenology of 'cognitive embodiment' that our cognition and emotions are shaped by how we interact with the physical environment. Combining the perspective of the anthropology of experience and social psychology, we employed twelve in-depth interview of professional and practicing Muslims to highlight the spiritual aspect of cleansing- a mandatory chore before prayer. The concept of cognitive embodiment locates the experience of physical cleaning (outside) produces an inner cleaning of heart and mind (in this case the soul). This study discusses and call for further research that underlies philosophy of ablution and expose a gap in knowledge in the realm of linking modern theory to the scientific base of religious practice.
5. Psychological ownership and payment modes: the case of "owned" money, and their effect on spending behaviour.
Despite the evidence that payment mode can influence spending, researchers have yet to explain why do payment mode influence spending behaviour under condition of 'owned' money. Evidently, all payment mode serve as store of value and economic transaction involve transfer of ownership. This study examines the cognitive and emotional element that people associate with 'owned money' differ from those of not "owned'. This research examines the underlying reasons for ownership factor using qualitative data and finds evidence that the sensory perceptions arising through handling of notes and coins influence our cognition and emotions, hence judgement of ownership and behaviours. Using real shopping data, we demonstrates that 'owned' money have a bearing on spending decisions as our perceptions and behaviour emerge out of the interplay between brain, body and world. The result suggests that the knowledge of owned vs. borrowed money effect how we account for our daily expenses and savings in mental accounts.
6. Influence of religiosity on primary stakeholders’ ethical decision making in business.
Ethical decision making has gained attention from both academics and practitioners. Literature suggest ethical decision making not only affects governance but also effects managers, consumers, employees and investors' wellbeing. There is a notion that ethical decision making is not related to religion, but derives from culture, childhood socialisation, and personality type. Our study sits within the framework of William and Zinkin (2005) responsible governance where religiosity is an active dimension in determining stakeholder's ethical attitude and behaviour. Our main goal is to investigate the relationship between religion and ethical values on managerial attitudes and decision- making, support the idea that religious people have a wider notion of ethical behaviour than non-religious people. Within this domain of research, we specifically explore whether religious values and beliefs influence stakeholders ethical decision making in business. We employ a survey questionnaire to examine the role of religiosity and in stakeholders' religious values and its influence on ethical decision making in business.
Khan, J. (2010). Validation in marketing experiments revisited, Journal of Business Research, 64 (7)
This paper reviews a high impact article, “Checking the success of manipulations in marketing experiments” (Perdue and Summers, 1986). The article considers Perdue and Summers' (1986) contribution to experimental research and uses citation analysis to assess its value, usefulness, and impact on the body of marketing experiment literature. Woodside's (2009) citation analysis and Armstrong's (2003) criteria of importance indicate that Perdue and Summers' (1986) article receives high citation references and substantial influence on experimental studies. The main contribution of Perdue and Summers' article is demonstrating ways to enhance validity of experimental research by appropriate manipulation and confounding checks before and during the experiment. The secondary contribution comes from initiating debates in marketing literature on demand artifact consideration, timing, informational value of manipulation, and confounding checks in theory testing. Perdue and Summers' article earns a seminal status within marketing experimental literatures through citation references and its usefulness. The review concludes by updating the current state of manipulation and confounding check measure in marketing experiments, and extends and qualifies Perdue and Summers' (1986) study. The update uses the same procedure utilised by Perdue and Summers' (1986) study to assess the use of validity measures in experimental research reported in the Journal of Marketing Research for 1987 to 1996.), 687-692
Khan, J., Belk, R. & Craig-Lees, M. (forthcoming). Measuring consume perception of payment mode: scale development and validation. Journal of Economic Psychology
Although existing scales assess perceptions of money per se, none capture the mental and emotional experiences that the corporal quality of the payment mode generates. Historical and sensory associations with payment modes generates differential cognitive and emotional sensitivity in mental accounts, and influence the type, value and amount of product purchased. Although an increasing amount of attention has been devoted to the influence of payment mode on spending behaviour, little effort has been devoted to developing an appropriate measurement scale to capture consumers’ cognitive and emotional association with payment mode. To address this gap in the literature, this study developed a conceptual and empirical framework with a sample of around 800 participants, and shows how the constructs and the scales capture perceptions of payment modes. The 19-item PPM scale represents four dimensions: emotions relating to cash and card based payment modes; social and personal gratification and money management. The PPM measurement scale demonstrates acceptable reliability and shows that consumer perceptions of payment modes influence spending behaviour and predicts ownership of financial cards in possession. The scale is useful in understanding consumer cognitive and emotional associations with payment modes, particularly the use of “owned money” and how these associations impact on payment mode choice.
Khan, J. & Gaur, S. (2010). “The moderating role of relationship marketing orientation on market orientation and business performance linkage in service firm context,” AIUB Journal of Business and Economics, Vol, 6 (3).
This paper explores the blend of relationship marketing orientation (RMO) and market orientation (MO) in service sector by controlling the direct impact of relationship marketing orientation (RMO) on business performance. Further, this article extends and qualifies the previous researches by proposing a conceptualized model of market orientation moderated by relationship marketing orientation (RMO) on business performance in service sector. It is a descriptive and theoretical article, and thus secondary data from previous studies are used as comparative analysis for examination and discussion. The findings indicate that relationship marketing orientation (RMO) strengthens market orientation (MO) and business performance linkage among service firms. However, the exact nature and extent of these relationships need to be further investigated.
Khan, J. & Craig-Lees, M. (2009) ‘Cashless’ transactions: perceptions of money in mobile payments, International Business and Economic Review, Vol. 1 (1).
A limited number of ‘cashless transaction’ studies addressed the issue that the mode of payment affects perceptions of money and purchase behaviour, the majority of the research is in the area of the credit card payment mode. Credit card based research has shown that when a credit card based payment is used, the volume, value and type of products purchased increase. Whether this is due to the credit element or to the ‘cashless or mobile’ element of the transaction is not known. The notion that the tangibility of cash influences perceptions of money is not novel, but it is untested. This discussion paper suggests that under conditions of cash, there is awareness (conscious/unconscious) that a possession of value transferred and this perception may well have a direct impact on people’s perception of money and their spending behaviour.
Khan, J. (2013) New Zealanders’ Online Importation of Goods and Services, National Research Unit, Inland Revenue, New Zealand
Khan, J. (2009). “Modes of Harm in Reality Television Programming: Topology of Harmful Images.” VDM Verla ISBN: 978-3-639-21070-5, Germany - book.
With growing concern about ethics of ‘Reality Television’ participation, including child participation in family format programming may have an undesirable impact on participants in their later life. This book, therefore, explored the harmful effect of ‘Reality programming’ on family format participation of “Trading Spouses” by content analysis technique. The results of this study raise several ethical concerns, for example, “Do the constructed and scripted conflictual situations deliver any good to those families participating in the show? Three interrelated topology of harmful images discussed in this book. As expected, participants were subject to psychological, racial and religious harm as a result of participation. Psychological harm intertwined with racial and religious harm where producers intentionally swap spouses from two incompatible families. The analysis provides a basic framework to identify the topology of harmful images shown in a family format “Reality TV’ programme. The theoretical guideline would provide a standard to compare what could be portrayed in Reality TV without inducing harm to its participants (like children).
Pelet, E. J., Khan, J., Papadopoulouc, P. (2014). Determinants of effective learning through social media: an exploratory study, Handbook of Research on Higher Education in the MENA Region: Policy and Practice., IGI Global - book chapter.
In the perspective to improve e-learning, the free access and user friendliness of User Generated Content (UGC) tools such as social media, embedded onto mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets make them attractive to be adopted by students and professors in many institutions around the world. This chapter presents the results of an exploratory study on the use of smart phones and social media, identifying differences among countries, focusing on the MENA region (Middle East and North Africa). Our objective is to facilitate the understanding of the rapidly evolving and expanding technology of smart phones and social media and explore its potential for m-learning purposes. Results show that social media and mobile devices can be effectively combined in a promising way to enable m-learning.
Khan, J. (2011) Payment. In Emma Bryn-Jones, Sustainable Spending (pp.08-20). Derbyshire, U.K: Zero-Credit - book chapter.
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