Dr Chakravarthini Mini Saaj

Research Interests

Mini's research interests are mainly in the area of developing innovative robotic devices for Space, Medicine, Nuclear, Oil and Gas industry and farming applications. Her expertise is in the area of Robotics and Control Engineering: Mobility and control of wheeled, legged and hybrid planetary rovers, modelling and control of rigid manipulators for debris removal and on-orbit maintenance, repair and servicing, nature inspired innovative robots, soil sensors for rover-terrain interaction studies, Sliding Mode Control, robotic mechanism, modeling and control of soft manipulators and Model Based Systems Engineering. For more details, please visit the Robotics and Control research group.

Funded Projects:

  1. Co-Investigator – A New Generation of Deployable Optical Systems to Increase Small Satellite Capability – 10th CEOI call for Earth Observation Technology and Instrument Development, UK (Project value: £199k, - University of Surrey circa: £167K; May 2017-August 2018)

  2. Co-Investigator – New Capital Investment in Robotic and Autonomous Systems in Healthcare and Extreme Environment, EPSRC UK-RAS (Project value: £6.5M - University of Surrey circa: £189K; October 2016-March 2017)

  3. Principal Investigator - Control of robotic spacecraft for debris removal (Project value: £80K, PhD studentship funded by the Algerian Space Agency, UK Space Agency and Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd; October 2015-September 2018)

  4. Principal Investigator - Soft Robotic Uterine Manipulator (Project value: £80K, PhD studentship funded by the Ministry of Education Malaysia, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia; April 2013-December 2016)

  5. Principal Investigator (Surrey) – (EU FP7 STIFF-FLOP) STIFFness controllable Flexible and Learn-able Manipulator for surgical Operation - European Commission (Project value: £650K - University of Surrey circa: €906K from €7.2M; January 2012-December 2015)

  6. Principal Investigator – (SysML MOTIVE) SysML based spacecraft power management function MOdelling, Testing, Integration, Verification and Execution - Airbus Defence and Space, France (Project value: £177K; March 2013-February 2015)

  7. Principal Investigator (Surrey) and Technical Manager - (EU FP7 FASTER) Forward Acquisition of Soil and Terrain data for Exploration Rover - European Commission (Project value: £360K - University of Surrey circa: €500K from €2M€; November 2011-October 2014)

  8. Principal Investigator - SysML based solar panel modeling - Surrey Space Centre (Project value: £100K, September 2011-August 2013)

  9. Principal Investigator – (Networking Partnership Initiative) Mobility Analysis of a Legged Micro-Fetch Rover on Compressible Planetary Soils - European Space Agency (Project value: £83K; October 2010-December 2014)

  10. Principal Investigator - System Modelling and Requirements Verification of Robotic Spacecraft - Airbus Defence and Space, Germany (Project value: £230K; August 2010-November 2012)

  11. Principal Investigator - Path planning and control of micro-rover swarms for planetary exploration missions (Project value: £80K, PhD studentship funded by the National Space Research and Development Agency; 2009-2014)

  12. Principal Investigator – Towards Innovative Surface Mobility Systems for Next Generation Planetary Rovers - Industrial Case Studentship by Engineering and Physical Science Research Council and Airbus Defence and Space, UK, (Project value: £88K; October 2009-October 2012)

  13. Principal Investigator - Reference soil characterisation for ExoMars rover locomotion subsystem - Airbus Defence and Space, UK (Project value: £25K; 2009-2010)

  14. Principal Investigator  - Develop System Modelling of Robotic Elements Focusing on Martian Surface Sample Collection project - Industrial Secondment by Royal Academy of Engineering and Airbus Defence and Space, UK (Project value: £12K; May-November 2009)

  15. Principal Investigator - Small satellite formation flying: Innovative and low cost control technologies - Royal Society, UK (Project value: £12,361; 2009-2011)

  16. Co-Investigator - Autonomous Assembly of a Reconfigurable Space Telescope (AAReST) for Astronomy and Earth Observation: Spacecraft Autonomous Rendezvous and Docking Ground-Based Test-Bed - Engineering and Physical Science Research Council, UK (Project value: £83,809; 2012-2013)

  17. Co-Investigator - Lunar Robotics Challenge- European Space Agency (Project value: £50K; 2008)

  18. Co-Investigator - Magnolia-1: A low cost pin-point landing system for planetary landers - Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd and Mississippi State University, US (Project value: £120K; 2007-2008)

  19. Co-Investigator - Autonomous Navigation and Control of Planetary Rovers - Surrey Space Centre, UK (Project value: £50K; 2007-2008)

  20. Co-Investigator - Electrostatic Forces for Satellite Swarm Navigation and Reconfiguration, European Space Agency (Project value: £17K - €25K; 2006-2007)

  21. Research Fellow - The Science and Technology behind Galileo- Europe’s GPS - Engineering and Physical Science Research Council, UK(2005-2006)

  22. Visiting Research Associate - Non-linear Observer for Slip Estimation of Tracked Vehicles - King's College London, UK (2004-2006)

  23. Visiting Research Associate - Robust Fast Output Sampling Sliding Mode Control for Discrete-time Non-linear System - Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay (2004)

  24. Research Fellow - Identification of Linear Parameter-Varying Models for Gain-Scheduling Control - Technical University Hamburg Harburg, Germany(2002-2003)

Research Collaborations

Mini has established links with the following leading international groups:

Space Agencies

ESA, DLR, NASA and ISRO

Industries

Airbus Defence and Space (Germany, France and UK)

Space Applications Services NV, Belgium

LIQUIFER Systems Group, Austria

Astri Polska, Poland

Haption SA, France

Karl Storz Endoscopes, Germany

Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd, UK

Shadow Robot Company Ltd, UK

Sellafield Ltd, UK

QinetiQ, UK

BAE Systems, UK

Universities and Research Institutes

German Research Centre for Artificial Intelligence, 

GermanyUniversity of Siegen, Germany

Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der angewandten Forschung e.V., Germany

Technical University Hamburg-Harburg, Germany

University of Bremen, Germany

Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna, Italy

Italian Institute of Technology, Italy

Universita Degli Studi Di Torino, Italy

Commissariat à l'énergie atomique et aux énergies alternatives, France

Institut national de recherche en informatique et en automatique, France

Foundation Tecnalia Research and Innovation, Spain

Przemyslowy Instytut Automatyki I Pomiarow, Poland

Fundacja Rozwoju Kardiochirurgii, Poland

Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay, India

Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, India

Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel

Mississippi State University, US

Cornell University, US

Virginia Tech, US

Imperial College London, UK

King's College London, UK

National Nuclear Laboratory, UK

Medical end-users

European Association for Endoscopic Surgery, Netherlands

Universita degli Studi di Torino, Italy

Research Fund of the Hadassah Medical Organization, Israel

Guy's and St. Thomas Hospital, UK

Royal Surrey County Hospital, UK

Teaching

  1. 2007- to date: Year 4 (MSc and MEng - FHEQ Level 7) Space Robotics and Autonomy (Module coordinator; 24 contact hours; ~25 students)

  2. 2008- to date: Year 3 (Year 3 UG - FHEQ Level 6) Power Electronics (Module coordinator; 33 contact hours; ~40 students)

  3. 2015-to date: Year 2 (Year 2 UG - FHEQ Level 5) Electronics IV- Electrical Machines and Power (11 contact hours; ~80 students)

  4. 2013-2014: Year 2 (Year 2 UG - FHEQ Level 5) Electronics IV- Analogue Electronics for  Power Systems, Electrical Machines and Power (Module coordinator; 22 contact hours; ~90 students)

  5. 2009-2012: Year 2 (Year 2 UG - FHEQ Level 5) Electronics VI- Analogue Electronics, Machines and Power (Module coordinator; 22 contact hours; ~90 students)

  6. 2008-2009: Year 2 (Year 2 UG - FHEQ Level 5) Power Conversion (Module coordinator; 22 contact hours; ~85 students)

Chakravarthini was the Personal Tutor for Year 1, Year 2 and Year 3 UG students from 2007-2014. She is also the Personal Tutor for MSc and MEng students from 2010-to date.

Departmental Duties

- Director of Postgraduate Research (PhD) Programme at Surrey Space Centre (November 2015-to date)

- EEE Programme Leader (2013): Chakravarthini designed the Electrical and Electronic Engineering (EEE) degree programme launched in 2013. Further details are available at EEE.

- Outreach Speaker (2005-to date): She is the coordinator of outreach activities pertaining to the Surrey Space Centre. More updates are available at the link on Outreach and Invited Lectures.

- IT Coordinator: (2007-2011): She was also responsible for managing the Surrey Space Centre's IT infrastructure.

Invited Lectures/Technical paper and poster presentations/Public Engagement /Outreach

10/10/2017

World Space Week invited lecture on ‘Space Robotics’ at Gordon’s School, UK

03/10/2017Visit to Surrey Space Centre by students from Guildford High School, UK
04/07/2017'Women in Engineering' careers event at Guildford High School, UK
20-22/06/2017Poster presentations at 14th Symposium on Advanced Space Technologies in Robotics and Automation, Leiden, the Netherlands

14/06/2017

Poster presentation at Amazing Technology Symposium, 25th International Congress of the European Association of Endoscopic Surgeons, Frankfurt am Main, Germany

10/05/2017

Invited lecture on 'Women in Space Engineering' at Virgo Fidelis Convent Senior School, Croydon, UK

09/02/2017

Invited lecture at Women in STEM Workshop, University of Surrey

01/02/2017

Invited lecture at Imperial College London

01/12/2016Invited lecture at ‘States of Flux - Soft Robotics in Arts and Engineering - EU Robotics Week Event’,  Queen Mary University London

21/11/2016

Invited lecture at University of Cork

02/11/2016

Invited lecture at University of Leicester 

30/03/2016

Guided tour for Her Excellency Dr Ameenah Gurib-Fakim GCSK CSK PhD, President of Mauritius.

20/07/2015-29/07/2015

Short course on Space Robotics and invited lectures at the Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology on:

  • Space@Surrey and Robotics@STAR Lab
  • Model based systems engineering for complex space missions
  • Stiffness controllable soft continuum robot for minimally invasive surgery
  • Forward acquisition of soil and terrain data for exploration rover
  • Innovation in Teaching and Learning

26/06/2014

Invited speaker at 14th World congress of Endoscopic Surgery, Paris, France

01/06/2014

Invited speaker at the Workshop on Soft and Stiffness-controllable Robots for MIS, IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), Hong Kong

03/12/2014

Invited speaker at the Engineer’s Campaign by Royal Academy of Engineering, University of Surrey

27/07/2014

Invited speaker at the 3rd Winchester Science Festival, Winchester

17/02/2014

Guided tour of Space Centre for students from the Guildford High School

10/01/2014

Departmental lecture on innovative teaching, University of Surrey

7-8/02/2013

Surrey Skills Fair at the Sports Park visited by 2000 year 9 pupils

26/09/2012

Invited lecture and guided tour for consultants from the Department of Gynaeoncology, Royal Surrey County Hospital

25/09/2012

Guided tour for Ms. Lavinia Sealy, Chair of Surrey County Council

24/09/2012

Lecture for PG Induction Day, University of Surrey

13/09/2012

University Global Partnership NetworkLecture to delegates from the North Carolina State University and University of São Paulo, University of Surrey

11/07/2012

Co-organised an outreach event attended by NASA’s administrator- Charles Bolden that was attended by over 200 students from various schools in London

26/09/2011

Invited lecture at Southampton University

29/07/2011

Invited lecture for Sterling group, UK at Amrita School of Engineering, Coimbatore, India

28/07/2011

Invited lecture for Sterling group, UK at Sri Krishna College of Engineering and Technology, Coimbatore, India

26/07/2011

Invited lecture for Sterling group, UK at Model Engineering College, Cochin, India

25/07/2011

Invited lecture for Sterling group, UK at Rajagiri Engineering College, Cochin, India

05/04/2011

Lecture and guided tour for visitors from the King Alfred Probus Club, Hampshire

09/02/2011

Invited lecture hosted the Royal Institution invited lecture for over 500 work experience students at Disneyland, France

07/2010

Exhibited at the Farnborough International Airshow, UK

15/07/2010

Invited lecture at EADS Astrium, Paris, France

13/04/2010

Invited lecture for Sterling group, UK at Jain University, Bangalore, India

12/04/2010

Invited lecture for Sterling group, UK at PES Institute of Technology, Bangalore, India

09/04/2010

Invited lecture for Sterling group, UK at Hindustan University, Chennai, India

08/04/2010

Invited lecture for Sterling group, UK at Anna University, Chennai, India

30/03/2010

Invited lecture at College of Engineering Trivandrum, India

29/03/2010

Invited lecture at Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, India

10/03/2010

Guided tour for students from Warwick University

10/02/2010

Paper presentation at International Conference on Control, Communication and Computing, India

14/01/2010

Guided tour organized by the South East – India Partnership Network (SE-IPNet) Consortium for the honourable Indian Union Minister of Human Resource Development (Mr. Kapil Sibal) and delegation

24/08/2009

Paper presentation at European Control Conference, Hungary

08/07/2009

Invited lecture at EADS Astrium Ltd, Stevenage

07/07/2009

Invited lecture at Alton College, Hampshire (second)

06/05/2009

Lecture and guided tours for students and teachers from Oakmeeds Community College, Burgess Hill at University of Surrey, UK

21/04/2009

Lecture and guided tour for visitors from the King Alfred Probus Club, Hampshire

25/03/2009

Invited lecture at Alton College, Hampshire (first)

17/03/2009

Invited lecturefor the Guildford Astronomical Society, University of Surrey

05/03/2009

Invited lecture at Wallington School for Girls, Surrey

06/01/2009

Lecture on Space at Surrey for school students and teachers from Surrey, Kent and Hampshire, University of Surrey

28/12/2008

Poster presentation at Engineering UK Launch Event, Houses of Parliament, London, UK

05/12/2008

Paper presentation at Mars Symposium, British Interplanetary Society, UK

03/12/2008

Invited lecture hosted by Engineering and Technology Board at Coleg Sir Gar, Llanelli

12/11/2008

Paper presentation at ESA Workshop on Advanced Space Technologies for Robotics and Automation, Noordwijk, The Netherlands

19/11/2008

Lecture for teachers and students from Cobham International School, University of Surrey

12/09/2008

Invited lecture at Engineering and Technology Board, London

19/09/2008

Invited lecture at Indian Institute of Technology Madras, India

13/08/2008

Invited lecture at National Institute of Technology Calicut, India

08/08/2008

Invited lecture at College of Engineering Trivandrum, Kerala, India

04/08/2008

Invited lecture at Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, India

25/07/2008

Lecture for international students from Pakistan, University of Surrey

14/07/2008

Lecture for University of Surrey Headstart programme

02/04/2008

Invited lecture at University of Bremen, Germany

01/04/2008

Invited lecture at Technical University Hamburg Harburg, Germany

18/03/2008

Lecture for visitors from U3A Astronomy Group, University of Surrey

24/01/2008

Conducted guided tour of Space Centre for Heads of Science from local independent schools, University of Surrey

07/11/2007

Paper presentation at 2nd US/European Symposium, British Interplanetary Society, London

17/07 2007

Lecture for visitors from Hawaii Space Flight Laboratory, University of Surrey,

12/03/2007

Poster presentation at the 9th British Research and R &D Show, SET for Britain, House of Commons

15/09/2006

Paper presentation at Advanced Space Vehicle Control Workshop, University of Surrey

2005-2006

Series of lectures and guided tours to over 2000 public for the EPSRC ‘The Science and Technology behind Galileo- Europe’s GPS’ nine months exhibit at the National Space Centre, Leicester

02/09/2004

Paper presentation at Nonlinear Control System Symposium (NOLCOS), Stuttgart, Germany

22/07/2002

Paper presentation at International Federation for Automatic Control (IFAC) World Congress, Barcelona, Spain

18/07/2002

Paper presentation at Variable Structure Workshop, Sarajevo, Bosnia & Herzegovina

Project Supervision and PhD Examination

Line Manager of Research Fellows/Associates

09/2015-04/2016

Dr. Francisco Comin

STIFFness controllable Flexible and Learn-able Manipulator for surgical Operation (funded by EU FP7 STIFF-FLOP)

11/2014-12/2015

Dr. W. Albukhanajer

STIFFness controllable Flexible and Learn-able Manipulator for surgical Operation (funded by EU FP7 STIFF-FLOP)

02/2015-12/2015

Dr. Duale Mahdi (co-supervision with Dr. T. Lekakou)

STIFFness controllable Flexible and Learn-able Manipulator for surgical Operation (funded by EU FP7 STIFF-FLOP)

03/2013-03/2015

Dr. S. Chhaniyara  

SysML MOTIVE - SysML based spacecraft power management function MOdelling, Testing, Integration, Verification and Execution (funded by Airbus Defence and Space)

04/2012-11/2014

Dr. T. Geng

STIFFness controllable Flexible and Learn-able Manipulator for surgical Operation (funded by EU FP7 STIFF-FLOP)

06/2012-11/2014

Dr. W. Lewinger

Forward Acquisition of Soil and Terrain data for Exploration Rover (funded by EU FP7 FASTER)

09/2011-08/2013

Dr. E. Ogunshile

SysML based solar panel modelling (funded by Surrey Space Centre)

08/2010-11/2012

Dr. S. Chhaniyara

System Modeling and Requirements Verification of  Robotic Spacecraft (funded by Airbus Defence and Space)

03/2009-08/2011

Saptarshi Bandyopadhyay

Small Satellite Formation Flying Mission: Innovative and Low Cost Control Technologies (funded by Royal Society)

09/2008-06/2009

Dr. Dario Sancho

Autonomous Planetary Robotic Systems (funded by Surrey Space Centre)

 

PhD and MPhil Primary supervision

10/2015-to date

Asma Seddaoui

Control of robotic spacecraft for debris removal (funded by the Algerian Space Agency, UK Space Agency and Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd)

04/2013-to date

Seri Mustaza

Soft Robotic Uterine Manipulator (funded by the Ministry of Education Malaysia, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia)

07/2012-12/2015

Dr. Francisco Comin

In-situ soil sensing for planetary micro-rovers with hybrid wheel leg systems (funded by the EU FP7 FASTER and Obra Social la, Spain)

04/2012- 12/2015

Xiaochen Wang (MPhil)

A unified identification and control design approach for a class of pneumatic soft actuators (partly funded by the Surrey Space Centre)

10/2010-09/2013

Dr. Brian Yeomans

Mobility Analysis of a Legged Micro-Fetch Rover on Compressible Planetary Soils (funded by the European Space Agency)

04/2009-09/2014

Dr. Halidu Ibrahim

Path planning and control of micro-rover swarms for planetary exploration missions (funded by the National Space Research and Development Agency)

10/2009-09/2012

Dr. Benjamin Smith

Towards Innovative Surface Mobility Systems for Next Generation Planetary Rovers (funded by the Engineering and Physical Science Research Council and Airbus Defence and Space, UK)

08/2007-10/2010

Dr. Greg Scott

Steps towards characterising legged microrover performance on compressible planetary soils (funded by the Surrey Space Centre)

10/2008- 09/2010

Soheil Parsa (MPhil)

Control of robot manipulators for on-orbit servicing of satellites (partly funded by the Surrey Space Centre)

 

PhD Secondary supervision

10/2008-10/2011

Dr. Chris Brunskill

Reference soil characterisation for ExoMars rover locomotion subsystem

10/2007-06/2012

Dr. Yalda Favaedi

Prediction of tractive response for flexible wheels with application to planetary exploration rovers

PhD Viva Examiner/Chair

11/2016

Dr. Megan Flanders (External Examiner, University College Cork, Ireland)

‘Robot Kinematics: Applications in Virtual Reality Based Learning and Sensor Calibration’

11/2016

Dr. Guy Burroughes (Internal Examiner, University of Surrey, UK)

‘Generic Reconfigurable Autonomy Software Architecture for Future Space Systems’

08/2016

 

Dr. Nathan Collis (Chair, University of Surrey, UK)

‘System Design and State-Dependent Riccati Equation Control of an Autonomous Y-4 Tilt-Rotor Aerobot for Martian Exploration’

08/2015

Dr. Pablo Ghiglino (Internal Examiner, University of Surrey, UK)

‘Quarternion Error-Based Optimal Control Applied to Pinpoint Landing’

06/2015

Dr. Ahmed Elhasairi (Internal Examiner, University of Surrey, UK)

‘Humanoid Robot Full-Body Control & Balance Restoration’

08/2013

Dr. K. Balakrishnan (External Examiner, Anna University, India)

‘Investigation and resonance compensation in hybrid stepper motor’

09/2013

Dr. Tatsuo Shimizu (Internal Examiner, University of Surrey, UK)

‘Investigation into the Implementation of Commercial off the Shelf Super-Capacitor to Small Spacecraft Power System’

09/2013

Dr. Jason Forshaw (Internal Examiner, University of Surrey, UK)

‘Transitioning Flight Guidance and Control for a Twin Rotor Tailsitter Unmanned Air Vehicle’

06/2012

Dr. Dov Verbin (Internal Examiner, University of Surrey, UK)

‘Backwards Planning Approach for Rapid Attitude Manoeuvres Steering’

06/2012

Samia Smail (Internal Examiner, University of Surrey, UK)

‘Active connector for spacecraft docking and self-assembly of small satellites’

03/2012

Dr. Syed Amer Gilani (Internal Examiner, University of Surrey, UK)

‘Nonlinear Bayesian Filtering Based on Mixture of Orthogonal Expansions’

05/2008

Dr. Savan Chhaniyara (External Examiner, King’s College London, UK)

‘Mobile Robot Self-Localization and Navigation using Invariant Feature Identification and tracking algorithms based in visual odometry’

Contact Me

E-mail:
Phone: 01483 68 2225

Find me on campus
Room: U19 BA 01

Publications

Papers in Refereed International Journals

1. Francisco Comin and Chakravarthini Saaj, “New Modelling Approaches for Slip Estimation and Soil Sensing with Multi-Legged Wheel-Legs,” in press, IEEE Transactions on Robotics, 2017. 
2. Francisco Comin, Chakravarthini Saaj, Seri Mastura Mustaza and Rajendran Saaj “Safe Testing of Electrical Diathermy Cutting using a New Generation Soft Manipulator”, under review in IEEE Transactions on Robotics, May 2017.
3. Seri Mastura Mustaza, Duale Mahdi, Chakravarthini Saaj, Francisco Comin and C. Lekakou, “Development of Tunable Stiffness Control for Soft Continuum Surgical Manipulators,” under review in Int. Journal of Humanoid Robotic.
4. Francisco Comin, William Lewinger, Chakravarthini Saaj, and Marcus Matthews, “Trafficability assessment of deformable terrain through hybrid wheel-leg sinkage detection,” Journal of Field Robotics, February 2016, DOI: 10.1002/rob.21645.
5. Constantina Lekakou, Yahya Elsayed, Tao Geng and Chakravarthini M. Saaj, “Skins and Sleeves for Soft Robotics: Inspiration from Nature and Architecture,” Advanced Engineering Materials, Vol 17, Issue 8, pp. 1180-1188, 2015, DOI: 10.1002/adem.201400406.
6. Y. Elsayed, C. Lekakou, T. Ranazani, M. Cianchetti, M. Morino, M. Chirurgia, A. Arezzo, T. Geng, C. Saaj, “Crimped braided sleeves for soft, actuating arm in robotic abdominal surgery,” Minimally Invasive Therapy & Allied Technologies, Vol. 24, Issue 4, pp. 204-210, 2015, DOI: 10.3109/13645706.2015.1012083.
7. Y. Elsayed, A. Vincensi, C. Lekakou, T. Geng, C. Saaj, T. Ranazani, M. Cianchetti and A. Menciassi, “Finite element analysis (FEA) and design optimisation of a pneumatically actuating silicone module for robotic surgery applications,” Soft Robotics, 1(4), December 2014, 255-262.
8. Xiaochen Wang, Tao Geng, Yahya Elsayed, Chakravarthini Saaj, Constantina Lekakou, “A unified system identification approach for a class of pneumatically-driven soft actuators,” Robotics and Autonomous Systems, Vol. 63, Part 1, 2015, pp. 136–149, 2014, ISSN 0921-8890,  http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.robot.2014.08.017.
9. Brian Yeomans, Brian Starkey, Chakravarthini M. Saaj, “Terrain interaction prediction for bioinspired planetary exploration rovers,” Bioinspir. Biomim. 9 (2014) 016009.
10. B. Yeomans, C. Saaj and M. van Winnedael, “Walking Planetary Rovers - Experimental Analysis and Modelling of Leg Thrust in Loose Granular Soils,” Journal of Terramechanics, pp. 107-120, 50, April 2013.
11. B. Smith, C. Saaj and E. Allouis, “ANUBIS - Artificial Neuromodulation Using a Bayesian Inference System,” Neural Computation, Volume 25, issue 1, December 2012.
12. G. Scott and C. Saaj, “The development of a soil trafficability model for a legged rover on granular soils,” Journal of Terramechanics, Volume 49, Issues 3–4, June–August 2012, Pages 133–146.
13. S. Chhaniyara, B. Christopher, B. Yeomans, M. Matthews, C. Saaj, S. Ransom, L. Richter, “Terrain trafficability analysis and soil mechanical property identification for planetary rovers: A survey,” Journal of Terramechanics, Volume 49, Issue 2, April 2012, Pages 115-128.
14. Christopher Brunskill, Nildeep Patel, Thibault P. Gouache, Gregory P. Scott, Chakravarthini Saaj, Marcus Matthews, Liang Cui, “Characterisation of Martian Soil Simulants for the ExoMars rover testbed,” Journal of Terramechanics, Vol. 48, Issue 6, December 2011, pp. 419-438.
15. T. P. Gouache, N. Patel, C. Brunskill, G. Scott, C. Saaj, L. Cui, M. Matthews and N. Patel, “Soil simulant sourcing for the ExoMars rover testbed,” Journal of Planetary and Space Science, in press, vol 59, No. 8, pp. 779-787, June 2011.
16. C. M. Saaj, V. Lappas, H. Schaub, D. Izzo, “Hybrid propulsion system for formation flying using electrostatic forces,” Aerospace Science and Technology, 2010.
17. Scott and C. M. Saaj, “Biologically Inspired Robots to Assist Areonauts on the Martian Surface,” Journal of the British Interplanetary Society, May 2009.
18. C. M. Saaj, C. Underwood, C. Noakes, D. W. G. Park and T. Moore, “The Science and Technology behind Galileo- Europe’s GPS,” Journal of the British Interplanetary Society, Vol. 61, No. 3, pp. 91-98, April 2008.
19. M. A. Peck, B. Streetman, C. M. Saaj and V. Lappas, “Spacecraft formation flying using Lorentz forces,” Journal of the British Interplanetary Society, Vol. 60, No. 7, pp. 263-267, July 2007.
20. C. M. Saaj, V. Lappas, D. Richie, H. Schaub, D. Izzo, “Hybrid propulsion system for spacecraft swarm aggregation using hybrid propulsion,” Journal of the British Interplanetary Society, Vol. 60, No. 7, pp. 268-274, July 2007.
21. C. M. Saaj, B. Bandyopadhyay and H. Unbehauen, “A minor correction to “A new algorithm for discrete-time sliding mode control using fast output sampling feedback,” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, Vol. 51, No. 1, pp. 244-247, Feb. 2004.
22. C. M. Saaj and B. Bandyopadhyay, “Variable structure model following controller using non-dynamic multirate output feedback,” International Journal of Control, Vol. 76, No. 13, pp. 1263-1271, 2003.
23. B. Bandyopadhyay and C. M. Saaj,  “Algorithm on robust sliding mode control for discrete-time system using fast output sampling feedback,” IEE Proceedings - Control Theory and Applications, Vol. 149, No.6, pp. 497-503, November 2002.
24. C. M. Saaj, B. Bandyopadhyay and H. Unbehauen, “A New Algorithm For Discrete-Time Sliding Mode Control Using Fast Output Sampling Feedback,” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, Vol. 49, No. 3, pp. 518-523, June 2002.        
25. C. M. Saaj and B. Bandyopadhyay, “Discrete Output Feedback Sliding Mode Control of Linear Second Order Systems-A Moving Switching Line Approach,” Systems Science Journal, Vol. 27, No.3, pp. 5-22, 2001.           

Publications in International Peer Reviewed Conferences

1. Chakravarthini M. Saaj, Seri Mustaza and Kavitha Madhuri, “From concept to design: A new flexible robotic uterine elevator”, Proc. 29th Conference of the International Society for Medical Innovation and Technology, Turin, Italy, 9 - 10 November 2017.
2. C. Lekakou, S. Mustaza, T. Crisp, Y. Elsayed and C.M. Saaj, “A Material-based Model for the Simulation and Control of Soft Robot Actuator”, Proc. 18th Towards Autonomous Robotics Systems Conference,  Guildford, UK, 19-21 July, 2017.
3. Seddaoui and C. M. Saaj, “Optimised collision-free trajectory and controller design for robotic manipulators”, Proc. 14th Symposium on Advanced Space Technologies in Robotics and Automation, Leiden, the Netherlands, 20-22 June 2017.
4. C. M. Saaj and H. Ibrahim, “Robust Traction Control and Path Planning Algorithms for Planetary Micro-rover Swarms”, Proc. 14th Symposium on Advanced Space Technologies in Robotics and Automation, Leiden, the Netherlands, 20-22 June 2017.
5. W. Lewinger, F. Comin and C. M. Saaj, “Earth Analogue Testing and Analysis of Martian Duricrust Properties”, Proc. 14th Symposium on Advanced Space Technologies in Robotics and Automation, Leiden, the Netherlands, 20-22 June 2017.
6. C. M. Saaj and S. Mustaza, “Gynaecological Endoscopic uterine elevator, Amazing Technology Symposium, 25th International Congress of the European Association of Endoscopic Surgeons, Frankfurt am Main, Germany, 14-15 June 2017.
7. F. Comin and C. Saaj, “Planetary Soil Classification based on the Analysis of the Interaction with Deformable Terrain of a Wheel-Legged Robot,” Proc. IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, Hamburg, Germany, September 28 - October 02, 2015.
8. Seri Mastura Mustaza, Duale Mahdi, Chakravartini Saaj, Wissam A. Albukhanajer, Constantina Lekakou, Y. Elsayed and Jan Fras, “Tuneable Stiffness Design of Soft Continuum Manipulator,” Proc. 8th International Conference on Intelligent Robotics and Applications (ICIRA2015), Portsmouth, UK, 24-27 August 2015.
9. S. Chhaniyara, C. Saaj, P. Gineste, V. Coipeau, “SysML-MOTIVE: SysML Based Spacecraft Power Management Function Modeling, Testing, Integration, Verification and Execution,” Proc. 14th Symposium on Advanced Space Technologies in Robotics and Automation, ESA/ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 11 - 13 May 2015.
10. E. Allouis, F. Comin, W. Lewinger, B. Yeomans, C. Saaj, Y. Gao, J. Delfa et al., “FP7 FASTER Project - Demonstration of Multi-platform Operation for Safer Planetary Traverses,” Proc. 14th Symposium on Advanced Space Technologies in Robotics and Automation, ESA/ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 11 - 13 May 2015.
11. L. Richter, V. Eder, W. Hoheneder, B. Imhof, W. Lewinger, S. Ransom, C. Saaj, P. Weclewski, R. Waclavicek, “Development of a Wheeled Bevameter as a Real-Time Terrain Sensing Instrument for Robotic Vehicles,” Proc. 18th International ISTVS Conference, Seoul, Korea, 22-25 September 2014.
12. L. Richter, V. Eder, W. Hoheneder, B. Imhof, W. Lewinger, S. Ransom, C. Saaj, P. Weclewski, and R. Waclavicek, “Development of the FASTER Wheeled Bevameter,” Proc. European Planetary Science Congress EPSC2014-818, Cascais, Portugal, 7-12 September, 2014.
13. Xiaochen Wang, Tao Geng, Yahya Elsayed, Tommmaso Ranzani, Chakravarthini Saaj, Constantina Lekakou, “A new coefficient-adaptive orthonormal basis function model structure for identifying a class of pneumatic soft actuators,” Proc. IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS 2014), Chicago, Illinois, USA, 14–18 September, 2014.
14. Y. Elsayed, C. Lekakou, T. Geng, C. M. Saaj, “Design optimisation of soft silicone pneumatic actuators using finite element analysis,” Proc. IEEE/ASME International Conference on Advanced Intelligent Mechatronics, Besançon, France, 8-11 July 2014.
15. C. Saaj, “Robotic uterine manipulator: A novel concept inspired by octopus,” Proc. 14th World Congress of Endoscopic Surgery and 22nd Congress of the European Association of Endoscopic Surgery, Paris, France, 25-28 June 2014.
16. C. Saaj, “How to control a surgical robot?,” Proc. 14th World Congress of Endoscopic Surgery and 22nd Congress of the European Association of Endoscopic Surgery, Paris, France, 25-28 June, 2014.
17. H. Ibrahim and C. Saaj, “On New Algorithms for Path Planning and Control of Micro-Rover Swarms,” Lecture notes in Computer Science and Proc. 14th Annual Towards Autonomous Robotics Systems Conference, Oxford 28-30 August 2013.
18. Y. H. Nevatia, J. Gancet, F. Bulens, T. Voegele, R. U. Sonsalla, C. M. Saaj, W. A. Lewinger, M. Matthews, F. J. C. Cabrera, Y. Gao, E. Allouis, B. Imhof, S. Ransom, L. Richter and K. Skocki, “Improved Traversal for Planetary Rovers through Forward Acquisition of Terrain Trafficability,” Proc. IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation Planetary Rovers Workshop, Karlsruhe, 6-10 May, 2013.
19. W. A. Lewinger, F. Comin, S. Ransom, L. Richter, S. Al-Milli, C. Spiteri, Y. Gao, M. Matthews, C. Saaj, “Multi-Level Soil Sensing Systems to Identify Safe Trafficability Areas for Extra-Planetary Rovers,” Proc. 12th Symposium on Advanced Space Technologies in Robotics and Automation, ESA/ESTEC, Noordwijk, the Netherlands, 15 - 17 May 2013.
20. B. Yeomans, C. Saaj and M van Winnedael, “Modelling Leg / Terrain Interaction for a Legged Planetary Micro-Rover,” Proc. 12th Symposium on Advanced Space Technologies in Robotics and Automation, ESA/ESTEC, Noordwijk, the Netherlands, 15 - 17 May 2013.
21. Y. Nevatia, F. Bulens, J. Gancet, Y. Gao, S. Al-Mili, R. U. Sonsalla, T. P. Kaupisch, M. Fritsche, T. Vögele, E. Allouis, K. Skocki, S. Ransom, C. Saaj, M. Matthews, B. Yeomans, L. Richter, “Safe Long-Range Travel for Planetary Rovers through Forward Sensing,” Proc. 12th Symposium on Advanced Space Technologies in Robotics and Automation, ESA/ESTEC, Noordwijk, the Netherlands, 15 - 17 May 2013.
22. E. Ogunshile, X. Wang, S. Chhaniyara, C. Saaj, C. Lange and R. Findlay, “Application of Model based Systems Engineering for an Asteroid Lander,” Proc. 63rd  International Astronautical  Congress,  IAC-12,D1,6,1,x14227, Naples, Italy, 1 -  5  October  2012.
23. S. Bandyopadhyay, C. M. Saaj, B. Bandyopadhyay, “Stability Analysis of Small Satellite Formation Flying and Reconfiguration Missions in Deep Space,” Proc. 12th Int. Workshop on Variable Structure Systems, Mumbai, India, 12-14 January, 2012.
24. Chhaniyara, S; Saaj, C.; Meadiger, B.; Althoff-Kotzias, M.; Ahrns, I., “SysML based
system  engineering:  A  case  study  for  Space  Robotic  Systems,”   Proc. 62nd  International Astronautical  Congress,  Cape  Town, South  Africa,  3  -  7  October  2011.  
25. B. Yeomans and C. Saaj, “Walking Rover Trafficability - Presenting a Comprehensive Analysis and Prediction Tool,” Proc. 12th Conference Towards Autonomous Robotic Systems, September 2011, Sheffield, UK. (Peer Reviewed Conference Paper - also to be published in the Springer Lecture Notes in Computer Science Series).
26. S. Chhaniyara, C. Saaj, B. Maediger, M. Althoff-Kotzias and I. Ahrns, “Model based system engineering for space robotic systems,” Proc. 11th Symposium on Advanced Space Technologies in Robotics and Automation, Noordwijk, Netherlands, 12-14 April, 2011.
27. B. Yeomans and C. Saaj, “Progress Towards Robust Mobility Analysis for a Legged Planetary Fetch Rover,” Proc. 11th Symposium on Advanced Space Technologies in Robotics and Automation, Noordwijk, Netherlands, 12-14 April, 2011.
28. W. Mahmood, S. Ali Shah and C. M. Saaj, “Vision Based Hazard Detection and Obstacle Avoidance for Planetary Landing,” Proc. International Bhurban Conference on Applied Science and Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan, 10-13 January 2011.
29. B. Smith, C. Saaj and E. Allious, “Evolving legged robots using biologically inspired optimization strategies,” Proc. IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Biomimetics (ROBIO2010), Tianjin, China, 14-18 December 2010.
30. B. Yeomans, S. Murton, B. Smith, C. Saaj, “Biologically inspired nanorovers-Sample return using lightweight hybrid actuation,” Proc. 61st International Astronautical Congress, Prague, 27 September-1 October 2010.
31. S. Bandyopadhyay, C. M. Saaj, B. Bandyopadhyay, “Development of Sliding Mode Controller for Small Satellite in Planetary Orbital Environment Formation Flying Missions,” Proc. 61st International Astronautical Congress, Prague, 27 September-1 October 2010.
32. H. Ibrahim and C. M. Saaj, “Collision Avoidance and Control of Multi-Agent Systems,” Proc. International Conference on Control, Communication and Computing, Trivandrum, India, 18-20 February 2010.
33. A. Khorram, S. Parsa and C. M. Saaj, “Trajectory Planning and Control of Robot Arm for Planetary Surface Sample Missions,” Proc. 60th International Astronautical Congress, Daejeon, Republic of Korea, 12-16 October 2009.
34. C. M. Saaj, S. Bandyopadhyay and B. Bandyopadhyay, “Robust Control and Path Planning Algorithms for Small Satellite Formation Flying Missions,” Proc. 60th International Astronautical Congress, Daejeon, Republic of Korea, 12-16 October 2009.
35. B. Smith and C. M. Saaj, “Biologically Inspired Nano-rovers: Innovative and Low Cost Technologies using Shape Memory Alloys,” Proc. 60th International Astronautical Congress, Daejeon, Republic of Korea, 12-16 October 2009.
36. G. Scott and C. M. Saaj, “Measuring and simulating the effect of variations in soil properties on microrover trafficability,” Proc. AIAA Space 2009 Conference, Pasadena, US, 14–17 September 2009.
37. S. Seyyedi Parsa, C. M. Saaj, C. Underwood, “Robot Assisted Satellite Servicing: Novel Motion Control Algorithm using Sliding Mode Control,” Proc. International Conference on Space Technology, Thessaloniki, Greece, 24-26 August, 2009.
38. Mahmood, W. and C. M. Saaj, “Pinpoint Planetary Landers: Vision Based
Hazard Detection and Obstacle Avoidance,” Proc. European Control Conference, Budapest, Hungary, 23-26 August 2009.
39. C. M. Saaj, V. Lappas, D. Richie, H. Schuab and V. Gazi, “Satellite Formation Flying: Robust Algorithms for Propulsion, Path Planning and Control,” Proc. European Control Conference, Budapest, Hungary, 23-26 August 2009.
40. D. Sancho and C. M. Saaj, “Assessment of Artificial Potential Field Methods for Navigation of Planetary Rovers,” Proc. European Control Conference, Budapest, Hungary, 23-26 August 2009.
41. G. Scott, B. Smith, C. M. Saaj, “Biorobotics: Innovative and Low Cost
Technologies for Next Generation Planetary Rovers,” Proc. 4th International Conference on Recent Advances in Space Technologies, Istanbul, Turkey, 11-13 June 2009.
42. S. Parsa, C. M. Saaj, Hamid R. M. Daniali and Reza Ghaderi and, “On-Orbit Servicing: Novel Algorithms for Motion Control of Robot Manipulators,” Proc. 10th ESA Workshop on Advanced Space Technologies for Robotics and Automation, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 11-13 November, 2008.
43. Scott, G. P., C. M. Saaj, E. Moxey, “Walking Micro-rovers for Planetary Exploration: Investigation into the Mechanics of Soil-Footprint Interaction,” Proc. International Society of Terrain Vehicles Systems Conference, Turin, Italy, November 2008.
44. Scott, G. P., C. M. Saaj, E. Moxey, “Modelling Soil Traction for more Effective Control of Walking Planetary Rovers,” Proc. Towards Autonomous Robotic Systems Conference, Edinburgh, UK, September 2008.
45. G. P. Scott, G. N. Meirion-Griffith, C. M. Saaj and E. Moxey, “A Comparative Study of the deformation of Planetary Soils under Tracked and Legged Rovers,” Proc. AIAA Space 2008 Conference, San Diego, USA, 9-11 September 2008.
46. G. P. Scott, C. M. Saaj, E. Moxey, “The Interaction between Walking Robot Footprint Shapes and Planetary Soil Deformation,” Proc. AIAA Space 2008 Conference, San Diego, USA, 9-11 September 2008.
47. C. M. Saaj, V. Lappas, D. Richie and H. Schuab, “Hybrid Propulsion using Coulomb Force for Spacecraft Swarm Aggregation,” Proc. 10th European Control Conference, Greece, July 2007, pp. 3187-3194.
48. C. M. Saaj, V. Lappas, D. Richie, M. Peck, B. Streetman and H. Schuab, “Spacecraft Formation Flying and Reconfiguration with Electrostatic Forces,” Proc. 30th Annual AAS Guidance and Control Conference, Colorado, 3-7 February 2007.
49. C. M. Saaj, V. Lappas and V. Gazi, “Spacecraft Swarm Navigation and Control using Artificial Potential Field and Sliding Mode Control,” Proc. IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology, Mumbai, India, Paper Id. IF-011819, pp. 2646 –2651, December 2006.
50. C. M. Saaj, V. Lappas, D. Richie, M. Peck, B. Streetman and H. Schaub, “Spacecraft Formation Flying and Aggregation using Electrostatic Forces,” Proc. Advanced Space Vehicle Control Workshop, University of Surrey, UK, September 2006.
51. C. M. Saaj, V. Lappas, D. Richie, M. Peck and B. Streetman, “Electrostatic forces for satellite swarm navigation and reconfiguration,” Final report for Ariadna Study Id. AO 4919 05, 2006.
52. B. Bandyopadhyay, V. Thakar, C.  M.  Saaj and S. Janardhanan, “Algorithm for Computing Sliding Mode Control and Switching Surface from Output Samples,” Proc. 8th IEEE International Workshop on Variable Structure Systems, Vilanova I la Geltru, Spain, September 2004, Paper No. 04.
53. C. M. Saaj and B. Bandyopadhyay, “Output Feedback Variable Structure Control of Non-linear Systems by Feedback Linearization,” Proc. 6th IFAC Symposium on Nonlinear Control Systems, Stuttgart, Germany, September 2004, pp. 771-776.  
54. C. M. Saaj and B. Bandyopadhyay, “Discrete-Time Sliding Mode Control Using Fast Output Sampling Feedback,” Proc. 7th European Control Conference, Cambridge, UK, September 2003, Paper No. 156.
55. B. Bandyopadhyay and C. M. Saaj, “Discrete Sliding Mode Control by Non-Dynamic Multirate Output Feedback,” Proc. 7th IEEE International Workshop on Variable Structure Systems, Sarajevo, Bosnia & Herzegovina, July 2002, pp. 145-152.
56. C. M. Saaj and B. Bandyopadhyay, “Output Feedback Sliding Mode Control for MIMO Discrete Time Systems,” Proc. 15th IFAC World Congress on Automatic Control, Barcelona, Spain, July 2002, A 14 1.
57. B. Bandyopadhyay and C. M. Saaj, "A New Three Level Output Feedback Sliding Mode Control For Discrete System,” Proc. Int. Conf. on Control, Instrumentation and Information Communication, Kolkata, India, December 2001, pp. 13-17.

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