Current research topics include:
Other, more general interests include the application of DfE and life cycle thinking to the aerospace industry and value analysis in scrap aerospace market.
Life cycle thinking and approaches
Design for Environment/Sustainability
Director of the Practitioner Doctorate Programme in Sustainability (PDS)
Supervision of EngD, PDS and PhD research projects
Contribution to MSc teaching modules.
Supervision of MSc dissertation projects
Member of the SEES EngD Management Operating Board and Advisory Board.
Find me on campus Room: 15 AB 02
Monday to Friday 9.00 to 17.00
Activated carbons have excellent performance in a number of process applications. In particular, they appear to have the most favourable characteristics for adsorption processes, thanks to their high porosity and large surface area. However, a comprehensive assessment of the environmental impacts of their manufacturing chain is still lacking. This study evaluates these impacts taking the specific case of activated carbon produced from coconut shells in Indonesia, which is the major coconut producer county. Coconut shells as raw materials are utilized for activated carbon production due to their abundant supply, high density and purity, and because they seem to have a clear environmental advantage over coal-based carbons, particularly in terms of acidification potential, non-renewable energy demand and carbon footprint. Life Cycle Assessment and process analysis are used to quantify all the environmental interactions over the stages of the life cycle of an activated carbon manufacturing chain, in terms of inputs of energy and natural resources and of outputs of emissions to the different environmental compartments. Estimates for the environmental burdens over the life cycle have been obtained by developing mass and energy balances for each of the process units in the production chain. The results indicate the operations with the greatest effects on the environmental performance of activated carbon production and hence where improvements are necessary. In particular, using electrical energy produced from renewable sources, such as biomass, would reduce the contributions to human toxicity (by up to 60%) and global warming (by up to 80%). Moreover, when the material is transported for processing in a country with a low-carbon electricity system, the potential human toxicity and global warming impacts can be reduced by as much as 90% and 60% respectively.
Purpose: To explore the literature surrounding the environmental impact of mobile phones and the implications of moving from the current business model of selling, using and discarding phones to a product service system based upon a cloud service. The exploration of the impacts relating to this shift and subsequent change in scope is explored in relation to the life cycle profile of a typical smartphone. Methods: A literature study is conducted into the existing literature in order to define the characteristics of a “typical” smartphone. Focus is given to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in different life cycle phases in line with that reported in the majority of literature. Usage patterns from literature are presented in order to show how a smartphone is increasingly responsible for not only data consumption, but also data generation. The subsequent consequences of this for the balance of the life cycle phases are explored with the inclusion of wider elements in the potential expanded mobile infrastructure, such as servers and the network. Result & Discussions: From the available literature the manufacturing phase is shown to dominate the life cycle of a “typical” smartphone for GHG emissions. Smartphone users are shown to be increasingly reliant upon the internet for provision of their communications. Adding a server into the scope of a smartphone is shown to increase the use phase impact from 8.5 kgCO2-eq to 18.0 kgCO2-eq, other phases are less affected. Addition of the network increases the use phase by another 24.7 kgCO2-eq. In addition, it is shown that take-back of mobile phones is not effective at present and that prompt return of the phones could result in reduction in impact by best reuse potential and further reduction in toxic emissions through inappropriate disposal. Conclusions: The way in which consumers interact with their phones is changing, leading to a system which is far more integrated with the internet. A product service system based upon a cloud service highlights the need for improved energy efficiency to make greatest reduction in GHG emissions in the use phase, and gives a mechanism to exploit residual value of the handsets by timely return of the phones, their components and recovery of materials.
This paper looks at how the aerospace industry can achieve the ACARE goal of greener manufacturing, maintenance and disposal. It looks further than merely reducing waste and eliminating hazardous materials and processes and suggests that the organisational structure of the industry will play an important role in facilitating a move towards such a goal. Greater co-operation or integration within the industry at all stages of the product life cycle chain is a fundamental requirement as individual companies run a risk of increasing the total environmental burdens if they concentrate solely on reducing their own impacts without considering the effect a change they make may have on other companies. The use of comprehensive environmental supply chain management systems and end of life plans can smooth the implementation of extended product responsibility and accelerate the benefits of greener manufacturing, maintenance and disposal.
The rapid turnover in consumer electronics, fuelled by increased global consumption, has resulted in negative environmental and social consequences. Consumer electronics are typically disposed of into UK landfills; exported to developing countries; incinerated; retained in households in a redundant state; or otherwise 'lost' with very few being recycled. As a result, the high value metals they contain are not effectively recovered and new raw materials must be extracted to produce more goods. To assist in a transition from the current throw-away society towards a circular economy, the Closed Loop Emotionally Valuable E-waste Recovery (CLEVER) project is developing a novel Product-Service System (PSS). In the proposed PSS, component parts with 'low-emotional value', but requiring regular technical upgrade (such as circuit boards, chips and other electronic components) will be owned by manufacturers and leased to customers, and potentially ‘high-emotional value’ components (such as the outer casing) will be owned and valued by the customer so that they become products that are kept for longer periods of time. This research conceptualizes a consumer electronic device as comprising a 'skin' - the outer casing, or the part that the user interacts with directly; a 'skeleton' - the critical support components inside the device; and 'organs' - the high-tech electronics that deliver the product’s core functionality. Each of these has different longevity requirements and value-chain lifetimes, engendering different levels of stakeholder interaction. This paper contributes to academic debate by exploring the feasibility of creating a PSS which addresses conflicting issues for different components within the same device with different optimal lifetimes and end-of-life fates.
Page Owner: cfs2jl
Page Created: Tuesday 9 November 2010 15:04:01 by lb0014
Last Modified: Thursday 21 April 2016 14:28:22 by js0063
Expiry Date: Thursday 9 February 2012 15:01:46
Assembly date: Fri May 27 23:16:27 BST 2016
Content ID: 41259