Picture of Dr Kikki Bodman-Smith

Dr Kikki Bodman-Smith

Associate Professor in Immunology

Academic and research departments

School of Biosciences.



  • BSc Biology, Royal Holloway and Bedford New College, University of London
  • PhD Immunology, University College London, University of London
  • Postdoctoral Research Fellow: Department of Surgery, University College London, University of London
  • Immunology Group, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, University of London
  • Lecturer in Immunolgy, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Surrey

Research Interests

Current research interests lie in understanding the role of the inflammatory acute phase proteins in innate immune responses to infection and in inflammatory disease and how they may interact with the acquired immune response. This can be further divided into (i) The effect of acute phase proteins on host cells particularly in relation to inflammatory disease (ii) Host cell receptors used by acute phase proteins for pathogen uptake and (iii) The role of acute phase proteins on pathogen survival.

Research Collaborations

Dr Graham Stewart

Professor Johnjoe McFadden

Ernesto Oviedo-Orta and the Cardiovascular research group


WN Shebaby, M Mroueh, K Bodman-Smith, A Mansour, RI Taleb, CF Daher, M El-Sibai (2014)Daucus carota pentane-based fractions arrest the cell cycle and increase apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells, In: BMC COMPLEMENTARY AND ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE14ARTN 387 BIOMED CENTRAL LTD
J Ogbechi, MT Ruf, BS Hall, K Bodman-Smith, M Vogel, HL Wu, A Stainer, CT Esmon, J Ahnström, G Pluschke, RE Simmonds (2015)Mycolactone-Dependent Depletion of Endothelial Cell Thrombomodulin Is Strongly Associated with Fibrin Deposition in Buruli Ulcer Lesions., In: PLoS Pathog11(7) PLoS

A well-known histopathological feature of diseased skin in Buruli ulcer (BU) is coagulative necrosis caused by the Mycobacterium ulcerans macrolide exotoxin mycolactone. Since the underlying mechanism is not known, we have investigated the effect of mycolactone on endothelial cells, focussing on the expression of surface anticoagulant molecules involved in the protein C anticoagulant pathway. Congenital deficiencies in this natural anticoagulant pathway are known to induce thrombotic complications such as purpura fulimans and spontaneous necrosis. Mycolactone profoundly decreased thrombomodulin (TM) expression on the surface of human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMVEC) at doses as low as 2ng/ml and as early as 8hrs after exposure. TM activates protein C by altering thrombin's substrate specificity, and exposure of HDMVEC to mycolactone for 24 hours resulted in an almost complete loss of the cells' ability to produce activated protein C. Loss of TM was shown to be due to a previously described mechanism involving mycolactone-dependent blockade of Sec61 translocation that results in proteasome-dependent degradation of newly synthesised ER-transiting proteins. Indeed, depletion from cells determined by live-cell imaging of cells stably expressing a recombinant TM-GFP fusion protein occurred at the known turnover rate. In order to determine the relevance of these findings to BU disease, immunohistochemistry of punch biopsies from 40 BU lesions (31 ulcers, nine plaques) was performed. TM abundance was profoundly reduced in the subcutis of 78% of biopsies. Furthermore, it was confirmed that fibrin deposition is a common feature of BU lesions, particularly in the necrotic areas. These findings indicate that there is decreased ability to control thrombin generation in BU skin. Mycolactone's effects on normal endothelial cell function, including its ability to activate the protein C anticoagulant pathway are strongly associated with this. Fibrin-driven tissue ischemia could contribute to the development of the tissue necrosis seen in BU lesions.

G Franzoni, NV Kurkure, DS Edgar, HE Everett, W Gerner, KB Bodman-Smith, HR Crooke, SP Graham (2013)Assessment of the Phenotype and Functionality of Porcine CD8 T Cell Responses following Vaccination with Live Attenuated Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV) and Virulent CSFV Challenge, In: CLINICAL AND VACCINE IMMUNOLOGY20(10)pp. 1604-1616 AMER SOC MICROBIOLOGY
S Shams, S Shafi, K Bodman-Smith, P Williams, S Mehta, GA Ferns (2008)Anti-heat shock protein-27 (Hsp-27) antibody levels in patients with chest pain: Association with established cardiovascular risk factors, In: CLINICA CHIMICA ACTA395(1-2)pp. 42-46 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
WN Shebaby, CF Daher, M El-Sibai, K Bodman-Smith, A Mansour, MC Karam, M Mroueh (2015)Antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of the oil fractions from wild carrot (Daucus carota ssp carota), In: PHARMACEUTICAL BIOLOGY53(9)pp. 1285-1294 TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD
R Casey, J Newcombe, J McFadden, KB Bodman-Smith (2008)The acute-phase reactant C-reactive protein binds to phosphorylcholine- expressing Neisseria meningitidis and increases uptake by human phagocytes, In: Infection and Immunity76(3)pp. 1298-1304 American Society for Microbiology

Neisseria meningitidis is a global cause of meningitis and septicemia. Immunity to N. meningitidis involves both innate and specific mechanisms with killing by serum bactericidal activity and phagocytic cells. C-reactive protein (CRP) is an acute-phase serum protein that has been shown to help protect the host from several bacterial pathogens, which it recognizes by binding to phosphorylcholine (PC) on their surfaces. Pathogenic Neisseria species can exhibit phase-variable PC modification on type 1 and 2 pili. We have shown that CRP can bind to piliated meningococci in a classical calcium-dependent manner. The binding of CRP to the meningococcus was concentration dependent, of low affinity, and specific for PC. CRP appears to act as an opsonin for N. meningitidis, as CRP-opsonized bacteria showed increased uptake by human macrophages and neutrophils. Further investigation into the downstream effects of CRP-bound N. meningitidis may lead us to a better understanding of meningococcal infection and help direct more effective therapeutic interventions.

V Nicolaidou, C Stylianou, L Koumas, GS Vassiliou, KB Bodman-Smith, P Costeas (2015)Gene expression changes in HLA mismatched mixed lymphocyte cultures reveal genes associated with allorecognition, In: TISSUE ANTIGENS85(4)pp. 267-277 WILEY-BLACKWELL
WN Shebaby, M El-Sibai, K Bodman-Smith, MC Karam, M Mroueh, CF Daher (2013)The Antioxidant and Anticancer Effects of Wild Carrot Oil Extract, In: PHYTOTHERAPY RESEARCH27(5)pp. 737-744 WILEY-BLACKWELL
MP Rayman, E Searle, L Kelly, S Johnsen, K Bodman-Smith, SC Bath, J Mao, CWG Redman (2014)Effect of selenium on markers of risk of pre-eclampsia in UK pregnant women: a randomised, controlled pilot trial, In: BRITISH JOURNAL OF NUTRITION112(1)pp. 99-111 CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS
MC Karam, R Merckbawi, JE El-Kouba, SI Bazzi, KB Bodman-Smith (2013)In Leishmania major-induced inflammation, interleukin-13 reduces hyperalgesia, down-regulates IL-1 beta and up-regulates IL-6 in an IL-4 independent mechanism, In: EXPERIMENTAL PARASITOLOGY134(2)pp. 200-205 ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE
WN Shebaby, KB Bodman-Smith, A Mansour, M Mroueh, RI Taleb, M El-Sibai, CF Daher (2015)Daucus carota Pentane-Based Fractions Suppress Proliferation and Induce Apoptosis in Human Colon Adenocarcinoma HT-29 Cells by Inhibiting the MAPK and PI3K Pathways, In: JOURNAL OF MEDICINAL FOOD18(7)pp. 745-752 MARY ANN LIEBERT, INC
Helen Singleton, Simon P. Graham, Jean-Pierre Frossard, Katherine B. Bodman-Smith, Falko Steinbach (2018)Infection of monocytes with European porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV-1) strain Lena is significantly enhanced by dexamethasone and IL-10, In: Virology517pp. 199-207 Elsevier

Monocytes are considered refractory to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus type 1 (PRRSV-1) infection. However, monocytes are only short-lived in blood, being able to differentiate into macrophages and dendritic cells (DC). It was therefore merited to revisit PRRSV-1 interaction with monocytes, particularly those treated with cytokines influencing monocyte biology. Thus, several factors were screened, particularly those modulating monocyte differentiation and expression of putative PRRSV-1 receptors (CD169 and CD163). M-CSF, known to stimulate macrophage differentiation, did not increase their susceptibility to PRRSV-1. Nor did GM-CSF or IL-4, known drivers for monocyte-derived DC (MoDC) differentiation. In contrast, monocyte treatment with IL-10 or the corticosteroid, dexamethasone, known to be potent suppressors of monocyte differentiation, was correlated with increased susceptibility to PRRSV-1 infection. While this effect was strongly correlated to CD163 and CD169 expression, our data suggest that receptor expression is not the only factor driving successful infection of PPRSV-1 in monocytes.

H Singleton, H Everett, S Graham, K Bodman-Smith, F Steinbach (2013)Characterisation of porcine monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells, In: IMMUNOLOGY140pp. 122-122
JS Jenson, R Casey, J Newcombe, M Smith, JJ McFadden, K Bodman-Smith (2008)Dendritic cell responses to C-reactive protein-opsonised Neisseria meningitidis, In: IMMUNOLOGY125pp. 124-124
M Shahidi, L Powell, E Oviedo-Orta, K Bodman-Smith (2009)Incubation of endothelial cells with CRP results in alterations in surface Fc gamma RI expression, In: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis7pp. 924-?
L Beeton, P Tomlin, K Bodman-Smith, G Ferns, F Green (2006)Inhibitoryeffect of statins on IL6 mRNA expression in THP-1 cells subjected to an inflammatory stimulus, In: Vascular Pharmacology45pp. e16-e17
O Sosan, S Graham, H Everett, B Crudgington, K Bodman-Smith, H Crooke (2012)Differential antiviral effect of porcine interferon alpha subtypes on classical swine fever virus infection of porcine monocytes, In: CYTOKINE59(3)pp. 552-552
H Singleton, J-P Frossard, KB Bodman-Smith, SP Graham, F Steinbach (2011)The effect of cytokines on porcine monocytes and alveolar macrophages, In: IMMUNOLOGY135pp. 90-90
L Beeton, H Khwaja, K Bodman-Smith, G Ferns, F Green (2006)Interleukin-6 promoter polymorphisms influence the inter-individual macrophage inflammatory response, In: ATHEROSCLEROSIS SUPPLEMENTS7(3)pp. 289-289
W Shebaby, C Daher, M El-Sibai, K Bodman-Smith, R Taleb, M Mroueh (2014)Antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of the pentane fraction of wild carrot oil, In: PLANTA MEDICA80(16)pp. 1495-1495
L Beeton, H Khwaja, K Bodman-Smith, G Ferns, F Green (2006)Genetic variation in the interleukin-6 promoter influences the macrophage inflammatory response, In: Vascular Pharmacology45pp. e3-?
W Shebaby, M El-Sibai, M Mroueh, K Bodman-Smith, R Taleb, C Daher (2014)Hepatoprotective activity of the wild carrot chloroform-based fraction against CCl4-induced liver toxicity in mice, In: PLANTA MEDICA80(16)pp. 1523-1524
R Casey, J McFadden, J Newcombe, M Bodman-Smith, K Bodman-Smith (2007)C-reactive protein binds to Neisseria meningitidis and affects macrophage responses to infection, In: IMMUNOLOGY120pp. 20-20
E Kaminska, K Bodman-Smith, G Coulton, A Dalgleish, MD Bodman-Smith (2011)Identification of putative biomarkers in cancer therapy, In: IMMUNOLOGY135pp. 121-121
R Casey, J Newcombe, J McFadden, K Bodman-Smith (2005)The interaction of C-reactive protein with Neisseria meningitidis, In: IMMUNOLOGY116pp. 77-77 BLACKWELL PUBLISHING