Professor Martyn Barrett


Emeritus Professor of Psychology
MA (Cantab), DPhil (Sussex), CPsychol, FBPsS, FRSA, FAcSS

Biography

Martyn Barrett is Emeritus Professor of Psychology at the University of Surrey, UK. He obtained his degrees from the Universities of Cambridge and Sussex. He is a developmental and social psychologist but has a strong commitment to multidisciplinary research. He works on the development of intercultural, democratic and global competence; young people’s political and civic engagement, active participation and global citizenship; the development of national and ethnic identifications, prejudice, stereotyping and intergroup attitudes; and young people’s ethnic, national and political enculturation.

Recent books include Children’s Knowledge, Beliefs and Feelings about Nations and National Groups (2007, Psychology Press), Advancing Multiculturalism, Post 7/7 (2008, Cambridge Scholars Publishing), Nationalism, Ethnicity, Citizenship (2011, Cambridge Scholars Publishing), Multiculturalism and Interculturalism (2013, Council of Europe), Developing Intercultural Competence through Education (2014, Council of Europe), Political and Civic Engagement (2015, Routledge), Competences for Democratic Culture: Living Together as Equals in Culturally Diverse Democratic Societies (2016, Council of Europe), Reference Framework of Competences for Democratic Culture (3 volumes, 2018, Council of Europe), Youth Civic and Political Engagement (2019, Routledge), A Portfolio of Competences for Democratic Culture (2 volumes, 2021, Council of Europe) and Assessing Competences for Democratic Culture: Principles, Methods, Examples (2021, Council of Europe). Over the years, he has received numerous research grants from the ESRC, the European Commission, the Nuffield Foundation, the Leverhulme Trust, and various other bodies.

He has worked as an expert for the Council of Europe on the development of intercultural and democratic competence since 2006, and he led the Council of Europe expert group that developed the Reference Framework of Competences for Democratic Culture (RFCDC), which was published in 2018. He also works for the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), and helped to develop the conceptual framework and assessments of global competence for use in the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) in 2018. From 2009-2012, he led an FP7 project funded by the European Commission entitled Processes Influencing Democratic Ownership and Participation (PIDOP).

Professor Barrett is a Fellow of the British Psychological Society and a Fellow of the Academy of Social Sciences.

Research Interests

My primary research interests are focused on young people, ethnicity, nation and citizenship, the societal challenges that arise from cultural diversity, especially in relationship to children and youth, and the role of education in equipping young people with the competences that are required for democratic and global citizenship. In particular, my work examines:

  • The development of intercultural, democratic and global competence
  • Young people’s political and civic engagement, active participation and global citizenship
  • The development of national and ethnic identifications, prejudice, stereotyping and intergroup attitudes
  • Young people’s ethnic, national and political enculturation

I have been working as an expert for the Council of Europe since 2006, and from 2013-2018 I led the Council of Europe expert group that developed the Reference Framework of Competences for Democratic Culture (RFCDC). The RFCDC provides a comprehensive integrated description of the competences that citizens require for participating effectively in democratic culture and intercultural dialogue. It also contains detailed guidance for education policymakers and practitioners on how education (from pre-school through primary and secondary education to higher education) can be harnessed to support the development of these competences in young people. Education based on the RFCDC promotes young people's respect for human rights, cultural diversity and democracy, and builds their resilience to radicalisation. 

The RFCDC was adopted as a core component of the Council of Europe's Action Plan on the Fight against Violent Extremism and Radicalisation leading to Terrorism and Action Plan on Building Inclusive Societies, was endorsed by the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe in April 2016, and was the main focus of the 25th Session of the Council of Europe Standing Conference of Ministers of Education in April 2016 at which the Education Ministers from 50 European states issued a Final Declaration strongly endorsing the framework and calling on the Council of Europe to assist member states in examining and implementing it in their national education systems. The full Reference Framework of Competences for Democratic Culture, in three volumes, was formally launched at the Council of Europe Conference of the Danish Chairmanship of the Committee of Ministers, “Democratic Culture – From Words to Action”, which took place in Copenhagen, Denmark, in April 2018. 

A Council of Europe survey, conducted in April 2019, revealed that the RFCDC is being implemented either in whole or in part in 17 countries: Andorra, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Belgium (French-speaking community), Cyprus, Finland, Greece, Italy, Latvia, Moldova, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Portugal, Romania, San Marino, Serbia and Ukraine. In addition, it was reported in November 2021 that programmes for the implementation of the RFCDC had also begun in a further five countries – Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Georgia, Kosovo and Turkey – bringing the total number of countries in which the RFCDC is being implemented to 22.

In order to assist the process of implementation, I am now working as a lead expert on assessment for the Council of Europe’s Education Policy Advisors Network, and also as a member of the RFCDC Working Group on Training. As part of these activities, I led the development of more detailed guidance on Assessing Competences for Democratic Culture. I also led a team of Council of Europe experts that developed an RFCDC portfolio. This portfolio can be used for teaching, learning and assessing competences for democratic culture. There are two versions of the portfolio: a standard version for use by learners aged 11 years and older, and a younger learners version for use by learners up to the age of 10 years. In addition, I helped to develop a set of RFCDC learning activities for use in primary and secondary schools based on the Covid-19 pandemic – these activities can be used in either face-to-face or online teaching.

I also contributed to the development of the conceptual framework and assessments of global competence that took place in the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) in 2018. PISA is a triennial international survey carried out by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). It evaluates education systems worldwide by testing the skills and knowledge of 15-year-old students in science, mathematics and reading. In 2018, students were also assessed on their global competence. A total number of 511,883 15-year-olds in 66 countries participated in this assessment. The wide-ranging findings reveal how curricula, learning activities, school characteristics and teacher education can all be harnessed in order to promote the global competence of young people. The full report can be downloaded here

In other work that I have conducted for the Council of Europe, a new educational instrument called the Autobiography of Intercultural Encounters (AIE) was developed for use within primary and secondary schools. The AIE is intended to support and encourage the development of the attitudes, skills and knowledge required for engaging in appropriate, effective and respectful dialogue with people from other cultural backgrounds. In a follow-up project, the team developed a second educational instrument called the Autobiography of Intercultural Encounters through Visual Media (AIEVM), also for use within primary and secondary schools. The AIEVM is intended to support and encourage the development of the attitudes, skills and knowledge required for deconstructing images of cultural others encountered in visual media such as television, cinema, the internet, magazines, newspapers, etc. The AIE team has also developed an Autobiography of Intercultural Encounters through the Internet (AIETI), to support the development of the attitudes, skills and knowledge required for engaging in appropriate, effective and respectful intercultural exchanges through social media/social networking sites.

I have also edited a Council of Europe book which compares the policy implications of interculturalism and multiculturalism, and co-authored a Council of Europe position paper on Developing Intercultural Competence through Education.

I am currently contributing to a project funded by the European Commission under the ERASMUS+ programme. The project is entitled Children’s Voices for a New Human Space (CVS). This project involves partners in Bulgaria, Italy, Norway, Romania, Spain and the UK. Activities include developing a primary school curriculum based on the RFCDC to foster the development of children’s democratic and intercultural competences, and developing a teacher training module to equip primary school teachers with the expertise to promote children’s democratic and intercultural competences. The overall aim of the project is to create tools that will help to empower children so that they can participate effectively in public life and decision-making processes.

From 2009-2012, I coordinated a multinational research project funded by the European Commission under the Seventh Framework Programme entitled Processes Influencing Democratic Ownership and Participation (PIDOP). This project examined the processes influencing civic and political participation in nine European countries (Belgium, Czech Republic, England, Germany, Italy, Northern Ireland, Portugal, Sweden and Turkey), and drew on the disciplines of Psychology, Sociology, Politics, Social Policy and Education. The project developed a set of detailed policy recommendations for enhancing levels of democratic participation, especially among young people, women, ethnic minorities and migrants. Many of the findings from the project are reported in the book Political and Civic Engagement: Multidisciplinary Perspectives which was published in 2015. The data from the quantitative survey that was conducted by PIDOP have been deposited in the CivicLEADS database, and are freely available for use by other researchers.

Other projects that I have led in the past include two further multinational research projects, CHOONGE and NERID, both of which were funded by the European Commission. Together, these projects investigated the development of national and ethnic identifications, beliefs and attitudes in 6- to 15-year-old children living in England, Scotland, Catalonia, the Basque Country, Spain, Italy, Russia, Ukraine, Georgia and Azerbaijan. The main findings from these projects are reported in my 2007 book, Children's Knowledge, Beliefs and Feelings about Nations and National Groups.

In addition, I led a multidisciplinary research project investigating New Ethnicities in British Bangladeshi and Mixed-Heritage Youth. This project was funded by the Leverhulme Trust. It focused on patterns of national and ethnic self-categorization and identification among British Bangladeshi and mixed-heritage adolescents living in London, the cultural practices of these individuals within different situations and contexts, and their perceptions of multiculturalism, racism and discrimination.

I also worked on the multinational project Europe 2038, which was funded by the European Commission. This project examined the sense of European identity among European youth, and explored the visions that European youth have for Europe in the future. This research was conducted in collaboration with colleagues in Albania, Austria, Germany, Italy, Romania and Spain.

From 2013-4, I was a member of the Academic Advisory Group for the UK Government’s Cabinet Office for the production of a Horizon Scanning report on Social Attitudes of Young People. The report explores how young people’s social attitudes, behaviours and experiences have evolved over the past 30 years, examines the drivers that may affect how these attitudes and behaviours evolve over the next 10 years, and provides an assessment of how young people’s attitudes, behaviours and experiences might change by 2024. The report is intended to inform policymaking across a range of Government Departments, and to assist policymakers in taking a longer-term strategic approach so that policies are more resilient to future contingencies.

Affiliations

Fellow of the Academy of Social Sciences (AcSS)

Fellow of the British Psychological Society (BPS)

Fellow of the Royal Society for the encouragement of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce (RSA)

My publications

Publications

Recent books and edited volumes

Barrett, M., Aceska, N., Azzouz, N., Baró, C., Baytelman, A., et al. (2021). Assessing Competences for Democratic Culture: Principles, Methods, Examples. Strasbourg: Council of Europe Publishing.

Barrett, M., Byram, M., Aroni, A., Golubeva, I., Jouhanneau, C., et al. (2021). A Portfolio of Competences for Democratic Culture: Younger Learners Version. Strasbourg: Council of Europe Publishing.

Byram, M., Barrett, M., Aroni, A., Golubeva, I., Jouhanneau, C., et al. (2021). A Portfolio of Competences for Democratic Culture: Standard Version. Strasbourg: Council of Europe Publishing.

Barrett, M. (Ed.) (2020). RFCDC - Learning Activities based on the COVID-19 Pandemic. Strasbourg: Council of Europe Publishing.

Barrett, M. & Pachi, D. (2019). Youth Civic and Political Engagement. London: Routledge. 

Barrett, M., de Bivar Black, L., Byram, M., Faltýn, J., Gudmundson, L., et al. (2018a). Reference Framework of Competences for Democratic Culture, Volume 1: Context, Concepts and Model. Strasbourg: Council of Europe Publishing. [Also available in Albanian, Armenian, Finnish, French, Georgian, Greek, ItalianMacedonian, Portuguese, Romanian, Serbian, Slovak, Turkish and Ukrainian]

Barrett, M., de Bivar Black, L., Byram, M., Faltýn, J., Gudmundson, L., et al. (2018b). Reference Framework of Competences for Democatic Culture, Volume 2: Descriptors of Competences for Democratic Culture. Strasbourg: Council of Europe Publishing. [Also available in Albanian, Armenian, Estonian, French, Georgian, Greek, Japanese, Macedonian, Portuguese, Romanian, Serbian, Slovak, Turkish and Ukrainian.]

Barrett, M., de Bivar Black, L., Byram, M., Faltýn, J., Gudmundson, L., et al. (2018c). Reference Framework of Competences for Democratic Culture, Volume 3: Guidance for Implementation. Strasbourg: Council of Europe Publishing. [Also available in Albanian, Armenian, French, Georgian, Greek, Macedonian, Romanian, Serbian, Turkish and Ukrainian.]

Chryssochoou, X. & Barrett, M. (Eds.) (2017). Political and Civic Engagement in Youth. Special issue of Zeitschrift für Psychologie, Volume 225, Issue 4, December 2017.

Barrett, M. (2016). Competences for Democratic Culture: Living Together as Equals in Culturally Diverse Democratic Societies. Strasbourg: Council of Europe Publishing. [Also available in Albanian, Czech, French, Georgian, German, Greek, Portuguese, Russian, Spanish, Turkish and Ukrainian.]

Barrett, M. & Zani, B. (Eds.) (2015). Political and Civic Engagement: Multidisciplinary Perspectives. London: Routledge.

Barrett, M., Byram, M., Lázár, I., Mompoint-Gaillard, P. & Philippou, S. (2014). Developing Intercultural Competence through Education. Strasbourg: Council of Europe Publishing.

Barrett, M. (Ed.) (2013). Interculturalism and Multiculturalism: Similarities and Differences. Strasbourg: Council of Europe Publishing.

Zani, B. & Barrett, M. (Eds.) (2012). Engaged Citizens? Political Participation and Social Engagement among Young People, Women, Minorities and Migrants. Special issue of Human Affairs, Volume 22, Issue 3, July 2012.

Barrett, M., Flood, C. & Eade, J. (Eds.) (2011). Nationalism, Ethnicity, Citizenship: Multidisciplinary Perspectives. Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.

Oppenheimer, L. & Barrett, M. (Eds.) (2011). National Identity and Ingroup-Outgroup Attitudes in Children: The Role of Socio-Historical Settings. Special Issue of the European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 8(1), January 2011. 

Eade, J., Barrett, M., Flood, C. & Race, R. (Eds.) (2008). Advancing Multiculturalism, Post 7/7. Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Publishing. 

Barrett, M. (2007). Children’s Knowledge, Beliefs and Feelings about Nations and National Groups. Hove: Psychology Press.

Barrett, M. & Buchanan-Barrow, E. (Eds.) (2005). Children’s Understanding of Society. Hove: Psychology Press.

Barrett, M., Riazanova, T. & Volovikova, M. (Eds.) (2001). Development of National, Ethnolinguistic and Religious Identities in Children and Adolescents. Moscow: Institute of Psychology, Russian Academy of Sciences (IPRAS).

Recent journal articles, book chapters and other publications

Barrett, M. (2021). Citizenship competences. Scuola Democratica, Special Issue, May 2021, 145-160.

Ingoglia, S., Barrett, M., Iannello, N.M., Inguglia, C., Liga, F., Lo Cricchio, M.G., Tenenbaum, H., Wiium, N. & Lo Coco, A. (2021). Promoting democratic and intercultural competences in the primary school context: The experience of “Children’s Voices for a new Human Space”. Journal of Clinical and Developmental Psychology, 3(1), 45‐57.

Barrett, M. (2020). The Council of Europe’s Reference Framework of Competences for Democratic Culture: Policy context, content and impact. London Review of Education, 18(1), 1-17.

Barrett, M. (2020). Implementing values education in the work of the Council of Europe. Intercultura, 97, 30-37.

Barrett, M. & Byram, M. (2020). Errors by Simpson and Dervin (2019) in their description of the Council of Europe’s Reference  Framework of Competences for Democratic Culture. Intercultural Communication Education, 3(2), 75-95.

Tenenbaum, H.R., Barrett, M. & Fife-Schaw, C. (2019). What predicts British young people’s views of Europe? In D. Strohmeier & H.R. Tenenbaum (Eds.), Young People’s Visions and Worries for the Future of Europe: Findings from the Europe 2038 Project (pp. 113-128). London: Routledge.

Strohmeier, D., Barrett, M., Bora, C., Caravita, S.C.S., Donghi, E., Dragoti, E., Fife-Schaw, C., Gómez-López, M., Kapéter, E., Mazzone, A., Rama, R., Roşeanu, G., Ortega-Ruiz, R., Steiner, H., Tenenbaum, H., Trip, S., Urhane, D., & Viejo, C. (2019). Predictors of young people’s engagement with the European Union. In D. Strohmeier & H.R. Tenenbaum (Eds.), Young People’s Visions and Worries for the Future of Europe: Findings from the Europe 2038 Project (pp. 131-148). London: Routledge.

Barrett, M. (2018). How schools can promote the intercultural competence of young people. European Psychologist, 23(1), 93-104.

Piacentini, M., Barrett, M., Boix Mansilla, V., Deardorff, D. & Lee, H-W. (2018). Preparing our youth for an inclusive and sustainable world: The OECD PISA global competence framework (33 pp.). Paris: OECD.

Barrett, M. (2019). The Council of Europe’s Reference Framework of Competences for Democratic Culture: Recommendations on the use of a whole school approach, and new developments relating to the RFCDC. Intercultura, 93, 24-29.

Barrett, M. (2018). Preface: Citizenship education, human rights education and intercultural education. In N. Palaiologou & M. Zembylas (Eds.), Human Rights and Citizenship Education: An Intercultural Perspective (pp.x-xii). Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.

Barrett, M. (2018). Competences for democratic culture: A new education initiative by the Council of Europe. In N. Palaiologou & M. Zembylas (Eds.), Human Rights and Citizenship Education: An Intercultural Perspective (pp.131-143). Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.

Barrett, M. (2018). The Council of Europe’s Reference Framework of Competences for Democratic Culture: Implications for teacher education. Intercultura, 89, 14-20.

Barrett, M. (2017). Young people’s civic and political engagement and global citizenship. UN Chronicle, Vol. LIV, No. 4, 44-47.

Chryssochoou, X. & Barrett, M. (2017). Civic and political engagement in youth: findings and prospects. Zeitschrift für Psychologie, 225(4), 289-290.

Chryssochoou, X. & Barrett, M. (2017). Youth politicization viewed from the perspectives of social psychology and developmental psychology. Zeitschrift für Psychologie, 225(4), 291-301.

Strohmeier, D., Barrett, M., Bora, C., Caravita, S.C.S., Donghi, E., Dragoti, E., Fife-Schaw, C., Gómez-López, M., Kapéter, E., Mazzone, A., Rama, R., Roşeanu, G., Ortega-Ruiz, R., Steiner, H., Trip, S., Tenenbaum, H., Urhane, D., & Viejo, C. (2017). Young people’s engagement with the European Union: The importance of visions and worries for the future of Europe. Zeitschrift für Psychologie, 225(4), 313-323.

Barrett, M. (2017). Competences for democratic culture and intercultural dialogue. In A. Portera & C.A. Grant (Eds.), Intercultural Education and Competences: Challenges and Answers for the Global World (pp. 47-63). Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.

Barrett, M. (2016). Competences for Democratic Culture: A Council of Europe project for teaching and assessing the democratic competence of students. SangSaeng, 46, 18-23. 

Barrett, M. (2016). Hearing on the assessment of Competences for Democratic Culture (CDC): Report by the general rapporteur (31 pp.). Strasbourg: Council of Europe.

Barrett, M. (2016). The assessment of Competences for Democratic Culture (CDC): An introduction to the hearing on assessment (27 pp.). Strasbourg: Council of Europe.  

Barrett, M. (2016). Competences for democratic culture and intercultural dialogue: A new comprehensive competence model and some ethical challenges for assessment. Intercultura, 80, 8-12.

Barrett, M. & Zani, B. (2015). Political and civic engagement: Theoretical understandings, evidence and policies. In M. Barrett & B. Zani (Eds.), Political and Civic Engagement: Multidisciplinary Perspectives (pp. 3-25). London: Routledge.

Barrett, M. (2015). An integrative model of political and civic participation: Linking the macro, social and psychological levels of explanation. In M. Barrett & B. Zani (Eds.), Political and Civic Engagement: Multidisciplinary Perspectives (pp. 162-187). London: Routledge.

Brunton-Smith, I. & Barrett, M. (2015). Political and civic participation: Findings from the modelling of existing survey data sets. In M. Barrett & B. Zani (Eds.), Political and Civic Engagement: Multidisciplinary Perspectives (pp. 195-212). London: Routledge.

Pachi, D. & Barrett, M. (2015). The expectations and understandings of influential others who can mobilise youth participation. In M. Barrett & B. Zani (Eds.), Political and Civic Engagement: Multidisciplinary Perspectives (pp. 352-371). London: Routledge.

Barrett, M. & Garbin, D. (2015). The recommendations for policy, practice and intervention which emerged from the PIDOP Project. In M. Barrett & B. Zani (Eds.), Political and Civic Engagement: Multidisciplinary Perspectives (pp. 535-548). London: Routledge.

Barrett, M. (2015). Two Council of Europe projects relevant to the assessment of intercultural competence in non-formal and formal education. Intercultura, 76, 12-14.

Cantele, M., Groeschke, D., Nestian Sandu, O. & Barrett, M. (2015). Assessment of intercultural learning – principles, practices and challenges. Intercultura, 76, 23-24.

Davcheva, L. & Barrett, M. (2015). Building empathy. In P. Mompoint-Gaillard & I. Lázár (Eds.) (2015). TASKs for Democracy – 60 Activities to Learn and Assess Transversal Attitudes, Skills and Knowledge (TASKs) (pp. 295-300). Strasbourg: Council of Europe Publishing.

Pachi, D., Chrysanthaki, T. & Barrett, M. (2014). Political and civic participation among ethnic majority and minority youth. In P. Nesbitt-Larking, C. Kinnvall, T. Capelos & H. Dekker (Eds.), Palgrave Handbook of Global Political Psychology (pp. 297-315). Basingstoke: Palgrave.

Pachi, D. & Barrett, M. (2014). Civic and political engagement among ethnic minority and immigrant youth. In R. Dimitrova, M. Bender & F. van de Vijver (Eds.), Global Perspectives on Well-Being in Immigrant Families (pp. 189-211). New York: Springer.

Roe, M.D., Barrett, M., Bar-Tal, D., Bretherton, D., Dawes, A., Gallagher, E., Giles, M.L., Hakvoort, I., Hamber, B., Moeschberger, S.L., Montiel, C.J., Muldoon, O.T., Salomon, G., Trew, K. & Wessells, M.G. (2014). Professor Ed Cairns: A personal and professional biography. Peace and Conflict: Journal of Peace Psychology, 20(1), 3-12.

Barrett, M. & Brunton-Smith, I. (2014). Political and civic engagement and participation: Towards an integrative perspective. Journal of Civil Society, 10(1), 5-28.

Barrett, M. (2014). Multiculturalism and interculturalism: Is there a difference? The Multiculturalism Forum, 1st September 2014.

Barrett, M. (2013). Interculturalism and multiculturalism: Concepts and controversies. In M. Barrett (Ed.), Interculturalism and Multiculturalism: Similarities and Differences (pp.15-41). Strasbourg: Council of Europe Publishing.

Barrett, M. (2013). Intercultural competence: A distinctive hallmark of interculturalism? In M. Barrett (Ed.), Interculturalism and Multiculturalism: Similarities and Differences (pp.147-168). Strasbourg: Council of Europe Publishing.

Barrett, M., Byram, M., Ipgrave, J. & Seurrat, A. (2013). Images of Others: An Autobiography of Intercultural Encounters through Visual Media. Standard Version for Older Learners and Adults. Strasbourg: Council of Europe.

Barrett, M., Byram, M., Ipgrave, J. & Seurrat, A. (2013). Images of Others: An Autobiography of Intercultural Encounters through Visual Media. Version for Younger Learners. Strasbourg: Council of Europe.

Greco Morasso, S. & Barrett, M. (2013). L’incontro interculturale [The intercultural encounter]. Cultura and Comunicazione, 4(4), 50-54.

Barrett, M., Byram, M., Lázár, I., Mompoint-Gaillard, P. & Philippou, S. (2013). Developing Intercultural Competence through Education. Strasbourg: Council of Europe. [Republished in book format as Barrett et al. (2014).]

Barrett, M. (2013). El desarrollo psicológico de la identidad nacional [The psychological development of national identity]. Estudios de Psicología, 34, 9-18.

Barrett, M. (2012). The PIDOP project: An overview. School of Psychology, University of Surrey: The PIDOP Project.

Barrett, M. (2012). Beliefs about other countries. In M. Byram & A. Hu (Eds.), Routledge Encyclopedia of Language Teaching and Learning (2nd edition) (pp. 78-83). London: Routledge.

Zani, B. & Barrett, M. (2012). Engaged citizens? Political participation and social engagement among youth, women, minorities, and migrants. Human Affairs, 22, 273-282.

Pachi, D. & Barrett, M. (2012). Perceived effectiveness of conventional, non-conventional and civic forms of participation among minority and majority youth. Human Affairs, 22, 345-359.

Barrett, M. (2012). Intercultural competence. Statement Series, Second Issue. Oslo, Norway: European Wergeland Centre.

Burkitt, E. & Barrett, M. (2011). The effects of different drawing materials on children’s drawings of positive and negative human figures. Educational Psychology, 31, 459-479.

Clay, D. & Barrett, M. (2011). National identifications and attitudes towards a ‘traditional enemy’ nation among English children. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 8, 25-42.

Barrett, M. & Oppenheimer, L. (2011). Findings, theories and methods in the study of children’s national identifications and national attitudes. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 8, 5-24.

Oppenheimer, L. & Barrett, M. (2011). National identity and in-group/out-group attitudes in children: The role of sociohistorical settings. An introduction to the Special Issue. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 8, 1-4.

Barrett, M. & Buchanan-Barrow, E. (2011). Children’s understanding of society. In P.K. Smith & C. Hart (Eds.), Blackwell Handbook of Childhood Social Development, 2nd edition (pp. 584-602). Oxford: Blackwell-Wiley.

Barrett, M., Flood, C. & Eade, J. (2011). Nationalism, ethnicity, citizenship: Multidisciplinary perspectives – An introduction. In M. Barrett, C. Flood & J. Eade (Eds.), Nationalism, Ethnicity, Citizenship: Multidisciplinary Perspectives (pp. 1-11). Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.

Muderrisgil, M. & Barrett, M. (2011). Autobiography of Intercultural Encounters: Results of AIE User Survey. Report to the Language Policy Division, Council of Europe, Strasbourg, France.

Fox, C., Buchanan-Barrow, E. & Barrett, M. (2010). Children’s conceptions of mental illness: A naïve theory approach. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 28, 603-625.

Burkitt, E. & Barrett, M. (2010). Child and adult reports of graphic strategies used to portray figures with contrasting emotional characteristics. Journal of Creative Behavior, 44, 169-190.

Barrett, M. (2010). National and ethnic identities and differences today: A psychological perspective. Athens Dialogues E-Journal. 

Barrett, M. (2010). Introduction. In Z. Ganeva, Social Identities and Social Well-Being (pp. 5-17). Sofia, Bulgaria: Valdex.

Byram, M., Barrett, M., Ipgrave, J., Jackson, R. & Méndez García, M.C. (2009). Autobiography of Intercultural Encounters: Standard Version. Strasbourg, France: Council of Europe Publishing.

Byram, M., Barrett, M., Ipgrave, J., Jackson, R. & Méndez García, M.C. (2009). Autobiography of Intercultural Encounters: Version for Younger Learners. Strasbourg, France: Council of Europe Publishing.

Byram, M., Barrett, M., Ipgrave, J., Jackson, R. & Méndez García, M.C. (2009). Autobiography of Intercultural Encounters: Context, Concepts and Theories. Strasbourg, France: Council of Europe Publishing.

Barrett, M. (2009). The development of children’s intergroup attitudes. In A. Hu & M. Byram (Eds.), Interkulturelle Kompetenz und Fremdsprachliches Lernen: Modelle, Empirie, Evaluation/Intercultural Competence and Foreign Language Learning: Models, Empiricism, Assessment (pp. 69-86). Tübingen, Germany: Gunter Narr Verlag.

Vadher, K. & Barrett, M. (2009). Boundaries of Britishness in British Indian and Pakistani young adults. Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology, 19, 442-458.

Burkitt, E., Barrett, M., & Davis, A. (2009). Effects of different emotion terms on the size and colour of children's drawings. International Journal of Art Therapy, 14, 74-84.

Barrett, M. (2009). Introduction. In Z. Ganeva, Development of Ethnic Stereotypes during Childhood (pp. 5-14). Sofia, Bulgaria: Valdex.

Barrett, M. & Davis, S.C. (2008). Applying social identity and self-categorization theories to children’s racial, ethnic, national and state identifications and attitudes. In S.M. Quintana & C. McKown (Eds.), Handbook of Race, Racism and the Developing Child (pp. 72-110). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

Fox, C., Buchanan-Barrow, E. & Barrett, M. (2008). Children’s understanding of mental illness: an exploratory study. Child: Care, Health and Development, 34, 10-18.

Davis, S.C., Leman, P.J. & Barrett, M. (2007). Children's implicit and explicit ethnic group attitudes, ethnic group identification, and self-esteem. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 31, 514-525.

Takriti, R.A., Barrett, M. & Buchanan-Barrow, E. (2006). Children’s understanding of religion: Interviews with Arab-Muslim, Asian-Muslim, Christian and Hindu children aged 5-11 years. Mental Health, Religion and Culture, 9, 29-42.

Millward, L., Houston, D., Brown, D. & Barrett, M. (2006). Young People’s Job Perceptions and Preferences. Final Report to the Department of Trade and Industry. Guildford: University of Surrey, Guildford.

Barrett, M., Lyons, E. & Bourchier-Sutton, A. (2006). Children’s knowledge of countries. In C. Spencer & M. Blades (Eds.), Children and their Environments: Learning, Using and Designing Spaces (pp. 57-72). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Barrett, M. (2006). Practical and ethical issues in planning research. In G. Breakwell, S. Hammond, C. Fife-Schaw & J.A. Smith (Eds.), Research Methods in Psychology (3rd edition) (pp. 24-48). London: Sage.

Krause, I.B., Hutnik, N. & Barrett, M. (2006). Ethnic Identity as it Relates to Psychological Well-Being in British Asian Adolescents. Final Report to the Nuffield Foundation. London: Tavistock & Portman Mental Health NHS Trust.

Barrett, M., Eade, J., Cinnirella, M. & Garbin, D. (2006). New Ethnicities among British Bangladeshi and Mixed-Heritage Youth. Final Report to the Leverhulme Trust. Guildford: Department of Psychology, University of Surrey.

Barrett, M. & Buchanan-Barrow, E. (2005). Emergent themes in the study of children’s understanding of society. In M. Barrett & E. Buchanan-Barrow (Eds.), Children’s Understanding of Society (pp. 1-16). Hove: Psychology Press.

Barrett, M. (2005). Children’s understanding of, and feelings about, countries and national groups. In M. Barrett & E. Buchanan-Barrow (Eds.), Children’s Understanding of Society (pp. 251-285). Hove: Psychology Press.

Burkitt, E., Barrett, M. & Davis, A. (2005). Drawings of emotionally characterised figures by children from different educational backgrounds. International Journal of Art and Design Education, 24, 71-83.

Poria, Y., Atzaba-Poria, N. & Barrett, M. (2005). The relationship between children’s geographical knowledge and travel experience: an exploratory study. Tourism Geographies, 7, 389-397.

Barrett, M. (2005). National identities in children and young people. In S. Ding & K. Littleton (Eds.), Children’s Personal and Social Development (pp. 181-220). Milton Keynes: The Open University/Blackwell Publishing.

Buchanan-Barrow, E., Barrett, M. & Clausse, S. (2005). British children’s national identification and thinking about citizenship. In D. Wildemeersch, V. Stroobants & M. Bron (Eds.), Active Citizenship and Multiple Identities in Europe (pp. 175-190). Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.

Barrett, M., Lyons, E. & del Valle, A. (2004). The development of national identity and social identity processes: do social identity theory and self-categorization theory provide useful heuristic frameworks for developmental research? In M. Bennett & F. Sani (Eds.), The Development of the Social Self (pp. 159-188). Hove, UK: Psychology Press.

Bennett, M., Barrett, M., Karakozov, R., Kipiani, G., Lyons, E., Pavlenko, V. & Riazanova, T. (2004). Young children’s evaluations of the ingroup and of outgroups: a multi-national study. Social Development, 13, 124-141.

Reizábal, L., Valencia, J. &  Barrett, M. (2004). National identifications and attitudes to national ingroups and outgroups amongst children living in the Basque Country. Infant and Child Development, 13, 1-20.

Burkitt, E., Barrett, M. & Davis, A. (2004). The effect of affective characterisations on the use of size and colour in drawings produced by children in the absence of a model. Educational Psychology, 24, 315-343.

Atzaba-Poria, N., Pike, A. & Barrett, M. (2004). Internalizing and externalizing problems in middle childhood: a study of Indian (ethnic minority) and English (ethnic majority) children living in Britain. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 28, 449-460.

Buchanan-Barrow, E., Barrett, M. & Bati, M. (2004). Healthy and chronically-ill children’s generalisation of illness to biological and non-biological categories. Infant and Child Development, 13, 435-450.

Barrett, M., Wilson, H. & Lyons, E. (2003). The development of national in-group bias: English children’s attributions of characteristics to English, American and German people. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 21, 193-220.

Buchanan-Barrow, E., Barrett, M. & Bati, M. (2003). Children’s understanding of illness: the generalisation of illness according to exemplar. Journal of Health Psychology, 8, 659-670.

Burkitt, E., Barrett, M. & Davis, A. (2003). Children’s colour choices for completing drawings of affectively characterised topics. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 44, 445-455.

Burkitt, E., Barrett, M. & Davis, A. (2003). The effect of affective characterisations on the size of children’s drawings. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 21, 565-584.

Giménez, A., Canto, J.M., Fernández, P. & Barrett, M. (2003). Stereotype development in Andalusian children. The Spanish Journal of Psychology, 6, 28-34.

Valencia, J., Elejabarrieta, F., Perera, S., Reizabal, L., Barrett, M., Vila, I., Gil de Montes, L., Ortiz, G. & M. Larrañaga (2003). Conflictual national identities and linguistic strategies as positioning tools in children and adolescents. In M. Lavallée, S. Vincent, C. Ouellet & C. Garnier (Eds.), Les Représentations Socials: Constructions Nouvelles (pp. 17-38). Montréal: Université du Québec à Montréal.

Buchanan-Barrow, E., Barrett, M. & Clausse, S. (2003). An exploration of children’s thinking about citizenship: British children’s national identification as a factor in their involvement and affect for both local and national communities. In Proceedings of “Connections: Active Citizenship and Multiple Identities” Conference (pp. 49-61). Leuven, Belgium: Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.

Buchanan-Barrow, E. & Barrett, M. (2003). The Development of Children’s Conceptions of Mental Illness. End of Award Report to Economic and Social Research Council, Grant No. RES-000-22-0073. Guildford: Department of Psychology, University of Surrey.

Bourchier, A., Barrett, M. & Lyons, E. (2002). The predictors of children’s geographical knowledge of other countries. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 22, 79-94.

Castelli, L., Cadinu, M. & Barrett, M. (2002). Lo sviluppo degli atteggiamenti nazionali in soggetti in età scolare. Rassegna di Psicologia, 19, 49-65.

Reizábal, L., Valencia, J., Jimenez, M. &  Barrett, M. (2002). Identitate nazionalaren garapena Euskal Herriko haur eta nerabeengan. Uztaro, 40, 75-103.

Barrett, M. & Buchanan-Barrow, E. (2002). Children’s understanding of society. In P.K. Smith & C. Hart (Eds.), Blackwell Handbook of Childhood Social Development (pp. 491-512). Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.

Barrett, M., Bennett, M., Vila, I., Valencia, J., Giménez, A., Riazanova, T., Pavlenko, V., Kipiani, G. & Karakozov, R. (2001). The Development of National, Ethnolinguistic and Religious Identity in Children and Adolescents Living in the NIS. Final Report to the International Association for the Promotion of Cooperation with Scientists from the New Independent States of the Former Soviet Union (INTAS), Open Call 1997 Project No. 1363. Guildford: Department of Psychology, University of Surrey.

Barrett, M. (2001). The development of national identity: a conceptual analysis and some data from Western European studies. In M. Barrett, T. Riazanova, & M. Volovikova (Eds.), Development of National, Ethnolinguistic and Religious Identities in Children and Adolescents (pp. 16-58). Moscow: Institute of Psychology, Russian Academy of Sciences (IPRAS).

Pavlenko, V., Kryazh, I., Ivanova, O. & Barrett, M. (2001). Age characteristics of social identifications and ethno-national beliefs in Ukraine. In M. Barrett, T. Riazanova, & M. Volovikova (Eds.), Development of National, Ethnolinguistic and Religious Identities in Children and Adolescents (pp. 105-131). Moscow: Institute of Psychology, Russian Academy of Sciences (IPRAS).

Riazanova, T., Sergienko, E., Grenkova-Dikevitch, L., Gorodetschnaia, N. & Barrett, M. (2001). Cognitive aspects of ethno-national identity development in Russian children and adolescents. In M. Barrett, T. Riazanova, & M. Volovikova (Eds.), Development of National, Ethnolinguistic and Religious Identities in Children and Adolescents (pp. 164-196). Moscow: Institute of Psychology, Russian Academy of Sciences (IPRAS).