Professor Ben Murdin

Research Interests

I am an experimentalist interested in the study of electronic and optical properties of semiconductors and semiconductor nanostructures using high-pressures, magnetic-fields, and linear, nonlinear and time resolved infrared spectroscopy. I am a regular user of the Free-Electron Laser, FELIX, in Holland, and I am the coordinator and spokesperson for UK Condensed Matter Physics users there. I am also a Programme Advisory Committee member for the Dresden laser, FELBE.  I like "applicable physics" rather than really pure or really applied physics, for example I study how quickly and why electron spins lose their memory (applicable to spintronic devices). I chaired the International Conference on Narrow Gap Semiconductors, here in Guildford in 2007.

Research Collaborations

I have strong research links with the groups of Prof. Carl Pidgeon (my best friend and mentor) at Heriot-Watt University, Prof Gabriel Aeppli at UCL, Prof. Wolfgang Heiss at Uni. Linz, Dr Lesley Cohen at Imperial College London, Dr Tony Krier at Lancaster, Dr Tim Ashley at QinetiQ Ltd and Dr Lex van der Meer at the Free Electron Laser in Utrecht.

 

Further details can be found on my personal web page.

A full list of publications, conference presentations, and patents can be found here.

Teaching

In the Physics Department I teach level one Data Handling (aka probability and statistics), level two physics laboratory, level three Physics of Stars. On the MSc in Medical Physics I teach Medical Statistics. For EE I teach a component of the MSc module Nanoelectronics and Devices on spintronics.

Departmental Duties

I manage the department's final year projects, and I am the course coordinator for the Physics with Satellite Technology degree pathway. I am chair of the Physics department's equality and diversity committee and am an External Examiner for the Physics Department at Heriot-Watt University.

Contact Me

E-mail:
Phone: 01483 68 9328

Find me on campus
Room: 15 ATI 01

Publications

Highlights

  • Saeedi K, Szech M, Dluhy P, Salvail JZ, Morse KJ, Riemann H, Abrosimov NV, Nötzel N, Litvinenko KL, Murdin BN, Thewalt ML. (2015) 'Optical pumping and readout of bismuth hyperfine states in silicon for atomic clock applications.'. Sci Rep, England: 5

    Abstract

    The push for a semiconductor-based quantum information technology has renewed interest in the spin states and optical transitions of shallow donors in silicon, including the donor bound exciton transitions in the near-infrared and the Rydberg, or hydrogenic, transitions in the mid-infrared. The deepest group V donor in silicon, bismuth, has a large zero-field ground state hyperfine splitting, comparable to that of rubidium, upon which the now-ubiquitous rubidium atomic clock time standard is based. Here we show that the ground state hyperfine populations of bismuth can be read out using the mid-infrared Rydberg transitions, analogous to the optical readout of the rubidium ground state populations upon which rubidium clock technology is based. We further use these transitions to demonstrate strong population pumping by resonant excitation of the bound exciton transitions, suggesting several possible approaches to a solid-state atomic clock using bismuth in silicon, or eventually in enriched (28)Si.

  • Litvinenko KL, Bowyer ET, Greenland PT, Stavrias N, Li J, Gwilliam R, Villis BJ, Matmon G, Pang MLY, Redlich B, Van Der Meer AFG, Pidgeon CR, Aeppli G, Murdin BN. (2015) 'Coherent creation and destruction of orbital wavepackets in Si:P with electrical and optical read-out'. Nature Communications, 6

    Abstract

    © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.The ability to control dynamics of quantum states by optical interference, and subsequent electrical read-out, is crucial for solid state quantum technologies. Ramsey interference has been successfully observed for spins in silicon and nitrogen vacancy centres in diamond, and for orbital motion in InAs quantum dots. Here we demonstrate terahertz optical excitation, manipulation and destruction via Ramsey interference of orbital wavepackets in Si:P with electrical read-out. We show milliradian control over the wavefunction phase for the two-level system formed by the 1s and 2p states. The results have been verified by all-optical echo detection methods, sensitive only to coherent excitations in the sample. The experiments open a route to exploitation of donors in silicon for atom trap physics, with concomitant potential for quantum computing schemes, which rely on orbital superpositions to, for example, gate the magnetic exchange interactions between impurities.

  • Litvinenko KL, Pang M, Li J, Bowyer E, Engelkamp H, Shuman VB, Portsel LM, Lodygin AN, Astrov YA, Pavlov SG, Huebers H-W, Pidgeon CR, Murdin BN. (2014) 'High-field impurity magneto-optics of Si:Se'. AMER PHYSICAL SOC PHYSICAL REVIEW B, 90 (11) Article number ARTN 115204
  • Litvinenko KL, Pavlov SG, Hübers HW, Abrosimov NV, Pidgeon CR, Murdin BN. (2014) 'Photon assisted tunneling in pairs of silicon donors'. Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, 89 (23)

    Abstract

    Shallow donors in silicon are favorable candidates for the implementation of solid-state quantum computer architectures because of the promising combination of atomiclike coherence properties and scalability from the semiconductor manufacturing industry. Quantum processing schemes require (among other things) controlled information transfer for readout. Here we demonstrate controlled electron tunneling at 10 K from P to Sb impurities and vice versa with the assistance of resonant terahertz photons. © 2014 American Physical Society.

  • Bowyer ET, Villis BJ, Li J, Litvinenko KL, Murdin BN, Erfani M, Matmon G, Aeppli G, Ortega JM, Prazeres R, Dong L, Yu X. (2014) 'Picosecond dynamics of a silicon donor based terahertz detector device'. Applied Physics Letters, 105 (2)

    Abstract

    We report the characteristics of a simple complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor compatible terahertz detector device with low response time (nanoseconds) determined using a short-pulse, high intensity free-electron laser. The noise equivalent power was 1 × 10-11 W Hz -1/2. The detector has an enhanced response over narrow bands, most notably at 9.5 THz, with a continuum response at higher frequencies. Using such a device, the dynamics of donors in silicon can be explored, a system which has great potential for quantum information processing. © 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.

  • Huebers H-W, Pavlov SG, Lynch SA, Greenland T, Litvinenko KL, Murdin B, Redlich B, van der Meer AFG, Riemann H, Abrosimov NV, Becker P, Pohl H-J, Zhukavin RK, Shastin VN. (2013) 'Isotope effect on the lifetime of the 2p(0) state in phosphorus-doped silicon'. AMER PHYSICAL SOC PHYSICAL REVIEW B, 88 (3) Article number ARTN 035201
  • Murdin BN, Li J, Pang ML, Bowyer ET, Litvinenko KL, Clowes SK, Engelkamp H, Pidgeon CR, Galbraith I, Abrosimov NV, Riemann H, Pavlov SG, Hübers HW, Murdin PG. (2013) 'Si:P as a laboratory analogue for hydrogen on high magnetic field white dwarf stars.'. Nature Publishing Group Nat Commun, England: 4

    Abstract

    Laboratory spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen in a magnetic flux density of 10(5) T (1 gigagauss), the maximum observed on high-field magnetic white dwarfs, is impossible because practically available fields are about a thousand times less. In this regime, the cyclotron and binding energies become equal. Here we demonstrate Lyman series spectra for phosphorus impurities in silicon up to the equivalent field, which is scaled to 32.8 T by the effective mass and dielectric constant. The spectra reproduce the high-field theory for free hydrogen, with quadratic Zeeman splitting and strong mixing of spherical harmonics. They show the way for experiments on He and H(2) analogues, and for investigation of He(2), a bound molecule predicted under extreme field conditions.

  • Greenland PT, Lynch SA, van der Meer AFG, Murdin BN, Pidgeon CR, Redlich B, Vinh NQ, Aeppli G. (2010) 'Coherent control of Rydberg states in silicon'. NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP NATURE, 465 (7301), pp. 1057-U116.
  • Litvinenko KL, Leontiadou MA, Li J, Clowes SK, Emeny MT, Ashley T, Pidgeon CR, Cohen LF, Murdin BN. (2010) 'Strong dependence of spin dynamics on the orientation of an external magnetic field for InSb and InAs'. AMER INST PHYSICS APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 96 (11) Article number ARTN 111107
  • Rauter P, Fromherz T, Vinh NQ, Murdin BN, Mussler G, Gruetzmacher D, Bauer G. (2009) 'Continuous Voltage Tunability of Intersubband Relaxation Times in Coupled SiGe Quantum Well Structures Using Ultrafast Spectroscopy'. AMER PHYSICAL SOC PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS, 102 (14) Article number ARTN 147401
  • Vinh NQ, Greenland PT, Litvinenko K, Redlich B, van der Meer AFG, Lynch SA, Warner M, Stoneham AM, Aeppli G, Paul DJ, Pidgeon CR, Murdin BN. (2008) 'Silicon as a model ion trap: Time domain measurements of donor Rydberg states'. NATL ACAD SCIENCES PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, 105 (31), pp. 10649-10653.
  • Litvinenko KL, Nikzad L, Pidgeon CR, Allam J, Cohen LF, Ashley T, Emeny M, Zawadzki W, Murdin BN. (2008) 'Temperature dependence of the electron Lande g factor in InSb and GaAs'. AMER PHYSICAL SOC PHYSICAL REVIEW B, 77 (3) Article number ARTN 033204

Journal articles

  • Stavrias N, Saeedi K, Redlich B, Greenland P, Riemann H, Abrosimov N, Thewalt M, Pidgeon C, Murdin B. (2017) 'Competition between homogeneous and inhomogeneous broadening of orbital transitions in Si:Bi'. American Physical Society Physical Review B, 96 (15) Article number 155204 , pp. 1-8.

    Abstract

    We present results for the lifetime of the orbital transitions of Bi donors in Si, measured using both frequency domain and time-domain techniques, allowing us to distinguish between homogeneous and inhomogeneous processes. The proximity of the energy of the optically allowed transitions to the optical phonon energy means that there is an unusually wide variation in the lifetimes and broadening mechanisms for this impurity, from fully homogeneous lifetime-broadened transitions to fully inhomogeneously broadened lines. The relaxation lifetime (T1) of the states range from the low 10’s to 100’s of ps, and we find that there is little extra dephasing (so that T1 is of the order of T2/2) in each case.

  • Chick S, Stavrias N, Saeedi K, Redlich B, Greenland P, Matmon G, Naftaly M, Pidgeon C, Aeppli G, Murdin B. (2017) 'Coherent superpositions of three states for phosphorous donors in silicon prepared using THz radiation'. Nature Publishing Group Nature Communications, 8 Article number 16038

    Abstract

    Superposition of orbital eigenstates is crucial to quantum technology utilising atoms, such as atomic clocks and quantum computers, and control over the interaction between atoms and their neighbours is an essential ingredient for both gating and readout. The simplest coherent wavefunction control uses a 2-eigenstate admixture, but more control over the spatial distribution of the wavefunction can be obained by increasing the number of states in the wavepacket. Here we demonstrate THz laser pulse control of Si:P orbitals using multiple orbital state admixtures, observing beat patterns produced by Zeeman splitting. The beats are an observable signature of the ability to control the path of the electron, which implies we can now control the strength and duration of the interaction of the atom with different neighbours. This could simplify surface code networks which require spatially controlled interaction between atoms, and we propose an architecture that might take advantage of this.

  • Andreev Y, Kokh A, Kokh K, Lanskii G, Litvinenko K, Mamrashev A, Molloy J, Murdin B, Naftaly M, Nikolaev N, Svetlichnyi V. (2017) 'Observation of a different birefringence order at optical and THz frequencies in LBO crystal'. Elsevier Optical Materials, 66, pp. 94-97.

    Abstract

    THz optical properties of lithium borate (LBO) crystals were measured using time-domain spectroscopy (TDS). The LBO crystal samples were of high optical quality and were cut and polished along the h100i, h010i and h001i axes. Two independent measurements were performed in order to con rm the reproducibility and consistency of results. The contradictions in the previously published data on the THz optical properties of LBO were clari ed. It was shown that the birefringence order at THz frequencies is nz < nx < ny, whereas at optical frequencies it is known to be nx < ny < nz. It was seen that nz, which has the highest value in the visible, has the lowest value at THz. This is explained in terms of ionic polarizability and is consistent with the fact that the THz absorption coe cient for a wave polarized along the Z-axis is more than an order of magnitude lower than for the X and Y axes. Absorption as low as 0.2 cm 1 was found at frequencies up to 0.5 THz for a wave polarized parallel to the Z-axis. A set of new dispersion equations was designed for the entire transparency range.

  • Litvinenko K, Greenland P, Redlich B, Pidgeon C, Aeppli G, Murdin BN. (2016) 'Weak probe readout of coherent impurity orbital superpositions in silicon'. American Physical Society Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, 94 (23) Article number 235207

    Abstract

    Pump-probe spectroscopy is the most common time-resolved technique for investigation of electronic dynamics, and the results provide the incoherent population decay time T1. Here we use a modified pump-probe experiment to investigate coherent dynamics, and we demonstrate this with a measurement of the inhomogeneous dephasing time T2* for phosphorus impurities in silicon. The pulse sequence produces the same information as previous coherent all-optical (photon-echo-based) techniques but is simpler. The probe signal strength is first order in pulse area but its effect on the target state is only second order, meaning that it does not demolish the quantum information. We propose simple extensions to the technique to measure the homogeneous dephasing time T2, or to perform tomography of the target qubit.

  • Litvinenko K, Li J, Stavrias N, Meaney A, Christianen P, Engelkamp H, Homewood KP, Pidgeon C, Murdin BN. (2016) 'The Quadratic Zeeman effect used for state-radius determination in neutral donors and donor bound excitons in Si:P'. IOP Semiconductor Science and Technology, 31 Article number 045007 , pp. 045007-045007.

    Abstract

    We have measured the near-infrared photoluminescence spectrum of phosphorus doped silicon (Si: P) and extracted the donor-bound exciton (D0X) energy at magnetic fields up to 28 T. At high field the Zeeman effect is strongly nonlinear because of the diamagnetic shift, also known as the quadratic Zeeman effect (QZE). The magnitude of the QZE is determined by the spatial extent of the wave-function. High field data allows us to extract values for the radius of the neutral donor (D0) ground state, and the light and heavy hole D0X states, all with more than an order of magnitude better precision than previous work. Good agreement was found between the experimental state radius and an effective mass model for D0. The D0X results are much more surprising, and the radius of the mJ=±3/2 heavy hole is found to be larger than that of the mJ=±1/2 light hole.

  • Greenland PT, Matmon G, Villis BJ, Bowyer ET, Li J, Murdin BN, van der Meer AFG, Redlich B, Pidgeon CR, Aeppli G. (2015) 'Quantitative analysis of electrically detected Ramsey fringes in P-doped Si'. AMER PHYSICAL SOC PHYSICAL REVIEW B, 92 (16) Article number ARTN 165310
  • Murdin BN, Litvinenko K, Li J, Bowyer E, Pang M, Greenland PT, Villis B, Aeppli G, van der Meer AFG, Redlich B, Engelkamp H, Pidgeon CR. (2015) 'Nano-orbitronics in silicon'. Springer Proceedings in Physics, 159, pp. 92-93.
  • Saeedi K, Szech M, Dluhy P, Salvail JZ, Morse KJ, Riemann H, Abrosimov NV, Nötzel N, Litvinenko KL, Murdin BN, Thewalt ML. (2015) 'Optical pumping and readout of bismuth hyperfine states in silicon for atomic clock applications.'. Sci Rep, England: 5

    Abstract

    The push for a semiconductor-based quantum information technology has renewed interest in the spin states and optical transitions of shallow donors in silicon, including the donor bound exciton transitions in the near-infrared and the Rydberg, or hydrogenic, transitions in the mid-infrared. The deepest group V donor in silicon, bismuth, has a large zero-field ground state hyperfine splitting, comparable to that of rubidium, upon which the now-ubiquitous rubidium atomic clock time standard is based. Here we show that the ground state hyperfine populations of bismuth can be read out using the mid-infrared Rydberg transitions, analogous to the optical readout of the rubidium ground state populations upon which rubidium clock technology is based. We further use these transitions to demonstrate strong population pumping by resonant excitation of the bound exciton transitions, suggesting several possible approaches to a solid-state atomic clock using bismuth in silicon, or eventually in enriched (28)Si.

  • Litvinenko KL, Bowyer ET, Greenland PT, Stavrias N, Li J, Gwilliam R, Villis BJ, Matmon G, Pang MLY, Redlich B, Van Der Meer AFG, Pidgeon CR, Aeppli G, Murdin BN. (2015) 'Coherent creation and destruction of orbital wavepackets in Si:P with electrical and optical read-out'. Nature Communications, 6

    Abstract

    © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.The ability to control dynamics of quantum states by optical interference, and subsequent electrical read-out, is crucial for solid state quantum technologies. Ramsey interference has been successfully observed for spins in silicon and nitrogen vacancy centres in diamond, and for orbital motion in InAs quantum dots. Here we demonstrate terahertz optical excitation, manipulation and destruction via Ramsey interference of orbital wavepackets in Si:P with electrical read-out. We show milliradian control over the wavefunction phase for the two-level system formed by the 1s and 2p states. The results have been verified by all-optical echo detection methods, sensitive only to coherent excitations in the sample. The experiments open a route to exploitation of donors in silicon for atom trap physics, with concomitant potential for quantum computing schemes, which rely on orbital superpositions to, for example, gate the magnetic exchange interactions between impurities.

  • Hughes MA, Lourenço MA, Carey JD, Murdin B, Homewood KP. (2014) 'Crystal field analysis of Dy and Tm implanted silicon for photonic and quantum technologies'. Optics Express, 22 (24), pp. 29292-29303.

    Abstract

    © 2014 Optical Society of America.We report the lattice site and symmetry of optically active Dy3+ and Tm3+ implanted Si. Local symmetry was determined by fitting crystal field parameters (CFPs), corresponding to various common symmetries, to the ground state splitting determined by photoluminescence measurements. These CFP values were then used to calculate the splitting of every J manifold. We find that both Dy and Tm ions are in a Si substitution site with local tetragonal symmetry. Knowledge of rare-earth ion symmetry is important in maximising the number of optically active centres and for quantum technology applications where local symmetry can be used to control decoherence.

  • Litvinenko KL, Pang M, Li J, Bowyer E, Engelkamp H, Shuman VB, Portsel LM, Lodygin AN, Astrov YA, Pavlov SG, Huebers H-W, Pidgeon CR, Murdin BN. (2014) 'High-field impurity magneto-optics of Si:Se'. AMER PHYSICAL SOC PHYSICAL REVIEW B, 90 (11) Article number ARTN 115204
  • Litvinenko KL, Pavlov SG, Hübers HW, Abrosimov NV, Pidgeon CR, Murdin BN. (2014) 'Photon assisted tunneling in pairs of silicon donors'. Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, 89 (23)

    Abstract

    Shallow donors in silicon are favorable candidates for the implementation of solid-state quantum computer architectures because of the promising combination of atomiclike coherence properties and scalability from the semiconductor manufacturing industry. Quantum processing schemes require (among other things) controlled information transfer for readout. Here we demonstrate controlled electron tunneling at 10 K from P to Sb impurities and vice versa with the assistance of resonant terahertz photons. © 2014 American Physical Society.

  • Bowyer ET, Villis BJ, Li J, Litvinenko KL, Murdin BN, Erfani M, Matmon G, Aeppli G, Ortega JM, Prazeres R, Dong L, Yu X. (2014) 'Picosecond dynamics of a silicon donor based terahertz detector device'. Applied Physics Letters, 105 (2)

    Abstract

    We report the characteristics of a simple complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor compatible terahertz detector device with low response time (nanoseconds) determined using a short-pulse, high intensity free-electron laser. The noise equivalent power was 1 × 10-11 W Hz -1/2. The detector has an enhanced response over narrow bands, most notably at 9.5 THz, with a continuum response at higher frequencies. Using such a device, the dynamics of donors in silicon can be explored, a system which has great potential for quantum information processing. © 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.

  • Huebers H-W, Pavlov SG, Lynch SA, Greenland T, Litvinenko KL, Murdin B, Redlich B, van der Meer AFG, Riemann H, Abrosimov NV, Becker P, Pohl H-J, Zhukavin RK, Shastin VN. (2013) 'Isotope effect on the lifetime of the 2p(0) state in phosphorus-doped silicon'. AMER PHYSICAL SOC PHYSICAL REVIEW B, 88 (3) Article number ARTN 035201
  • Murdin BN. (2013) 'Quantum Computing from the Ground Up'. TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD CONTEMPORARY PHYSICS, 54 (2), pp. 116-117.
  • Murdin BN. (2013) 'Semiconductor Spintronics'. TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD CONTEMPORARY PHYSICS, 54 (2), pp. 118-119.
  • Vinh NQ, Redlich B, van der Meer AFG, Pidgeon CR, Greenland PT, Lynch SA, Aeppli G, Murdin BN. (2013) 'Time-Resolved Dynamics of Shallow Acceptor Transitions in Silicon'. AMER PHYSICAL SOC PHYSICAL REVIEW X, 3 (1) Article number ARTN 011019
  • Murdin BN, Li J, Pang ML, Bowyer ET, Litvinenko KL, Clowes SK, Engelkamp H, Pidgeon CR, Galbraith I, Abrosimov NV, Riemann H, Pavlov SG, Hübers HW, Murdin PG. (2013) 'Si:P as a laboratory analogue for hydrogen on high magnetic field white dwarf stars.'. Nature Publishing Group Nat Commun, England: 4

    Abstract

    Laboratory spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen in a magnetic flux density of 10(5) T (1 gigagauss), the maximum observed on high-field magnetic white dwarfs, is impossible because practically available fields are about a thousand times less. In this regime, the cyclotron and binding energies become equal. Here we demonstrate Lyman series spectra for phosphorus impurities in silicon up to the equivalent field, which is scaled to 32.8 T by the effective mass and dielectric constant. The spectra reproduce the high-field theory for free hydrogen, with quadratic Zeeman splitting and strong mixing of spherical harmonics. They show the way for experiments on He and H(2) analogues, and for investigation of He(2), a bound molecule predicted under extreme field conditions.

  • Lynch SA, Thornton Greenland P, Van Der Meer AFG, Murdin BN, Pidgeon CR, Redlich B, Vinh NQ, Aeppli G. (2012) 'Quantum control in silicon using coherent THz pulses'. Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering, 8496
  • Leontiadou MA, Litvinenko KL, Gilbertson AM, Pidgeon CR, Branford WR, Cohen LF, Fearn M, Ashley T, Emeny MT, Murdin BN, Clowes SK. (2011) 'Experimental determination of the Rashba coefficient in InSb/InAlSb quantum wells at zero magnetic field and elevated temperatures'. IOP PUBLISHING LTD JOURNAL OF PHYSICS-CONDENSED MATTER, 23 (3) Article number ARTN 035801
  • Greenland PT, Lynch SA, van der Meer AFG, Murdin BN, Pidgeon CR, Redlich B, Vinh NQ, Aeppli G. (2010) 'Coherent control of Rydberg states in silicon'. NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP NATURE, 465 (7301), pp. 1057-U116.
  • Litvinenko KL, Leontiadou MA, Li J, Clowes SK, Emeny MT, Ashley T, Pidgeon CR, Cohen LF, Murdin BN. (2010) 'Strong dependence of spin dynamics on the orientation of an external magnetic field for InSb and InAs'. AMER INST PHYSICS APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 96 (11) Article number ARTN 111107
  • Wittmann B, Danilov SN, Bel'kov VV, Tarasenko SA, Novik EG, Buhmann H, Bruene C, Molenkamp LW, Kvon ZD, Mikhailov NN, Dvoretsky SA, Vinh NQ, van der Meer AFG, Murdin B, Ganichev SD. (2010) 'Circular photogalvanic effect in HgTe/CdHgTe quantum well structures'. IOP PUBLISHING LTD SEMICONDUCTOR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, 25 (9) Article number ARTN 095005
  • Lynch SA, Thornton Greenland P, Van Der Meer AFG, Murdin BN, Pidgeon CR, Redlich B, Vinh NQ, Aeppli G. (2010) 'Quantum control of phosphorus donor rydberg states in silicon'. IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics GFP, , pp. 380-382.
  • Green RP, Tredicucci A, Vinh NQ, Murdin B, Pidgeon C, Beere HE, Ritchie DA. (2009) 'Gain recovery dynamics of a terahertz quantum cascade laser'. AMER PHYSICAL SOC PHYSICAL REVIEW B, 80 (7) Article number ARTN 075303
  • Rauter P, Fromherz T, Vinh NQ, Murdin BN, Mussler G, Gruetzmacher D, Bauer G. (2009) 'Continuous Voltage Tunability of Intersubband Relaxation Times in Coupled SiGe Quantum Well Structures Using Ultrafast Spectroscopy'. AMER PHYSICAL SOC PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS, 102 (14) Article number ARTN 147401
  • Murdin BN. (2009) 'Far-infrared free-electron lasers and their applications'. TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD CONTEMPORARY PHYSICS, 50 (2) Article number PII 910353824 , pp. 391-406.
  • Danilov SN, Wittmann B, Olbrich P, Eder W, Prettl W, Golub LE, Beregulin EV, Kvon ZD, Mikhailov NN, Dvoretsky SA, Shalygin VA, Vinh NQ, van der Meer AFG, Murdin B, Ganichev SD. (2009) 'Fast detector of the ellipticity of infrared and terahertz radiation based on HgTe quantum well structures'. AMER INST PHYSICS JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS, 105 (1) Article number ARTN 013106
  • Zawadzki W, Pfeffer P, Bratschitsch R, Chen Z, Cundiff ST, Murdin BN, Pidgeon CR. (2008) 'Temperature dependence of the electron spin g factor in GaAs'. AMER PHYSICAL SOC PHYSICAL REVIEW B, 78 (24) Article number ARTN 245203
  • Wittmann B, Golub LE, Danilov SN, Karch J, Reitmaier C, Kvon ZD, Vinh NQ, van der Meer AFG, Murdin B, Ganichev SD. (2008) 'Resonant circular photogalvanic effect in GaN/AlGaN heterojunctions'. AMER PHYSICAL SOC PHYSICAL REVIEW B, 78 (20) Article number ARTN 205435
  • Vinh NQ, Greenland PT, Litvinenko K, Redlich B, van der Meer AFG, Lynch SA, Warner M, Stoneham AM, Aeppli G, Paul DJ, Pidgeon CR, Murdin BN. (2008) 'Silicon as a model ion trap: Time domain measurements of donor Rydberg states'. NATL ACAD SCIENCES PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, 105 (31), pp. 10649-10653.
  • Gilbertson AM, Fearn M, Jefferson JH, Murdin BN, Buckle PD, Cohen LF. (2008) 'Zero-field spin splitting and spin lifetime in n-InSb/In(1-x)A1(x)Sb asymmetric quantum well heterostructures (vol 77, art no 165335, 2008)'. AMER PHYSICAL SOC PHYSICAL REVIEW B, 78 (7) Article number ARTN 079901
  • Weber W, Golub LE, Danilov SN, Karch J, Reitmaier C, Wittmann B, Bel'kov VV, Ivchenko EL, Kvon ZD, Vinh NQ, van der Meer AFG, Murdin B, Ganichev SD. (2008) 'Quantum ratchet effects induced by terahertz radiation in GaN-based two-dimensional structures'. AMER PHYSICAL SOC PHYSICAL REVIEW B, 77 (24) Article number ARTN 245304
  • Gilbertson AM, Fearn M, Jefferson JH, Murdin BN, Buckle PD, Cohen LF. (2008) 'Zero-field spin splitting and spin lifetime in n-InSb/In1-xAlxSb asymmetric quantum well heterostructures'. AMER PHYSICAL SOC PHYSICAL REVIEW B, 77 (16) Article number ARTN 165335
  • Litvinenko KL, Nikzad L, Pidgeon CR, Allam J, Cohen LF, Ashley T, Emeny M, Zawadzki W, Murdin BN. (2008) 'Temperature dependence of the electron Lande g factor in InSb and GaAs'. AMER PHYSICAL SOC PHYSICAL REVIEW B, 77 (3) Article number ARTN 033204
  • Merrick M, Cripps SA, Murdin BN, Hosea TJC, Veal TD, McConville CF, Hopkinson M. (2007) 'Photoluminescence of InNAs alloys: S-shaped temperature dependence and conduction-band nonparabolicity'. AMER PHYSICAL SOC PHYSICAL REVIEW B, 76 (7) Article number ARTN 075209
  • Rauter P, Fromherz T, Vinh NQ, Murdin BN, Phillips JP, Pidgeon CR, Diehl L, Dehlinger G, Gruetzmacher D, Zhao M, Ni W-X, Bauer G. (2007) 'Direct determination of ultrafast intersubband hole relaxation times in voltage biased SiGe quantum wells by a density matrix interpretation of femtosecond resolved photocurrent experiments'. IOP PUBLISHING LTD NEW JOURNAL OF PHYSICS, 9 Article number ARTN 128
  • Califano M, Vinh NQ, Phillips PJ, Ikonic Z, Kelsall RW, Harrison P, Pidgeon CR, Murdin BN, Paul DJ, Townsend P, Zhang J, Ross IM, Cullis AG. (2007) 'Interwell relaxation times in p-Si/SiGe asymmetric quantum well structures: Role of interface roughness'. AMERICAN PHYSICAL SOC PHYSICAL REVIEW B, 75 (4) Article number ARTN 045338
  • Jin SR, Ahmad CN, Sweeney SJ, Adams AR, Murdin BN, Page H, Marcadet X, Sirtori C, Tomic S. (2006) 'Spectroscopy of GaAs/AlGaAs quantum-cascade lasers using hydrostatic pressure'. AMER INST PHYSICS APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 89 (22) Article number ARTN 221105
  • Rauter P, Fromherz T, Bauer G, Vinh NQ, Murdin BN, Phillips JP, Pidgeon CR, Diehl L, Dehlinger G, Gruetzmacher D. (2006) 'Direct monitoring of the excited state population in biased SiGe valence band quantum wells by femtosecond resolved photocurrent experiments'. AMER INST PHYSICS APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 89 (21) Article number ARTN 211111
  • Lynch SA, Paul DJ, Townsend P, Matmon G, Suet Z, Kelsall RW, Ikonic Z, Harrison P, Zhang J, Norris DJ, Cullis AG, Pidgeon CR, Murzyn P, Murdin B, Bain M, Gamble HS, Zhao M, Ni W-X. (2006) 'Toward silicon-based lasers for terahertz sources'. IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC IEEE JOURNAL OF SELECTED TOPICS IN QUANTUM ELECTRONICS, 12 (6), pp. 1570-1578.
  • Jefferson PH, Veal TD, Piper LFJ, Bennett BR, McConville CF, Murdin BN, Buckle L, Smith GW, Ashley T. (2006) 'Band anticrossing in GaNxSb1-x'. AMER INST PHYSICS APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 89 (11) Article number ARTN 111921
  • Roither J, Pichler S, Kovalenko MV, Heiss W, Feychuk P, Panchuk O, Allam J, Murdin BN. (2006) 'Two- and one-dimensional light propagations and gain in layer-by-layer-deposited colloidal nanocrystal waveguides'. AMER INST PHYSICS APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 89 (11) Article number ARTN 111120
  • Litvinenko KL, Murdin BN, Allam J, Pidgeon CR, Zhang T, Harris JJ, Cohen LF, Eustace DA, McComb DW. (2006) 'Spin lifetime in InAs epitaxial layers grown on GaAs'. AMERICAN PHYSICAL SOC PHYSICAL REVIEW B, 74 (7) Article number ARTN 075331
  • O'Brien K, Sweeney SJ, Adams AR, Murdin BN, Salhi A, Rouillard Y, Joullie A. (2006) 'Recombination processes in midinfrared InGaAsSb diode lasers emitting at 2.37 mu m'. AMER INST PHYSICS APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 89 (5) Article number ARTN 051104
  • Litvinenko KL, Murdin BN, Allam J, Pidgeon CR, Bird M, Morris K, Branford W, Clowes SK, Cohen LF, Ashley T, Buckle L. (2006) 'Spin relaxation in n-InSb/AlInSb quantum wells'. IOP PUBLISHING LTD NEW JOURNAL OF PHYSICS, 8 Article number PII S1367-2630(06)15617-7
  • Murdin BN, Litvinenko K, Clarke DG, Pidgeon CR, Murzyn P, Phillips PJ, Carder D, Berden G, Redlich B, van der Meer AF, Clowes S, Harris JJ, Cohen LF, Ashley T, Buckle L. (2006) 'Spin relaxation by transient monopolar and bipolar optical orientation.'. Phys Rev Lett, United States: 96 (9)
  • O'Brien K, Adams AR, Sweeney SJ, Jin SR, Ahmad CN, Murdin BN, Canedy CL, Vurgaftman I, Meyer JR. (2006) 'Analysis of the major loss processes in mid-infrared type-II "W" diode lasers'. Conference Digest - IEEE International Semiconductor Laser Conference, , pp. 43-44.
  • Murdin BN, Adams AR, Sweeney SJ. (2006) 'Band structure and high-pressure measurements'. Springer Series in Optical Sciences, 118, pp. 93-127.
  • Rauter P, Fromherz T, Bauer G, Vinh NQ, Phillips PJ, Pidgeon CR, Murdin BN, Diehl L, Dehlinger G, Grützmacher D. (2006) 'Direct measurement of HH2-HH1 intersubband lifetimes in SiGe quantum cascade structures'. Third International SiGe Technology and Device Meeting, ISTDM 2006 - Conference Digest, 2006
  • Ganichev SD, Schneider P, Bel'kov VV, Ivchenko EL, Tarasenko SA, Wegscheider W, Weiss D, Schuh D, Murdin BN, Phillips PJ, Pidgeon CR, Clarke DG, Merrick M, Murzyn P, Beregulin EV, Prettl W. (2003) 'Spin-galvanic effect due to optical spin orientation'. American Physical Society Physical Review B, 68 (8) Article number 081302 , pp. ---.

    Abstract

    Under oblique incidence of circularly polarized infrared radiation the spin-galvanic effect has been unambiguously observed in (001)-grown $n$-type GaAs quantum well (QW) structures in the absence of any external magnetic field. Resonant inter-subband transitions have been obtained making use of the tunability of the free-electron laser FELIX. It is shown that a helicity dependent photocurrent along one of the $<110>$ axes is predominantly contributed by the spin-galvanic effect while that along the perpendicular in-plane axis is mainly due to the circular photogalvanic effect. This strong non-equivalence of the [110] and [1$\bar{1}$0] directions is determined by the interplay between bulk and structural inversion asymmetries. A microscopic theory of the spin-galvanic effect for direct inter-subband optical transitions has been developed being in good agreement with experimental findings.

Conference papers

  • Leontiadou MA, Litvinenko KL, Clowes SK, Springholz G, Schwarzl T, Eibelhuber M, Heiss W, Pidgeon CR, Murdin BN. (2011) 'Substantial temperature dependence of transverse electron g*-factor in lead chalcogenide multi-quantum wells'. AIP Conference Proceedings, 1416, pp. 178-180.

    Abstract

    We report significant temperature dependence of the transverse electron g*-factor in symmetric lead chalcogenide multi-quantum wells (MQWs). The g*-factor values were extracted from the electron Larmor precessions recorded by means of a circularly polarized pump probe technique under the influence of transverse external magnetic field (Voigt geometry) in the temperature range between 10 and 150K. The reported g*-factor values are in good agreement with theoretical predictions and available low temperature experimental data. Although temperature tuning of lead salt laser emission wavelengths has been the method of choice in these systems for many years, we demonstrate that temperature can also be used to modulate g*, and hence the spin lifetime in lead salt QW spintronic devices. © 2011 American Institute of Physics.

  • Litvinenko KL, Leontiadou MA, Li J, Bowyer ET, Clowes SK, Pidgeon CR, Murdin BN. (2011) 'Manipulation of spin dynamics in semiconductor structures by orientation of small external magnetic field'. AIP Conference Proceedings, 1399, pp. 657-658.
  • Litvinenko K, Leontiadou M, Li J, Bowyer E, Clowes S, Pidgeon CR, Murdin B. (2011) 'Manipulation of spin dynamics in semiconductor structures by orientation of small external magnetic field'. American Institute of Physics AIP Conference Proceedings, Seoul, South Korea: ICPS2010, 30th International Conference on the Physics of Semiconductors 1399, pp. 657-658.
  • Lynch SA, Greenland PT, van der Meer AFG, Murdin BN, Pidgeon CR, Redlich B, Nguyen QV, Aeppli G. (2010) 'First Observation of a THz Photon Echo'. IEEE 35TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON INFRARED, MILLIMETER, AND TERAHERTZ WAVES (IRMMW-THZ 2010), Rome, ITALY: 35th International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter and Terahertz Waves
  • Danilov SN, Wittmann B, Olbrich P, Prettl W, Golub LE, Beregulin EV, Kvon Z-D, Mikhailov NN, Dvoretsky SA, Shalygin VA, Vinh NQ, van der Meer AFG, Murdin B, Ganichev SD. (2009) 'All Electrical Detection of the Stokes Parameters of IR/THz Radiation'. IEEE 2009 34TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON INFRARED, MILLIMETER, AND TERAHERTZ WAVES, VOLS 1 AND 2, Busan, SOUTH KOREA: 34th International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves (IRMMW-THz 2009), pp. 298-299.
  • Lynch SA, Greenland PT, Vinh NQ, Litvinenko K, Redlich B, van der Meer L, Warner M, Stoneham AM, Aeppli G, Pidgeon CR, Murdin BN. (2008) 'Lifetime Measurements of Group V Donor Rydberg States in Silicon at THz Frequencies'. IEEE 2008 5TH IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON GROUP IV PHOTONICS, Sorrento, ITALY: 5th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics, pp. 24-26.
  • Litvinenko KL, Murdin BN, Clowes SK, Nikzad L, Allam J, Pidgeon CR, Branford W, Cohen LF, Ashley T, Buckle L. (2008) 'Density and well-width dependence of the spin relaxation in n-InSb/AlInSb quantum wells'. SPRINGER NARROW GAP SEMICONDUCTORS 2007, Guildford, ENGLAND: 13th International Conference on Narrow Gap Semiconductors 119, pp. 19-21.
  • Pidgeon CR, Litvinenko KL, Nikzad L, Allam J, Cohen LF, Ashley T, Emeny M, Murdin BN. (2008) 'Temperature dependence of the electron Lande g-factor in InSb'. SPRINGER NARROW GAP SEMICONDUCTORS 2007, Guildford, ENGLAND: 13th International Conference on Narrow Gap Semiconductors 119, pp. 27-29.
  • Litvinenko KL, Nikzad L, Allam J, Murdin BN, Pidgeon CR, Harris JJ, Cohen LF. (2007) 'Spin dynamics in narrow-gap semiconductor epitaxial layers'. SPRINGER JOURNAL OF SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND NOVEL MAGNETISM, Maui, HI: 4th International School and Conference on Spintronics and Quantum Information Technology (Spintech IV) 20 (6), pp. 461-465.
  • Litvinenko KL, Nikzad L, Allam J, Murdin BN, Pidgeon CR, Harris JJ, Zhang T, Cohen LF. (2007) 'Spin lifetime in high quality InSb epitaxial layers grown on GaAs'. AMER INST PHYSICS JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS, 101 (8)
  • O'Brien K, Adams AR, Sweeney SJ, Jin SR, Ahmad CN, Murdin BN, Canedy CL, Vurgaftman I, Meyer JR. (2007) 'High pressure studies of mid-infrared type-II "W" diode lasers at cryogenic temperatures'. WILEY-V C H VERLAG GMBH PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI B-BASIC SOLID STATE PHYSICS, Barcelona, SPAIN: 12th International Conference on High Pressure Semiconductor Physics (HPSP-12) 244 (1), pp. 224-228.
  • O'Brien K, Sweeney SJ, Adams AR, Jin SR, Ahmad CN, Murdin BN, Salhi A, Rouillard Y, Joullie A. (2007) 'Carrier recombination mechanisms in mid-infrared GaInAsSb quantum well lasers'. WILEY-V C H VERLAG GMBH PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI B-BASIC SOLID STATE PHYSICS, Barcelona, SPAIN: 12th International Conference on High Pressure Semiconductor Physics (HPSP-12) 244 (1), pp. 203-207.
  • Zhao M, Karim A, Ni W-X, Pidgeon CR, Phillips PJ, Carder D, Murdin BN, Fromherz T, Paul DJ. (2006) 'Strain-symmetrized Si/SiGe multi-quantum well structures grown by molecular beam epitaxy for intersubband engineering'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV JOURNAL OF LUMINESCENCE, Nice, FRANCE: Symposium on Si-based Photonics held at the EMRS 2006 Conference 121 (2), pp. 403-408.
  • Ashley T, Buckle L, Smith GW, Murdin BN, Jefferson PH, Piper LFJ, Veal TD, McConville CF. (2006) 'Dilute antimonide nitrides for very long wavelength infrared applications - art. no. 62060L'. SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING Infrared Technology and Applications XXXII, Pts 1and 2, Kissimmee, FL: 32nd Conference on Infrared Technology and Applications 6206, pp. L2060-L2060.
  • Townsend P, Paul DJ, Lynch SA, Kelsall RW, Ikonic Z, Harrison P, Norris DJ, Cullis AG, Zhang J, Li X, Pidgeon CR, Murdin BN, Murzyn P. (2005) 'LO phonon scattering as a depopulation mechanism in Si/SiGe quantum cascades'. IEEE 2005 2nd IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics, Antwerp, BELGIUM: 2nd IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics, pp. 7-9.
  • Lynch SA, Paul DJ, Townsend P, Matmon G, Kelsall RW, Ikonic Z, Harrison P, Zhang J, Norris DJ, Cullis AG, Pidgeon CR, Murzyn P, Murdin B, Bain M, Gamble HS. (2005) 'Silicon quantum cascade lasers for THz sources'. IEEE 2005 IEEE LEOS Annual Meeting Conference Proceedings (LEOS), Sydney, AUSTRALIA: 18th Annual Meeting of the IEEE-Lasers-and-Electro-Optical-Society, pp. 727-728.

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