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Professor Richard Shepherd


Emeritus Professor of Psychology
Qualifications: BSc(Cardiff), MA(Cantab), PhD(Southampton) CPsychol, FBPsS

Academic and research departments

School of Psychology.

Biography

Richard Shepherd is an Emeritus Professor of Psychology, having retired in August 2011. He obtained degrees in Natural Sciences from Cambridge and in Psychology from Cardiff and Southampton. He was a Research Fellow at the University of Surrey and then worked at the Institute of Food Research from 1982 to 1998, initially in Norwich and then in Reading, before joining the University of Surrey as a Reader. He has carried out research on a range of issues related to the factors influencing food choice. In particular this has involved the development and application of social cognition models to food choice issues and the exploration of the factors influencing dietary change. He has also conducted research on the perception of risk and risk communication particularly in relation to food issues. He has published widely in all of these areas of research, including editing two books. He has directed research funded by BBSRC, ESRC, MAFF, FSA, Wellcome Trust and industry, in addition to several collaborative European projects funded by the EU. He is a Chartered Psychologist and a Fellow of the British Psychological Society. In the past Richard has been a member of the UK Food Standards Agency Social Science Research Committee, Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ) Social Science Expert Advisory Group and the ESRC Grant Assessment Panel. 

Research Interests

Richard Shepherd's research is primarily concerned with understanding the reasons for people's choice of foods. This research can be broken down into three main areas:

  • the development and application of social psychological models of attitudes and beliefs to food choice
  • dietary change
  • risk perception and risk communication concerning foods

Food Choice

The development and application to food choice of the theory of reasoned action and the theory of planned behaviour (TPB). The work has included:

  • perceived behavioural control - separating aspects of "control" and "difficulty"
  • perceived behavioural control related to self-efficacy
  • self-identity - seeing oneself as environmentally concerned or health conscious
  • moral obligation - important for genetically modified foods and where people have responsibilities for others' foods
  • attitude ambivalence
  • emotional or affective factors in food choice
  • values - derived from personal construct theory laddering

Dietary Change

Understanding how to influence dietary change rather than explain current dietary behaviour. The work has included:

  • extensions of the TPB - perceived need
  • optimistic bias or unrealistic optimism
  • the "stages of change" or Transtheoretical model applied to dietary behaviour

Risk Perception and Risk Communication

Examination of the perception of risks associated with foods and communication concerning risks. The work has included:

  • use of the psychometric paradigm to uncover the dimensions underlying food risk perceptions
  • development of individualised methods for attribute elicitation
  • Elaboration Likelihood Model and Social Judgement Theory applied to food risk communication
  • attitudes towards the genetic modification of foods
  • trust in sources of risk information
  • uncertainty and risk communication
  • attitudes towards genomics
  • attitudes towards regulation of biomedical research

Research Collaborations

Food, Consumer Behaviour and Health Research Centre

Richard Shepherd has conducted research within the Food, Consumer Behaviour and Health Research Centre. This is a multidisciplinary Centre which brings together skills and expertise from across the University of Surrey, in order to address research questions on food, consumer behaviour and health. In addition to academic staff the Centre also employs several Research Fellows.

Research Grants and Contracts (from 2000)

Food Standards Agency: Communication partnerships: effects of consensus, disagreements and expertise Project description ESRC: Attitudes to genomics Project description

European Union: Consumer decision-making on organic products (CONDOR) Project description

European Union: Choosing foods, eating meals: sustaining independence and quality of life in old age (Food in Later Life) Project description

Food Standards Agency: Involving low income consumers in policy making: developing consultation methods and improving participation levels Project description

Mobile Telecommunications and Health Research: Communicating uncertainty: mobile telecommunication health risks Feb 2002 – Jan 2006

Rural Economy and Land Use Programme: Managing food chain risks (RELU-RISK) Project description Project website

European Union: Diet, obesity and genes (DiOGenes) Project description Project website

European Union: European Food Information Resource Network (EuroFIR) Project description Project website

European Union: Exploiting bioactivity of European cereal grains for improved nutrition and health benefits (HEALTHGRAIN) Project description

Wellcome Trust: A qualitative study of public attitudes towards the governance of biomedical research Project description

European Union: Harmonising nutrient recommendations across Europe with special focus on vulnerable groups and consumer understanding (EURRECA) Project description Project website

Wellcome Trust: Web based engagement: a feasibility study Nov 2007 – April 2008

European Union: Effect of diet on the mental performance of children (NUTRIMENTHE) Project description Project website

European Union: Food labelling to advance better education for life (FLABEL) Project description Project website

Food Standards Agency: The comprehension and use of UK nutrition signpost labelling schemes Project description

NERC: BAMRA: Bayesian approaches to microbial risk assessment (extension) Project description

Food Standards Agency: Understanding the dietary patterns and food choice reasoning of food allergic consumers Project description

European Union: Plant food supplements: levels of intake, benefit and risk assessment (PlantLIBRA) Project description Project website

European Union: Food Risk Communication - Perceptions and communication of food risks/benefits across Europe: development of effective communication strategies (FoodRisC) Project description Project website

Teaching

Richard  has supervised a number PhD students; thesis topics have included:

  • The factors affecting food choice in adolescents
  • Food poisoning and other food hazards: risk perceptions and implications for risk communication
  • The influence of implicit memory on consumer choice
  • Promoting a reduction in the consumption of dietary fat: the role of perceived behavioural control, self-efficacy and dietary information
  • Consumer perception, preference and purchase
  • The application of the Transtheoretical Model to dietary behaviour
  • Factors influencing dietary risk perception as it relates to food choice (joint supervision at Robert Gordon University)
  • Memory for liking of foods
  • Tailored interventions in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)
  • The role of risk in the health behaviours of military personnel in the United Kingdom armed forces
  • The psychosocial factors, especially self-efficacy, relevant to breastfeeding initiation and duration in young mothers
  • Factors influencing the decision to participate in bowel cancer screening
  • The role of aspects of control in maintenance of weight loss

Affiliations

Professional Society Membership

Fellow British Psychological Society

 

My publications

Publications

ANDERSON AS, CAMPBELL DM, SHEPHERD R (1995) THE INFLUENCE OF DIETARY ADVICE ON NUTRIENT INTAKE DURING PREGNANCY, BRITISH JOURNAL OF NUTRITION 73 (2) pp. 163-177 CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS
Bailey J, Shepherd R (2007) An intervention to improve adolescents' views on breastfeeding., Health Psychology Update 16 (4) pp. 53-61
DENNISON CM, SHEPHERD R (1995) ADOLESCENT FOOD CHOICE - AN APPLICATION OF THE THEORY OF PLANNED BEHAVIOR, JOURNAL OF HUMAN NUTRITION AND DIETETICS 8 (1) pp. 9-23 BLACKWELL SCIENCE LTD
Bailey J, Clark M, Shepherd R (2008) Duration of breastfeeding by young women: psychological influences., British Journal of Midwifery 16 (3) pp. 172-178
Shepherd R, Towler G (2007) Nutrition knowledge, attitudes and fat intake: application of the theory of reasoned action, JOURNAL OF HUMAN NUTRITION AND DIETETICS 20 (3) pp. 159-169 BLACKWELL PUBLISHING
Validated questionnaires eliciting information on nutrition knowledge and attitudes, related to fat intake from meat, meat products, dairy products and fried foods, were completed by 538 subjects. There were high correlations (ranging from 0.40 to 0.77) between the sums of belief-evaluations, attitudes, intention and self-reported behaviour, with similar correlations for a subgroup of males aged 35-54 years. Nutrition knowledge, showed some statistically significant (but small) negative correlations with components of attitudes. Females had higher nutrition knowledge scores and more negative views of the foods than did males. Fat intake, measured using 3 day weighed intakes, correlated with self-reported behaviour (r = 0.55, p
Armstrong V, Barnett J, Cooper H, Monkman M, Moran-Ellis J, Shepherd R (2007) Public attitudes to governance: A qualitative study in a deliberative context., Wellcome Trust
Frewer LJ, Howard C, Hedderley D, Shepherd R (1996) What determines trust in information about food-related risks? Underlying psychological constructs, RISK ANALYSIS 16 (4) pp. 473-486 PLENUM PUBL CORP
Dean M, Lahteenmaki L, Shepherd R (2010) Nutrition communication: Consumer perceptions and predicting intention, Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
Poutanen K, Shepherd R, Shewry PR, Delcour JA, Bjorck I, van der Kamp J-W (2008) Beyond whole grain: The European HEALTHGRAIN project aims at healthier cereal foods, CEREAL FOODS WORLD 53 (1) pp. 32-35 AMER ASSOC CEREAL CHEMISTS
Shepherd R, Sparks P, Bellier S, Raats MM (1991) Attitudes and choice of flavoured milks: Extensions of fishbein and ajzen's theory of reasoned action, Food Quality and Preference 3 (3) pp. 157-164
Eighty subjects completed a questionnaire, designed according to part of the model proposed by Fishbein and Ajzen, assessing attitudes and beliefs about consuming low- and full-fat flavoured milks. The results showed a reasonable degree of prediction of intention from attitudes and prediction of attitudes from beliefs and evaluations. Calculating beliefs, attitudes and intentions towards alternatives (rather than for each milk individually) showed some improvement in prediction. The relationships between beliefs, evaluations and attitudes were examined by calculating regressions of individual beliefs, evaluations and belief × evaluation products against attitudes. This demonstrated some of the problems inherent in the multiplicative component of the Fishbein and Ajzen model, although whether this alternative procedure is superior remains to be tested further. Sixty of the subjects also tested flavoured milk samples labelled with information on fat and sugar content; adding in hedonic rating of samples of flavoured milk for these subjects significantly improved the multiple regression predicting intention from attitudes. Dividing subjects according to the type of flavoured milk usually consumed showed that beliefs were more positive for the products usually consumed and, compared to low-fat consumers, full-fat consumers rated taste as a more important attribute and benefits to health as less important. © 1993.
Frewer LJ, Howard C, Hedderley D, Shepherd R (1997) Consumer attitudes towards different food-processing technologies used in cheese production - The influence of consumer benefit, FOOD QUALITY AND PREFERENCE 8 (4) pp. 271-280 ELSEVIER SCI LTD
Hurling R, Shepherd R (2003) Eating with your eyes: effect of appearance on expectations of liking, Appetite 41 (2) pp. 167-174
It was hypothesised that consumers' expectations of liking for a food would be affected by its appearance both when raw and when cooked and that the impact of these expectations on actual liking for the product after eating would vary with consumer awareness of internal body states (private body consciousness). We found that consumers' expectations of liking for the food generated by the appearance of the cooked product was related to expectation of liking from viewing the raw product. Under some conditions, consumers liked a food less after consumption if a raw product that generated low expectation of liking had been presented beforehand. There was no evidence that private body consciousness modified the consumers' susceptibility to expectation effects. It was concluded that expectations of liking for a food generated by appearance both when raw and cooked influenced final evaluation of the product during consumption. (C) 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
SHEPHERD R, TOWLER G (1992) NUTRITION KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDES AND FAT INTAKE - APPLICATION OF THE THEORY OF REASONED ACTION, JOURNAL OF HUMAN NUTRITION AND DIETETICS 5 (6) pp. 387-397 WILEY-BLACKWELL
SPARKS P, SHEPHERD R (1994) PUBLIC PERCEPTIONS OF THE POTENTIAL HAZARDS ASSOCIATED WITH FOOD-PRODUCTION AND FOOD-CONSUMPTION - AN EMPIRICAL-STUDY, RISK ANALYSIS 14 (5) pp. 799-806 PLENUM PUBL CORP
Shepherd R (2001) Eating, Food and Health LINK Programme: progress on funded projects., British Nutrition Foundation Nutrition Bulletin 26 pp. 147-151
FREWER LJ, HOWARD C, SHEPHERD R (1995) TRUST IN INFORMATION AND FOOD CHOICE BEHAVIOR-DETERMINANTS OF UNDERLYING ATTITUDES, APPETITE 24 (3) pp. 274-274 ACADEMIC PRESS LTD- ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
SHEPHERD R, FARLEIGH CA, LAND DG (1984) PREFERENCE AND SENSITIVITY TO SALT TASTE AS DETERMINANTS OF SALT-INTAKE, APPETITE 5 (3) pp. 187-197 ACADEMIC PRESS LTD
FARLEIGH CA, SHEPHERD R, PRYOR JS (1988) THIRST IN CHRONIC RENAL-FAILURE PATIENTS, CHEMICAL SENSES 13 (4) pp. 687-687 OXFORD UNIV PRESS UNITED KINGDOM
FOX TE, LOUGHRIDGE JM, SHEPHERD R (1990) A CALCIUM QUESTIONNAIRE - VALIDATION USING WEIGHED INTAKE, NUTRITION RESEARCH 10 (6) pp. 603-613 PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
SPARKS P, HEDDERLEY D, SHEPHERD R (1992) AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PERCEIVED CONTROL, ATTITUDE VARIABILITY AND THE CONSUMPTION OF 2 COMMON FOODS, EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY 22 (1) pp. 55-71 WILEY-BLACKWELL
DENNISON CM, SHEPHERD R (1995) AN APPLICATION OF THE THEORY OF PLANNED BEHAVIOR TO THE STUDY OF FOOD CHOICE IN ADOLESCENCE, APPETITE 24 (3) pp. 287-287 ACADEMIC PRESS (LONDON) LTD
SHEPHERD R, FARLEIGH CA, LAND DG (1984) EFFECTS OF TASTE SENSITIVITY AND PREFERENCE ON SALT INTAKE, PROCEEDINGS OF THE NUTRITION SOCIETY 43 (2) pp. A87-A87 C A B INTERNATIONAL
RAATS MM, SHEPHERD R (1993) THE USE AND PERCEIVED APPROPRIATENESS OF MILK IN THE DIET - A CROSS-COUNTRY EVALUATION, ECOLOGY OF FOOD AND NUTRITION 30 (3-4) pp. 253-273 TAYLOR & FRANCIS INC
Barnett J, Timotijevic L, Shepherd R, Senior V (2007) Public responses to precautionary information from the Department of Health (UK) about possible health risks from mobile phones, HEALTH POLICY 82 (2) pp. 240-250 ELSEVIER IRELAND LTD
Povey R, Conner M, Sparks P, James R, Shepherd R (1998) Interpretations of healthy and unhealthy eating, and implications for dietary change, HEALTH EDUCATION RESEARCH 13 (2) pp. 171-183 OXFORD UNIV PRESS
SPARKS P, HEDDERLEY D, SHEPHERD R (1991) EXPECTANCY-VALUE MODELS OF ATTITUDES - A NOTE ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THEORY AND METHODOLOGY, EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY 21 (3) pp. 261-271 WILEY-BLACKWELL
Shepherd R (2007) Consumer attitudes towards healthy cereal products, AACC International.
SHEPHERD R, FARLEIGH CA, PRYOR JS (1986) CHANGES IN SALT TASTE SENSITIVITY AND PREFERENCE IN DIALYSIS, CHEMICAL SENSES 11 (1) pp. 163-163 OXFORD UNIV PRESS UNITED KINGDOM
Raats MM, Shepherd R (1996) Developing a subject-derived terminology to describe perceptions of chemicals in foods, RISK ANALYSIS 16 (2) pp. 133-146 PLENUM PUBL CORP
Shepherd R (2005) Influences on food choice and dietary behavior, In: Diet Diversification and Health Promotion pp. 36-43 KARGER
There are a number of possible reasons for the lack of effectiveness of attempts at changing dietary behaviors. While lack of information and knowledge about foods and nutrient contents might play a part, motivation to change is likely to be much more important. Food choice, like any complex human behavior, is influenced by many interrelating factors, including various physiological, social and cultural factors, and these need to be taken into account when considering dietary interventions. In many cases people lack motivation to change. This can be related to optimistic bias, where people underestimate the risk to themselves relative to others from a variety of hazards. People feel less at risk personally for many dietary risks and this is related both to the control they feel they have over dietary behaviors and also to their considering themselves to have better diets than the average. The ' stages of change ' model is a possible means for trying to address these motivational issues. While this model has been applied to various forms of behavior such as smoking, there are a number of problems transferring such a model from smoking to dietary behaviors, including the lack of clear cut specific behaviors and behavior change targets in the dietary field.
Shepherd R (2007) Commentary on Shepherd,R. & Towler,G. (1992) Nutrition knowledge, attitudes and fat intake: application of the theory of reasoned action. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics; 5, 387-397., JOURNAL OF HUMAN NUTRITION AND DIETETICS 20 (3) pp. 170-170 BLACKWELL PUBLISHING
RICHARDSON NJ, SHEPHERD R, ELLIMAN N (1994) MEAT CONSUMPTION, DEFINITION OF MEAT AND TRUST IN INFORMATION-SOURCES IN THE UK POPULATION AND MEMBERS OF THE VEGETARIAN SOCIETY, ECOLOGY OF FOOD AND NUTRITION 33 (1-2) pp. 1-13 TAYLOR & FRANCIS INC
Frewer LJ, Howard C, Shepherd R (2001) The role of trust in effective communication about food-related risks., In: Butera F, Mugny G (eds.), Social Influence in Social Reality: Promoting Individual and Social Change pp. 307-316 Hogrefe & Huber
Barker GC, Bayley C, Cassidy A, French S, Hart A, Malakar PK, Maule J, Petkov M, Shepherd R (2010) Can a Participatory Approach Contribute to Food Chain Risk Analysis?, RISK ANALYSIS 30 (5) pp. 766-781 WILEY-BLACKWELL
Frewer LJ, Howard C, Shepherd R (1997) Consumer acceptance of genetically modified food, GENE TECHNOLOGY AND THE PUBLIC pp. 48-57 NORDIC ACADEMIC PRESS
Shepherd R, Dennison CM (1996) Influences on adolescent food choice, PROCEEDINGS OF THE NUTRITION SOCIETY 55 (1B) pp. 345-357 CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS
Fife-Schaw C, Cooper H, Sturgis P, Shepherd R (2005) Do people have an overall attitude towards genomics: Differentiation of attitudes according to type of application, Psychology & Health 20 pp. 78-78
FARLEIGH CA, SHEPHERD R, JEVONS S, PRYOR JS (1987) EFFECTS OF HEMODIALYSIS ON TASTE FOR SALT IN RELATION TO CHANGES IN BLOOD-CONSTITUENTS, HUMAN NUTRITION-CLINICAL NUTRITION 41C (6) pp. 441-451 JOHN LIBBEY & CO LTD
Lucas JS, Barnett J, Leftwich J, Muncer K, Shepherd R, Raats MM, Gowland M, Grimshaw K (2011) The Challenge Of Using Information On Food Packaging To Avoid Peanut And Nut Allergens, JOURNAL OF ALLERGY AND CLINICAL IMMUNOLOGY 127 (2) pp. AB112-AB112 MOSBY-ELSEVIER
Raats MM, Shepherd R, Sparks P (1993) Attitudes, obligations and perceived control: predicting milk selection., Appetite 20 (3) pp. 239-241
Shepherd R (1988) Belief structure in relation to low-fat milk consumption, Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics 1 (6) pp. 421-428
One hundred and three subjects completed a questionnaire on consumption of low-fat milks, along with attitudes and beliefs about consumption. Females showed a generally more favourable disposition towards consuming low-fat milks, whereas age and social class had little effect. The belief-evaluation scores showed good prediction of behavioural intention and self-reported behaviour. A principal components analysis of the belief-evaluation scores showed the nutritional beliefs to be separable from the sensory and functional beliefs, with the price items not clearly related to either. The nutritional beliefs were more closely related to the person's attitude towards consuming low-fat milk.
ELEY S, ANDERSON AS, LEAN MEJ, PAISLEY CM, SPARKS P, SHEPHERD R (1995) SOCIOECONOMIC TRANSITION AND THE IMPACT ON DIETARY CHOICE, APPETITE 24 (3) pp. 288-288 ACADEMIC PRESS (LONDON) LTD
POVEY R, CONNER M, JAMES R, SPARKS P, SHEPHERD R (1995) LAY INTERPRETATIONS OF HEALTHY EATING, APPETITE 24 (3) pp. 284-284 ACADEMIC PRESS (LONDON) LTD
Grunert KG, Shepherd R, Traill WB, Wold B (2012) Food choice, energy balance and its determinants: Views of human behaviour in economics and psychology, Trends in Food Science and Technology
This paper shows how economic and psychological approaches to explaining why people overeat are based on different basic assumptions about human behaviour. Three such views of human behaviour are distinguished: rational behaviour, reasoned behaviour, and automatic behaviour. Economic approaches, trying to explain behaviour leading to weight gain and obesity based on the assumption of rational utility-maximising behaviour, are contrasted with psychological approaches built on the softer assumption of reasoned behaviour and the more drastic assumption that major parts of especially eating behaviour are subject to automatic reactions to environmental stimuli. It is concluded that only the three approaches taken together can give sufficient insight into the various mechanisms determining food intake and physical activity, and that such a broad view is necessary for understanding the ways in which commonly advocated policy instruments can affect energy-related behaviour. © 2012 International Life Sciences Institute Europe.
Peacock M, Hodgkins C, Shepherd R, Raats M (2011) Articulating health through food labelling: encouraging healthier choices, ANNALS OF NUTRITION AND METABOLISM 58 pp. 206-206
McConnon A, Horgan GW, Lawton C, Stubbs J, Shepherd R, Astrup A, Handjieva-Darlenska T, Kuneaová M, Larsen TM, Lindroos AK, Martinez JA, Papadaki A, Pfeiffer AFH, Van Baak MA, Raats MM (2013) Experience and acceptability of diets of varying protein content and glycemic index in an obese cohort: Results from the Diogenes trial, European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 67 (9) pp. 990-995
Background/Objectives: To investigate acceptability and tolerability of diets of different protein and glycemic index (GI) content aimed at weight maintenance following a phase of rapid weight loss, as part of a large pan-European dietary intervention trial. Subjects/Methods: The Diogenes study (www.diogenes-eu.org) consisted of an initial 8-week rapid weight-loss phase (800-1000 kcal/day), followed by a 6-month weight maintenance intervention with five different diets varying in protein and GI content. Measurement of a range of outcomes relating to experience of the Diogenes diets in terms of acceptability, experience and mood were recorded via end of day questionnaires throughout the study. Results: Weight change during the initial weight loss phase weakly, but positively correlated with acceptability of the programme (r range=-0.08 to 0.2, Pd0.05, n=685 on four of five dimensions). Success at weight maintenance positively correlated with acceptance of the programme (r range=-0.21 to -0.34, P
SHEPHERD R, FARLEIGH CA (1987) SALT INTAKE ASSESSMENT BY QUESTIONNAIRE AND URINARY SODIUM-EXCRETION, NUTRITION RESEARCH 7 (6) pp. 557-568 PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
Shepherd R, Dean M, Lampila P, Arvola A, Saba A, Vassallo M, Claupein E, Winkelmann M, Lähteenmäki L (2012) Communicating the benefits of wholegrain and functional grain products to European consumers, Trends in Food Science and Technology
Shepherd R (2006) Allergy between the ears?, ALLERGY MATTERS: NEW APPROACHES TO ALLERGY PREVENTION AND MANAGEMENT 10 pp. 153-161 SPRINGER
Timotijevic L, Barnett J, Brown KA, Raats MM, Shepherd R (2013) Scientific decision-making and stakeholder consultations: The case of salt recommendations, Social Science & Medicine 85 pp. 79-86 Elsevier
Scientific Advisory Bodies (SABs) are seen as ?boundary organisations? working at the interface between science, policy and society. Although their narrowly defined remit of risk assessment is anchored in notions of rationality, objectivity, and reason, in reality, their sources for developing recommendations are not limited to scientific evidence. There is a growing expectation to involve non-scientific sources of information in the formation of knowledge, including the expectation of stakeholder consultation in forming recommendations. Such a move towards ?democratisation? of scientific processes of decision making within SABs has been described and often studied as ?post-normal science? (PNS) (Funtowicz and Ravetz, 1993). In the current paper we examine the application of PNS in practice through a study of stakeholder consultations within the workings of the UK Scientific Advisory Committee for Nutrition (SACN). We use the theoretical insights from PNS-related studies to structure the analysis and examine the way in which PNS tenets resonate with the practices of SACN. We have selected a particular case of the SACN UK recommendations for salt as it is characterized by scientific controversy, uncertainty, vested interests and value conflict. We apply the tenets of PNS through documentary analysis of the SACN Salt Subgroup (SSG) consultation documents published in 2002/2003: the minutes of the 5 SACN SSG?s meetings which included summary of the SACN SSG?s stakeholder consultation and the SSG?s responses to the consultation. The analysis suggests that the SACN consultation can be construed as a process of managing sources of risk to its organisation. Thus, rather than being an evidence of post normal scientific practice, engagement became a mechanism for confirming the specific framing of science that is resonant with technocratic models of science holding authority over the facts. The implications for PNS theory are discussed.

The work herein has been carried out within the EURRECA Network of Excellence
(http://www.eurreca.org), financially supported by the Commission of the European
Communities, Specific Research Technology and Development (RTD) Programme Quality of
Life and Management of Living Resources within the sixth framework programme, contract
no. 0136196. This does not necessarily reflect the Commission?s views or its future policy in
this area. We would like to acknowledge the contribution made to editing of the article from
Israel Berger, Uni

Farleigh CA, Shepherd R, Wharf SG (1990) The effect of manipulation of salt pot hole size on table salt use, Food Quality and Preference 2 (1) pp. 13-20
Daily use of table salt was measured for 10 weeks in a staff canteen serving approximately 2400 meals. During the study the size of the holes in the salt pots was manipulated, and the corresponding amount of table salt used was measured. Staff also completed a questionnaire on salt use, which was used to calculate the percentage of staff using the salt pots. Results indicate that, despite a 10 day exposure to each new hole size, individuals used significantly more table salt when the salt pots with the largest holes were supplied. However, when the 'shaking' time was estimated by relating the amount used to the flow rate, the salt pots with the largest holes were shaken for a shorter time. This finding suggests that the adding of table salt to food is subject to both sensory and habitual control. © 1990.
Jacobs C, Shepherd R (2005) Attitudes to irritable bowel syndrome (EBS), epilepsy and chronic asthma, Psychology & Health 20 pp. 124-125
Shepherd R (2008) Involving the public and stakeholders in the evaluation of food risks, TRENDS IN FOOD SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY 19 (5) pp. 234-239 ELSEVIER SCIENCE LONDON
Frewer LJ, Howard C, Hedderley D, Shepherd R (1997) The elaboration likelihood model and communication about food risks, RISK ANALYSIS 17 (6) pp. 759-770 PLENUM PUBL CORP
McConnon A, Gribble R, Raats MM, Stubbs J, Shepherd R (2013) Health professionals?, expert patients? and dieters? beliefs and attitudes about obesity, Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics 26 (6) pp. 612-616 Wiley / The British Dietetic Association Ltd.
Background: Research has suggested that patients and treatment providers hold different beliefs and models of obesity. This could impact consistency and quality of interventions for weight management. This study investigated the attitudes and beliefs of health professionals, commercial weight management advisors (expert patients) and overweight and obese dieters, towards obesity.
Methods: Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire from 287 health professionals, 85 expert patients and 116 dieters. Respondents gave their views on obesity causation and consequences, and the most efficacious means to manage obesity. Demographic data and self-reported height and weight were also collected. Factor analysis, ANOVA and t-tests were used to analyse the data.
Results: Health professionals, expert patients and dieters held similar models of obesity, identifying the same causes (lifestyle causes), consequences (medical consequences) and treatments (currentrecommended options) of obesity/overweight.
Conclusion: This study indicated broad similarity between beliefs and attitudes of those involved in obesity treatment and those they aim to treat than previously suggested. The concordance of beliefs between patients and treatment providers is an encouraging finding and may have important implications for public health strategies in this area.
McConnon A, Raats MM, Astrup A, Bajzová M, Handjieva-Darlenska T, Lindroos AK, Martinez JA, Larson TM, Papadaki A, Pfeiffer A, van Baak MA, Shepherd R (2011) Application of the Theory of Planned Behaviour to weight control in an overweight cohort. Results from a pan-European dietary intervention trial (DiOGenes)., Appetite 58 (1) pp. 313-318
Using the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), this study investigates weight control in overweight and obese participants (27kg/m(2)}BMI
Shepherd R (2001) Food, Consumer Behaviour and Health Research Centre., British Nutrition Foundation Nutrition Bulletin 26 (63-65)
SHEPHERD R, FARLEIGH CA, JEVONS S, PRYOR JS (1985) CHANGES IN SENSITIVITY AND PREFERENCES FOR SALT DURING DIALYSIS, PROCEEDINGS OF THE NUTRITION SOCIETY 44 (3) pp. A99-A99 C A B INTERNATIONAL
Arvola A, Laehteenmaeki L, Dean M, Vassallo M, Winkelmann M, Claupein E, Saba A, Shepherd R (2007) Consumers' beliefs about whole and refined grain products in the UK, Italy and Finland, JOURNAL OF CEREAL SCIENCE 46 (3) pp. 197-206 ACADEMIC PRESS LTD ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
FARLEIGH CA, SHEPHERD R, PRYOR JS (1986) THIRST IN PATIENTS UNDERGOING HEMODIALYSIS, CLINICAL SCIENCE 71 pp. P77-P77 PORTLAND PRESS LTD
Raats MM, Sparks P, Geekie MA, Shepherd R (1999) The effects of providing personalized dietary feedback. A semi-computerized approach, PATIENT EDUCATION AND COUNSELING 37 (2) pp. 177-189 ELSEVIER SCI IRELAND LTD
Dean M, Raats MM, Shepherd R (2008) Moral concerns and consumer choice of fresh and processed organic foods, JOURNAL OF APPLIED SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY 38 (8) pp. 2088-2107 BLACKWELL PUBLISHING
Dean M, Arvola A, Vassallo M, Lahteenmaki L, Raats MM, Saba A, Shepherd R (2006) Comparison of elicitation methods for moral and affective beliefs in the theory of planned behaviour, APPETITE 47 (2) pp. 244-252 ACADEMIC PRESS LTD ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
Augoustinos M, Crabb S, Shepherd R (2010) Genetically modified food in the news: media representations of the GM debate in the UK, PUBLIC UNDERSTANDING OF SCIENCE 19 (1) pp. 98-114 SAGE PUBLICATIONS LTD
Frewer LJ, Howard C, Hedderley D, Shepherd R (1998) Methodological approaches to assessing risk perceptions associated with food-related hazards, RISK ANALYSIS 18 (1) pp. 95-102 WILEY-BLACKWELL
Appleton KM, Gentry RC, Shepherd R (2006) Evidence of a role for conditioning in the development of liking for flavours in humans in everyday life, PHYSIOLOGY & BEHAVIOR 87 (3) pp. 478-486 PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
Povey R, Conner M, Sparks P, James R, Shepherd R (1999) A critical examination of the application of the Transtheoretical Model's stages of change to dietary behaviours, HEALTH EDUCATION RESEARCH 14 (5) pp. 641-651 OXFORD UNIV PRESS
Dean M, Raats M, Shepherd R (2011) The role of self-identity, past behaviour and their interaction in predicting intention to purchase fresh and processed organic food, Journal of Applied Social Psychology
CORNEY MJ, SHEPHERD R, HEDDERLEY D, NANAYAKKARA C (1994) CONSUMER ACQUISITION OF COMMERCIAL AND NUTRITION INFORMATION IN FOOD CHOICE, JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC PSYCHOLOGY 15 (2) pp. 285-300 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Shepherd R (1992) Nutrition Society--Nutrition and Behaviour Group. Symposium on Nutrition and Cognitive Efficiency, held at University of Reading, 3 April 1992., Appetite 19 (2) pp. 157-158
Barnett J, Muncer K, Leftwich J, Shepherd R, Raats MM, Gowland MH, Grimshaw K, Lucas JS (2011) Using 'may contain' labelling to inform food choice: a qualitative study of nut allergic consumers, BMC PUBLIC HEALTH 11 ARTN 734 BIOMED CENTRAL LTD
Frewer LJ, Howard C, Shepherd R (1996) The influence of realistic product exposure on attitudes towards genetic engineering of food, FOOD QUALITY AND PREFERENCE 7 (1) pp. 61-67 ELSEVIER SCI LTD
SHEPHERD R, FARLEIGH CA (1986) CONSISTENCY OF PREFERENCES FOR SALT IN DIFFERENT FOODS, CHEMICAL SENSES 11 (4) pp. 662-662 OXFORD UNIV PRESS UNITED KINGDOM
Shepherd R, Sparks P, Bellier S, Raats MM (1991) The effects of information on sensory ratings and preferences: The importance of attitudes, Food Quality and Preference 3 (3) pp. 147-155
Eighty subjects rated flavoured milk samples which varied in sweetener (sugar versus aspartame) and fat content (full-versus low-fat milk). Twenty of the subjects were in a control condition and received no information about the samples. The remaining sixty subjects initially rated the samples with no information and then rated them again when given information on the fat and sugar content of the samples. Ratings of sweetness, body, healthiness and calorie content were influenced by the information but liking and likelihood of buying were not affected in the overall group. Dividing subjects on the basis of attitudes towards low- and full-fat flavoured milks, however, showed different effects within the two subgroups. When information was given, both liking and rated likelihood of buying increased for the type of sample towards which subjects had a more generally positive attitude. Those subjects with more positive attitudes towards low-fat flavoured milks showed a clear differentiation in ratings of the healthiness of the samples when information was provided. However, those with more positive attitudes towards full-fat flavoured milks did not differentiate the samples in terms of rated healthiness. Similar effects were found when the subjects were divided on the basis of dietary restraint. Those subjects with higher scores for dietary restraint showed greater differentiation of the samples in terms of calorie content, healthiness and sweetness. © 1993.
Dean M, Lampila P, Shepherd R, Arvola A, Saba A, Vassallo M, Claupein E, Winkelmann M, Lahteenmaki L (2012) Perceived relevance and foods with health-related claims, FOOD QUALITY AND PREFERENCE 24 (1) pp. 129-135
PRICE KR, DUPONT MS, SHEPHERD R, CHAN HWS, FENWICK GR (1990) RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE CHEMICAL AND SENSORY PROPERTIES OF EXOTIC SALAD CROPS - COLORED LETTUCE (LACTUCA-SATIVA) AND CHICORY (CICHORIUM-INTYBUS), JOURNAL OF THE SCIENCE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE 53 (2) pp. 185-192 WILEY-BLACKWELL
Sturgis P, Cooper H, Fife-Schaw CR, Shepherd R (2004) Genomic science: emerging public opinion, In: A. Park, J. Curtice, K. Thomson, C. Bromley, Phillips M (eds.), British Social Attitudes - the 21st Report Sage
Shepherd R (2001) Does taste determine consumption? Understanding the psychology of food choice, In: L.J. Frewer, E. Risvik, Schifferstein HNJ (eds.), Food, People and Society: A European Perspective of Consumers' Food Choices pp. 117-130 Springer-Verlag
FREWER LJ, HOWARD C, SHEPHERD R (1995) WHAT DETERMINES PUBLIC ACCEPTANCE OF GENETIC-ENGINEERING IN FOOD-PRODUCTION, APPETITE 24 (3) pp. 274-274 ACADEMIC PRESS LTD- ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
Shepherd R (1990) Behavioural modelling of fat consumption, Food Quality and Preference 2 (2) pp. 89-94
Attempts to use attitudes and beliefs held by people as a way of examining the influences on food choice have often failed to show clear relationships because of the lack of a clear theoretical framework. The attitudes model developed by Fishbein and Ajzen is presented as one approach for achieving this. Fat intake has been studied using this approach. It has shown good prediction of consumption of foods contributing highly to fat in the diet and demonstrated the importance of both sensory and nutritional beliefs. General nutritional knowledge has been shown to relate to consumption only to a very limited degree. Initial tests of extensions of this approach, incorporating measures of habit and perceived control, have demonstrated the importance of habit in this area. © 1991.
Corney MJ, Issanchou S, Shepherd R, Griffin K, Nanayakkara C, Daillant B (1996) Effects of food label health and nutrition claims on consumer perceptions, ASTM Special Technical Publication 1316 pp. 3-15
Two experiments are reported that examined consumers' perceptions of food package labels where health and nutrition claims were present and where they had been removed. Unlike previous studies examining the influence of information on perception, realistic materials were used. This was accomplished by presenting information on a computer as photo-realistic images of packages where claims had been removed by editing to give a without-claims condition. Automatic presentation of materials and data collection meant participants proceeded through the computer questionnaire without the presence of an experimenter. The experiment was conducted with both British and French consumers. No significant difference on purchase intention or attitude to purchase was found between conditions with either population sample. The British group showed a significant trend to rate products as likely to be approved by those whose opinion they regarded as important in the claims condition. French participants showed a similar effect whereby packages without claims were always perceived as significantly beneficial with a low subjective norm effect and a mixture of both factors with claims present. In both population samples, label information provision was evaluated more highly than a collection of single sensory and nutritional attributes. Multiple regressions against attitude to purchase showed that sensory attributes were given higher weighting than nutritional or direct label attitude measures with both groups. Argument that health and nutrition claims are likely to have very large effects on consumers' buying patterns thus may be treated with caution. These results suggest that from a marketing perspective where claims are relevant they should be given a subsidiary position to claims about sensory qualities.
SHEPHERD R, FARLEIGH CA, WHARF SG (1987) THE EFFECTS OF CAFFEINE ON SALT TASTE SENSITIVITY, LEBENSMITTEL-WISSENSCHAFT & TECHNOLOGIE 20 (2) pp. 95-97 ACADEMIC PRESS LTD
Shepherd R (1999) Social determinants of food choice, PROCEEDINGS OF THE NUTRITION SOCIETY 58 (4) pp. 807-812 C A B INTERNATIONAL
SHEPHERD R, WHARF SG, FARLEIGH CA (1989) THE EFFECT OF A SURFACE COATING OF TABLE SALT OF VARYING GRAIN-SIZE ON PERCEIVED SALTINESS AND LIKING FOR PATE, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY 24 (3) pp. 333-340 WILEY-BLACKWELL
Povey R, Conner M, Sparks P, James R, Shepherd R (1999) The theory of planned behaviour and healthy eating: Examining additive and moderating effects of social influence variables, PSYCHOLOGY & HEALTH 14 (6) pp. 991-1006 TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD
Conner M, Sparks P, Povey R, James R, Shepherd R, Armitage CJ (2002) Moderator effects of attitudinal ambivalence on attitude-behaviour relationships, European Journal of Social Psychology 32 (5) pp. 705-718
Attitudinal ambivalence is generally construed as existing when the same attitude object is evaluated simultaneously as both positive and negative. The present research examined the moderating role of attitudinal ambivalence (as assessed by split-semantic differential measure) on the relationship between bipolar semantic differential measures of attitude and subsequent behaviour using moderated regression analysis. In Study 1, higher levels of attitudinal ambivalence were shown to result in weaker attitude-behaviour relationships for eating a low-fat diet (N = 140) and eating 5 portions of fruit and vegetables per day (N = 142). Study 2 (N = 361) replicated this effect when also including a measure of past behaviour for eating a low-fat diet. Implications for understanding the relationship between attitudes and behaviour are discussed. Copyright (C) 2002 John Wiley Sons, Ltd.
FOX TE, SHEPHERD R (1990) EVALUATION OF A QUESTIONNAIRE TO MEASURE DIETARY FIBER INTAKE, NUTRITION RESEARCH 10 (8) pp. 847-857 PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
SHEPHERD R, FARLEIGH CA, LAND DG (1985) ESTIMATION OF SALT INTAKE BY QUESTIONNAIRE, APPETITE 6 (3) pp. 219-233 ACADEMIC PRESS LTD
SHEPHERD R, STOCKLEY L (1987) NUTRITION KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDES, AND FAT CONSUMPTION, JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN DIETETIC ASSOCIATION 87 (5) pp. 615-619 AMER DIETETIC ASSOC
Frewer LJ, Howard C, Hedderley D, Shepherd R (1999) Reactions to information about genetic engineering: impact of source characteristics, perceived personal relevance, and persuasiveness, PUBLIC UNDERSTANDING OF SCIENCE 8 (1) pp. 35-50 IOP PUBLISHING LTD
Sparks P, Conner M, James R, Shepherd R, Povey R (2001) Ambivalence about health-related behaviours: An exploration in the domain of food choice, British Journal of Health Psychology 6 pp. 53-68
Objectives. Interest in attitudes and ambivalence has highlighted problems with the adequacy of conceptualizing attitudes as unitary, unidimensional, evaluations. In this paper, we report an application of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (Ajzen, 1991) in the domain of dietary choice which investigates the hypothesis that ambivalence will attenuate observed attitude-intention relationships (since the evaluations influencing the expression of attitudes are more Likely to differ from the evaluations influencing the expression of intentions for people who are more ambivalent. Design. Participants complete a postal questionnaire which contained, inter alia, measures assessing the components cf the Theory of Planned Behaviour and a measure of ambivalence. Methods. Participants (N = 296) were recruited via advertisements placed in local newspapers, asking for volunteers to assist in a research project. Participants were randomly assigned to complete a questionnaire about either their chocolate consumption or their meat consumption. Participants were paid pound4. Results. The findings show considerable support for the hypothesis: there was a tendency for attitude-intention relationships to be attenuated among participants with higher levels of ambivalence, compared to participants with lower levels of ambivalence. Conclusions. The research supports the widespread view that ambivalence is an important issue, both for those involved in basic attitude research and for those who seek to use attitude theories in applied research. In particular, the findings indicate that ambivalence may often have implications for the predictive ability of attitude-intention-behaviour models, especially when applied to health-related behaviours that are characterized by motivational conflicts.
Povey R, Conner M, Sparks P, James R, Shepherd R (2000) Application of the theory of planned behaviour to two dietary behaviours: Roles of perceived control and self-efficacy, BRITISH JOURNAL OF HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY 5 pp. 121-139 BRITISH PSYCHOLOGICAL SOC
SHEPHERD R, STOCKLEY L (1986) THE ROLE OF ATTITUDES AND NUTRITIONAL KNOWLEDGE IN FAT CONSUMPTION, PROCEEDINGS OF THE NUTRITION SOCIETY 45 (1) pp. A44-A44 CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS
Shepherd R (2005) Attitudes of the general public towards genomics, Psychology & Health 20 pp. 246-247
Winkelmann M, Claupein E, Arvola A, Dean M, Vasallo M, Lahteenmaki L, Saba A, Shepherd R (2011) Verbrauchererwartungen an getreidebasierte funktionelle Lebensmittel. Ergebnisse der Healthgrain Studie, Getreidetechnologie
Barnett J, Timotijevic L, Vassallo M, Shepherd R (2008) Precautionary advice about mobile phones: public understandings and intended responses, JOURNAL OF RISK RESEARCH 11 (4) pp. 525-540 ROUTLEDGE JOURNALS, TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD
Shepherd R, Barnett J, Cooper H, Coyle A, Moran-Ellis J, Senior V, Walton C (2006) UK public attitudes to reproductive and therapeutic human cloning., International Journal of Behavioral Medicine 13 (Supplement)
Sparks P, Shepherd R (2002) The role of moral judgments within expectancy-value-based attitude-behavior models, Ethics & Behavior 12 (4) pp. 299-321
Rational choice models are characterized by the image of the self-interested Homo economicus. The role of moral concerns, which may involve a concern for others' welfare in people's judgments and choices, questions the descriptive validity of such models. Increasing evidence of a role for perceived moral obligation within the expectancy-value-based theory of reasoned action and the theory of planned behavior indicates the importance of moral-normative influences in social behavior. In 2 studies, the influence of moral judgments on attitudes toward food produced with the use of genetic engineering techniques and toward meat consumption is addressed. The reasons participants provide for their moral judgments indicate some foci of their moral concerns. The results of both studies corroborate earlier findings that perceived moral obligation (moral norm) has independent effects on behavioral intentions; they also provide evidence that such judgments may affect attitudes themselves. The results are discussed in relation to the need for attitude-behavior models to reflect the role of moral evaluations in judgment and choice.
BOOTH DA, THOMPSON AL, SHEPHERD R, LAND DG, GRIFFITHS RP (1987) SALT AND BLOOD-PRESSURE - THE TRIANGULAR HYPOTHESIS, MEDICAL HYPOTHESES 24 (4) pp. 325-328 CHURCHILL LIVINGSTONE
SHEPHERD R (1986) THE ROLE OF ATTITUDES AND BELIEFS IN FOOD CHOICE, APPETITE 7 (3) pp. 233-234 ACADEMIC PRESS LTD- ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
Shepherd R, Moore A (2003) Application of the Transtheoretical Model to changing dietary behaviours., 11(1) pp. 42-43
Shepherd R, Barnett J, Cooper H, Coyle A, Moran-Ellis J, Senior V, Walton C (2007) Towards an understanding of British public attitudes concerning human cloning, Social Science & Medicine 65 (2) pp. 377-392
The ability of scientists to apply cloning technology to humans has provoked public discussion and media coverage. The present paper reports on a series of studies examining public attitudes to human cloning in the UK, bringing together a range of quantitative and qualitative methods to address this question. These included a nationally representative survey, an experimental vignette study, focus groups and analyses of media coverage. Overall the research presents a complex picture of attitude to and constructions of human cloning. In all of the analyses, therapeutic cloning was viewed more favourably than reproductive cloning. However, while participants in the focus groups were generally negative about both forms of cloning, and this was also reflected in the media analyses, quantitative results showed more positive responses. In the quantitative research, therapeutic cloning was generally accepted when the benefits of such procedures were clear, and although reproductive cloning was less accepted there was still substantial support. Participants in the focus groups only differentiated between therapeutic and reproductive cloning after the issue of therapeutic cloning was explicitly raised; initially they saw cloning as being reproductive cloning and saw no real benefits. Attitudes were shown to be associated with underlying values associated with scientific progress rather than with age, gender or education, and although there were a few differences in the quantitative data based on religious affiliation, these tended to be small effects. Likewise in the focus groups there was little direct appeal to religion, but the main themes were 'interfering with nature' and the 'status of the embryo', with the latter being used more effectively to try to close down further discussion. In general there was a close correspondence between the media analysis and focus group responses, possibly demonstrating the importance of media as a resource, or that the media reflect public discourse accurately. However, focus group responses did not simply reflect media coverage. (c) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Shepherd R (2002) Resistance to changes in diet, Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 61 (2) pp. 267-272
Dietary changes can be difficult to effect both at an individual and at a population level, and even when changes do occur they are often far slower and less pronounced than might be expected. Three possible reasons for this situation will be considered: the complexity of food choice and competing influences, attitudinal ambivalence and optimistic bias. Food choice is influenced by a large number of factors, not only health considerations, and therefore it is not surprising that interventions based primarily on health concerns have been ineffective. Another concern is that people do not always have clear-cut attitudes, but rather can be ambivalent about foods and about healthy eating, and this factor might impact on the translation of beliefs and attitudes into behaviour. A third possible reason is optimistic bias, where individuals believe themselves to be at less risk from various hazards than is the average person. This effect has been demonstrated for nutritional risks, and this factor might lead people to take less note of health education messages. The stages-of-change model from health psychology has been proposed as a method for improving the effectiveness of behaviour change interventions. However, there are a number of problems in transferring such a model from smoking, where it was originally developed, to dietary behaviours, including the lack of clear-cut specific behaviours and behaviour change targets in the dietary field.
SHEPHERD R, GRIFFITHS NM (1987) PREFERENCES FOR EGGS PRODUCED UNDER DIFFERENT SYSTEMS ASSESSED BY CONSUMER AND LABORATORY PANELS, LEBENSMITTEL-WISSENSCHAFT & TECHNOLOGIE 20 (3) pp. 128-132 ACADEMIC PRESS LTD- ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
BMRB Social Research, Food, Consumer Behaviour and Health Research Centre at the University of Surrey (2008) Comprehension and use of UK nutrition signpost labelling schemes: Scientific Rationale and Design, Food Standards Agency
MUTSAERS BRH, SHEPHERD R (1995) ATTITUDES TOWARDS FOOD POISONING - A COMPARISON BETWEEN SEVERAL FOODS WITH REGARD TO PREPARING, EATING AND BUYING, APPETITE 24 (3) pp. 275-275 ACADEMIC PRESS (LONDON) LTD
Shepherd R, Barnett J, Cooper H, Coyle A, Fife-Schaw C, Moran-Ellis J, Senior V, Sturgis P (2003) Public attitudes towards advances in genomics., 12
Shepherd R (2002) Eating, Food and Health LINK Programme: industry-academic collaborations leading to a healthier diet., Food Industry Journal 5 (1) pp. 27-33
WATKINSON PS, SHEPHERD R, BOWSHER JM (1982) ACOUSTIC ENERGY-LOSSES IN BRASS INSTRUMENTS, ACUSTICA 51 (4) pp. 213-221 S HIRZEL VERLAG
Barnett J, Timotijevic L, Shepherd R, Senior V, Vincent J (2006) Understanding of the precautionary principle: 'no smoke without fire' or better safe than sorry?, In: C.del Pozo, D. Papameletiou, P. M. Wiedemann, Ravazzani P (eds.), Risk Perception and Risk Communication: Tools, Experiences and Strategies in Electromagnetic Fields Exposure pp. 123-127 European Commission
SPARKS P, SHEPHERD R, WIERINGA N, ZIMMERMANNS N (1995) PERCEIVED BEHAVIORAL-CONTROL, UNREALISTIC OPTIMISM AND DIETARY CHANGE - AN EXPLORATORY-STUDY, APPETITE 24 (3) pp. 243-255 ACADEMIC PRESS LTD- ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
FARLEIGH CA, SHEPHERD R, LAND DG (1985) MEASUREMENT OF SODIUM-INTAKE AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO BLOOD-PRESSURE AND SALIVARY SODIUM CONCENTRATION, NUTRITION RESEARCH 5 (8) pp. 815-826 PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
McConnon A, Raats MM, Shepherd R, Ogden J (2007) Weight control practices and behaviours in an overweight sample - results from the DiOGenes study, ANNALS OF NUTRITION AND METABOLISM 51 pp. 64-64 KARGER
Timotijevic L, Brown KA, Lahteenmaki L, De Wit L, Sonne A-M, Ruprich J, Rehurkova I, Jeruszka-Bielak M, Sicinska E, Garcia NB, Guzzon A, Jensen BB, Shepherd R, Barnett J, Raats MM (2013) EURRECA-A Framework for Considering Evidence in Public Health Nutrition Policy Development, CRITICAL REVIEWS IN FOOD SCIENCE AND NUTRITION 53 (10) pp. 1124-1134 TAYLOR & FRANCIS INC
SHEPHERD R, FARLEIGH CA (1986) MODIFICATION OF TASTE PREFERENCES FOR SALT BY DIALYSIS, APPETITE 7 (3) pp. 297-297 ACADEMIC PRESS LTD- ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
SHEPHERD R, FARLEIGH CA, ATKINSON C, PRYOR JS (1987) THE EFFECTS OF HEMODIALYSIS ON SALT AND SWEET TASTE, PROCEEDINGS OF THE NUTRITION SOCIETY 46 (1) pp. A23-A23 CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS
BUTLER LT, SHEPHERD R, BERY DC (1995) THE IMPACT OF IMPLICIT MEMORY FOR FOOD PACKS ON PREFERENCES, APPETITE 24 (3) pp. 282-282 ACADEMIC PRESS (LONDON) LTD
RICHARDSON NJ, MACFIE HJH, SHEPHERD R (1994) CONSUMER ATTITUDES TO MEAT EATING, MEAT SCIENCE 36 (1-2) pp. 57-65 ELSEVIER SCI LTD
Dean M, Raats MM, Shepherd R (2007) Consumers and functional cereal products, In: Hamaker B (eds.), Technology of Functional Cereal Products Woodhead Publishing Limited,
RAATS MM, SHEPHERD R, SPARKS P (1995) INCLUDING MORAL DIMENSIONS OF CHOICE WITHIN THE STRUCTURE OF THE THEORY OF PLANNED BEHAVIOR, JOURNAL OF APPLIED SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY 25 (6) pp. 484-494 V H WINSTON & SONS INC
Shepherd R (2001) Research on the eating, food and health LINK programme, Agro Food Industry Hi-Tech 12 (5) pp. 43-46
DAVIES AMC, FRANKLIN JG, GRANT A, GRIFFITHS NM, SHEPHERD R, FENWICK GR (1991) PREDICTION OF CHOCOLATE QUALITY FROM NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPIC MEASUREMENTS OF THE RAW COCOA BEANS, VIBRATIONAL SPECTROSCOPY 2 (2-3) pp. 161-172 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Egan B, Hodgkins C, Shepherd R, Timotijevic L, Raats MM (2011) An overview of consumer attitudes and beliefs about plant food supplements., Food and Function 2 (12) pp. 747-752 Royal Society of Chemistry
The use of dietary supplements is increasing globally and this includes the use of plant food supplements (PFS). A variety of factors may be influencing this increased consumption including the increasing number of older people in society, mistrust in conventional medicine and the perception that natural is healthy. Consumer studies in this area are limited, with a focus on dietary supplements in general, and complicated by the use of certain plant food supplements as herbal medicines. Research indicates that higher use of dietary supplements has been associated with being female, being more educated, having a higher income, being white and being older, however the drivers for consumption of supplements are complex, being influenced by both demographic and health-related factors. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of current knowledge about the users and the determinants of usage of plant food supplements. With growing consumption of these products, the need for effective risk-benefit assessment becomes ever more important and an insight into who uses these types of products and why is an important starting point for any future science-based decisions made by policy makers, PFS manufacturers and ultimately by consumers themselves.
Arvola A, Vassallo M, Dean M, Lampila P, Saba A, Lahteenmaki L, Shepherd R (2008) Predicting intentions to purchase organic food: The role of affective and moral attitudes in the Theory of Planned Behaviour, APPETITE 50 (2-3) pp. 443-454 ACADEMIC PRESS LTD ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
Timotijevic L, Brown KA, Lähteenmäki L, de Wit L, Sonne AM, XehoYková I, Jeruszka-Bielak M, Sicinska E, Brito García N, Guzzon A, Jensen BB, Shepherd R, Barnett J, Raats MM (2013) EURRECA- A framework for considering evidence in public health nutrition policy development, Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 53 (10) pp. 1124-1134 Taylor & Francis
A key step towards developing appropriate evidence-based public health nutrition policies is determining exactly how that evidence should be collected and assessed. Despite this the extent to which different evidence bases influence policy selection is rarely explored. This paper presents an epistemological framework which offers a range of considerations effecting this process generally and with particular implications for both micronutrient requirements and the role of behaviour in the policy-making process. Qualitative case study data covering six European countries/regions (Czech Republic, Italy, Netherlands, Nordic countries, Poland and Spain), and three micronutrients (folate, iodine and vitamin D), have been presented to illustrate the relevance of the Framework.
Shepherd R, Manaras I, Sparks P (2000) Moral and ethical concerns on genetic modification of foods, FORESIGHT AND PRECAUTION, VOLS 1 AND 2 pp. 849-854 A A BALKEMA PUBLISHERS
Mela DJ, Rogers PJ, Shepherd R, MacFie HJ (1992) Real people, real foods, real eating situations: real problems and real advantages., Appetite 19 (1) pp. 69-73
Shepherd R (1988) Sensory influences on salt, sugar and fat intake., Nutr Res Rev 1 (1) pp. 125-144
Sparks P, Guthrie CA, Shepherd R (1997) The dimensional structure of the perceived behavioral control construct, JOURNAL OF APPLIED SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY 27 (5) pp. 418-438 WILEY-BLACKWELL
Richardson NJ, Shepherd R, Elliman NA (1993) Current attitudes and future influences on meat consumption in the U.K., Appetite 21 (1) pp. 41-51
A survey of 1018 U.K. residents was conducted using the basic structure of the theory of reasoned action along with scenarios of possible future events investigating meat-eating and vegetarianism. Over a quarter (28%) of the sample considered themselves to be reducing meat consumption although a comparison of present and retrospective meat consumption indicated that less than a quarter of this group had cut down on a variety of meats in their diets over the past year. The attitudes related to present meat consumption were healthiness, taste, value for money and, to some extent, ethical issues. Healthiness, taste and concerns over additives were related to changes in meat consumption over the preceding year. Beliefs about the healthiness of meat were also related to reported changes in meat-eating behaviour when "something that could possibly happen in the future" was described. Future events found to affect people's estimated meat-eating were the availability of polyunsaturated meat and meat produced with strict safety guarantees, the former change being dependent on a constant price. Reductions in the fat content of meat or claims extolling the nutritional benefits of eating meat were not related to predicted future meat-eating.
FARLEIGH CA, SHEPHERD R (1985) DIETARY-SODIUM INTAKE AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO PHYSIOLOGICAL FACTORS AND TASTE PREFERENCES, CLINICAL SCIENCE 69 pp. P26-P27 PORTLAND PRESS
SPARKS P, SHEPHERD R (1992) FOOD-PRODUCTION AND FOOD-CONSUMPTION - PUBLIC PERCEPTIONS OF POTENTIAL HAZARDS, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 27 (3-4) pp. 178-178 PSYCHOLOGY PRESS
Guerrero L, Gelabert J, Guardia MD, Gou P, Arnau J, Shepherd R, Sparks P (1998) Consumer attitude towards low salt meat products, FOOD SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY INTERNATIONAL 4 (4) pp. 263-275 ASPEN PUBL INC
SHEPHERD R, FARLEIGH CA (1986) ATTITUDES AND PERSONALITY RELATED TO SALT INTAKE, APPETITE 7 (4) pp. 343-354 ACADEMIC PRESS LTD
SHEPHERD R, FARLEIGH CA (1987) CONSISTENCY OF PREFERENCES FOR SALT IN DIFFERENT FOODS, ANNALS OF THE NEW YORK ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 510 pp. 273-275 NEW YORK ACAD SCIENCES
SPARKS P, SHEPHERD R (1992) SELF-IDENTITY AND THE THEORY OF PLANNED BEHAVIOR - ASSESSING THE ROLE OF IDENTIFICATION WITH GREEN CONSUMERISM, SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY QUARTERLY 55 (4) pp. 388-399 SAGE PUBLICATIONS INC
Lawrence JM, Devlin E, Macaskill S, Kelly M, Chinouya M, Raats MM, Barton KL, Wrieden WL, Shepherd R (2007) Factors that affect the food choices made by girls and young women, from minority ethnic groups, living in the UK, JOURNAL OF HUMAN NUTRITION AND DIETETICS 20 (4) pp. 311-319 BLACKWELL PUBLISHING
Shepherd R, Barker G, French S, Hart A, Maule J, Cassidy A (2006) Managing food chain risks: Integrating technical and stakeholder perspectives on uncertainty, JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS 57 (2) pp. 313-327 BLACKWELL PUBLISHING
SHEPHERD R (1987) EATING HABITS - FOOD, PHYSIOLOGY AND LEARNED BEHAVIOR - BOAKES,RA, POPPLEWELL,DA, BURTON,MJ, BIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY 25 (2) pp. 206-208 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Saba A, Vassallo M, Shepherd R, Lampila P, Arvola A, Dean M, Winkelmann M, Claupein E, Lahteenmaki L (2010) Country-wise differences in perception of health-related messages in cereal-based food products, FOOD QUALITY AND PREFERENCE 21 (4) pp. 385-393 ELSEVIER SCI LTD
Barnett J, McConnon A, Kennedy J, Raats M, Shepherd R, Verbeke W, Fletcher J, Kuttschreuter M, Lima L, Wills J, Wall P (2011) Development of strategies for effective communication of food risks and benefits across Europe: Design and conceptual framework of the FoodRisC project, BMC PUBLIC HEALTH 11 ARTN 308 BIOMED CENTRAL LTD
SHEPHERD R, GALE A (1982) EEG CORRELATES OF HEMISPHERE DIFFERENCES DURING A RAPID CALCULATION TASK, BRITISH JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 73 (FEB) pp. 73-84 BRITISH PSYCHOLOGICAL SOC
Timotijevic L, Barnett J, Shepherd R, Senior V (2009) Factors Influencing Self-Report of Mobile Phone Use: the Role of Response Prompt, Time Reference and Mobile Phone Use in Recall, APPLIED COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY 23 (5) pp. 664-683 JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD
Shepherd R (2001) Food, Consumer Behaviour and Health Research Centre: bringing together biological and social sciences, Food Science and Technology 15 (3) pp. 30-33
SHEPHERD R, STOCKLEY L, SCHYNS C, TAYLOR FA (1988) PREFERENCES FOR PROTEIN AND CARBOHYDRATE FOODS FOLLOWING PROTEIN AND ENERGY SUPPLEMENTS, ECOLOGY OF FOOD AND NUTRITION 21 (2) pp. 143-150 TAYLOR & FRANCIS INC
Frewer LJ, Howard C, Shepherd R (1997) Public concerns in the United Kingdom about general and specific applications of genetic engineering: Risk, benefit, and ethics, SCIENCE TECHNOLOGY & HUMAN VALUES 22 (1) pp. 98-124 SAGE PUBLICATIONS INC
Jensen BB, Lähteenmäki L, Grunert KG, Brown KA, Timotijevic L, Barnett J, Shepherd R, Raats MM (2012) Changing micronutrient intake through (voluntary) behaviour change. The case of folate., Appetite 58 (3) pp. 1014-1022 Elsevier
The objective of this study was to relate behaviour change mechanisms to nutritionally relevant behaviour and demonstrate how the different mechanisms can affect attempts to change these behaviours. Folate was used as an example to illuminate the possibilities and challenges in inducing behaviour change. The behaviours affecting folate intake were recognised and categorised. Behaviour change mechanisms from "rational model of man", behavioural economics, health psychology and social psychology were identified and aligned against folate-related behaviours. The folate example demonstrated the complexity of mechanisms influencing possible behavioural changes, even though this only targets the intake of a single micronutrient. When considering possible options to promote folate intake, the feasibility of producing the desired outcome should be related to the mechanisms of required changes in behaviour and the possible alternatives that require no or only minor changes in behaviour. Dissecting the theories provides new approaches to food-related behaviour that will aid the development of batteries of policy options when targeting nutritional problems.
SHEPHERD R, SMITH K, FARLEIGH CA (1988) RELATIVE-TO-IDEAL RATINGS AND THEIR RELATIONSHIP WITH HEDONIC AND INTENSITY RATINGS, CHEMICAL SENSES 13 (4) pp. 734-734 OXFORD UNIV PRESS
Towler G, Shepherd R (1992) Application of Fishbein and Ajzen's expectancy-value model to understanding fat intake., Appetite 18 (1) pp. 15-27
A questionnaire on attitudes towards the consumption of food types (specified by verbal labels) which contribute highly to fat in the diet was completed by 240 subjects who were quota sampled for sex, age and social class. The person's attitude toward consumption was found to be a good predictor of reported consumption. Differences in responses were found between groups of subjects who were classified by sex, age and social class. In general, females, the lower age groups and the higher social class subjects were found to have lower consumption and more negative attitudes towards the food types included. Individual belief-evaluation products on taste and healthiness of the foods were more closely related to attitudes towards consumption than were other beliefs (e.g. on convenience and price).
Shepherd R, Farleigh CA, Atkinson C, Pryor JS (1987) Effects of haemodialysis on taste and thirst., Appetite 9 (2) pp. 79-88
Fifteen patients undergoing haemodialysis tasted soup varying in salt concentration and apple puree varying in sucrose concentration, immediately before and after dialysis. Matched controls tasted the same foods with a similar interval between tastings. The samples were rated for intensity, and on a relative-to-ideal scale. For the salt, the slopes of the functions plotted against log (concentration) were higher after dialysis than before, whilst the most preferred concentration was lower. There were no effects found for the sweetness ratings or for the controls. Likewise there were no overall differences in the ratings between the patients and controls. Thirst was found to increase on dialysis, and there was a trend of this being higher for the patients than for the controls. The reduction in preferences for salt by dialysis would make compliance with a reduced salt diet easier, but the increase in thirst would make compliance with reduced fluid intake more difficult.
Dean M, Shepherd R, Arvola A, Vassallo M, Winkelmann M, Claupein E, Laehteenmaeki L, Raats MM, Saba A (2007) Consumer perceptions of healthy cereal products and production methods, JOURNAL OF CEREAL SCIENCE 46 (3) pp. 188-196 ACADEMIC PRESS LTD ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
Timotijevic L, Raats MM, Barnett J, Brown K, Shepherd R, Fernandez L, Domolki L, Ruprich J, Sonne A-M, Hermoso M, Koletzko B, Frost-Andersen L, Timmer A (2010) From micronutrient recommendations to policy: consumer and stakeholder involvement, EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION 64 pp. S31-S37 NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP
Towler G, Shepherd R (1990) Development of a nutritional knowledge questionnaire, Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics 3 (4) pp. 255-264
This paper describes the development and validation of a nutritional knowledge questionnaire. The questionnaire included a forced choice nutrient density section and multiple choice exercise. Two groups of respondents (group 1, nutrition professionals, n = 27; group 2, engineering undergraduates, n = 55) completed the questionnaire. Significant differences were found between group scores for each of the four nutrients (protein, carbohydrate, fat and fibre) and for the multiple choice (P
Shepherd R (2001) Healthier eating in the UK: the eating, food and health LINK programme, Trends in Food Science & Technology 12 (11) pp. 425-+
On page 425, Richard Shepherd outlines The Eating, Food and Health LINK Programme that aims to bring high quality science and its commercial application together. The programme is sponsored by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council, the Economic and Social Research Council, the government departments, and DEFRA and the DoH. Academic and industrial partners can come together to prepare proposals and bid for funding. Money from industry or certain charities is matched by public funds and the projects must aim improve diet and health in the UK. The research is centered on six inter-related themes; protective and beneficial components of the diet: physiological and psycho logical factors regulating appetite and energy balance; health, innovation and risk, understanding the factors determining food choice, changing demographics, labour markets and consumer demand; food chain 'shaping' of consumer decisions. The first eight projects, some of which relate to more than one theme, funded by the programme so far are described. Topics covered range from the iron status of vegetarians to the use of smart card technology to gather data on food choices. proposals are invited until 2003 and details of how to get more information about the programme are given.
Shepherd R, Farleigh CA, Pryor JS (1986) Changes in salt taste in dialysis and their relationship to blood constituents., Percept Mot Skills 62 (2) pp. 343-347
Taste sensitivity for sodium chloride in solution and sensitivity and preference for sodium chloride in bread were measured in 14 male patients undergoing hemodialysis. There was an increase in sensitivity to salt taste following dialysis only when assessed using the bread samples. Patients on a lower sodium diet were more sensitive to salt taste in bread. Although the taste changes were not related to the decreases in serum sodium or to copper, greater increases in sensitivity were related to greater increases in serum zinc during dialysis.
Raats MM, Shepherd R, Sparks P (2003) Consumer perceptions of risks associated with chemicals in foods, 11 (1)
Lucas J, Barnett J, Leftwich J, Muncer K, Grimshaw K, Shepherd R, Raats MM, Gowland MH (2011) How do peanut and nut-allergic consumers use information on the packaging to avoid allergens?, CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL ALLERGY 41 (12) pp. 1836-1836
Towler G, Shepherd R (1991) Modification of Fishbein and Ajzen's theory of reasoned action to predict chip consumption, Food Quality and Preference 3 (1) pp. 37-45
A questionnaire on consumption of a high-fat food item (chips) was completed by 288 subjects. This questionnaire was based in part on the Fishbein and Ajzen theory of reasoned action, but also included measures of habit and perceived behavioural control. In line with the theory of reasoned action, both the person's attitude and the subjective norm were found to be important predictors of reported consumption. Habit, but not perceived control, was also found to be an important predictor of intention and of behaviour. © 1992.
Dean M, Lahteenmaki L, Shepherd R (2011) Session 4: Getting balanced nutrition messages across Nutrition communication: consumer perceptions and predicting intentions, PROCEEDINGS OF THE NUTRITION SOCIETY 70 (1) pp. 19-25 CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS
JAMES P, STRICKER EM, UVNASMOBERG K, HAUTVAST J, BLUNDELL J, YORK DA, PISUNYER FX, ROSENBERG IH, BOOTH DA, VANITALLIE T, KNOLL J, BJORNTORP P, OLSON RE, ROLLS BJ, GARN SM, ROZIN P, KARE M, STUNKARD AJ, MACFIE HJH, SHEPHERD R (1990) 13TH MARABOU SYMPOSIUM - FACTORS INFLUENCING FOOD-INTAKE IN MAN - DISCUSSION, NUTRITION REVIEWS 48 (2) pp. 114-131 WILEY-BLACKWELL
SHEPHERD R (1989) EATING CHARACTERISTICS AND TEMPERAMENT - GENERAL MEASURES AND INTERRELATIONSHIPS - MEHRABIAN,A, BIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY 28 (2) pp. 193-195 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Brown KA, Timotijevic L, Barnett J, Shepherd R, Lähteenmäki L, Raats MM (2011) A review of consumer awareness, understanding and use of food-based dietary guidelines., British Journal of Nutrition 106 (1) pp. 15-26 Cambridge University Press
Food-based dietary guidelines (FBDG) have primarily been designed for the consumer to encourage healthy, habitual food choices, decrease chronic disease risk and improve public health. However, minimal research has been conducted to evaluate whether FBDG are utilised by the public. The present review used a framework of three concepts, awareness, understanding and use, to summarise consumer evidence related to national FBDG and food guides. Searches of nine electronic databases, reference lists and Internet grey literature elicited 939 articles. Predetermined exclusion criteria selected twenty-eight studies for review. These consisted of qualitative, quantitative and mixed study designs, non-clinical participants, related to official FBDG for the general public, and involved measures of consumer awareness, understanding or use of FBDG. The three concepts of awareness, understanding and use were often discussed interchangeably. Nevertheless, a greater amount of evidence for consumer awareness and understanding was reported than consumer use of FBDG. The twenty-eight studies varied in terms of aim, design and method. Study quality also varied with raw qualitative data, and quantitative method details were often omitted. Thus, the reliability and validity of these review findings may be limited. Further research is required to evaluate the efficacy of FBDG as a public health promotion tool. If the purpose of FBDG is to evoke consumer behaviour change, then the framework of consumer awareness, understanding and use of FBDG may be useful to categorise consumer behaviour studies and complement the dietary survey and health outcome data in the process of FBDG evaluation and revision.
Conner M, Povey R, Sparks P, James R, Shepherd R (2003) Moderating role of attitudinal ambivalence within the theory of planned behaviour, British Journal of Social Psychology 42 pp. 75-94
The present study examined the moderating role of attitudinal ambivalence within the theory of planned behaviour (TPB). Attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioural control (PBC), behavioural intentions and self-reported behaviour were assessed in relation to 20 healthy eating behaviours in a prospective questionnaire design in 232 members of the general public in the UK. Between-participants univariate and multivariate analyses indicated attitude-behaviour and PBC-behaviour relationships to be weaker in higher ambivalence compared to lower ambivalence respondents. These effects were confirmed in within-participants analyses. The findings are discussed in terms of the role of ambivalence in furthering our understanding of relationships in the TPB.
SHEPHERD R, FARLEIGH CA (1986) PREFERENCES, ATTITUDES AND PERSONALITY AS DETERMINANTS OF SALT INTAKE, HUMAN NUTRITION-APPLIED NUTRITION 40A (3) pp. 195-208 JOHN LIBBEY & CO LTD
Vassallo M, Saba A, Arvola A, Dean M, Messina F, Winkelmann M, Claupein E, Lahteenmaki L, Shepherd R (2009) Willingness to use functional breads. Applying the Health Belief Model across four European countries, APPETITE 52 (2) pp. 452-460 ACADEMIC PRESS LTD- ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
Jacobs C, Shepherd R (2006) Self regulatory based interventions in Irritable Bowel Syndrome ( IBS), PSYCHOLOGY & HEALTH 21 pp. 71-71 TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD
Shepherd R, Smith K, Farleigh C (1989) The relationship between intensity, hedonic and relative-to-ideal ratings, Food Quality and Preference 1 (2) pp. 75-80
Forty five subjects rated soup samples varying in salt concentration on three types of ratings, intensity, hedonic and relative-to-ideal. Estimates of the most preferred concentration for individual subjects from the hedonic and relative-to-ideal ratings correlated at r = 0.76 (P
Shepherd R (2005) Methods for assessing the role of moral influences on consumer decision-making on organic foods., In: U. Oltersdorf, E. Claupein, C. Pfau, Stiebel J (eds.), Consumer and Nutrition: Challenges and Chances for Research and Society pp. 50-56 Bundesforschungsanstalt für Ernährung und Lebensmittel
SPARKS P, SHEPHERD R, FREWER LJ (1995) ASSESSING AND STRUCTURING ATTITUDES TOWARD THE USE OF GENE TECHNOLOGY IN FOOD-PRODUCTION - THE ROLE OF PERCEIVED ETHICAL OBLIGATION, BASIC AND APPLIED SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY 16 (3) pp. 267-285 LAWRENCE ERLBAUM ASSOC INC
Loughridge JM, Walker AD, Sarsby H, Shepherd R (1989) Foods eaten outside the home: Nutrient contribution to total diet, Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics 2 (5) pp. 361-369
The National Food Survey provides a valuable supply of information on the intake of food and nutrients in the British diet (Derry and Buss, 1984), but is confined to food brought into the home. The present study examined nutrient contribution from foods eaten outside the home to the overall diet. Seventy subjects (35 males and 35 females), were selected from a local health centre register, using age and sex as criteria, and asked to keep a written record of everything consumed for three days. There was a very high percentage of all subjects eating out over the three days, but most of this food could be classed as 'casual', or of the 'non-meal' category i.e. snacks. Employment was a significant determinant of frequency of eating out. The food groups contributing more highly to nutrient intake away from home were meats, sugars and preserves, alcoholic beverages, fish and chips. Energy from sugar, measured as sugar density, was significantly higher in 'away' foods, but fibre density and protein as a percentage of energy was higher in foods eaten at home. The percentage energy from nutrients to total energy did not differ greatly when alcoholic beverages were excluded from the data, apart from redistribution of the energy from alcohol between the other nutrients. The results show that foods eaten outside the home are potentially significant contributors to total nutrient intake, and future research on 'out of home' eating habits would benefit from inclusion of nutritional analysis.
Petkov M, Dean M, Shepherd R (2008) Changing perceptions of risk along the food chain.,
SHEPHERD R, FARLEIGH CA, LAND DG (1984) THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SALT INTAKE AND PREFERENCES FOR DIFFERENT SALT LEVELS IN SOUP, APPETITE 5 (4) pp. 281-290 ACADEMIC PRESS LTD
Stubbs J, Whybrow S, Teixeira P, Blundell J, Lawton C, Westenhoefer J, Engel D, Shepherd R, Mcconnon A, Gilbert P, Raats M (2011) Problems in identifying predictors and correlates of weight loss and maintenance: implications for weight control therapies based on behaviour change, OBESITY REVIEWS 12 (9) pp. 688-708 WILEY-BLACKWELL
SHEPHERD R, STOCKLEY L (1985) FAT CONSUMPTION AND ATTITUDES TOWARDS FOOD WITH A HIGH-FAT CONTENT, HUMAN NUTRITION-APPLIED NUTRITION 39A (6) pp. 431-442 JOHN LIBBEY & CO LTD
Raats MM, Shepherd R (1991) An evaluation of the use and perceived appropriateness of milk using the repertory grid method and the 'item by use' appropriateness method, Food Quality and Preference 3 (2) pp. 89-100
The repertory grid method and the 'item by use' appropriateness method were used to study the place milk occupies within the diet, its perceived appropriateness and people's beliefs concerning different types of milk. The results of both methods suggest that consumers tend to find their most used type of milk suitable for all their uses of milk. In the repertory grid study the high-fat milk users separated the milks to a greater extent on 'taste/flavour', 'richness', and 'wateriness' whereas the low-fat milk users separated the milks to a greater extent on 'fat content', 'creaminess', 'richness', and 'healthiness'. In the 'item by use' appropriateness study high-fat milk users used no particular use-attribute to separate the milks, whereas the low-fat milk users separated the milks to a greater extent on 'when I want something low in calories', 'when I want something that contains little fat', and 'when on a diet'. © 1992.
FREWER LJ, SHEPHERD R, SPARKS P (1994) THE INTERRELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PERCEIVED KNOWLEDGE, CONTROL AND RISK ASSOCIATED WITH A RANGE OF FOOD-RELATED HAZARDS TARGETED AT THE INDIVIDUAL, OTHER PEOPLE AND SOCIETY, JOURNAL OF FOOD SAFETY 14 (1) pp. 19-40 WILEY-BLACKWELL
Timotijevic L, Barnett J, Brown K, Shepherd R, Fernandez-Celemin L, Domolki L, Ruprich J, Dhonukshe-Rutten RA, Sonne AM, Hermoso M, Koletzko B, Frost-Andersen L, Timmer A, Raats MM (2011) The process of setting micronutrient recommendations: A cross-European comparison of nutrition-related scientific advisory bodies., Public Health Nutrition 14 (4) pp. 716-728 Cambridge University Press
Objective To examine the workings of the nutrition-related scientific advisory bodies in Europe, paying particular attention to the internal and external contexts within which they operate.
Design Desk research based on two data collection strategies: a questionnaire completed by key informants in the field of micronutrient recommendations and a case study that focused on mandatory folic acid (FA) fortification.
Setting Questionnaire-based data were collected across thirty-five European countries. The FA fortification case study was conducted in the UK, Norway, Denmark, Germany, Spain, Czech Republic and Hungary.
Results Varied bodies are responsible for setting micronutrient recommendations, each with different statutory and legal models of operation. Transparency is highest where there are standing scientific advisory committees (SAC). Where the standing SAC is created, the range of expertise and the terms of reference for the SAC are determined by the government. Where there is no dedicated SAC, the impetus for the development of micronutrient recommendations and the associated policies comes from interested specialists in the area. This is typically linked with an ad hoc selection of a problem area to consider, lack of openness and transparency in the decisions and over-reliance on international recommendations.
Conclusions Even when there is consensus about the science behind micronutrient recommendations, there is a range of other influences that will affect decisions about the policy approaches to nutrition-related public health. This indicates the need to document the evidence that is drawn upon in the decisions about nutrition policy related to micronutrient intake.
SPARKS P, SHEPHERD R, WIERINGA N, ZIMMERMANNS N (1994) BARRIERS TO HEALTHY EATING - AN EXAMINATION OF PERCEIVED BEHAVIORAL-CONTROL AND UNREALISTIC OPTIMISM, APPETITE 23 (3) pp. 290-290 ACADEMIC PRESS LTD- ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
Dean M, Shepherd R (2007) Effects of information from sources in conflict and in consensus on perceptions of genetically modified food, FOOD QUALITY AND PREFERENCE 18 (2) pp. 460-469 ELSEVIER SCI LTD
SHEPHERD R, FARLEIGH CA, LAND DG (1984) EFFECTS OF STIMULUS CONTEXT ON PREFERENCE-JUDGEMENTS FOR SALT, PERCEPTION 13 (6) pp. 739-742 PION LTD
Senior V, Barnett J, Coyle A, Fife-Schaw C, Moran-Ellis J, Shepherd R, Sturgis P (2003) Psychological and social processes underlying public attitudes towards genomics., 11(2)
Antiliou G, Shepherd R, Timotijevic L, Mcconnon A, Stubbs J, Raats M, Lavin J, Whybrow S (2010) A study investigating aspects of control in successful maintenance of weight loss, PSYCHOLOGY & HEALTH 25 pp. 144-145 TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD
Shepherd R, Farleigh CA, Wharf SG (1989) Limited compensation by table salt for reduced salt within a meal., Appetite 13 (3) pp. 193-200
Sixteen subjects, all of whom had said in a preliminary questionnaire that they normally added table salt to foods, were fed standard meals in the laboratory over 10 days. The meals were identical, except that on 5 days the meal had no added salt (containing 0.46 g sodium chloride) or had salt added to a level of 5.09 g. They were allowed free access to salt pots with the meals and used an average of 1.40 g table salt with the unsalted meal and 0.36 g with the salted meal, thus compensating for 22% of the difference in salt content of the meal. There was no difference in water consumption between the two types of meal. Nutrient intake from the rest of the diet did not differ between periods with high and low salt meals. The failure to compensate more fully for reduced salt in the foods can be attributed to the greater availability of table salt for perception; less table salt than salt incorporated in the foods is therefore required. Reduction of salt concentrations in purchased foods would be unlikely to be fully replaced by the consumer adding table salt.
Shepherd R, Raats MM (2006) The Psychology of Food Choice, CABI
Shepherd R, Magnusson M, Sjoden PO (2005) Determinants of consumer behavior related to organic foods, Ambio 34 (4-5) pp. 352-359
There have been many studies of what influences consumers in their decisions to purchase or consume organic foods, mainly concerned with fresh organic foods. These show a discrepancy between attitudes and behavior with people being positive about organic foods but often not purchasing them. This discrepancy seems to be explained by the fact that consumers do not consider "organically produced" to be an important purchase criterion, that organic foods are not perceived to surpass conventional foods regarding taste and shelf life (two qualities rated to be of great importance), and because of the perceived premium prices of organic foods. In two Swedish studies, health benefits were demonstrated to be more strongly related to attitudes and behavior toward organic foods than were perceived environmental benefits. A new European Union (EU) project will investigate the influences on both fresh and processed organic foods and investigate the role of moral, ethical, and affective influences on choice across eight EU countries.
Scarborough P, Hodgkins CE, Raats MM, Harrington R, Cowburn G, Dean M, Doherty A, Foster C, Juszczak E, Matthews A, Mizdrak A, Ni Mhurchu C, Shepherd R, Tiomotijevic L, Winstone N, Rayner M (2015) Protocol for a pilot randomised controlled trial of an intervention to increase the use of traffic light food labelling in UK shoppers (the FLICC trial), Pilot and Feasibility Studies 1 (21) 21 BioMed Central

Background Traffic light labelling of foods?a system that incorporates a colour-coded assessment of the level of total fat, saturated fat, sugar and salt on the front of packaged foods?has been recommended by the UK Government and is currently in use or being phased in by many UK manufacturers and retailers. This paper describes a protocol for a pilot randomised controlled trial of an intervention designed to increase the use of traffic light labelling during real-life food purchase decisions.

Methods/design The objectives of this two-arm randomised controlled pilot trial are to assess recruitment, retention and data completion rates, to generate potential effect size estimates to inform sample size calculations for the main trial and to assess the feasibility of conducting such a trial. Participants will be recruited by email from a loyalty card database of a UK supermarket chain. Eligible participants will be over 18 and regular shoppers who frequently purchase ready meals or pizzas. The intervention is informed by a review of previous interventions encouraging the use of nutrition labelling and the broader behaviour change literature. It is designed to impact on mechanisms affecting belief and behavioural intention formation as well as those associated with planning and goal setting and the adoption and maintenance of the behaviour of interest, namely traffic light label use during purchases of ready meals and pizzas. Data will be collected using electronic sales data via supermarket loyalty cards and web-based questionnaires and will be used to estimate the effect of the intervention on the nutrition profile of purchased ready meals and pizzas and the behavioural mechanisms associated with label use. Data collection will take place over 48 weeks. A process evaluation including semi-structured interviews and web analytics will be conducted to assess feasibility of a full trial.

Discussion The design of the pilot trial allows for efficient recruitment and data collection. The intervention could be generalised to a wider population if shown to be feasible in the main trial.

Trial registration ISRCTN: ISRCTN19316955 webcite

McConnon Á, Raats MM, Shepherd R, Stubbs J (2009) Healthcare professionals? and dieters? attitudes and perceptions of obesity, Proceedings of the Nutrition Society (OCE7) 67 Cambridge University Press
Health professionals have a major role to play in addressing obesity and overweight in the general population1. Differences in beliefs and attitudes to obesity between healthcare providers and individuals attempting weight control are likely to act as a barrier in successful weight management. The aim of the present research was to investigate differences in attitudes and perceptions of obesity between healthcare providers and overweight and obese individuals. A web-based questionnaire designed to measure attitudes, perceptions, beliefs and barriers to successful weight control was developed. Healthcare participants were recruited through mailing lists of professional organisations for health professionals and students with an interest in obesity. Dieters were recruited via email advertisement sent out to companies in the Surrey Research Park, Guildford, UK. A five-point scale from 1 (not at all) to 5 (totally) was used, mean scores were produced. The questionnaire was completed by 283 health professionals and 116 dieters. The majority of the sample was female (82%) and married or living with a partner (70%). The data on beliefs about the causes of obesity were factor analysed and four factors were produced (see Table). Both groups believe that ?lifestyle factors? have the greatest role to play in causing obesity. These factors include unhealthy food choices, lack of exercise, food portion size and lack of self control. Significant differences were revealed between the groups for ?medical factors? and ?psychological factors?, with health professionals more likely than dieters to view psychological factors as important and dieters more likely to view ?medical factors? as an important cause of obesity. There was a significant difference (P £ 0.001) in beliefs about the effects of obesity, with health professionals reporting factors such as driving, going to the toilet, dressing, basic interpersonal interaction, family relationships, educational attainment and fertility, affect obesity more than dieters think they do. Differences in attitudes to a range of methods for dealing with obesity were revealed between the two samples. Health professionals were significantly more positive about surgery (mean score; health professionals 3.19, dieters 2.68; P
McConnon A, Raats MM, Shepherd R Investigation of weight-loss expectations and weight control in obesity, Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 69 Cambridge University Press
The aim of the present abstract is to report on obese individuals? weight-loss goals and factors influencing these goals. Current guidelines recommend a target weight loss of 5?10% of original weight for successful weight control(1). However, research has shown that this level is a great underestimation of what obese individuals consider as successful or acceptable weight loss(2). Unmet goals or expectations in weight control can lead to negative behaviours and psychological profiles, and ultimately abandonment of weight-control efforts. Data reported here were collected as part of the EU 6th Framework project DiOGenes, a dietary intervention trial investigating the effectiveness of high- and low-GI and -protein diets on weight maintenance, following a rapid weight-loss period, in an obese cohort. Participants were asked to indicate their target weight in kilograms in a questionnaire completed at the screening phase. A target weightloss score was then calculated by subtracting self-reported target weight from baseline weight. Target weight-loss scores ranged from + 11 kg to - 88.6 kg and were highly correlated with baseline weight (r - 0.73, P
Hodgkins CE, Raats MM, Fife-Schaw CR, Peacock M, Groeppel-Klein A, Koenigstorfer J, Wasowicz G, Stysko-Kunkowska M, Gulcan Y, Kustepeli Y, Gibbs M, Shepherd R, Grunert K (2015) Guiding healthier food choice: systematic comparison of four front-of-pack labelling systems and their effect on judgements of product healthiness, British Journal of Nutrition 113 (10) pp. 1652-1663 Cambridge University Press
Different front-of-pack (FOP) labelling systems have been developed in Europe by industry and organisations concerned with health promotion. A study (n 2068) was performed to establish the extent to which inclusion of the most prevalent FOP systems--guideline daily amounts (GDA), traffic lights (TL), GDA+TL hybrid (HYB) and health logos (HL)--impact consumer perceptions of healthiness over and above the provision of a FOP basic label (BL) containing numerical nutritional information alone. The design included within- and between-subjects factors. The within-subjects factors were: food (pizzas, yogurts and biscuits), healthiness of the food (high health, medium health and low health) and the repeated measurements under BL and test FOP label conditions. The between-subjects factors were: the system (GDA, TL, GDA+TL hybrid, HL), portion size (typical portion size and a 50% reduction of a typical portion) and country (the UK, Germany, Poland and Turkey). Although the FOP systems tested did result in small improvements for objective understanding under some conditions, there was little difference between the provision of an FOP label containing basic numerical nutritional information alone or between the various systems. Thus, any structured and legible presentation of key nutrient and energy information on the FOP label is sufficient to enable consumers to detect a healthier alternative within a food category when provided with foods that have distinctly different levels of healthiness. Future research should focus on developing greater understanding of the psychological and contextual factors that impact motivation and the opportunity to use the various FOP systems in real-world shopping settings.
Harrington Richard A, Scarborough Peter, Hodgkins Charo, Raats Monique M, Cowburn Gill, Dean Moira, Doherty Aiden, Foster Charlie, Juszczak Edmund, Ni Mhurchu Cliona, Winstone Naomi, Shepherd Richard, Timotijevic Lada, Rayner Mike (2019) A pilot randomised controlled trial of a digital intervention aimed at improving food purchasing behaviour: the Front of pack Labels Impact on Consumer Choice (FLICC) study, JMIR Formative Research Journal of Medical Internet Research

Background: Most food in the UK is purchased in supermarkets and many of these purchases are routinely tracked through supermarket loyalty card data. Using such data may be an effective way to develop remote public health interventions and to measure objectively their effectiveness at changing food purchasing behaviour.

Objectives: The FLICC study is a pilot randomised controlled trial of a digital behaviour change intervention. This pilot trial aimed to collect data on recruitment and retention rates and to provide estimates of effect sizes for the primary outcome (healthiness of ready meals and pizzas purchased) to inform a larger trial.

Methods: The intervention consisted of a website where participants could access tailored feedback on previous purchases of ready meals and pizzas, set goals, model behaviour and practice using traffic light labels. The control consisted of web-based information on traffic light labelling. Participants were recruited via email from a list of loyalty card holders held by the participating supermarket. All food and drink purchases for the participants for the six months prior to recruitment, during the six week intervention period and during a twelve week wash out period were transferred to the research team by the participating supermarket. Healthiness of ready meal and pizzas was measured using a pre-developed scale based solely on the traffic light colours on the foods. Questionnaires were completed at recruitment, end of intervention and end of wash out to estimate the effect of the intervention on variables that mediate behaviour change (e.g. belief and intention formation).

Results: We recruited 496 participants from an initial email to 50,000 people. Only three people withdrew from the study and purchase data were received for all other participants. 208 participants completed all three questionnaires. There was no difference in the healthiness of purchased ready meals and pizzas between the intervention and control arms either during the intervention period (P = 0.315) or at wash-out (P = 0.594).

Conclusions: Whilst the FLICC study did not find evidence of an impact of the intervention on food purchasing behaviour, the unique methods used in this pilot trial are informative for future studies that plan to use supermarket loyalty card data in collaboration with supermarket partners. The experience of the trial showcases the possibilities and challenges associated with the use of loyalty card data in public health research.