Roland Clift

Professor Roland Clift


Emeritus Professor of Environmental Technology
CBE, MA, PhD, FREng, FIChemE, FRSA, HonFCIWEM
+44 (0)1483 689271
35 BA 01

Academic and research departments

Centre for Environment and Sustainability.

Biography

University roles and responsibilities

  • Emeritus - research and p/g supervision

Research

Research interests

Research collaborations

My publications

Publications

Hospido A, Mila i Canals L, McLaren S, Truninger M, Edwards-Jones G, Clift R (2009) The role of seasonality in lettuce consumption: a case study of environmental and social aspects, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT 14 (5) pp. 381-391 SPRINGER HEIDELBERG
Morris K, Allen RWK, Clift R (1986) Adhesion of cakes to filter media., IN: 4TH WORLD FILTRATION CONGRESS, PROC. PART I, (OSTEND, BELGIUM: APR. 22-25, 1986), R. VANBRABANT; J. HERMIA; R.A. WEILER ( 8 )
To model the behaviour of a fabric filter it is essential to be able to predict the amount of cake removed as a result of the force applied to the filter medium by a cleaning pulse. Experimental measurements were made of the fraction of cake removed as a function of the force exerted by an impulse tester designed to simulate the conditions experienced in the pulse jet filter. These experiments showed that the force required to remove a given quantity of cake depends upon the areal cake density. The nature of this dependence was predicted from theoretical consideration of the role of adhesion and cohesion forces, assuming that the cake breaks away in spalls of a regular shape and uniform size. These concepts allowed the construction of a 'characteristic curve' which describes the behaviour of a given cake and fabric combination. (A)
CLIFT R (1978) Bubbles, Drops, and Particles 171 Academic Press
Clift R, Hoskins B (2005) Energy and climate change mission possible, TCE (770) pp. 21-25 INST CHEMICAL ENGINEERS
Staff TEC, Hodgson S, Cowell SJ, Clift R (1997) Manager's Introduction to Product Design and the Environment,
Wrisberg N, De Udo Haes HA, Clift R, Frischknecht R, Grisel L, Hofstetter P, Jensen AA, Lindfors LG, Schmidt-Bleek F, Stiller H (1997) European network for strategic life-cycle assessment research and development: A strategic research programme for life cycle assessment, International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 2 (2) pp. 71-72
Clift R (1997) V.C. Marshall, 1990, the social acceptability of the chemical and process industries: A proposal for an integrated approach, Trans IChemE, 68 (part B): 83-93. Commentary, CHEMICAL ENGINEERING RESEARCH & DESIGN 75 pp. S6-S6 INST CHEMICAL ENGINEERS
Clift R, Earl G (1999) Environmental Performance: What is it worth?, In: Charter M, Polonsky MJ (eds.), Greener marketing pp. 255-274
Weston N, Clift R, Holmes P, Basson L, White N (2011) Streamlined Life Cycle Approaches for Use at Oil Refineries and Other Large Industrial Facilities, Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research 50 (3) pp. 1624-1636
Sustainable development requires decision making to incorporate multiple criteria, including environmental impacts based upon life cycle thinking. Within the oil industry, the application of life cycle approaches has tended to focus upon policy and corporate level, strategic decisions with concerns over the resource, and time demands precluding their application at the tactical/refinery level. Following a review of streamlined life cycle approaches, the authors have addressed these concerns by outlining a new approach that is tailored to suit decisions at the tactical level in oil refineries and is accessible to process engineers. Using a real problem at an oil refinery as a case study, this approach has been developed in greater depth and the application of life cycle thinking has been shown to aid the generation of alternatives and to provide the decision maker with valuable insights that can be considered alongside social and economic criteria. It is anticipated that this approach could facilitate the uptake of life cycle thinking at oil refineries, with potential applications at other large industrial facilities.
Clift R, Ghadiri M, Thambimuthu K (1981) Filtration of gases in fluidised beds.,
This review concentrates of the fundamental processes occurring in fluidized filters especially when concerned with the removal of gases by filtration. (from paper)
DAAE E, CLIFT R (1994) A LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF THE IMPLICATIONS OF PAPER USE AND RECYCLING, 1994 ICHEME RESEARCH EVENT, VOLS 1 AND 2 pp. 305-307 INST CHEMICAL ENGINEERS
MUSMARRA D, POLETTO M, VACCARO S, CLIFT R (1995) DYNAMIC WAVES IN FLUIDIZED-BEDS, POWDER TECHNOLOGY 82 (3) pp. 255-268 ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA LAUSANNE
Clift R (1993) Pollution & Waste Management 1 : Cradle to Grave Analysis, Science in Parliament 50 (3) pp. 29-32
Geyer R, Davis J, Ley J, He J, Clift R, Kwan A, Sansom M, Jackson T (2007) Time-dependent material fl{ligature}ow analysis of iron and steel in the UK. Part 1: Production and consumption trends 1970-2000, Resources, Conservation and Recycling 51 (1) pp. 101-117
This paper presents a detailed account of the supply chain for iron and steel in the UK, using material fl{ligature}ow analysis. Due to the lack of a universally agreed methodology of material fl{ligature}ow analysis, we include an explanation of the accounting methodology employed in the study. Data for the supply chain has been collected reaching back three decades, enabling analysis of trends in production and consumption of iron and steel over the years. This fi{ligature}rst part of a series of two papers quantifi{ligature}es the iron and steel fl{ligature}ows through the UK economy including the annual amount of iron and steel embodied in all fi{ligature}nal goods that enter the use phase in the UK. The second part explores the more elusive fl{ligature}ows of scrap generation and recycling. In this fi{ligature}rst paper we show that the UK no longer has the capacity to recycle the scrap it collects and is increasingly relying on foreign economies to do so. We also observe that trade in iron and steel products and ferrous metal containing fi{ligature}nal goods has increased dramatically over the years, but remained relatively balanced. Today, one-half of UK's iron and steel production is exported, whereas one-half of the iron and steel entering the UK use phase comes from imported fi{ligature}nal goods. The efficiency with which the UK iron and steel industry transforms iron ore and scrap into iron and steel products has increased substantially. However, there is no significant downward trend in the absolute level of iron and steel use in the UK. Between 1970 and 1981 the annual amount of steel put to use dropped from 16.4 to 10.7 million metric tonnes but climbed back up to 15 million metric tonnes twice since then. © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hart A, Clift R, Riddlestone S, Buntin J (2005) Use of life cycle assessment to develop industrial ecologies - A case study - Graphics paper, PROCESS SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION 83 (B4) pp. 359-363 INST CHEMICAL ENGINEERS
Clift R (1995) Disposable Assets - if you care for the environment don't recycle newsprint, Times Higher Eductaion Supplement
TUOT J, CLIFT R (1972) HEAT-EXCHANGE IN FLUIDIZED-BED, CHIMIE AND INDUSTRIE GENIE CHIMIQUE 105 (15) pp. C51-&
Ghadiri M, Seville JPK, Clift R (1986) The use of fluidised beds to filter gases at high temperatures., IN: GAS CLEANING AT HIGH TEMPERATURE SYMP., (GUILDFORD, U.K.: SEP. 16-18, 1986), RUGBY, U.K., INST. CHEM. ENGRS, 1986, PAPER (99 ))
The filtration efficiency of a shallow fluidized bed of silica sand has been measured at 800DEGREESC and 1000DEGREESC for redispersed fly ash from a fluidized combustor and char fines from the NCB fluidized gasifier. Efficiency is much higher for fly ash, because of better retention due to stronger adhesion forces, but the filtration of both dusts is limited by retention on the surface of the collector. Retention can be enhanced by addition of a liquid retention aid to the collector, or by operating under conditions where the dust is sufficiently soft to experience better adhesion. For fly ash complete retention is achieved by operating the filter at 1000DEGREESC, near the sintering point of the ash. For gasifier fines retention is improved substantially by using heavy fuel oil as a retention aid, but further development is needed to improve efficiency towards the theoretical limit of collection.
Grace JR, Johnsson JE, Clift R, Nyugen TH (1976) Prediction of bubble distributions in freely-bubbling three-dimensional fluidized beds., IN: FLUIDIZATION TECHNOLOGY, PROC. INT. FLUIDIZATION CONF., (PACIFIC GROVE, U.S.A.: JUN.15-20, 1975), KEAIRNS, D.L. (ED.). 1 , Washington, U.S.A., Hemisphere Publishing Corp., 1976 pp. 205-214
The authors present a mechanistic approach in which the motion and coalescence of all bubbles in the bed are calculated to give full information on the temporal and spatial distributions of bubbles. (from paper)
Geyer R, Jackson T, Clift R (2002) Economic and environmental comparison between recycling and reuse of structural steel sections, STEEL IN SUSTAINABLE CONSTRUCTION: IISI WORLD CONFERENCE 2002, CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS pp. 13-18 INT IRON AND STEEL INST
CLIFT R (1978) Bubbles, Drops and Particles 195 Academic Press
Clift R, Audsley A, Alber S, Cowell S, Crettaz P, Gaillard G, Hausheer J, Jolliet O, Kleijn R, Mortensen B, Pearce D, Roger E, Teulon H, Weidema B, van Zeijts H (1997) Harmonisation of Environmental Life Cycle Assessment for Agriculture, Silsoe Research Institute
Clift R, Earl G, Moilanen T (1998) Reducing the Uncertainty in Environmental Investments: Integrating stakeholder values into corporate decisions, In: Bennett M, James P (eds.), The Green Bottom Line: Environmental Management Accounting - Current Practice and Future Trends pp. 236-257 Greenleaf Publications
This volume brings together research and best practice case studies on the topic of environmental accounting for management.
Wrisberg N, Haes HAUD, Clift R, Triebswetter U, Eder P (2002) Analytical tools for environmental design and management in a systems perspective, Kluwer Academic Publishers
The aim of this book is to link demand and supply of environmental information in the field of Life Cycle Management.
Jackson T, Clift R (1998) Where?s the Profit in lndustrial Ecology?, Journal of Industrial Ecology 2 1 pp. 3-5 MIT Press
Clift R (2007) Sustainable fuel or folly?, Freight Transport Review 15 pp. 24-25
Clift R (1997) Clean technology - The idea and the practice, JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY AND BIOTECHNOLOGY 68 (4) pp. 347-350 WILEY-BLACKWELL
CLIFT R (1995) PERSONAL COMMENTS, POWDER TECHNOLOGY 83 (1) pp. R5-R5 ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA LAUSANNE
Clift R (2012) Going Public: Risk, Trust and Public Understanding of Nanotechnologies, In: Hunt G, Mehta M (eds.), Nanotechnology: Risk, Ethics and Law pp. 196-212 Routledge
Geoffrey Hunt first developed an interest in nanotechnology in late 2002 when planning a visit to Japan to discuss the ethical implications of technological futures, and he put forward a tentative overview of nanotechnological possibilities in a ...
HAILU L, PLAKA F, CLIFT R, DAVIDSON JF (1993) MEASUREMENT OF GAS-FLOW THROUGH A 2-DIMENSIONAL BUBBLE IN A FLUIDIZED-BED, CHEMICAL ENGINEERING RESEARCH & DESIGN 71 (A4) pp. 382-389 INST CHEMICAL ENGINEERS
The difficulties in predicting the frictional energy gradient for pipeline flow of settling slurries are well known. Whenever possible, it is desirable to carry out tests on a representative sample of the material to be conveyed, and scale the results to other pipe sizes. This paper presents a mechanistic approach to scaling tests results, based on the physical processes of solid trnapsort identified in the work of Newitt, Shook and Wilson. A basic distinction is drawn between solids conveyed in pseudo-homogeneous suspension, and solids stratified at higher concentration in the lower part of the pipe. The suspended and non-suspended solids are assumed to contribute independently to the friction gradient, in a fashion characterised by material constants which depend on the slurry under consideration. The proportion of solids conveyed as stratified load is taken to vary with mixture velocity in the general manner proposed by Wilson. The tests were designed to determine the material constants which describe the variation of pressure drop with mixture velocity in heterogeneous flow. The approach is illustrated by results obtained for three settling slurries of foundry sand, masonry sand and crusted granite, in horizontal pipes of diameter 0.20 m and 0.44 m (8 inch and 18 inch nominal). In each case, the validity of the scaling method is demonstrated. (A)
HOFFMANN AC, VANSANTEN A, ALLEN RWK, CLIFT R (1992) EFFECTS OF GEOMETRY AND SOLID LOADING ON THE PERFORMANCE OF GAS CYCLONES, POWDER TECHNOLOGY 70 (1) pp. 83-91 ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA LAUSANNE
Azapagic A, Clift R (1999) Erratum: Linear programming as a tool in life cycle assessment (International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 3:6 (308)), International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 4 (2)
SIMONS SJR, SEVILLE JPK, CLIFT R, GILBOY WB, HOSSEINIASHRAFI ME (1993) APPLICATION OF GAMMA-RAY TOMOGRAPHY TO GAS-FLUIDIZED AND SPOUTED BEDS, TOMOGRAPHIC TECHNIQUES FOR PROCESS DESIGN AND OPERATION pp. 227-238 COMPUTATIONAL MECHANICS PUBLICATIONS LTD
COURY J, RAPER JA, GUANG D, CLIFT R (1991) MEASUREMENT OF ELECTROSTATIC CHARGE ON GAS-BORNE PARTICLES AND THE EFFECT OF CHARGES ON FABRIC FILTRATION, PROCESS SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION 69 (B2) pp. 97-106 INST CHEMICAL ENGINEERS
HORIO M, CLIFT R (1992) A NOTE ON TERMINOLOGY - CLUSTERS AND AGGLOMERATES, POWDER TECHNOLOGY 70 (3) pp. 196-196 ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA
CLIFT R (1991) THE ANALYSIS OF PRESSURE-FLUCTUATIONS IN A 2-DIMENSIONAL FLUIDIZED-BED - CLOSURE, POWDER TECHNOLOGY 68 (3) pp. 290-291 ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA LAUSANNE
Sinclair P, Cohen B, Hansen Y, Basson L, Clift R (2015) Stakeholder engagement within the sustainability assessment of bioenergy: Case studies in heat, power and perennial and annual crops from the UK, Biomass and Bioenergy 73 pp. 11-22
© 2014 The Authors.The growth of the fledgling UK bioenergy sector is characterised by the slow development of the market and supply chains for biomass, resulting in part from potential market entrants' and other stakeholders' unfamiliarity with its emerging technologies, and in part from lack of coherent policy support. The nature of the sector demands mutually reinforcing activity on local, regional and national scales. TSEC-Biosys is a consortium research project that addresses the development of the sector from economic, environmental, social, regulatory and policy perspectives. A participatory sustainability assessment framework is being developed and tested, based on systems thinking and approaches and using stakeholder engagement methods derived from Multiple Criterion Decision Analysis (MCDA). A series of case studies and workshops is being used to test the framework. The participatory processes involve producers, consumers, other stakeholders, members of the public, experts, regulators and policy-makers. We describe here the initial development of sustainability criteria and attributes from local focus groups on (1) woodfuel for heat and co-firing for electricity generation, held in the county of Yorkshire, and (2) perennial and annual energy crops for heat and electricity generation, held in the county of Dorset. During the focus groups, issues of concern, objectives, and sustainable development evaluation criteria for emerging bio-energy systems, as well as barriers and drivers to the development of the sector were elicited from the participants. The workshops revealed that some chains are resource-driven (i.e. the availability of the resource is the driver for supply chain development), while others are demand-driven. Considerable variations in issues of concern, objectives and evaluation criteria were found between the focus group cases and among the participants in each subgroup. Although the information gathered aided the development of the emerging sustainability assessment framework, it is concluded that with such a diversity in perceptions and perspectives among stakeholders more creative and possibly novel approaches to problem structuring (including techniques for problem identification and system description) are required. Subsequent work on this project has thus focussed on the development of (1) problem structuring processes to enable actions from descriptions, and (2) ways of describing actions within "narratives" or storylines.
Azapagic A, Clift R (2000) Allocation of environmental burdens in co-product systems: Process and product-related burdens (Part 2), International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 5 (1) pp. 31-36
ISO 14041 requires that allocation by physical causality must reflect the quantitative changes in product outputs or functions and will not necessarily be in proportion to simple physical measure such as mass. This paper examines the instances where physical causality can be represented by mass. However, it also goes further than ISO to demonstrate that the type of causality in the system is not necessarily always the same and can change depending on the way the system is operated. Whole system modelling and the marginal allocation approach are used to identify the correct type of causality for different operating states of the system and the corresponding changes in the environmental burdens. This is generally not possible with the other allocation methods, also examined in this paper. Both process- and product-related burdens are considered and the approach is illustrated by a reference to an existing system producing five boron co-products.
Clift R (1993) Formation of US particle technology forum, Powder Technology 74 (2)
Seville JPK, Clift R, Withers CJ, Keidel W (1989) Rigid ceramic media for filtering hot gases,
The construction of a ceramic bonded-fibre nonwoven fabric (Cerafil 12H10) is described and its performance in the filtration of hot gases generated by a pyrolytic incinerator treating contaminated soil is evaluated.
O'Brien M, Doig A, Clift R (1996) Social and environmental life cycle assessment (SELCA): Approach and methodological development, International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 1 (4) pp. 231-237
Social and Environmental Life Cycle Assessment (SELCA) is an analytical tool for profiling and evaluating the interaction between the social and technological systems within the life cycle of given service. Environmental Life Cycle Assessment (ELCA) and Social Life Cycle Assessment (SLCA) are undertaken with their own objectives using independent methodologies. Integrating the outcomes of the two assessments provides more comprehensive and insightful descriptions of the potential impacts of a life cycle, including the key social factors through which the life cycle is sustained and modified. The SELCA approach is outlined using the examples of two fuel cycles of coal and waste in energy-generation. There are some methodological issues in combining ELCA and SLCA which we highlight in order to encourage further work on the integration of environmental and social processes in LCA.
Nicholas M, Azapagic A, Clift R (1998) IPPC and Producer Responsibility- A Possible Way to ?Embed? Industrial Ecology?, Journal of Industrial Ecology 2 4 pp. 4-6 MIT Press
Seville J, Cheung W, Clift R (1989) Patchy-cleaning interpretation of dust cake release from non-woven fabrics, Filtration and Separation 26 (3)
In reverse-flow cleaning of cakes deposited on porous filters, the pressure drop induced across the cake at the point of its detachment is the cleaning stress, ie the tensile stress which must be applied to overcome adhesion of the cake to the medium or the cohesion of the cake itself. A thicker cake requires a smaller pressure gradient for removal and therefore less cleaning gas flow and less pressure drop through the medium itself. Provided that true surface filtration occurs, the cleaning stress should be independent of cake areal mass. J. Sievert and F. Loeffler's data for a singed polyester needlefelt suggests that this is indeed so, and that the cleaning stresses induced by reverse-flow cleaning are close to those required if the filter is cleaned by mechanically-induced acceleration.
Clift R, GRACE J, SOLLAZZO V (1974) CONTINUOUS SLUG FLOW IN VERTICAL TUBES, JOURNAL OF HEAT TRANSFER-TRANSACTIONS OF THE ASME 96 (3) pp. 371-376 ASME-AMER SOC MECHANICAL ENG
Evangelisti S, Lettieri P, Borello D, Clift R (2014) Life cycle assessment of energy from waste via anaerobic digestion: A UK case study, Waste Management 34 (1) pp. 226-237
Particularly in the UK, there is potential for use of large-scale anaerobic digestion (AD) plants to treat food waste, possibly along with other organic wastes, to produce biogas. This paper presents the results of a life cycle assessment to compare the environmental impacts of AD with energy and organic fertiliser production against two alternative approaches: incineration with energy production by CHP and landfill with electricity production. In particular the paper investigates the dependency of the results on some specific assumptions and key process parameters. The input Life Cycle Inventory data are specific to the Greater London area, UK. Anaerobic digestion emerges as the best treatment option in terms of total CO and total SO saved, when energy and organic fertiliser substitute non-renewable electricity, heat and inorganic fertiliser. For photochemical ozone and nutrient enrichment potentials, AD is the second option while incineration is shown to be the most environmentally friendly solution. The robustness of the model is investigated with a sensitivity analysis. The most critical assumption concerns the quantity and quality of the energy substituted by the biogas production. Two key issues affect the development and deployment of future anaerobic digestion plants: maximising the electricity produced by the CHP unit fuelled by biogas and to defining the future energy scenario in which the plant will be embedded. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
DUO W, SEVILLE JPK, KIRKBY NG, CLIFT R (1995) PATCHY CLEANING OF FILTER CAKES AND ITS INFLUENCE ON DRY SCRUBBING OF ACID GASES - A SIMULATION, 1995 ICHEME RESEARCH EVENT - FIRST EUROPEAN CONFERENCE FOR YOUNG RESEARCHERS IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING, VOLS 1 AND 2 pp. 547-549 INST CHEMICAL ENGINEERS
GHADIRI M, MARTIN CM, MORGAN JEP, CLIFT R (1992) AN ELECTROMECHANICAL VALVE FOR SOLIDS, POWDER TECHNOLOGY 73 (1) pp. 21-35 ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA LAUSANNE
CLIFT R (1978) Bubbles, Drops and Particles pp. 169-202 Academic Press
Azapagic A, Perdan S, Clift R (2004) Sustainable Development in Practice: Case Studies for Engineers and Scientists, Wiley
Seville JPK, Cheung W, Clift R (1989) Patchy-cleaning interpretation of dust-cake release from nonwoven fabrics,
Results obtained previously by other research workers are used to show that the stress which must be imposed on a dust cake in order to detach it is independent of cake loading and that this stress level is consistent with the stress required to detach the cake by mechanically-induced acceleration. See also abstract 1988/559.
Zhang S, Bi XT, Clift R (2015) Life cycle analysis of a biogas-centred integrated dairy farm-greenhouse system in British Columbia, Process Safety and Environmental Protection 93 pp. 18-30
© 2013 The Institution of Chemical Engineers. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.This study investigates the potential integration of a dairy farm and a greenhouse into an eco-industrial system to promote waste-to-energy and waste-to-material exchanges. Natural gas consumption is substituted by renewable biogas generated from anaerobic digestion (AD) of the dairy manure; CO2 for plant enrichment in greenhouses is supplied by biogas combustion and the digestate (digestion residue) from digesters is used as animal bedding, plant growing media and liquid fertilizers. A life cycle analysis (LCA) was conducted to quantify the environmental impacts of the eco-industrial system in comparison to the conventional agriculture practices. The results show that the integrated system reduces non-renewable energy consumption, climate change impact, acidification, respiratory effects from organic emissions, and human toxicity by more than 40%. If the digestate surplus is treated as a waste, the integrated system shows an increase in eutrophication and respiratory effects from inorganic emissions while all the analyzed impacts are reduced if the digestate can be used for substituting chemical fertilizers.
Clift R (1994) Action and Pro-Action, The Chemical Engineer: the essential magazine for the chemical and process industries 574
CLIFT R (1978) Bubbles Drops, and Particles Academic Press
Clift R (1996) Powder technology and particle science, POWDER TECHNOLOGY 88 (3) pp. 335-339 ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA LAUSANNE
Clift R (2005) Biomass, Heat and Biofuels - Examples of Policy Issues in Developing IE, ISIE News 5 (3)
DUO W, SEVILL JPK, KIRKBY NF, CLIFT R (1994) FORMATION OF PRODUCT LAYERS IN SOLID-GAS REACTIONS FOR REMOVAL OF ACID GASES, CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SCIENCE 49 (24A) pp. 4429-4442 PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
Clift R, Eagles E, Gilmore AB, Sarangi JDDN, Wehrmeyer W, Murray VSG (2001) Acute Chemical Incidents Involving Fuel: Developing Best Practice Guidance, Public Health Medicine (3)
Tuot J, Clift R (1975) Titanium Carbide Production in Electrothermic Fluidized Bed., Int Round Table on Study and Appl of Transp Phenom in Therm Plasmas, Conf Proc, Odeillo, Fr, Sep 12-16 1975
New method of production from TiO//2 and graphite in various reactor types is described in equation form.
Sim S, Barry M, Clift R, Cowell SJ (2007) The relative importance of transport in determining an appropriate sustainability strategy for food sourcing, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT 12 (6) pp. 422-431 ECOMED PUBLISHERS
Clift R (1993) Life cycle assessment and ecolabelling, Journal of Cleaner Production 1 (3-4) pp. 155-159
Ecolabelling is intended to provide a mechanism for conveying information to consumers on products within broad classes of goods which meet tight standards for environmental impact, and to manufacturers or retailers on targets for reducing environmental impact. Therefore life cycle assessment (LCA) is used to identify the most significant environmental impacts, as a basis for defining a minimum number of simple criteria for award of an ecolabel. This process introduces a number of problems which do not always aruse in other applications of LCA. This paper identifies some of the practical difficulties in carrying LCA through to ecolabel criteria, and summarizes some of the solutions being adopted. Specific areas of concern are definition of the functional unit, definition of 'cradle' and 'grave' in the context of different disposal and recycling practices throughout the European community, sourcing of raw materials, and validation, especially of imported goods. © 1993.
CLIFT R (1978) Bubbles, Drops, and Particles 380 Academic Press
Clift R, Sinclair P, Johnsson F (2006) Windows of Opportunity, Parliamentary Monitor (section Energy) 141 (July/August) pp. 47-47
CLIFT R, PRITCHAR C, NEDDERMA R (1966) EFFECT OF VISCOSITY ON FLOODING CONDITIONS IN WETTED WALL COLUMNS, CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SCIENCE 21 (1) pp. 87-& PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
Clift R, Lopez PI, Cripps A, Jefferis S (2010) The use of operational waste benchmarks to estimate waste quantities and composition for waste strategies and to assess environmental performance of building developments within cities, Communications in Waste and Resource Management 1 pp. 28-34
GRACE J, CLIFT R (1979) DEPENDENCE OF SLUG RISE VELOCITY ON TUBE REYNOLDS-NUMBER IN VERTICAL GAS-LIQUID FLOW, CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SCIENCE 34 (11) pp. 1348-1350 PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
Brandão M, Clift R, Cowie A, Greenhalgh S (2014) The Use of Life Cycle Assessment in the Support of Robust (Climate) Policy Making: Comment on "Using Attributional Life Cycle Assessment to Estimate Climate-Change Mitigation", Journal of Industrial Ecology 18 (3) pp. 461-463
GHADIRI M, SEVILLE JPK, CLIFT R (1993) FLUIDIZED-BED FILTRATION OF GASES AT HIGH-TEMPERATURES, CHEMICAL ENGINEERING RESEARCH & DESIGN 71 (A4) pp. 371-381 INST CHEMICAL ENGINEERS
Clift R, GRACE J, WEBER M (1976) STABILITY OF BUBBLES IN FLUIDIZED-BEDS, INDUSTRIAL & ENGINEERING CHEMISTRY FUNDAMENTALS 15 (1) pp. 87-87 AMER CHEMICAL SOC
Farrokhalaee T, Clift R (1980) Mechanistic prediction of bubble properties in freely-bubbling fluidised beds.,
The approach developed by Nguyen et al, for predicting bubble behaviour in beds of Geldart's particles has been modified to enable application to beds of larger scale. The model predicts that the size and spatial distribution of bubbles at any level above the distributor is dependent on the bed depth above that level. (from author's abstract)
Addis EJ, Bagshaw W, Napier BA, Rogers EA, Rafailidis S, Clift R (1991) Experimental study of bubble formation and flow in coal-fired fluidised bed combustors, Proceedings of the International Conference on Fluidized Bed Combustion 2 pp. 763-770
The British Coal Corporation and the University of Surrey, England, are collaborating to develop a model to describe the bubbling behaviour of a fluidised bed combustor. The model is based on the Clift and Grace model of bubble interaction and coalescence, but is being extended to incorporate the effect of heat transfer tubes in the bed. As in any such model, a necessary boundary condition is the size, frequency and sequence of bubbles forming at the distributor. Relatively little data on bubble formation is reported in the literature, especially under conditions such as those obtaining in a combustor where a cold gas stream enters a hot bed. This paper reports an experimental investigation of bubble formation in a 0.3m square atmospheric pressure coal-fired combustor. The distributor comprised nine vertical 'standpipes', ie capped tubes with horizontal radial holes. A 150mm diameter silica window was mounted in the bed wall to enable high-speed video tape recording of the formation of bubbles at one of the standpipes. Transient gas flow and pressure in three of the standpipes were measured and related to bubble formation. The work was undertaken to provide some elucidation of the mechanisms of bubble formation from standpipe distributors and also some of the information necessary for algorithms to simulate the air distributor in the model.
Clift R (2004) What a waste!, Materials Today 7 (2)
The waste reduction as an alternative to recovery and recycling of the wastes was discussed. It was suggested that agricultural waste and energy crops should be used as solid waste and biomass, in energy plants. Use of agricultural waste is expected to reduce the waste stream and replace it with energy crops. In packaging sector, environmentally-friendly, lightweight packaging was also emphasized.
Clift R Application of Life Cycle Assessment to Waste Management,
Clift R (2006) Reactions: Wind worries, Chemical Engineer (779)
George Plester's letter on the problem of intermittency in electrical supply from wind has been overstated. The generation and distribution system is designed to cope with rapid unpredictable changes in demand, so it can cope with slower and predictable changes in supply from one particular source. With regards to geographical averaging, the variations in output are damped on a UK-wide scale. It is a mistake to see any energy source in isolation from others in the system. For example, CHP plant can provide a spinning reserve with the power output variable to back-up variable souces like wind. The overall conclusion should look at the whole ssytem and how individual components fit into it.
RAFAILIDIS SV, CLIFT R (1990) MODELING IN PARALLEL WITH TRANSPUTERS OF BUBBLE FLOWS IN FLUIDIZED-BEDS, PARALLEL PROCESSING IN ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS pp. 43-54 COMPUTATIONAL MECHANICS PUBLICATIONS LTD
Clift R (2003) Metrics for supply chain sustainability, Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy 5 pp. 240-247 - 240-247 Springer Berlin / Heidelberg
Clift R, Sprent J, Ekins P (2008) Climate Change: The Need to Alter our Patterns of Energy Generation and Use, In: Galbraith CA (eds.), Energy and the Natural Heritage pp. 5-16 Scottish Natural Heritage
Clift R Public Sector Decisions and the Limits on Technological Assessment,
DUO W, SEVILL JPK, KIRKBY NF, CLIFT R (1995) FORMATION OF PRODUCT LAYERS IN SOLID-GAS REACTIONS FOR REMOVAL OF ACID GASES (VOL 49, PG 4429, 1994), CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SCIENCE 50 (11) pp. 1849-1849 PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
Clift R, Druckman A (2015) Introduction: The Industrial Ecology Paradigm, In: Clift R, Druckman A (eds.), Taking Stock of Industrial Ecology Springer
Godfrey MA, Kwasowski P, Clift R, Marks V (1992) A sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of staphylococcal protein A (SpA) present as a trace contaminant of murine immunoglobulins purified on immobilized protein A., J Immunol Methods 149 (1) pp. 21-27
A specific non-competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been developed for detecting and quantifying protein A (SpA), present as a trace contaminant of therapeutic murine monoclonal antibodies (McAb) purified on immobilized SpA preparations. The assay employs a microtitration plate system, in which affinity-selected chicken anti-SpA antibodies from the egg yolks of immunized hens provide a specific capture antibody, followed by the addition of standards or sample with a McAb concentration of 1 mg/ml, in conditions unfavourable for Fc binding, and finally an affinity-selected rabbit anti-SpA peroxidase label. The working range of this assay is between 0.5 and 10.0 ng/ml (CV less than 5%), with a lower limit of detection of 0.2 ng/ml (CV less than 10%). This assay was used to evaluate SpA leakage when purifying a serum-free murine IgG1 cell culture supernatant using SpA immobilized on agarose (Protein A-Sepharose CL-4B) or controlled pore glass (Prosep A, high capacity). These gave average antibody SpA contamination levels of 6.7 +/- 1.6 and 2.4 +/- 0.5 (mean +/- SD) parts per million respectively.
LEGROS R, MILLINGTON CA, CLIFT R (1994) DRYING OF TOBACCO PARTICLES IN A MOBILIZED BED, DRYING TECHNOLOGY 12 (3) pp. 517-543 MARCEL DEKKER INC
Clift R, Solberg-Johansen B, Yule L Life Cycle Assessment of Nuclear Fuel Processing and Reprocessing,
Wright E, Azapagic A, Mellor W, Clift R, Stevens G (2003) Improving recyclability by design - a fibre optic cable case study, DESIGN AND MANUFACTURE FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT 2003 pp. 247-256 PROFESSIONAL ENGINEERING PUBLISHING LTD
Clift R, France C (2006) Extended Producer Responsibility in the EU - A visible march of folly, JOURNAL OF INDUSTRIAL ECOLOGY 10 (4) pp. 5-7 M I T PRESS
Munoz I, Mila i Canals L, Clift R (2012) Consider a Spherical Man: A Simple Model to Include Human Excretion in Life Cycle Assessment of Food Products. Journal of Industrial Ecology (vol 12, pg 521, 2010), JOURNAL OF INDUSTRIAL ECOLOGY 16 (2) pp. 286-286
Clift R (1991) Particulate technology,
Clift R, Cowell S, Doig A A Case Study in Allocation vs. System Extension,
Clift R, Agnew J, Darton R, Guy K, Lefroy G (2003) Commentary on the Visions, In: Darton R, Wood D, Prince R (eds.), Chemical Engineering: Visions of the World pp. 117-125 Elsevier Science
This book presents six visionary essays on the past, present and future of the chemical and process industries, together with a critical commentary.
Clift R, Davey A, Earl G (1999) Driving Environmental Strategy with Stakeholder Preferences - A Case Study of the University of Surrey, In: Filho WL (eds.), Sustainability and university life: Environmental Education, Communication and Sustainability pp. 47-66 Peter Lang Pub Inc
Clift R (2006) Sustainable development and its implications for chemical engineering, CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SCIENCE 61 (13) pp. 4179-4187 PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
CLIFT R (1987) THE FUTURE TEACHING AND EMPLOYMENT OF CHEMICAL-ENGINEERS, CHEMICAL ENGINEER-LONDON (443) pp. 45-48 INST CHEMICAL ENGINEERS
CLIFT R, GRACE J (1970) BUBBLE INTERACTION IN FLUIDIZED BEDS, 66 (105) pp. 14-27
In order to analyze the motion of interacting bubbles in a fluidized bed, it is postulated that the velocity of a bubble may be approximated by adding to its rise velocity in isolation the velocity which the continuous phase would have at the position of the nose if the bubble were absent. This principle is applied to the coalescence of two bubbles on a common vertical line and found to agree quantitatively with experimental measurements obtained both by the authors and by other workers.
Michaelis P, Jackson T, Clift R (1998) Exergy analysis of the life cycle of steel, ENERGY 23 (3) pp. 213-220 PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
Elghali L, Cowell SJ, Begg KG, Clift R (2006) Support for sustainable development policy decisions - A case study from highway maintenance, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT 11 pp. 29-39 ECOMED PUBLISHERS
Pritchard C, Martin D, Clift R, Seaman M (2005) So what does "sustainable" mean then?, TCE (772) pp. 38-38 INST CHEMICAL ENGINEERS
YUREGIR KR, GHADIRI M, CLIFT R (1987) IMPACT ATTRITION OF SODIUM-CHLORIDE CRYSTALS, CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SCIENCE 42 (4) pp. 843-853 PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
Clift R (1988) Editorial, Powder Technology 54 (1)
Brandao M, Mila i Canals L, Clift R (2011) Soil organic carbon changes in the cultivation of energy crops: Implications for GHG balances and soil quality for use in LCA, BIOMASS & BIOENERGY 35 (6) pp. 2323-2336 PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
YUREGIR KR, GHADIRI M, CLIFT R (1986) OBSERVATIONS ON IMPACT ATTRITION OF ANTIGRANULOCYTES SOLIDS, POWDER TECHNOLOGY 49 (1) pp. 53-57 ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA LAUSANNE
WILSON KC, CLIFT R, ADDIE GR, MAFFETT J (1990) EFFECT OF BROAD PARTICLE GRADING ON SLURRY STRATIFICATION RATIO AND SCALE-UP, POWDER TECHNOLOGY 61 (2) pp. 165-172 ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA LAUSANNE
Clift R (1994) ACTION AND PRO-ACTION, CHEMICAL ENGINEER-LONDON (574) pp. S3-S3 INST CHEMICAL ENGINEERS
Clift R Rapporteur's Summary from Proceedings,
Clift R, Cowell SJ, Hodgson SB (1998) Teamworking for Environmental Excellence in a University Context, In: Moxen J, Strachan PA (eds.), Managing green teams: Concepts and Cases pp. 131-144 Greenleaf Pubns
Clift R, Cowell SJ Impact Assessment for LCAs involving Agricultural Procution,
Withers CJ, West AA, Twigg AN, Courtney RS, Seville JPK, Clift R (1990) Improvements in the performance of ceramic media for filtration of hot gases, Filtration and Separation 27 (1)
The filtration of coal derived gases at high temperatures and pressures (HTHP) affords the potential for increased efficiency from advanced power systems such as the British Coal gasification based 'Topping Cycle'. Rigid porous silicon carbide filters are amongst the most successful HTHP filters tested to date but questions about their long term durability remain unanswered. An alternative low density, high porosity fibrous ceramic filter medium has been developed and successfully tested on fuel gas at a filtration velocity of 0.1ms-1 and temperature of 950°C. Materials performance appeared adequate for this duty but longer duration tests will be required to confirm long term durability.
Clift R (1996) Life Cycle Assessment and its application to process design and waste management, 1996 ICHEME RESEARCH EVENT - SECOND EUROPEAN CONFERENCE FOR YOUNG RESEARCHERS IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING, VOLS 1 AND 2 pp. 3-5 INST CHEMICAL ENGINEERS
Clift R (2007) Time to leave the process sandpit, Chemical Engineer (793) pp. 21-22
Ronald Clift shares his views about chemical engineering and consider it as an intellectual discipline and approach to problem solving. Many important applications of chemical engineering as a discipline lie outside the process plant. The author is interested in the new applications of chemical engineering thinking which should be embraced as part of the discipline. Mckay modeling is an essential, basic tool for analyzing the dispersion and reaction of pollutants in the environment. Mckay modeling is recognized as an application of chemical reaction engineering to environmental flows. Lifecycle assessment (LCA) and material flow accounting (MFA) are the two tools which are used in the new conceptual approach, which has become known as industrial ecology (IE). The challenge for the professional institutions is to involve chemical engineers working outside the traditional industry and to give them reasons to remain in active membership.
Azapagic A, Clift R (1995) Life cycle assessment and linear programming environmental optimisation of product system-, Computers & Chemical Engineering 19, Supplement 1 0 pp. 229 - 234-229 - 234
CLIFT R, CHEUNG L, GRACE J, DO TH (1972) GAS AND SOLIDS MOTION AROUND DEFORMED AND INTERACTING BUBBLES IN FLUIDIZED-BEDS, JOURNAL OF FLUID MECHANICS 51 (JAN11) pp. 187-& CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS
DUO W, KIRKBY NF, SEVILLE JPK, CLIFT R (1993) MODELING OF DRY SCRUBBING OF ACID GASES IN FILTER CAKES, 1993 INCINERATION CONFERENCE: PROCEEDINGS pp. 207-212 1993 INCINERATION CONFERENCE
CLIFT R (1993) FORMATION OF UNITED-STATES PARTICLE TECHNOLOGY FORUM, POWDER TECHNOLOGY 74 (2) pp. R9-R9 ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA LAUSANNE
Farrokhalaee T, Clift R (1980) Mechanistic prediction of bubble properties in freely-bubbling fluidised beds.,
The approach developed by Nguyen et al. (1975) for predicting bubble behaviour in beds of Geldart's (1973) Group B particles has been modified to enable application to beds of larger scale. The model predicts that the size and spatial distribution of bubbles at any level above the distibutor is dependent on the bed depth above that level. Davidson and Harrison's (1963) expression for bubble rise velocity in freely-bubbling beds fortuitously gives a good estimate for the overall mean velocity of interacting and coalescing bubbles.
CLIFT R, GRACE J (1972) MECHANISM OF BUBBLE BREAK-UP IN FLUIDIZED-BEDS, CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SCIENCE 27 (12) pp. 2309-& PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
Clift R, Perdan S, Azapagic A (2000) Teaching sustainable development to engineering students, International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education 1 (3) pp. 267-279
Seville J, Clift R, Withers C, Keidel W (1989) Rigid ceramic media for filtering hot gases, Filtration and Separation 26 (4) pp. 265-271
A new generation of gas filter media is becoming available, based on rigidly bonded ceramic granules or fibres, and suitable for high-temperature duty. This paper outlines the main considerations in selecting and applying such a medium. Pressure drop through a 'virgin' medium is readily predictable from simple tests at ambient conditions. Behaviour on 'conditioning' over many cycles of filtration and cleaning can be determined by a simple 'coupon test', which shows the range of filter velocities which can be used and the cleaning action needed. Low-density media have some advantages, and this paper concentrates on one such medium which has been found to have good performance: Cerafil 12H10, formed as a bonded mat of synthetic ceramic fibres. It is currently supplied as cylindrical candles, but other geometries are under development. Experience in using Cerafil to filter gases generated by a pyrolytic incinerator treating contaminated soil is outlined.
CLIFT R (1978) Bubbles Drops and particles 117 Academic Press
GRACE J, CLIFT R (1974) COALESCENCE OF BUBBLE PAIRS IN A 3-DIMENSIONAL FLUIDIZED-BED, CANADIAN JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING 52 (3) pp. 417-419 CANADIAN SOC CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
Dennison FJ, Azapagic A, Clift R, Colbourne JS (1999) Life Cycle Assessment: Comparing strategic options for the mains infrastructure - Part I, WATER SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY 39 (10-11) pp. 315-319 PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
Nicholas M, Clift R, Azapagic A, Walker F, Porter D (2000) Determination of 'best available techniques' for integrated pollution prevention and control: A life cycle approach, PROCESS SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION 78 (B3) pp. 193-203 INST CHEMICAL ENGINEERS
BEYZAVI K, HAMPTON S, KWASOWSKI P, FICKLING S, MARKS V, CLIFT R (1987) COMPARISON OF HORSERADISH-PEROXIDASE AND ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE-LABELED ANTIBODIES IN ENZYME IMMUNOASSAYS, ANNALS OF CLINICAL BIOCHEMISTRY 24 pp. 145-152 ROYAL SOC MEDICINE SERVICES LTD
Clift R, Freire F, Williams E, Azapagic A, Stevens G, Mellor W (2002) Life Cycle Activity Analysis: A Case Study of Plastic Panels, In: Thore SAO (eds.), Technology Commercialization pp. 323-352 Springer
The heart of the book is a detailing of the analytical methods-with special, but not exclusive emphasis on DEA methods-for evaluating and ranking the most promising R & D and technical innovation being developed.
Clift R, Morgan N, Smith G (2000) Pipe dreams, Chemistry in Britain 36 (4) pp. 36-41
Clift R (2005) Climate change and energy policy: The importance of sustainability arguments, Proceedings of ECOS 2005, Vols 1-3 pp. 11-18 NORWEGIAN UNIV SCI TECHNOL
Lee J, Keller E, Mila a Canals L, King H, Clift R (2013) Agri-food certification schemes: how do they address greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, Greenhouse Gas Measurement and Management Taylor and Francis
Clift R (2006) wind worries, TCE (780) pp. 62-62 INST CHEMICAL ENGINEERS
Clift R (2004) Metrics for Supply Chain Sustainability, In: Sikdar S, Glavi
P, Jain R (eds.), Technological Choices for Sustainability
pp. 239-253 Springer Verlag
The objective of the book is to critically evaluate current scientific work on defining the issue of sustainability and on measuring progress towards a sustainable state.
Clift R (2011) Sustainable consumption and supportable investment, Journal of Industrial Ecology 15 (5) pp. 648-650
Azapagic A, Clift R (1999) Allocation of environmental burdens in co-product systems: Product- related burdens (Part 1), International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 4 (6) pp. 357-369
This paper uses an industrial case study of a boron system producing five co-products to examine different allocation methods recommended by ISO 14041 and compare them with the allocation methods most commonly used by LCA practitioners. In particular, allocation by physical causality is discussed. The paper illustrates how the use of whole system modelling can help to identify the correct type of causality for allocation. The case examined here concerns marginal changes of product-related parameters in the system, in this case represented by the output of boron co-products. The analysis shows that in some cases it can be correct to allocate the burdens on the basis of a simple physical quantity, such as mass, as long as the allocation parameter is based on physical causation and is not chosen arbitrarily. In whole system modelling, the correct causality is identified by the model itself, so that the possibility of allocation by an arbitrary parameter is avoided. However, as for system disaggregation and expansion, allocation through mathematical modelling may only be possible if detailed data for the system are available.
Canals LMI, Clift R, Basson L, Hansen Y, Brandao M (2006) Expert workshop on land use impacts in life cycle assessment (LCA), INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT 11 (5) pp. 363-368 ECOMED PUBLISHERS
Earl G, Clift R (1999) Stakeholder value analysis: a methodology for intergrating stakeholder values into corporate enviromental investment decisions, Business Strategy and the Environment 8 3 pp. 149-162 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Evangelisti S, Lettieri P, Clift R, Borello D (2014) Distributed generation by energy from waste technology: A life cycle perspective, Process Safety and Environmental Protection
Municipal Solid Waste in general and its organic fraction in particular is a potential renewable and non-seasonal resource. In this work, a life cycle assessment has been performed to evaluate the environmental impacts of two future scenarios using biogas produced from the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) to supply energy to a group of dwellings, respectively comprising distributed generation using solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) micro-CHP systems and condensing boilers. The London Borough of Greenwich is taken as the reference case study. The system is designed to assess how much energy demand can be met and what is the best way to use the digestible waste for distributed energy purposes. The system is compared with two alternative scenarios fuelled by natural gas: a reference scenario, where the electricity is supplied by the grid and the heat is supplied from condensing boilers, and a fuel cell micro-CHP system. The results show that, although OFMSW alone can only supply between 1% and 4% of the total energy demand of the Borough, a saving of
Elghali L, Clift R, Begg KG, McLaren S (2008) Decision support methodology for complex contexts, PROCEEDINGS OF THE INSTITUTION OF CIVIL ENGINEERS-ENGINEERING SUSTAINABILITY 161 (1) pp. 7-22 THOMAS TELFORD PUBLISHING
Thambimuthu KV, Tan BKC, Clift R (1980) Mechanisms of steady filtration of gases in packed beds., IN: PROC. INT. SYMP. ON SOLIDS SEPARATION PROCESSES, (DUBLIN, EIRE: APR. 1980), RUGBY, U.K., INST. CHEM. ENGRS., 1980, SESSIO (231 ).)
Correlations for the efficiency of removal of dust from a gas by Brownian diffusion, inertial deposition, gravitational settling, and direct interception in a fixed bed of spherical granular collector particles are applied to predicting the performance of a packed bed filter. The results clarify the difference between filtration of sub-micron particles and particles larger than 1MUm. Filter efficiency is shown to be dependent on operating temperature, with pressure exerting a much weaker effect. (A)
Clift R (1993) Burn or Recycle? An Example of Life Cycle Analysis, Competitive Edge (3) pp. 14-15
Rice G, Clift R, Burns R (1997) LCA software review: Comparison of currently available European LCA software, International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 2 (1) pp. 53-59
Twelve of the main European LCA software packages currently available are examined with the aim of establishing which are the most appropriate for LCAs on industrial processes. The packages performances are assessed in terms of Volume of Data Windows" environment Network Capabilities Impact Assessment Graphical representation of the inventory results Sensitivity analysis Units Cost User Support Flow Diagrams Burdens allocation Transparency of data Input & output parameters Demo version Quality of data The review concludes with a Specification Table which summarises the facilities available on each software package. The general conclusion from this study is that for industrially based LCAs, there are four packages which may offer advantages over the rest. These are The Boustead Model, The Ecobilan Group's TEAM", PEMS 3.0 and SimaPro 3.1.
Azapagic A, Clift R, Cowell SJ, Lamb J (1996) Environmental management of product system - Application of multiobjective linear programming to life cycle assessment, 1996 ICHEME RESEARCH EVENT - SECOND EUROPEAN CONFERENCE FOR YOUNG RESEARCHERS IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING, VOLS 1 AND 2 pp. 558-560 INST CHEMICAL ENGINEERS
CLIFT R (1978) Bubbles Drops and particles pp. 121-124 Academic Press
Azapagic A, Clift R (1999) Life cycle assessment and multiobjective optimisation, Journal of Cleaner Production 7 (2) pp. 135-143
Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a method to identify and quantify the environmental performance of a process or a product from "cradle to grave". Its main potential in environmental decision-making lies in providing a quantitative basis for assessing potential improvements in environmental performance of a system throughout the life cycle. This paper introduces the use of multiobjective system optimisation in LCA as a tool for identifying and evaluating the best possible options for environmental management of the product system. A life cycle of a system is optimised on a number of environmental objective functions, defined in terms of the usual LCA burden or impact categories, and a range of environmental optima is found on the Pareto or non-inferior surface. As a result, possibilities for improving the environmental performance of the system are identified. Since system improvements cannot be carried out on the basis of environmental LCA only, it is also shown in this paper that the compromise between environmental and economic performance can be found on the non-inferior surface. The value of multi objective optimisation in system analysis lies in providing a set of alternative options for system improvements rather than a single prescriptive solution, thus enabling the choice of the Best Practicable Environmental Option (BPEO) and Best Available Technique Not Entailing Excessive Cost (BATNEEC). This approach is illustrated by application to a real case study of a system producing five borate products. © 1999 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
CLIFT R (1993) Gas Cleaning at High Temperatures Blackie
Theis TL, Bakshi BR, Clift R, Durham D, Fthenakis VM, Gutowski TG, Isaacs JA, Seager T, Wiesner MR (2012) Erratum: A life cycle framework for the investigation of environmentally benign nanoparticles and products [Phys. Status Solidi RRL 5, No. 9, 312-317 (2011)], Physica Status Solidi - Rapid Research Letters 6 (2)
The name of a further author and contributor to this work, Roland Clift, has been added to the author list of the article in agreement with all co-authors. It had been inadvertently omitted from the original version of the paper. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Levasseur A, Brandão M, Lesage P, Margni M, Pennington D, Clift R, Samson R (2012) Valuing temporary carbon storage, Nature Climate Change 2 (1) pp. 6-8
Cowell SJ, Clift R (1997) Impact assessment for LCAs involving agricultural production, International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 2 (2) pp. 99-103
LCA has been developed primarily for industrial production systems. Application to agricultural systems requires systematic application of existing methodology and new methodological developments. Conventional approaches can obscure potential options for improving the environmental performance of systems involving agricultural production due to use of restricted system boundaries, incomplete assessment of impacts, and exclusion of ancillaries from the analysis. For use of nutrients such as phosphorus, it is proposed that Impact Assessment should be based on the quantity dispersed after use rather than on the input to the productive system. Eventually, the impacts associated with depletion should be based on technological or thermodynamic assessment of concentration for reuse, but this approach requires further theoretical development.
Clift R (1994) Preface, Powder Technology 78 (2) pp. 107-?
CLIFT R, RAFAILIDIS S (1993) INTERPARTICLE STRESS, FLUID PRESSURE, AND BUBBLE MOTION IN GAS-FLUIDIZED BEDS, CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SCIENCE 48 (9) pp. 1575-1582 PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
Clift R (2001) Clean Technology and Industrial Ecology, In: Harrison RM (eds.), Pollution - Causes, Effects and Control pp. 411-444
The book has been widely adopted for teaching purposes at the undergraduate and postgraduate level.
CLIFT R (1978) Bubbles, Drops, and Particles 111 Academic Press
Koch D, Seville J, Clift R (1996) Dust cake detachment from gas filters, POWDER TECHNOLOGY 86 (1) pp. 21-29 ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA LAUSANNE
Morris K, Allen R, Clift R (1987) Adhesion of cakes to filter media,
Experimental measurements were made of the fraction of cake removed from a polyester needled filter fabric as a function of the force exerted by an impulse tester designed to simulate the conditions experienced in a pulse-jet filter.
Wilson KC, Addie GR, Clift R (1992) Slurry transport using centrifugal pumps,
Topics covered in 'Slurry Transport using Centrifugal Pumps' include a review of fluid and particle mechanics, the principles of slurry flow, force-balance analysis of particle motion and deposition, heterogeneous slurry flow in horizontal pipes, vertical and inclined slurry flow, non-Newtonian slurry flow, the performance and testing of centrifual pumps, the effects of solids on pump performance, wear in pumps and pipelines, components of slurry systems, system design and operability and practical experience with slurry systems. (A.P.)
Dennison F, Azapagic A, Clift R, Colbourne J (1998) Assessing management options for wastewater treatment works in the context of life cycle assessment, WATER SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY 38 (11) pp. 23-30 PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
Clift R, Mitchell CA, Carew AL (2004) The Role of the Professional Engineer and Scientist in Sustainable Development, In: Azapagic A, Perdan S (eds.), Sustainable Development in Practice: Case Studies for Engineers and Scientists pp. 29-55 Wiley
Taking a life cycle approach to addressing economic, environmental and social issues, the book presents a series of new practical case studies drawn from a range of sectors, including mining, energy, food, buildings, transport, waste, and ...
SADD PA, LAMB JA, CLIFT R (1992) THE EFFECT OF SURFACTANTS ON HEAT AND MASS-TRANSFER TO WATER DROPS IN AIR, CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SCIENCE 47 (17-18) pp. 4415-4424 PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
Wright E, Azapagic A, Stevens G, Mellor W, Clift R (2005) Improving recyclability by design: a case study of fibre optic cable, RESOURCES CONSERVATION AND RECYCLING 44 (1) pp. 37-50 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
GRACE J, CLIFT R (1974) 2-PHASE THEORY OF FLUIDIZATION, CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SCIENCE 29 (2) pp. 327-334 PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
Clift R, Lloyd S (2008) Nanotechnology: A new organism in the industrial ecosystem?, Journal of Industrial Ecology 12 (3) pp. 259-262
Castell A, Clift R, France C (2004) Extended producer responsibility policy in the european union: A horse or a camel?, Journal of Industrial Ecology 8 (1-2) pp. 4-7
CLIFT R (1970) Proc. Chemeca'70 1
Clift R (2006) Risk management and regulation in an emerging technology, Nanotechnology: Risk, Ethics and Law pp. 140-153 EARTHSCAN PUBLICATIONS LTD
CLIFT R (1971) FORMATION OF GAS CLOUDS IN FLUIDIZED-BEDS, CANADIAN JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING 49 (6) pp. 876-& CANADIAN SOC CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
Subzwari MP, Clift R, Pyle DL (1978) BUBBLING BEHAVIOUR OF FLUIDIZED BEDS AT ELEVATED PRESSURES., pp. 50-54
The behaviour of cracking catalyst with mean size 60 mu m fluidized by air at pressure from 1 to 7 bars was observed by cinephotography in a two-dimensional column. A series of runs was performed with constant gas superficial velocity. The size and number of bubbles passing through the bed decreased markedly as the pressure was increased, the change being most marked around 4 bars. The decrease in bubble flow rate was accompanied by an increase in the void fraction of the particulate phase. The dominant mechanism of bubble splitting at all pressures was by division from the roof, and the maximum stable bubble size decreased with increasing pressure.
Clift R, Malcolm R, Baumann H, Connell L, Rice G (2005) Eco-labels and electric monks, Journal of Industrial Ecology 9 (3) pp. 4-7
SolbergJohansen B, Clift R, Jeapes A (1997) Environmental life cycle assessment of the nuclear fuel cycle, 1997 JUBILEE RESEARCH EVENT, VOLS 1 AND 2 pp. 137-140 INST CHEMICAL ENGINEERS
CLIFT R (1993) MASSIMILLA,LEOPOLDO (1930-1993) - OBITUARY, POWDER TECHNOLOGY 76 (3) pp. R5-R6 ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA LAUSANNE
Clift R, Azapagic A, Duff C (2004) Waste Water Management: Identifying Sustainable Processes, In: Azapagic A, Perdan S (eds.), Sustainable Development in Practice: Case Studies for Engineers and Scientists pp. 60-88 Wiley
Taking a life cycle approach to addressing economic, environmental and social issues, the book presents a series of new practical case studies drawn from a range of sectors, including mining, energy, food, buildings, transport, waste, and ...
Clift R Waste Treatment Processes I,
Cederberg C, Persson UM, Neovius K, Molander S, Clift R (2011) Including Carbon Emissions from Deforestation in the Carbon Footprint of Brazilian Beef, ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY 45 (5) pp. 1773-1779 AMER CHEMICAL SOC
Mellor W, Wright E, Clift R, Azapagic A, Stevens G (2002) A mathematical model and decision-support framework for material recovery, recycling and cascaded use, CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SCIENCE 57 (22-23) PII S0009-2509(02)00282-8 pp. 4697-4713 PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
Clift R, Azapagic A, Duff C (2004) Integrated Prevention and Control of Air Pollution: The Case of Nitrogen Oxides, In: Azapagic A, Perdan S (eds.), Sustainable Development in Practice: Case Studies for Engineers and Scientists pp. 85-117 Wiley
Taking a life cycle approach to addressing economic, environmental and social issues, the book presents a series of new practical case studies drawn from a range of sectors, including mining, energy, food, buildings, transport, waste, and ...
Jamieson S, Hilbron R, Rice G, Clift R, Wehrmeyer W (2004) A practical approach to implementing CSR in the electronics industry: Global supply chain management focusing on corporate social responsibility, Electronics Goes Green 2004 (Plus): Driving Forces for Future Electronics, Proceedings pp. 591-596 FRAUNHOFER IRB VERLAG
Arena N, Sinclair P, Lee J, Clift R (2016) Life cycle engineering of production, use and recovery of self-chilling beverage cans, Journal of Cleaner Production
The chill-on-demand system is a new technology designed to provide cooled products on demand, thereby avoiding chilled storage. It uses the cooling effect provided by endothermic desorption of carbon dioxide previously adsorbed onto a bed of activated carbon and has the potential to be applied to any type of product that needs to be cold at the point of consumption. The principles of life cycle engineering have been utilized to evaluate the overall environmental performance of one possible application of this technology: a self-chilling beverage can, with a steel outer can to contain the beverage and an inner aluminium can to contain the adsorbent.

An attributional life cycle assessment has been undertaken considering all the life cycle stages of a self-chilling can: manufacture of each part of the beverage container, its utilization, collection of the used can, and management of the waste by reuse, recycling and landfilling. Activated carbon production is included in detail, to assess its contribution to the overall life cycle. The results are compared with those for conventional aluminium and steel beverage cans stored in two types of retail chiller: a single door refrigerator and a large open-front cooler. A sensitivity analysis explores alternative scenarios for activated carbon production and for recovery of the can components post-use for reuse or recycling. The results highlight the importance of using activated carbon produced from biomass by a process with efficient use of low-carbon electrical energy, energy recovery from waste streams and appropriate air pollution control, and of achieving high rates of recovery, re-use and recycling of the cans after use. The results suggest limited markets into which the product might be introduced, particularly where it would displace inefficient chilled storage in an electricity system with a high proportion of coal-fired generation.

Clift R (2004) Metrics for supply chain sustainability, TECHNOLOGICAL CHOICES FOR SUSTAINABILITY pp. 239-253 SPRINGER-VERLAG BERLIN
COURY J, THAMBIMUTHU KV, CLIFT R (1987) CAPTURE AND REBOUND OF DUST IN GRANULAR BED GAS FILTERS, POWDER TECHNOLOGY 50 (3) pp. 253-265 ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA
Clift R, Lloyd S (2008) Nanotechnology, Journal of Industrial Ecology 12 3 pp. 259-262 Blackwell Publishing Inc
Clift R (2007) Don't bury your head in the nanostuff, NANOMEDICINE 2 (3) pp. 267-270 FUTURE MEDICINE LTD
Clift R, Azapagic A (1999) The application of Life Cycle Assessment to process selection, design and operation, TOOLS AND METHODS FOR POLLUTION PREVENTION 62 pp. 69-84 SPRINGER
Evans PL, Seville JPK, Clift R (1989) Mobilisation of cohesive particles in a novel spouted bed,
A novel spouted bed was developed, suitable for the processing of large light particles subject to substantial cohesion or interparticle attraction. The bed is caused to spin about a vertical axis by the addition of gas through jets at the wall. A torque balance on the bed enables the minimum gas flow rate for rotation to be estimated. (A)
Clift R, Filla M, Massimilla L (1976) Gas and particle motion in jets in fluidized beds, International Journal of Multiphase Flow 2 (5-6) pp. 549-561
Entrainment of solid particles by gas jets discharged downwards through slotted nozzles into bubble-free beds of fluidized particles is considered. The gas flow in the jet is calculated for irrotational flow, using a correlation established previously for slot opening as a function of operating variables. The momentum boundary layer thickness and shear stress at the horizontal interface between jet and particles are then calculated by integral boundary layer analysis. The calculated shear stress distributions are consistent with measurements of the momentum of bed particles caused to saltate by the jet, and explain the dependence of particle movement on the various operating variables. The results provide a direct confirmation of a hypothesis due to Owen on the mechanism of saltation. © 1976.
Clift R (1995) The New Industrial Ecology, In: Castle JE, Kelly MJ (eds.), Advanced materials in the marketplace pp. 129-143 Woodhead Pub Ltd
Clift R (1998) Engineering for the environment: The new model engineer and her role, Process Safety and Environmental Protection 76 (2) pp. 151-160
Although 'Sustainable Development' is invoked in current political and environmental debates, the concept has eluded precise definition. In general terms, 'sustainability' means working within three sets of constraints: techno-economic, environmental and social. Traditionally, engineering has been concerned with techno-economic issues. Explicit recognition of environmental and social issues has led to the way of thinking called Clean Technology, and to the use of more holistic analytical tools including Life Cycle Assessment. Howeover, it is argued here that a paradigm shift is needed in the way engineering skills and knowledge are used, as inputs to deliberative processes which go beyond techno-economic decisions. The need for this new paradigm is illustrated by the waste management sector, which is increasingly seen as needing the skills of the 'New Model' chemical engineer. © Institution of Chemical Engineers.
Clift R, Ghadri M, Thambimuthu K (1981) Filtration of gases in fluidised beds., IN: PROGRESS IN FILTRATION AND SEPARATION, R.J. WAKEMAN (ED.) 2 , Am pp. 75-123
The following review concentrates on the fundamental processes occurring in fluidised filters. Section II gives a brief summary of filtration in fixed granular beds, to define terms and concepts used in analysis of fluidised filtration. Attention is restricted to 'stationary' filtration, in which the collection medium is the granular material itself, without discussing 'non-stationary' effects caused by structural changes resulting from dust accumulation within the filter. Section III sets out an analysis of filtration in a fluidised bed, derived from conventional models of filtration in fixed beds and reaction in fluidised beds. The interpretation of available experimental results in terms of this model is summarised in Section IV. Section V reviews two variations which have been proposed on a simple configuration of: electrofluidised filters, and rotating fluidised beds. Actual and potential applications of the technique are discussed very briefly in Section VI. (from paper)
Clift R, Shaw H (2012) An Industrial Ecology Approach to the Use of Phosphorus, Proceedia Engineering 46 pp. 39-44
Phosphorus is an abundant resource, even though the most economically attractive reserves are geographically concentrated, so that whether and when production will peak are highly uncertain. However, analysis of the global use of phosphorus primarily in agriculture (including animal husbandry), reveals an exceptionally ?leaky? supply chain: losses, including leaching from soils and animal excreta, amount to some 90% of the inputs. The potential for innovation to improve the efficiency of phosphorus use is therefore enormous, going beyond recovery of phosphorus from waste water to reducing the losses from the whole use system. Drivers to improve the system efficacy include the concerns over distribution and possibly security of supply and also the environmental impacts of phosphorus emissions. Future production, use and price of phosphorus therefore depend as much on changes in food consumption and agricultural practices as on changes in mining and processing.
Evangelisti S, Lettieri P, Borello D, Clift R (2014) Life cycle assessment of energy from waste via anaerobic digestion: A UK case study., Waste Management 34 (1) pp. 226-237
Particularly in the UK, there is potential for use of large-scale anaerobic digestion (AD) plants to treat food waste, possibly along with other organic wastes, to produce biogas. This paper presents the results of a life cycle assessment to compare the environmental impacts of AD with energy and organic fertiliser production against two alternative approaches: incineration with energy production by CHP and landfill with electricity production. In particular the paper investigates the dependency of the results on some specific assumptions and key process parameters. The input Life Cycle Inventory data are specific to the Greater London area, UK. Anaerobic digestion emerges as the best treatment option in terms of total CO2 and total SO2 saved, when energy and organic fertiliser substitute non-renewable electricity, heat and inorganic fertiliser. For photochemical ozone and nutrient enrichment potentials, AD is the second option while incineration is shown to be the most environmentally friendly solution. The robustness of the model is investigated with a sensitivity analysis. The most critical assumption concerns the quantity and quality of the energy substituted by the biogas production. Two key issues affect the development and deployment of future anaerobic digestion plants: maximising the electricity produced by the CHP unit fuelled by biogas and to defining the future energy scenario in which the plant will be embedded.
Clift R (2007) Climate change and energy policy: The importance of sustainability arguments, Energy 32 4 pp. 262 - 268-262 - 268
CLIFT R (1978) Bubbles, Drops, and Particles 172 Academic Press
Azapagic A, Clift R (1999) The application of life cycle assessment to process optimisation, COMPUTERS & CHEMICAL ENGINEERING 23 (10) pp. 1509-1526 PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
Clift R (2000) Engineering for Sustainable Development, Imperial College Engineer 28 pp. 16-18
Clift R, Dennison F, Azapagic A, Colbourne J (1998) Assessing management options for wastewater treatment works in the context of life cycle assessment, Water Science and Technology 38 (11) pp. 22-30
CARTER B, GHADIRI M, CLIFT R, JURY AW (1987) THE BEHAVIOR OF LARGE JETSAM PARTICLES IN FLUIDIZED-BEDS, POWDER TECHNOLOGY 52 (3) pp. 263-266 ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA LAUSANNE
Clift R, Mellor W, Williams E, Stevens G, Azapagic A (2001) Utility Based Framework for Material and Process Selection in the Integrated Chain Management of Polymers, Journal of Environmental Management and Health 12 (3) pp. 277-285
Morris K, Allen R, Clift R (1987) ADHESION OF CAKES TO FILTER MEDIA., Filtration and Separation 24 (1) pp. 41-45
To model the behaviour of a fabric filter it is essential to be able to predict the amount of cake removed as a result of the force applied to the filter medium by a cleaning pulse. Experimental measurements have been made of the fraction of cake removed as a function of the force exerted by an impulse tester designed to simulate the conditions experienced in a pulse jet filter. These experiments have shown that the force required to remove a given quantity of cake depends upon the areal cake density. The nature of this dependence has been predicted from theoretical consideration of the role of adhesion and cohesion forces, assuming that the cake breaks away in spalls of a regular shape and uniform size.
Clift R, Allwood J (2011) Rethinking the economy, Chemical Engineer (837) pp. 30-31
The industrial energy efficiency in the UK is improved through a government backed closed-loop economy model, which focuses on reducing flows of materials through the economy. In this direction, it is shown that elementary material balances can yield reductions in energy use, outweighing potential savings from improving the energy efficiency of industrial processes. Extending product life represents a reversal of current trends, it requires behavioral change even more than changes in technology or product design. The current approach, in the UK and various other places, is to tax labor rather than use of non-renewable resources, representing economic pressure in diametrically the wrong direction. Closed-loop material use along with industrial symbiosis - co-locating or connecting industries so that a waste or co-product from one becomes an input to another.
Evangelisti S, Tagliaferri C, Lettieri P, Taylor R, Chapman C, Clift R (2014) Life cycle assessment of conventional and two-stage advanced energy-from-waste technologies for municipal solid waste treatment, Journal of Cleaner Production
The EU landfill and Waste Framework directives are driving new approaches to waste management in the UK, away from landfilling and mass-burn incineration, which has been regarded as the main alternative to landfilling. The objective of this study is to compare the environmental impacts of three dual-stage advanced energy-from-waste technologies, i.e. gasification and plasma gas cleaning, fast pyrolysis and combustion and gasification with syngas combustion, with those associated with conventional treatments for municipal solid waste, i.e. landfill with electricity production and incineration with electricity production. Results show that the two-stage gasification and plasma process has a significantly better overall environmental performance than the conventional waste treatment technologies and somewhat better than a more modern incineration plant, exemplified by a plant under commissioning in Lincolnshire in the UK. The benefits of the gasification and plasma process arise primarily from its higher net electrical efficiency.
Clift R, Cowell SJ Life Cycle Assessment for Food Production Systems,
Clift R, GRACE J, WEBER M (1974) STABILITY OF BUBBLES IN FLUIDIZED BEDS., IND.ENGNG.CHEM.FUNDAM. 13 (1)
A LINEARIZED STABILITY ANALYSIS OF THE UPPER SURFACE OF A BUBBLE IN A FLUIDIZED BED LEADS TO PREDICTIONS OF INITIAL GROWTH RATES AND MOST SENSITIVE WAVELENGTHS FOR DISTURBANCES OF THE INTERFACE.IT IS SHOWN THAT THE DEGREE OF INSTABILITY IS PRIMARILY A FUNCTION OF THE EFFECTIVE KINEMATIC VISCOSITY OF THE DENSE PHASE, WHILE THE INTERSTITIAL FLUID VELOCITY HAS A COMPARATIVELY MINOR INFLUENCE.THE RESULTS ARE CONSISTENT WITH AVAILABLE EVIDENCE ON THE INCIDENCE OF BUBBLE SPLITTING IN FLUIDIZED SYSTEMS.(A)
CLIFT R, GRACE J (1972) COALESCENCE OF BUBBLE CHAINS IN FLUIDIZED-BEDS, TRANSACTIONS OF THE INSTITUTION OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERS AND THE CHEMICAL ENGINEER 50 (4) pp. 364-& INST CHEMICAL ENGINEERS
Duo W, Kirkby NF, Seville JPK, Clift R (1997) Patchy cleaning of rigid gas filters .1. A probabilistic model, CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SCIENCE 52 (1) pp. 141-151 PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
Clift R, Wright L (2000) Relationships between environmental impacts and added value along the supply chain, TECHNOLOGICAL FORECASTING AND SOCIAL CHANGE 65 (3) pp. 281-295 ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC
Scandrett LA, Clift R (1984) THERMODYNAMIC ASPECTS OF ALKALI COLLECTION IN FLUIDISED BED COMBUSTION OF COAL.,
Recent vapour pressure measurements and calculations of thermodynamic equilibrium conditions suggest that, in gases obtained by pressurised coal combustion, only a few percent of the sodium and potassium should remain as vapour phase chlorides. The bulk of the alkalis are predicted to form sulphate, condensed onto entrained fly ash or present as an aerosol. Filtration of the condensed sulphates may suffice to reduce alkalis to levels acceptable to a gas turbine. Alumino-silicate materials appear to be potential filter media, because collected aerosol should be retained by reaction with the filter medium.
Clift R, Cowell SJ Life Cycle Assessment for Food Production Systems,
Clift R, Azapagic A (1999) The Application of Life Cycle Assessment to Process Selection, Design and Operation, In: Sikdar S, Diwekar U, Diwekar U (eds.), Tools and Methods for Pollution Prevention pp. 69-84 Springer
This is the first compilation of methods, tools and models that can be used to design products and manufacturing processes that prevent pollution from occurring in the first place, rather than treating the wastes after they are formed.
CLIFT R (1978) Drops, and Particles Academic Press
Clift R (2004) How many lives?, MATERIALS WORLD 12 (7) pp. 23-24 I O M COMMUNICATIONS LTD INST MATERIALS
CLIFT R (1978) Bubbles, Drops, and Particles 97 Academic Press
Clift R, Wright L (2000) Relationships Between Environmental Impacts and Added Value Along the Supply Chain, Technological Forecasting and Social Change 65 (3) pp. 281-295
Geldermann J, Schollenberger H, Rentz O, Huppes G, van Oers L, France C, Nebel B, Clift R, Lipkova A, Saetta S, Desideri U, May T (2007) An integrated scenario analysis for the metal coating sector in Europe, TECHNOLOGICAL FORECASTING AND SOCIAL CHANGE 74 (8) pp. 1482-1507 ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC
Clift R (1999) SETAC Working Groups 1993-1998 Brussels, Belgium, SETAC-Europe News 10 (2)
CLIFT R, GRACE J (1971) BUBBLE COALESCENCE IN FLUIDIZED BEDS - COMPARISON OF 2 THEORIES, AICHE JOURNAL 17 (1) pp. 252-& AMER INST CHEMICAL ENGINEERS
Clift R (2001) Think global; shop local; roll your own, Journal of Industrial Ecology 5 (1) pp. 7-9
Clift R (2012) Risk Management and Regulation in an Emerging Technology, In: Hunt G, Mehta M (eds.), Nanotechnology: Risk, Ethics and Law pp. 140-153 Routledge
Geoffrey Hunt first developed an interest in nanotechnology in late 2002 when planning a visit to Japan to discuss the ethical implications of technological futures, and he put forward a tentative overview of nanotechnological possibilities in a ...
Seville JPK, Clift R (1984) The effect of thin liquid layers on fluidisation characteristics, Powder Technology 37 (1) pp. 117-129
Experiments are reported which show that addition of small quantities of a non-volatile liquid to a material in Geldart's Group B causes its fluidisation behaviour to move through Group A to Group C. It is shown that this behaviour is qualitatively consistent with Molerus' analysis of the role of interparticle forces in determining fluidisation characteristics. Interparticle forces have been estimated by determining the failure point of a bed of solids suspended by upward gas flow. The results lead to a numerical adjustment of Molerus' criterion for the B/A transition, and give some insight into the physical mechanisms causing the difference in behaviour between these two Groups. © 1984.
Azapagic A, Clift R (1999) Allocation of environmental burdens in multiple-function systems, Journal of Cleaner Production 7 (2) pp. 101-119
Allocation of environmental burdens is a recognised methodological problem in Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). It is the process of assigning to each of the functions of a multiple-function system only those environmental burdens and impacts that each function generates. It is argued in this paper that allocation is an artifact of applying LCA to individual products rather than to the whole productive system. To solve this problem, a new "marginal allocation" approach is proposed, based on whole system modelling. Marginal allocation is applicable when marginal changes about some defined state of the product system are to be considered and when the functional outputs can be varied independently. The specific approach developed here is based on representing the system by a model in the Linear Programming (LP) format. The allocation coefficients are equivalent to the marginal values calculated at the solution of the LP model. Marginal values represent a realistic description of the causal relationships between burdens and functional outputs and thus reflect the behaviour of the system. Changes in the system behaviour can also be modelled by LP. The approach is illustrated on three simple examples of multiple-function systems: combined waste treatment, co-production and recycling. © 1999 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
Clift R, Frischknecht R, Huppes G, Tillman A-M, Weidema B (1999) Inventory Enhancement: a summary of the results of the working group on inventory enhancement, SETAC-Europe News 10 (3) pp. 14-20
CLIFT R (1978) Bubbles, Drops, and Particles. 221 Adacemic Press
Mila i Canals L, Chapagain A, Orr S, Chenoweth J, Anton A, Clift R (2010) Assessing freshwater use impacts in LCA, part 2: case study of broccoli production in the UK and Spain, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT 15 (6) pp. 598-607 SPRINGER HEIDELBERG
CLIFT R, GHADIRI M (1986) HIGH-TEMPERATURE HEROICS, CHEMICAL ENGINEER-LONDON (427) pp. 13-13 INST CHEMICAL ENGINEERS
DO HT, CLIFT R, GRACE J (1972) PARTICLE EJECTION AND ENTRAINMENT FROM FLUIDIZED-BEDS, POWDER TECHNOLOGY 6 (4) pp. 195-& ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA
CLIFT R (1990) COMMEMORATIVE ISSUE TO MARK THE RETIREMENT OF WILLIAMS,J.C. AS EDITOR-IN-CHIEF OF POWDER TECHNOLOGY - INTRODUCTION, POWDER TECHNOLOGY 60 (1) pp. R5-R5 ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA LAUSANNE
CLIFT R (1992) 5TH INTERNATIONAL-CONFERENCE - FBC TECHNOLOGY AND THE ENVIRONMENTAL CHALLENGE - RAPPORTEURS REVIEW OF THE PAPERS DEALING WITH EMISSIONS PERFORMANCE, JOURNAL OF THE INSTITUTE OF ENERGY 65 (462) pp. 10-14 INST ENERGY
Clift R, Doig A, Finnveden G (2000) The application of Life Cycle Assessment to Integrated Solid Waste Management - Part 1 - Methodology, PROCESS SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION 78 (B4) pp. 279-287 INST CHEMICAL ENGINEERS
CLIFT R (1992) ON THE FORMULATION OF HYDRODYNAMIC STABILITY-CRITERIA IN FLUIDIZED-BEDS, POWDER TECHNOLOGY 72 (3) pp. 199-199 ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA LAUSANNE
CLIFT R (1978) Bubbles, Drops and Particles 112 Academic Press
Barnett J, Carr A, Clift R (2006) Going public: Risk, trust and public understandings of nanotechnology, Nanotechnology: Risk, Ethics and Law pp. 196-212 EARTHSCAN PUBLICATIONS LTD
Clift R (1966) Fundamental processes in gas filtration., TRANS. INST. ENGRS. AUST. MECH. ENGRS. ME8 (4 , Dec. 1983) pp. 181-191
Some fundamental problems, arising in the filtration of gases by fixed beds of granular collector, are reviewed. Capture gas born particles by the collector normally occurs by the processes of Brownian diffusion, inertial impaction and electrophoretic migration. Prediction of capture rates by theoretical models is discussed. Discusses trajectory calculations for estimating conditions under which a captured particle is retained by collector. Conditions determining cake formation are also included. (from author abstract)
Clift R (2001) Combined Heat and Power: Affordable Warmth and District Heating, Greener Government November pp. 22-22
Clift R (1995) The Concept of Cleaner Technology, Clean Technology 1 (5)
CLIFT R (1983) AN OCCAMIST VIEW OF FLUIDIZED-BED REACTOR MODELING, CHEMICAL ENGINEER-LONDON (388) pp. 29-& INST CHEMICAL ENGINEERS
Weston N, Clift R, Basson L, Pouton A, White N (2008) Assessment of cleaner process options: A case study from petroleum refining, CANADIAN JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING 86 (3) pp. 302-315 WILEY-BLACKWELL
CLIFT R (1978) Bubbles, Drops and Particles Academic Press
Clift R, Dennison FJ, Azapagic A, Colbourne J (1999) Assessing management options for sludge disposal by applying the environmental tool life cycle assessment, IChemE Environmental Protection Bulletin 59 pp. 10-18
Hoffmann AC, van Santen A, Clift R, Allen RWK (1987) PERFORMANCE OF GAS CYCLONES AT VARYING SOLID LOADINGS., American Institute of Chemical Engineers, National Meeting
The influence of dust loading and gas inlet/outlet dimensions on the performance of four industrial scale (0. 45 m diameter) cyclones has been investigated. All experiments were performed under ambient conditions at an inlet velocity of 15 m/s over a loading range of 0. 5 - 130g solid/m**3 air. Measurements of the pressure drop, gravimetric efficiency and grade-efficiency were made. Strong variations in both pressure drop and separation performance with geometry and solid loading were found. These variations are well described by existing predictive relations. The results are analysed to further elucidate the nature of the observed trends.
Wrisberg N, Clift R (1999) Industrial ecology in Europe: The CHAINET concerted action, Journal of Industrial Ecology 3 (4) pp. 8-9
Clift R (2007) Climate change and energy policy: The importance of sustainability arguments, ENERGY 32 (4) pp. 262-268 PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
Clift R (2006) Wind worries, TCE (779) pp. 74-74 INST CHEMICAL ENGINEERS
DOGANOGLU Y, JOG V, THAMBIMUTHU KV, CLIFT R (1978) REMOVAL OF FINE PARTICULATES FROM GASES IN FLUIDIZED-BEDS, TRANSACTIONS OF THE INSTITUTION OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERS 56 (4) pp. 239-248 INST CHEMICAL ENGINEERS
Sinclair P, Cowell S, Löfsted R, Clift R (2007) A case study in participatory environmental systems assessment with the use of multimedia materials and quantitative LCA, Journal of Environmental Assessment Policy and Management 9 (4) pp. 399-421
While participation in environmental decision-making is widely recognised and valued in democratic countries as beneficial, its format and scope have not always been the source of agreement. The use of environmental systems assessment (ESA) offers the opportunity for structuring knowledge and decision-making systematically and appropriately to decision makers' concerns, to enable lay publics to participate in development of policy and implementation in public sector initiatives. In order to perform participatory ESA, effective means of involving lay people are required. This paper describes the development and testing of an innovative interactive multimedia package (WOMBLE), written for non-experts to enable them to use the expert tool WISARD, a quantitative life cycle assessment package, to enable involvement in developing and assessing options for management of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW). It was shown that this combination of tools can reduce the time needed to achieve effective communication, learning and active engagement. © Imperial College Press.
Thambimuthu KV, Tan BKC, Clift R (1980) MECHANISMS OF STEADY FILTRATION OF GASES IN PACKED BEDS., Institution of Chemical Engineers Symposium Series (59)
Correlations for the efficiency of removal of dust from a gas by Brownian diffusion, inertial deposition, gravitational settling, and direct interception in a fixed bed of spherical granular collector particles are applied to predicting the performance of a packed bed filter. The results clarify the difference between filtration of sub-micron particles and particles larger than 1 mu m. Filter efficiency is shown to be dependent on operating temperature, with pressure exerting a much weaker effect.
Rathbone RR, Ghadiri M, Clift R (1989) Measurement of particle velocities and associated stresses on immersed surfaces in fluidized beds,
To diagnose the processes causing metal wastage from immersed surfaces in fluidized beds, a miniaturized probe was developed for simultaneous measurement of the transient normal and tangential components of particle velocity and stress against a surface. In a two-dimensional bed, high shear stresses are generated by oblique impact of particles in bubble wakes. The associated particle velocities correspond closely with estimates from video records, and are consistent with current understanding of particle motion in fluidized beds. Taken together, the results suggest that metal wastage results from a combination of impact and abrasion. (A)
Elghali L, Clift R, Sinclair P, Panoutsou C, Bauen A (2007) Developing a sustainability framework for the assessment of bioenergy systems, ENERGY POLICY 35 (12) pp. 6075-6083 ELSEVIER SCI LTD
Clift R, Grace JR (1985) CONTINUOUS BUBBLING AND SLUGGING., Fluidization pp. 73-132
Gas-fluidized beds are commonly operated in a regime in which the rising particle-lean regions are dispersed in a 'continuous phase' of fluidized particles. The continuous phase is variously termed the dense, particulate, or emulsion phase, while the rising voids are termed bubbles if their diameter is less than that of the bed itself and slugs if their dimensions approach the diameter D or width of the containing column. Bubbling and slugging have been subjected to more research effort, experimental and theoretical, than any of the other regimes which have been recognized. The more important and useful findings are summarized. Refs.
Zhang S, Bi XT, Clift R (2013) A Life Cycle Assessment of integrated dairy farm-greenhouse systems in British Columbia., Bioresource Technology 150 pp. 496-505
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anticipated environmental benefits from integrating a dairy farm and a greenhouse; the integration is based on anaerobic digestion of manures to produce biogas energy, biogenic CO2, and digested slurry. A full Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) has been conducted on six modeled cases applicable in British Columbia, to evaluate non-renewable energy consumption, climate change, acidification, eutrophication, respiratory effects and human toxicity. Compared to conventional practice, an integrated system has the potential to nearly halve eutrophication and respiratory effects caused by inorganic emissions and to reduce non-renewable energy consumption, climate change, and acidification by 65-90%, while respiratory effects caused by organic emissions become negative as co-products substitute for other materials. Co-digestion of other livestock manures, greenhouse plant waste, or food and food processing waste with dairy manure can further improve the performance of the integrated system.
CLIFT R, CLIFT DHM (1981) CONTINUOUS MEASUREMENT OF THE DENSITY OF FLOWING SLURRIES, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MULTIPHASE FLOW 7 (5) pp. 555-561 PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
ABDELGHANI M, PETRIE JG, SEVILLE JPK, CLIFT R, ADAMS MJ (1991) MECHANICAL-PROPERTIES OF COHESIVE PARTICULATE SOLIDS, POWDER TECHNOLOGY 65 (1-3) pp. 113-123 ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA LAUSANNE
Cowell SJ, Clift R (2000) Methodology for assessing soil quantity and quality in life cycle assessment, Journal of Cleaner Production 8 (4) pp. 321-331
Changes resulting from economic activities in the quantity and quality of soil in a system under analysis are important considerations in a life cycle assessment (LCA) study because they affect the safeguard subjects of resources and future agricultural productivity. In the approach proposed here, soil is treated as an ancillary which may leave the system in a form different from that at entry. Relevant factors describing possible changes in the soil include: soil mass, nutrients, weeds and weed seeds, pathogens, nutrients, salts, pH, organic matter, and soil texture and structure. Many of the factors can be included by modelling the effects of infrequent activities benefitting the crop(s) under analysis. Three additional factors require separate assessment: changes in the mass of soil, its organic matter content, and soil compaction. Taken together, these approaches provide an integrated assessment method capable of accounting for the overall impacts of agricultural production on soil.
Azapagic A, Clift R, ØK ? w?‡.„3·ê-º-109-?#·¹Æàn°ƒ?i?--é¤Õµ¤¯ë¢»¹áóÈhÚb?;Õ, Material flow 38 (7) pp. 105-108 A??v>
Clift R, Udo de Haes HA, Bensahel JF, Fussler CR, Griesshammer R, Jensen AA (1994) Guidelines for the Application of Life Cycle Assessment in the EU Ecolabelling Programme,
Clift R (2004) Sustainability - Game or reality?, PROCESS SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION 82 (B5) pp. 381-382 INST CHEMICAL ENGINEERS
Clift R (1994) Editorial, Powder Technology 80 (1)
Wright M, Allen D, Clift R, Sas H (1997) Measuring Corporate Environmental Performance : The ICI Environmental Burden System, Journal of Industrial Ecology 1 (4) pp. 117-127
The Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI) group has developed a method, called the "environmental burden system," to rank the potential environmental impacts of its emissions and wastes. The method uses potency factors to characterize the potential environmental impacts of wastes and emissions in ten major impact categories. When compared to the more traditional approach of reporting the total mass of emissions and wastes, the environmental burden approach provides a more meaningful picture of the potential impact of emissions; it helps identify the most harmful wastes and emissions; it provides the public with a better understanding of the potential impact of company operations; and it helps communicate the effectiveness of waste and emission reduction programs.
CLIFT R, GRACE J, WEBER ME (1974) STABILITY OF BUBBLES IN FLUIDIZED-BEDS, INDUSTRIAL & ENGINEERING CHEMISTRY FUNDAMENTALS 13 (1) pp. 45-51 AMER CHEMICAL SOC
Clift R, Azapagic A System Analysis and Allocation in Multiple-Input Waste Treatment Processes,
Clift R, Ransome T (2002) The Supply, Use and Waste Management of Domestic Clothes Washing: A CHAINET Case Study, In: Wrisberg N, Haes HAUD (eds.), Analytical Tools for Environmental Design and Management in a Systems Perspective pp. 205-230 Springer
The aim of this book is to link demand and supply ofenvironmental information in the field of Life Cycle Management.
Hart A, Clift R, Riddlestone S, Buntin J (2005) Use of life cycle assessment to develop industrial ecologies - A case study graphics paper, Process Safety and Environmental Protection 83 (4 B) pp. 359-363
Printer and letter quality paper represents a high-value component of the waste from commercial premises. Around large cities, exemplified by London, the paper flows are sufficiently large to sustain a dedicated logistics network and plant to recover and recycle graphics-quality paper. Analysis of the fibre flows around the supply system for paper recovery and recycling shows that, given the present low proportion of recycled fibre graphics paper used in the UK, other sources of fibre are not needed to maintain the supply and quality of the recycled material. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of the recycling system shows that its environmental performance is dominated by energy use and greenhouse-warming emissions. Although the detailed results depend on how waste fibre and biomass are otherwise used, this emerges as a case in which recycling really does give environmental benefits. LCA also enables possible changes in the system for recovering and reprocessing paper to be examined, leading to new concepts for more sustainable local management of resource flows. © 2005 Institution of Chemical Engineers.
Dowling A, Clift R, Grobert N, Hutton D, Oliver R, O'Neill O, Pethica J, Pidgeon N, Porritt J, Ryan J, Seaton A, Tendler S, Welland M, Whatmore R (2003) Nanotechnology under the microscope, NANOTECHNOLOGY 14 (9) IOP PUBLISHING LTD
Godfrey MA, Kwasowski P, Clift R, Marks V (1993) Assessment of the suitability of commercially available SpA affinity solid phases for the purification of murine monoclonal antibodies at process scale., J Immunol Methods 160 (1) pp. 97-105
Eight commercially available staphylococcal protein A (SpA) affinity chromatography solid phases were evaluated in order to establish their potential for the large-scale purification of a murine monoclonal antibody (MAb, mIgG1). The antibody was produced in-house, serum-free, in a hollow fibre bioreactor. Solid phases were tested for the effects of salt concentration, pH, and the presence of MAb on ligand leakage and flow rate. These effects were compared using the solid phases in stirred-tank (roller-mixing) and flow-through (packed-bed) modes of operation. Ligand leakage in the absence of MAb was generally at its lowest when the solid phases were used in a flow-through mode. In this mode of operation increasing the inorganic salt concentration and pH of the washing/adsorption buffer from 150 mM at pH 8.6, to 3 M at pH 8.9, typically produced a 10% increase in MAb capacity of the solid phases (20% for Sepharose CL-4B). However, contamination of the purified antibodies was also greatly increased due to an elevated level of background ligand leakage from the matrices. Residual contaminating levels of SpA in affinity purified MAbs were lowest with a low salt (NaCl, 150 mM) glycine (1 M) adsorption/washing buffer. Maximal antibody capacity was achieved for all matrices on frontal analysis (breakthrough curves), as opposed to a pulse mode of use. The largest capacity was found for Prosep A 'high capacity' (12-15 mg/ml column volume), where capacity approached its experimentally determined theoretical capacity (C/Co = 0.5) regardless of its mode of use. The relatively high MAb capacity of Prosep A 'high capacity' was further reflected in a superior dynamic isotherm. Frontal analysis, however, generally resulted in a greater SpA contamination of the purified MAbs. Under these conditions the lowest levels of SpA contamination were found for the Prosep A 'high capacity', and Repligen solid phases (12 ppm) on purifying 12.8 and 4.3 mg of MAb respectively. For the large scale downstream processing of a MAb for therapeutic applications, Prosep A 'high capacity', would appear to be the most appropriate of the solid phases tested.
Clift R (2003) An introduction to life cycle assessment, IB Revija (Ljubliana) XXXVII (4) pp. 70-79
Munoz I, Canals LMI, Clift R (2008) Consider a Spherical Man - A Simple Model to Include Human Excretion in Life Cycle Assessment of Food Products, JOURNAL OF INDUSTRIAL ECOLOGY 12 (4) pp. 521-538 WILEY-BLACKWELL
Brandão M, Clift R, Milà i Canals L, Basson L (2010) A Life-Cycle Approach to Characterising Environmental and
Economic Impacts of Multifunctional Land-Use Systems: An
Integrated Assessment in the UK,
Sustainability 2 (12) pp. 3747-3776
An integrated environmental and economic assessment of land use for food,
energy and timber in the UK has been performed using environmental Life Cycle
Assessment (LCA) and economic Life Cycle Costing (LCC), to explore complementary
sustainability aspects of alternative land uses. The environmental assessment includes
impacts on climate change, ecosystem services and biodiversity, all of which include soil
carbon emissions. The systems explored include all processes from cradle to farm ?gate?.
The crops assessed were wheat and oilseed rape (under both organic and conventional
farming systems), Scots Pine, and willow and Miscanthus. Food crops, particularly
conventional food crops, are shown to have the highest climate-changing emissions per ha,
whereas energy and forestry crops show negative net emissions. To a lesser extent, the
same situation applies to impacts on ecosystems and biodiversity, with carbon storage in
biomass playing a larger role than carbon in soils. The energy and forestry crops in this
study show an overall beneficial environmental impact, in particular due to soil carbon
sequestration, making these land uses the lowest contributors to climate change.
Combining this with the non-renewable CO2 emissions displaced will mean that energy
crops have an even lower impact. Economically, conventional food crops present the
highest costs per ha, followed by organic food crops, energy and forestry crops. Integrating
the results from LCA and LCC shows that the climate impacts per monetary unit of all land
uses are dominated by soil management and, in the case of food production, also by
fertilisation. Taxes or incentives such as ?carbon charging? will encourage changes in
practice in these areas to improve the sustainability of land management, mainly by
building up Soil Organic Carbon (SOC).
Theis TL, Bakshi BR, Clift R, Durham D, Fthenakis VM, Gutowski TG, Isaacs JA, Seager T, Wiesner MR (2012) A life cycle framework for the investigation of environmentally benign nanoparticles and products (vol 5, pg 312, 2011), PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI-RAPID RESEARCH LETTERS 6 (2) pp. 98-98
Seville J, Cheung W, Clift R (1966) A patchy-cleaning interpretation of dust cake release from non-woven fabrics., FILTR. & SEP. 26 (3 , Ma)
Sievert and Loeffler have recently presented data on the cleaning behaviour of a range of non-woven fabrics when subjected both to reverse gas flow and to mechanically induced acceleration. In common with other workers in the field they suggest that, for reverse flow, cleaning is easier if the deposited cake mass is greater; i.e. the pressure drop required across the filter in order to release the cake, and the reverse gas flowrate through it, are both reduced for thicker cakes. In this short paper Sievert and Loeffler's results show that the stress which must be imposed on the cake in order to detach it, is independent of cake loading and that this level is consistent with the stress required to detach the cake by mechanically induced acceleration.
Seville J, Clift R, Withers C, Keidel W (1989) Rigid ceramic media for filtering hot gases., FILTR. & SEP. 26 (4 , Ju)
A new generation of gas filter media is becoming available, based on rigidly bonded ceramic granules or fibres, and suitable for high temperature duty. This papers outlines the main considerations in selecting and applying such a medium. Pressure drop through a 'virgin' medium is readily predictable from simple tests at ambient conditions. Behaviour on 'conditioning' over many cycles of filtration and cleaning can be determined by a simple 'coupon test', which shows the range of filter velocities which can be used and the cleaning action needed. Low density media have some advantages, and this paper concentrates on one such medium which has been found to have good performance: Cerafil 12H10, formed as a bonded mat of synthetic ceramic fibres. It is currently supplied as cylindrical candles, but other geometries are under development. Experience in using Cerafil to filter gases generated by a pyrolytic incinerator treating contaminated soil is outlined.
Clift R, Doig A The Environmental Implications of Recovering Energy from Waste,
CLIFT R (1978) Bubbles, Drops and Particles pp. 30-141 Academic Press
Clift R (1983) FUNDAMENTAL PROCESSES IN GAS FILTRATION., 1
Clift R, Doig A (1995) Developing Life Cycle Inventories for Waste Management, HMSO
Clift R (2007) Climate change and energy policy: The importance of sustainability arguments, Energy 32 4 pp. 262 - 268-262 - 268
Mayers K, Peagam R, France C, Basson L, Clift R (2011) Redesigning the Camel The European WEEE Directive, JOURNAL OF INDUSTRIAL ECOLOGY 15 (1) pp. 4-8 WILEY-BLACKWELL
Dennison FJ, Sindall D, Azapagic A, Clift R, Colbourne JS (1999) Assessing sludge disposal options using LCA, Environmental Protection Bulletin (59) pp. 10-18
Clift R (2012) Integrated waste management: environmental assessment and planning, Ambiente Rischio Comunicazione (2) pp. 74-89
Clift R, Basson L, Cobbledick D (2009) Accounting for carbon, TCE (819) pp. 35-37 INST CHEMICAL ENGINEERS
Clift R, Cowell SJ, Doig A A Case study of LCI by Allocation & System Extension: Straw,
Clift R Rapporteur's Report on Session 1: Waste Treatment Processes,
Nicholas M, Clift R, Azapagic A, Walker F, Porter D (2000) Determination of 'best available techniques' for integrated pollution prevention and control: A life cycle approach, Process Safety and Environmental Protection 78 (3) pp. 193-203
The EC Directive on Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC), now to be implemented in the UK under the Pollution Prevention and Control Act (1999), will widen the range of issues to be considered by enforcing authorities when determining the Best Available Techniques (BAT) for an installation. IPPC requires integrated control of emissions to air, water and land, the efficient use of energy and raw materials and the avoidance or reduction of impacts caused by disposal of wastes. This paper demonstrates that adopting a life cycle approach for the assessment of candidate techniques can fulfil these new requirements when choosing BAT. The glass manufacturing industry is used as a case study to show that the methodology can be used to assess both primary (in-process) and secondary (end-of-pipe) techniques for pollution prevention and control. General conclusions are drawn regarding the use of life cycle approaches to support the assessment of BAT, limitations in the current methodology and the requirements for future research. © Institution of Chemical Engineers.
Zhang S, Bi XT, Clift R (2013) A Life Cycle Assessment of integrated dairy farm-greenhouse systems in British Columbia, Bioresource Technology 150 pp. 496-505
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anticipated environmental benefits from integrating a dairy farm and a greenhouse; the integration is based on anaerobic digestion of manures to produce biogas energy, biogenic CO2, and digested slurry. A full Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) has been conducted on six modeled cases applicable in British Columbia, to evaluate non-renewable energy consumption, climate change, acidification, eutrophication, respiratory effects and human toxicity. Compared to conventional practice, an integrated system has the potential to nearly halve eutrophication and respiratory effects caused by inorganic emissions and to reduce non-renewable energy consumption, climate change, and acidification by 65-90%, while respiratory effects caused by organic emissions become negative as co-products substitute for other materials. Co-digestion of other livestock manures, greenhouse plant waste, or food and food processing waste with dairy manure can further improve the performance of the integrated system. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Arena N, Lee J, Clift R (2016) Life Cycle Assessment of activated carbon production from coconut shells, JOURNAL OF CLEANER PRODUCTION 125 pp. 68-77 ELSEVIER SCI LTD
CLIFT R (1992) PROFLIGATE ENVIRONMENTALISM, CHEMICAL ENGINEER-LONDON (513) pp. 3-3 INST CHEMICAL ENGINEERS
CLIFT R (1978) Bubbles. Drops and Particles 30 Academic Press
Tate AHJ, Seville JPK, Singh A, Clift R (1986) On-line non-sampling determination of the size and concentration of particles entrained in a gas., IN: GAS CLEANING AT HIGH TEMPERATURE SYMP., (GUILDFORD, U.K.: SEP. 16-18, 1986), RUGBY, U.K., INST. CHEM. ENGRS, 1986, PAPER (99 ))
A new approach is proposed for direct measurement of the aerodynamic diameter of particles entrained in a gas. A probe, which can be a pitot static tube, is inserted into the flow. The velocity of each particle approaching the stagnation point is measured, for example by laser Doppler anemometry using a single optical fibre within the probe. The particle size distribution and concentration can be built up from a succession of single particle measurements. The instrument could be used to measure the efficiency of gas cleaning equipment, or to detect surges in particle size or concentration.
PATERSON AHJ, CLIFT R (1987) LIQUID HOLDUP MEASUREMENTS IN TURBULENT BED CONTACTORS BY A TRACER TECHNIQUE, CANADIAN JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING 65 (1) pp. 10-17 CANADIAN SOC CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
Clift R (1994) UNTITLED, POWDER TECHNOLOGY 80 (1) pp. R5-R5 ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA LAUSANNE
Azapagic A, Clift R (1998) Linear programming as a tool in life cycle assessment, International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 3 (6) pp. 305-316
Linear Programming (LP) is a powerful mathematical technique that can be used as a tool in Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). In the Inventory and Impact Assessment phases, in addition to calculating the environmental impacts and burdens, it can be used for solving the problem of allocation in multiple- output systems. In the Improvement Assessment phase, it provides a systematic approach to identifying possibilities for system improvements by optimising the system on different environmental objective functions, defined as burdens or impacts. Ultimately, if the environmental impacts are aggregated to a single environmental impact function in the Valuation phase, LP optimisation can identify the overall environmental optimum of the system. However, the aggregation of impacts is not necessary: the system can be optimised on different environmental burdens or impacts simultaneously by using Multiobjective LP. As a result, a range of environmental optima is found offering a number of alternative options for system improvements and enabling the choice of the Best Practicable Environmental Option (BPEO). If, in addition, economic and social criteria are introduced in the model, LP can be used to identify the best compromise solution in a system with conflicting objectives. This approach is illustrated by a real case study of the borate products system.
Morris K, Allen RWK, Clift R (1986) ADHESION OF CAKES TO FILTER MEDIA., 1
To model the behaviour of a fabric filter it is essential to be able to predict the amount of cake removed as a result of the force applied to the filter medium by a cleaning pulse. Experimental measurements have been made of the fraction of cake removed as a function of the force exerted by an impulse tester designed to simulate the conditions experienced in a pulse jet filter. The nature of this dependence has been predicted from theoretical consideration of the role of adhesion and cohesion forces, assuming that the cake breaks away in spalls of a regular shape and uniform size. These concepts have allowed the construction of a 'characteristic curve' which describes the behaviour of a given cake and fabric combination.
Clift R, Azapagic A System Analysis and Allocation in Multi-input Waste Treatment Processes,
Davis J, Geyer R, Clift R, Jackson T, Azapagic A (2002) A time series material flow analysis of the UK steel sector, STEEL IN SUSTAINABLE CONSTRUCTION: IISI WORLD CONFERENCE 2002, CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS pp. 267-272 INT IRON AND STEEL INST
Clift R, Earl G (1998) How important is environmental performance? A case study measuring the environmental preferences of business-to-business consumers, Journal of Sustainable Product Design 6 pp. 18-27
Hunton-Clarke L, Wehrmeyer W, Clift R, McKeown P, King H (2002) Employee participation in environmental initiatives: Facilitating more environmentally conscious decision-making in innovation, Greener Management International (40) pp. 45-56
In recent years society as a whole has become more aware and concerned about environmental issues. In light of increasingly stringent legislation and the more critical eyes of external stakeholders, companies have come to realise the heightened need for their actions to be seen as environmentally responsible. The innovation process provides companies with an excellent opportunity to influence the environmental impacts associated with their products. However, merely providing product developers with new processes and a toolbox of available ecodesign tools is rarely sufficient to facilitate more environmentally conscious decision-making in innovation. This paper proposes that employee participation within the development of new initiatives will aid the implementation of those initiatives. It highlights the first results from a study undertaken at Unilever seeking to initiate employee participation within initiatives for environmentally conscious innovation by ascertaining the attitudes of employees involved in the product innovation process regarding environmental responsibility and its integration into innovation.
Clift R, Grace J, Sollazzo V (1974) CONTINUOUS SLUG FLOW IN VERTICAL TUBES., Journal of Heat Transfer 96 Ser (3) pp. 371-376
Paper No. 74-HT-EE.
Clift R (1991) Editorial, Powder Technology 64 (1-2)
ABDELGHANI M, PETRIE JG, SEVILLE JPK, CLIFT R, ADAMS MJ (1990) MECHANICAL-PROPERTIES OF POWDER COMPACTS - A NEW EXPERIMENTAL-TECHNIQUE TO INVESTIGATE SCALING EFFECTS IN FRACTURE, 2 WORLD CONGRESS : PARTICLE TECHNOLOGY, PTS 1-5 pp. A116-A123 FINE PARTICLE SOC
Clift R (1991) Editorial, Powder Technology 65 (1-3)
Agnew J, Clift R, Darton R, Guy K, Lefroy G (2003) Commentary on the visions, CHEMICAL ENGINEERING: VISIONS OF THE WORLD pp. 117-125 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
CLIFT R, SEVILLE JPK, MOORE SC, CHAVARIE C (1987) COMMENTS ON BUOYANCY IN FLUIDIZED-BEDS, CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SCIENCE 42 (1) pp. 191-194 PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
Clift R, Cowell SJ Farming for the Future - an Environmental Perspective,
Biswas G, Clift R, Davis G, Ehrenfeld J, Förster R, Jolliet O, Knoepfel I, Luterbacher U, Russell D, Hunkeler D (1998) Identification, categorization and life cycle validation, International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 3 (4) pp. 184-190
Indicators which reflect environmental, economic, health and safety issues, have been categorized as microecometrics and macroecometrics. The former, generally flow based measures, have been developed for local, firm- wide or product based assessments. Microecometrics include materials intensity, energy consumption and emissions data, often from life cycle perspectives. They are, generally, intensive and are scaled with respect to unit of production, GDP or per capita, though other normalization factors have been proposed. In contrast macroecometrics tend to be extensive and represent global conditions such as temperatures and environmental concentrations. Ecometrics are subjective and reflect the dominant value of the individual, family unit, stakeholder group or firm. As such overaggregating or reducing the number of ecometrics for given applications, such as the rating of investments or access to credit, presents potential conflicts. Furthermore, while eco-indicators used for internal corporate reporting should not, necessarily, be validated, those microecometrics which involve external reporting, or multiple stakeholders, are arbitrary if not derived from, or based on, comprehensive life cycle approaches. This paper summarizes ECOMETRICS'98, a workshop held in Lausanne, Switzerland in January 19-20, 1998. It discusses ecometric needs of various users including consumers, designers, private sector decision makers as well as politicians and policy makers. A discussion regarding appropriate microecometrics for industrial sectors including chemical, pharmaceutical, insurance, finance, electronics, manufacturing and consumer products is also summarized.
CLIFT R (1993) SPECIALIZATION MUST BE THE FUTURE, CHEMICAL ENGINEER-LONDON (538) pp. 4-4 INST CHEMICAL ENGINEERS
Barnett J, Carr A, Clift R (2006) Going Public: Risk, Trust and Public Understandings of Nanotechnology, In: Hunt G (eds.), Nanotechnology & Society: Ethics, Law & Policy' Earthscan
CLIFT R (1978) Bubbles Drops, and Particles pp. 97-141 Academic Press, Inc.
Evangelisti S, Tagliaferri C, Clift R, Lettieri P, Taylor R, Chapman C (2015) Life cycle assessment of conventional and two-stage advanced energy-from-waste technologies for municipal solid waste treatment, Journal of Cleaner Production 100 pp. 212-223
© 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.The EU landfill and Waste Framework directives are driving new approaches to waste management in the UK, away from landfilling and mass-burn incineration, which has been regarded as the main alternative to landfilling. The objective of this study is to compare the environmental impacts of three dual-stage advanced energy-from-waste technologies, i.e. gasification and plasma gas cleaning, fast pyrolysis and combustion and gasification with syngas combustion, with those associated with conventional treatments for municipal solid waste, i.e. landfill with electricity production and incineration with electricity production. Results show that the two-stage gasification and plasma process has a significantly better overall environmental performance than the conventional waste treatment technologies and somewhat better than a more modern incineration plant, exemplified by a plant under commissioning in Lincolnshire in the UK. The benefits of the gasification and plasma process arise primarily from its higher net electrical efficiency.
Ghadiri M, Seville JPK, Clift R (1985) A high-temperature agglomerating filter., IN: POWTECH '85 PARTICLE TECHNOLOGY, (BIRMINGHAM, U.K.: MAR. 5-7, 1985), RUGBY, U.K., INST. CHEM. ENGRS., 1985, PAPER 7 (41 ))
The development of the fluidized bed as a continuously renewable gas filter was reviewed with special reference to work in which the performance was enhanced by addition of a liquid retention aid. Preliminary experiments designed to show the potential of the device for hot gas cleaning in combined cycle power generation were briefly described. (A)
Seville JPK, Tüzün U, Clift R (1997) Processing of Particulate Solids, Springer
This book has been written to meet their needs.
Clift R, Cowell SJ, Hogan SB (1997) Positioning and Applications of LCA, In: Udo de Haes HA, Wrisberg N (eds.), Life Cycle Assessment: State of the Art and Research Priorities pp. 33-57
Davidson JF, Clift R, Harrison D (1985) Fluidization, Academic Press, London
CLIFT R, GAUVIN WH (1971) MOTION OF PARTICLES IN TURBULENT GAS STREAMS, BRITISH CHEMICAL ENGINEERING 16 (2-3) pp. 229-&
CLIFT R, GHADIRI M, HOFFMAN AC (1991) A CRITIQUE OF 2 MODELS FOR CYCLONE PERFORMANCE, AICHE JOURNAL 37 (2) pp. 285-289 AMER INST CHEMICAL ENGINEERS
Davis J, Geyer R, Ley J, He J, Clift R, Kwan A, Sansom M, Jackson T (2007) Time-dependent material flow analysis of iron and steel in the UK. Part 2. Scrap generation and recycling, Resources, Conservation and Recycling 51 (1) pp. 118-140
This paper presents an analysis of the use of iron and steel in the UK and explores how much of the iron and steel is recycled when it becomes obsolete after use. The first part of this paper series investigated production and consumption trends of iron and steel in the UK, whereas this paper focuses on scrap generation and recycling. Information on the amounts of iron and steel going into different groups of goods, together with values for their estimated lifetimes, have enabled modelling of the annual release of iron and steel from the use phase in the form of end-of-life scrap. This is an application to material flow accounting of the theory of residence time distributions used routinely in chemical reaction engineering. By comparing modelled generation of scrap with actual scrap consumption in the UK, we obtain estimates of loss or accumulation of iron and steel scrap in the UK. The model indicates that as much as 30% of the scrap that was potentially available in 2001 as end-of-life scrap has either been accumulated within the economic system or lost to landfill. © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Arena U, Mastellone ML, Perugini F, Clift R (2004) Environmental assessment of paper waste management options by means of LCA methodology, INDUSTRIAL & ENGINEERING CHEMISTRY RESEARCH 43 (18) pp. 5702-5714 AMER CHEMICAL SOC
Kronenberg J, Clift R (2004) Industrial ecology in Poland, Journal of Industrial Ecology 8 (4) pp. 13-17
Shiels S, Garner D, Clift R (2002) Using life-cycle assessment to inform the nuclear debate, NUCLEAR ENERGY-JOURNAL OF THE BRITISH NUCLEAR ENERGY SOCIETY 41 (6) pp. 375-381 BRITISH NUCLEAR ENERGY SOC
Henein H, Guthrie RIL, Clift R (1974) CONTACTING PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH ALUMINIUM AND FERRO-ALLOY., pp. 29-43
Water model experiments are described in which spheres of various diameters and specific gravities were dropped from typical industrial heights into water. Maximum penetration distances, trajectories and retention times were measured and compared with theoretical predictions based on transient fluid flow. The relative importance of steady drag, added mass and history forces were demonstrated. Results indicate that immersion times are extremely short ( similar 1 second) for aluminum additions and low density ferro-alloys. High density ferro-alloys remain immersed considerably longer and penetrate much deeper.
Evangelisti S, Lettieri P, Borello D, Clift R (2014) Life cycle assessment of energy from waste via anaerobic digestion: A UK case study, Waste Management 34 (1) pp. 226-237
Particularly in the UK, there is potential for use of large-scale anaerobic digestion (AD) plants to treat food waste, possibly along with other organic wastes, to produce biogas. This paper presents the results of a life cycle assessment to compare the environmental impacts of AD with energy and organic fertiliser production against two alternative approaches: incineration with energy production by CHP and landfill with electricity production. In particular the paper investigates the dependency of the results on some specific assumptions and key process parameters. The input Life Cycle Inventory data are specific to the Greater London area, UK. Anaerobic digestion emerges as the best treatment option in terms of total CO2 and total SO2 saved, when energy and organic fertiliser substitute non-renewable electricity, heat and inorganic fertiliser. For photochemical ozone and nutrient enrichment potentials, AD is the second option while incineration is shown to be the most environmentally friendly solution. The robustness of the model is investigated with a sensitivity analysis. The most critical assumption concerns the quantity and quality of the energy substituted by the biogas production. Two key issues affect the development and deployment of future anaerobic digestion plants: maximising the electricity produced by the CHP unit fuelled by biogas and to defining the future energy scenario in which the plant will be embedded. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Clift R (2000) Special topic issue - Sustainable development, PROCESS SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION 78 (B4) pp. 235-235 INST CHEMICAL ENGINEERS
Wilson KC, Clift R, Sellgren A (2002) Operating points for pipelines carrying concentrated heterogeneous slurries, POWDER TECHNOLOGY 123 (1) PII S0032-5910(01)00423-5 pp. 19-24 ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA
Clift R, O'Brien M, Doig A Social and Environmental Life Cycle Assessment,
GRACE J, KROCHMAL L, CLIFT R, FARKAS EJ (1971) EXPANSION OF LIQUIDS AND FLUIDISED BEDS IN SLUG FLOW, CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SCIENCE 26 (5) pp. 617-& PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
Levasseur A, Brandao M, Lesage P, Margni M, Pennington D, Clift R, Samson R (2012) COMMENTARY: Valuing temporary carbon storage, NATURE CLIMATE CHANGE 2 (1) pp. 6-8
Azapagic A, Clift R (1999) Life cycle assessment as a tool for improving process performance: A case study on boron products, International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 4 (3) pp. 133-142
This paper explores the use of LCA as a tool for process environmental management, thereby moving the focus from product to process oriented analysis. The emphasis is on Improvement Assessment in which the 'hot spots' in the system are targeted for maximum environmental improvements. In this context, it is useful to use multiobjective optimisation which renders valuation unnecessary. The approach is illustrated by the case study of the system processing boron ores to make five different products. The results of Inventory Analysis and Impact Assessment are presented and discussed. In Improvement Assessment, a number of improvement options are identified and evaluated, using system optimisation. It is shown that the site environmental performance can be improved over current operation by an average of 20% over the whole life cycle. Thus the study demonstrates that the optimisation approach to environmental process management may assist in identifying optimal ways to operate a process or plant from 'cradle to grave'. This may help the process industries not only to comply with legislation but also provide a framework for taking a more proactive approach to environmental management leading to more sustainable industrial operations and practices.
LEGROS R, CLIFT R, MILLINGTON CA (1995) DEVELOPMENT OF A MOBILIZATION TECHNIQUE FOR FIBROUS MATERIALS, POWDER TECHNOLOGY 85 (2) pp. 105-114 ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA LAUSANNE
Vermeylen S, Martin G, Clift R (2008) Intellectual Property Rights Systems and the Assemblage of Local Knowledge Systems, International Journal of Cultural Property 15 02 pp. 201-221-201-221
Malcolm R, Clift R (2002) Barriers to industrial ecology: The strange case of "The Tombesi Bypass", Journal of Industrial Ecology 6 (1) pp. 4-7
MACCUAIG N, SEVILLE JPK, GILBOY WB, CLIFT R (1985) APPLICATION OF GAMMA-RAY TOMOGRAPHY TO GAS-FLUIDIZED BEDS, APPLIED OPTICS 24 (23) pp. 4083-4085 OPTICAL SOC AMER
Koch D, Cheung W, Seville JPK, Clift R (1992) Effects of dust properties on gas cleaning using rigid ceramic filters, Filtration and Separation 29 (4)
Coupons of rigid ceramic filtration media have been conditioned using fine gasifier char and calcium carbonate dusts and both the cake resistance and the stress needed to detach the cake from the medium have been measured. For gasifier char, cake resistance appears to be independent of face velocity and proportional to areas cake loading, while cake removal stress is approximately independent of loading. For calcium carbonate, broadening the size distribution increases the cake resistance but slightly reduces the cake removal stress. Increases in particle size and cake void fraction decrease both cake resistance and cake removal stress. However, since increase in particle size seems often to be accompanied by decrease in cake void fraction, the range of commonly-observed cake resistivities and removal stresses is narrower than might otherwise be expected. © 1992.
AZAPAGIC A, CLIFT R (1995) WHOLE SYSTEM MODELLING AND LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT, 1995 ICHEME RESEARCH EVENT - FIRST EUROPEAN CONFERENCE FOR YOUNG RESEARCHERS IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING, VOLS 1 AND 2 pp. 429-431 INST CHEMICAL ENGINEERS
CLIFT R (1995) CLEAN TECHNOLOGY - AN INTRODUCTION, JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY AND BIOTECHNOLOGY 62 (4) pp. 321-326 JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD
Clift R, Dennison FJ, Azapagic A, Clayton CRI (1999) Life cycle assessment: comparing strategic options for the mains infrastructure, Water Science and Technology 39 (10-11) pp. 315-319
Clift R (2005) Precaution and sustainability, TCE (764) pp. 20-22 INST CHEMICAL ENGINEERS
GARCIA A, GRACE J, CLIFT R (1973) BEHAVIOR OF GAS BUBBLES IN FLUIDIZED-BEDS, AICHE JOURNAL 19 (2) pp. 369-370 AMER INST CHEMICAL ENGINEERS
Burningham K, Barnett J, Carr A, Clift R, Wehrmeyer W (2007) Industrial constructions of publics and public knowledge: a qualitative investigation of practice in the UK chemicals industry, Public Understanding of Science 16 (1) pp. 23-43
While the rhetoric of public engagement is increasingly commonplace within industry, there has been little research that examines how lay knowledge is conceptualized and whether it is really used within companies. Using the chemicals sector as an example, this paper explores how companies conceive of publics and "public knowledge," and how this relates to modes of engagement/communication with them. Drawing on qualitative empirical research in four companies, we demonstrate that the public for industry are primarily conceived as "consumers" and "neighbours," having concerns that should be allayed rather than as groups with knowledge meriting engagement. We conclude by highlighting the dissonance between current advocacy of engagement and the discourses and practices prevalent within industry, and highlight the need for more realistic strategies for industry/public engagement.
Clift R (1998) A role for tribology in life cycle design, TRIBOLOGY FOR ENERGY CONSERVATION 34 pp. 3-9 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
CLIFT R (1991) A critique of two models for cyclone performance, AlChE J. 37 pp. 285-289
Clift R (1997) The ECTEL Trials, Journal of Industrial Ecology 1 2 pp. 3-5 MIT Press
Clift R Clean Technology and the Future Process of Process Engineering,
Mila i Canals L, Chenoweth J, Chapagain A, Orr S, Anton A, Clift R (2009) Assessing freshwater use impacts in LCA: Part I-inventory modelling and characterisation factors for the main impact pathways, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT 14 (1) pp. 28-42 SPRINGER HEIDELBERG
Clift R, Morris N (2002) Engineering with a human face, Engineering Management Journal 12 (5) pp. 226-230
Rafailidis SV, Clift R (1991) Study of the influence of bubble formation at the distributor on fluidized bed behavior, AIChE Symposium Series 87 (281) pp. 47-57
To investigate the effect of distributor characteristics on bubble motion in a fluidized bed, a simulation has been performed in which the motion of each bubble in the bed is calculated using the model of Clift and Grace. Calculations have been carried out for a 0.3m square combustor, for which experimental measurements are to be published. The results show that standpipe distributors lead to localized areas of bubbling inside the bed, which become more diffuse when the number of bubble generation sites is increased. No significant distributor effects have been found on the bubble frequency or rise velocity, except very close to the distributor. It appears that, under some circumstances, increasing the number of bubble generation sites in the distributor could help to alleviate wastage of heat transfer surfaces.
CLIFT R (1995) MASSIMILLA,LEOPOLDO (1930-1993) - OBITUARY, POWDER TECHNOLOGY 82 (3) pp. 215-216 ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA LAUSANNE
CLIFT R (1991) POWDER TECHNOLOGY, POWDER TECHNOLOGY 65 (1-3) pp. R9-R9 ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA LAUSANNE
CLIFT R (1993) AN OCCAMIST REVIEW OF FLUIDIZED-BED MODELING, FLUID-PARTICLE PROCESSES: FUNDAMENTALS AND APPLICATIONS 89 (296) pp. 1-17 AMER INST CHEMICAL ENGINEERS
Clift R (1983) FUNDAMENTAL PROCESSES IN GAS FILTRATION., Transactions of the Institution of Engineers, Australia. Mechanical engineering ME8 (4) pp. 181-191
Some fundamental problems, arising in the filtration of gases by fixed beds of granular collector, are reviewed. Capture of gas-borne particles by the collector normally occurs mainly by the processes of Brownian diffusion, inertial impaction and electrophoretic migration. Diffusional and electrophoretic capture are controlled by processes occurring close to the surface of the collector, and theoretical models are reasonably successful in predicting capture rates. Theoretical estimates for inertial impaction are much less reliable, and reasons for this are discussed. Retention of a particle by the collector is governed by a balance between particle kinetic energy and adhesion energy; trajectory calculations can be used to estimate conditions under which a captured particle is retained by the collector.
Grace JR, Clift R (1974) On the two-phase theory of fluidization, Chemical Engineering Science 29 (2) pp. 327-334
The distribution of gas flow between bubbles and the dense phase in a fludized bed is considered. By deriving general equations for gas and solids continuity in a freely-bubbling fluidized bed, the possible contributions to the invisible gas flow are formulated. It is shown that the gross assumptions inherent in "two-phase theories" of fluidization are not justified. Measurements of visible bubble flow and bubble volume fraction can give nothing more than estimates for the gas flow through the two phases. © 1974.
Kleemann R, Chenoweth Jonathan, Clift Roland, Morse Stephen, Pearce P, Saroj Devendra (2016) Comparison of phosphorus recovery from incinerated sewage sludge ash (ISSA) and pyrolysed sewage sludge char (PSSC), Waste Management 60 pp. 201-210 Elsevier
This research compares and contrasts the physical and chemical characteristics of incinerator sewage sludge ash (ISSA) and pyrolysis sewage sludge char (PSSC) for the purposes of recovering phosphorus as a P-rich fertiliser. Interest in P recovery from PSSC is likely to increase as pyrolysis is becoming viewed as a more economical method of sewage sludge thermal treatment compared to incineration. The P contents of ISSA and PSSC are 7.2?7.5% and 5.6%, respectively. Relative to the sludge, P concentrations are increased about 8-fold in ISSA, compared to roughly 3-fold in PSSC. Both PSSC and ISSA contain whitlockite, an unusual form of calcium phosphate, with PSSC containing more whitlockite than ISSA. Acid leaching experiments indicate that a liquid/solid ratio of 10 with 30 min contact time is optimal to release PO4-P into leachate for both ISSA and PSSC. The proportion of P extracted from PSSC is higher due to its higher whitlockite content. Heavy metals are less soluble from PSSC because they are more strongly incorporated in the particles. The results suggest there is potential for the development of a process to recover P from PSSC.
Zhang S, Bi XT, Clift R (2014) Life cycle analysis of a biogas-centred integrated dairy farm-greenhouse system in British Columbia, Process Safety and Environmental Protection
This study investigates the potential integration of a dairy farm and a greenhouse into an eco-industrial system to promote waste-to-energy and waste-to-material exchanges. Natural gas consumption is substituted by renewable biogas generated from anaerobic digestion (AD) of the dairy manure; CO2 for plant enrichment in greenhouses is supplied by biogas combustion and the digestate (digestion residue) from digesters is used as animal bedding, plant growing media and liquid fertilizers. A life cycle analysis (LCA) was conducted to quantify the environmental impacts of the eco-industrial system in comparison to the conventional agriculture practices. The results show that the integrated system reduces non-renewable energy consumption, climate change impact, acidification, respiratory effects from organic emissions, and human toxicity by more than 40%. If the digestate surplus is treated as a waste, the integrated system shows an increase in eutrophication and respiratory effects from inorganic emissions while all the analyzed impacts are reduced if the digestate can be used for substituting chemical fertilizers. © 2014 The Institution of Chemical Engineers.
GRACE JR, CLIFT R (1974) ON THE TWO-PHASE THEORY OF FLUIDIZATION., Chemical Engineering Science 29 (2)
THE DISTRIBUTION OF GAS FLOW BETWEEN BUBBLES AND THE DENSE PHASE IN A FLUIDIZED BED IS CONSIDERED.BY DERIVING GENERAL EQUATIONS FOR GAS AND SOLIDS CONTINUITY IN A FREELY-BUBBLING FLUIDIZED BED, THE POSSIBLE CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE INVISIBLE GAS FLOW ARE FORMULATED.IT IS SHOWN THAT THE GROSS ASSUMPTIONS INHERENT IN 'TWO-PHASE THEORIES' OF FLUIDIZATION ARE NOT JUSTIFIED.MEASUREMENTS OF VISIBLE BUBBLE FLOW AND BUBBLE VOLUME FRACTION CAN GIVE NOTHING MORE THAN ROUGH ESTIMATES FOR THE GAS FLOW THROUGH THE TWO PHASES.(A)
Clift R (2002) The Hydrogen Saga: Why the Energy Future could be in Iceland, Town and Country Planning (December) pp. 315-317
Clift R, Grace JR (1985) Continuous bubbling and slugging.,
Effort in the areas of bubbling and slugging in gas fluidized beds is reviewed and the major achievements summarized. Properties of single bubbles, behaviour of interacting bubbles, properties of freely bubbling beds and slugs and freely slugging beds are discussed. (P.J.B.)
Clift R, Mulugetta Y (2007) A plea for common sense (and biomass), TCE (796) pp. 24-26 INST CHEMICAL ENGINEERS
DUO W, KIRKBY NF, SEVILLE JPK, CLIFT R (1995) ALTERATION WITH REACTION PROGRESS OF THE RATE-LIMITING STEP FOR SOLID-GAS REACTIONS OF CA-COMPOUNDS WITH HCL, CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SCIENCE 50 (13) pp. 2017-2027 PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
Clift R, Burningham K, Lofstedt R (1995) Environmental Perspectives and Environmental Assessment, In: Guerrier Y (eds.), Values and the environment: A Social Science Perspective pp. 19-31 Wiley
This book examines the multitude of ways in which we value the environment from a social science perspective.
Clift R, Wilson K, Addie G, Carstens M (1982) MECHANISTICALLY-BASED METHOD FOR SCALING PIPELINE TESTS FOR SETTLING SLURRIES., Hydrotransport pp. 91-101
Clift R (2005) Bioenergy and its potential in the UK, UK Power 1 pp. 49-51
SEVILLE JPK, CLIFT R (1984) THE EFFECT OF THIN LIQUID LAYERS ON FLUIDIZATION CHARACTERISTICS, POWDER TECHNOLOGY 37 (JAN-) pp. 117-129 ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA LAUSANNE
AZAPAGIC A, CLIFT R (1995) LIFE-CYCLE ASSESSMENT AND LINEAR-PROGRAMMING - ENVIRONMENTAL OPTIMIZATION OF PRODUCT SYSTEM, COMPUTERS & CHEMICAL ENGINEERING 19 pp. S229-S234 PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
SCANDRETT LA, CLIFT R (1984) THE THERMODYNAMICS OF ALKALI REMOVAL FROM COAL-DERIVED GASES, JOURNAL OF THE INSTITUTE OF ENERGY 57 (433) pp. 391-397 INST ENERGY
Clift R, Azapagic A, Cowell S, Doig A, Hogan S, Solberg-Johansen B (1996) Allocation in Life Cycle Inventory Analysis, Report for Groupe des Sages, DGXI Brussels
Clift R (1995) Greenpeace life cycle appeal, CHEMICAL ENGINEER-LONDON (600) pp. 3-3 INST CHEMICAL ENGINEERS
Solberg-Johansen B, Clift R, Jeapes A (1997) Irradiating the environment: Radiological impacts in life cycle assessment, International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 2 (1) pp. 16-19
One of the main shortcomings of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) when applied to the Nuclear Fuel Cycle, is that there is currently no recognised procedure to deal with radionuclide emissions in the Impact Assessment stage. A framework which considers both human and environmental impacts is required and a methodology which is compatible with the other impact assessment approaches in LCA must be developed. It is important that the discussion is not only restricted to concepts, but that a working methodology is developed which can be readily applied by LCA practitioners. A provisional method is available for assessing radiological impacts on human health, but no consideration has been given to potential effects on the environment. A methodology is proposed in this paper which assesses irradiation of the environment using Environmental Increments (EI) as the quality standard. This approach is based on the same principles as for the Ecotoxicity classification group, and it represents a working methodology which can be continuously improved as knowledge in the area increases.
Clift R, Udo de Haes HA, Bensahel JF, Fussler CR, Griesshammer R, Jensen AA (1995) Research Needs in Life Cycle Assessment for the EU Ecolabelling Programme, final report of the second phase, Groupe de Sages, Commission of the European Union
GHADIRI M, CLIFT R (1980) JET PENETRATION INTO A FLUIDIZED-BED AT HIGH-TEMPERATURE, INDUSTRIAL & ENGINEERING CHEMISTRY FUNDAMENTALS 19 (4) pp. 440-440 AMER CHEMICAL SOC
Clift R, Doig A Applying Life Cycle Thinking to Solid Waste Management,
Clift R (1994) UNTITLED - REPLY, PROCESS ENGINEERING 75 (6) pp. 17-17 MILLER FREEMAN TECHNICAL LTD
Clift R, Longley AJ (1994) Introduction to Clean Technology, In: Kirkwood RC, Longley AJ (eds.), Clean Technology and the Environment pp. 174-198 Springer
This important book describes the concept of `clean technology' as an approach for protecting the environment by preventing the pollution at source, minimising waste and reducing energy use.
JOHNSSON JE, CLIFT R, GRACE JR (1974) PREDICTION OF BUBBLE DISTRIBUTIONS IN FREELY-BUBBLING TWO-DIMENSIONAL FLUIDIZED BEDS., MULTI-PHASE FLOW SYSTEMS, I.CHEM.E.SYMP.SERIES 38 1 , PAPER B5
THE MODEL PROPOSED BY CLIFT AND GRACE TO DESCRIBE THE MOTION OF INTERACTING BUBBLES IN A FLUIDIZED BED IS EXTENDED TO APPLY TO FREELY-BUBBLING BEDS.THE MODELR REQUIRES AS A BOUNDARY CONDITION THE SIZE, POSITION AND FREQUENCY OF BUBBLES AT SOME LOW REFERENCE LEVEL IN THE BED.THE MOTION AND COALESCENCE OF BUBBLES IN THE BED IS THEN CALCULATED TO GIVE PREDICTIONS OF BUBBLE FREQUENCY, SIZE AND SPATIAL DISTRIBUTIONS AT ANY HEIGHT ABOVE THE REFERENCE LEVEL.IT IS SHOWN THAT THE PREDICTIONS AGREE CLOSELY WITH MEASUREMENTS OF THESE PARAMETERS IN TWO-DIMENSIONAL BEDS EVEN THOUGH THE MODEL REQUIRES NO FITTED PARAMETERS.(A)
Clift R, Petrie JG (1995) Life Cycle Assessment, Mining and Environment Research Network Research Bulletin and Newsletter 7 pp. 9-11
CLIFT R, GAUVIN WH (1971) MOTION OF ENTRAINED PARTICLES IN GAS STREAMS, CANADIAN JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING 49 (4) pp. 439-& CANADIAN SOC CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
Jorgensen KM, Azapagic A, Clift R, Ericson SO, Lofstedt R (1997) Life cycle assessment of a circulating fluidised bed combustion process utilising forest residues as a fuel, 1997 JUBILEE RESEARCH EVENT, VOLS 1 AND 2 pp. 53-56 INST CHEMICAL ENGINEERS
Mungkung RT, de Haes HAU, Clift R (2006) Potentials and limitations of life cycle assessment in setting ecolabelling criteria: A case study of Thai shrimp aquaculture product, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT 11 (1) pp. 55-59 ECOMED PUBLISHERS
Clift R (1990) Introduction, Powder Technology 60 (1)
Clift R, Sim S, King H, Chenoweth JL, Christie IP, Clavreul J, Mueller C, Posthuma L, Boulay A, Chaplin-Kramer R, Chatterton J, DeClerck F, Druckman A, France CM, Franco A, Gerten D, Goedkoop M, Hauschild M, Huijbregts M, Koellner T, Lambin E, Lee J, Mair SJ, Marshall S, McLachlan M, Milà i Canals L, Mitchell C, Price E, Rockström J, Suckling JR, Murphy RJ (2017) The Challenges of Applying Planetary Boundaries as a Basis for Strategic Decision-Making in Companies with Global Supply Chains, Sustainability 9 (2) MDPI
The Planetary Boundaries (PB) framework represents a significant advance in specifying the ecological constraints on human development. However, to enable decision-makers in business and public policy to respect these constraints in strategic planning, the PB framework needs to be developed to generate practical tools. With this objective in mind, we analyse the recent literature and highlight three major scientific and technical challenges in operationalizing the PB approach in decision-making: first, identification of thresholds or boundaries with associated metrics for different geographical scales; second, the need to frame approaches to allocate fair shares in the ?safe operating space? bounded by the PBs across the value chain and; third, the need for international bodies to co-ordinate the implementation of the measures needed to respect the Planetary Boundaries. For the first two of these challenges, we consider how they might be addressed for four PBs: climate change, freshwater use, biosphere integrity and chemical pollution and other novel entities. Four key opportunities are identified: (1) development of a common system of metrics that can be applied consistently at and across different scales; (2) setting ?distance from boundary? measures that can be applied at different scales; (3) development of global, preferably open-source, databases and models; and (4) advancing understanding of the interactions between the different PBs. Addressing the scientific and technical challenges in operationalizing the planetary boundaries needs be complemented with progress in addressing the equity and ethical issues in allocating the safe operating space between companies and sectors.
Martin G, Clift R, Christie IP (2016) Urban Cultivation and Its Contributions to Sustainability: Nibbles of Food but Oodles of Social Capital, Sustainability 8 (5) pp. 409-409 MDPI
The contemporary interest in urban cultivation in the global North as a component of sustainable food production warrants assessment of both its quantitative and qualitative roles. This exploratory study weighs the nutritional, ecological, and social sustainability contributions of urban agriculture by examining three cases?a community garden in the core of New York, a community farm on the edge of London, and an agricultural park on the periphery of San Francisco. Our field analysis of these sites, confirmed by generic estimates, shows very low food outputs relative to the populations of their catchment areas; the great share of urban food will continue to come from multiple foodsheds beyond urban peripheries, often far beyond. Cultivation is a more appropriate designation than agriculture for urban food growing because its sustainability benefits are more social than agronomic or ecological. A major potential benefit lies in enhancing the ecological knowledge of urbanites, including an appreciation of the role that organic food may play in promoting both sustainability and health. This study illustrates how benefits differ according to local conditions, including population density and demographics, operational scale, soil quality, and access to labor and consumers. Recognizing the real benefits, including the promotion of sustainable diets, could enable urban food growing to be developed as a component of regional foodsheds to improve the sustainability and resilience of food supply, and to further the process of public co-production of new forms of urban conviviality and wellbeing.
Arena N, Alpay E, Kirkby N, Lee J, Clift R (2017) An on demand chilling system: Activated carbon based desorptive cooling, Journal of Cleaner Production 176 pp. 937-945 Elsevier
Every year in Europe refrigerant gases with a greenhouse-warming equivalent of more than 30 Mt CO2 are emitted from retail refrigerators. Furthermore, the effective efficiency of such refrigerators is far below that achievable under ideal (e.g. optimal-load; minimum access) operation. In this work the design of an alternative on-demand cooling unit is presented. The unit is based on the cooling effect provided by desorption of carbon dioxide previously adsorbed onto a bed of graphite-bonded activated carbon: in this paper, a case study of a self-chilling beverage can is used to demonstrate the technology. The high compaction of the activated carbon, and the presence of graphite, enhances the heat transfer properties of the adsorbent, thus enhancing the efficiency of cooling. Furthermore, potential exists for the use of activated carbon and CO2 from waste sources. This paper provides an overview of the design basis and environmental advantages of the unit, and experimental and simulation studies on the thermal dynamics of the cooling process. Particular attention is given to the effective thermal conductivity of the activated carbon bed. The results indicate that adequate on-demand cooling can be achieved within a portable unit. However, scope exists for enhancing the heat transfer within the cooling chamber through design and bed composition alterations. Recommendations for improved unit design are presented.
Gear M, Sadhukhan J, Thorpe R, Clift R, Seville J, Keast M (2018) A life cycle assessment data analysis toolkit for the design of novel processes - A case study for a thermal cracking process for mixed plastic waste, Journal of Cleaner Production 180 pp. 735-747 Elsevier
The earlier in the development of a process a design change is made, the lower the cost and the higher the impact on the final performance. This applies equally to environmental and technical performance, but in practice the environmental aspects often receive less attention. To maximise sustainability, it is important to review all of these aspects through each stage, not just after the design. Tools that integrate environmental goals into the design process would enable the design of more environmentally friendly processes at a lower cost. This paper brings together approaches based on Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) including comparisons of design changes, hotspot analysis, identification of key impact categories, environmental break-even analysis, and decision analysis using ternary diagrams that give detailed guidance for design while not requiring high quality data. The tools include hotspot analysis to reveal which unit operations dominate the impacts and therefore should be the focus of further detailed process development. This approach enables the best variants to be identified so that the basic design can be improved to reduce all significant environmental impacts. The tools are illustrated by a case study on the development of a novel process with several variants: thermal cracking of mixed plastic waste to produce a heavy hydrocarbon product that can displace crude oil, naphtha, or refinery wax or be used as a fuel. The results justified continuing with the development by confirming that the novel process is likely to be a better environmental option than landfill or incineration. The general approach embodied in the toolkit should be applicable in the development of any new process, particularly one producing multiple products.
Russell E, Lee J, Clift R (2018) Can the SDGs Provide a Basis for Supply Chain
Decisions in the Construction Sector?,
Sustainability 10 (3) 629 MDPI
The Construction sector is characterised by complex supply networks delivering unique
end products over short time scales. Sustainability has increased in importance but continues to
be difficult to implement in this sector; thus, new approaches and practices are needed. This paper
reports an empirical investigation into the value of the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs),
especially Sustainable Consumption and Production (SDG12), when used as a framework for action
by organisations to drive change towards sustainability in global supply networks. Through inductive
research, two different and contrasting approaches to improving the sustainability of supply networks
have been revealed. One approach focuses on the ?bottom up? ethical approach typified by the
Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) certification of timber products, and the other on ?top-down?
regulations exemplified by the UK Modern Slavery Act. In an industry noted for complex supply
networks and characterised by adversarial relationships, the findings suggest that, in the long term,
promoting shared values aligned with transparent, third-party monitoring will be more effective
than imposing standards through legislation and regulation in supporting sustainable consumption
and production.
This study focuses on British Sustainability-inspired Business Startups (SiBS) from two sectors of the creative industry: fashion clothing and gifts. These two sectors are some of those that motivate most entrepreneurship, by using distinct elements of business models to attract their consumers. While price and style have led consumers to look for products with short lifespans, reducing sustainability impact is a growing concern in the fashion clothing and gifts sectors, what motivates some sustainable initiatives to be taken in place. However, although some sustainable initiatives have emerged, there is no clear understanding of how they are based in the business drivers or in the business models, and if these initiatives are contributing to startups to succeed.
This research aims to provide new understanding of the role of sustainability in the business startups from the fashion clothing and gifts sectors which offer manufactured green products. In order to narrow the presenting study, specific research questions are: What are the drivers of SiBS and do they differ from generic-mainstream startups? What business models are adopted by SiBS, how and why? and What are the factors affecting the longevity of the startups investigated and why?
Case study method was chosen to allow in-depth investigation and analyses of multiple variables in each startup investigated. Then, qualitative data from each startup was collected by different sources: interviews, direct observation and documentation. The use of multiple sources of evidence allowed triangulation between data collected. Fifteen British startups were examined, covering generic-mainstream and SiBS, business lifetimes up to ten years, and two sectors in the experimental group (fashion clothing, with four startups; and gifts, with six startups) and one sector in the control group (energy, with five startups). Data analysis consisted of within-case study and multi-case study. In-depth investigation provided richness of information from each startup and the identification of similarities and differences between groups of startups investigated.
Accordingly, the findings of this research suggest that: Regarding business drivers, startups in the gifts and fashion clothing sectors are more motivated by lifestyle and less motivated by money than energy firms; Also, SiBS are driven by the founder?s motivation when aiming to incorporate sustainability aspects into their business activities, while generic- mainstream startups are driven by money with focus on profits; Regarding business models,
iii
SiBS prioritise environmental and social issues as main elements of their business models; Furthermore, business models do not really change throughout the growth of startups; Regarding business longevity, most startups in the gifts and fashion clothing sectors do not have clear financial strategies but this is commonly clear in the energy firms.
Important differences in outlook between different groups and types of business startups (generic-mainstream and SiBS) investigated in this study lead to the conclusion that: The awareness of two financial aspects (financial literacy and financial importance) provide an opportunity to increase chances of success in the early days of SiBS; The dissemination of the types of business models innovation for sustainability may motivate the development of more sustainable practices into the SiBS operations; And the emphasis on sustainability in business startups, either as through the business drivers or the business models adopted, is a central and long-term strategy that may increase the significance, the number and the importance of SiBS.
Tagliaferri C, Clift R, Lettieri P, Chapman C (2016) Shale gas: a life-cycle perspective for UK production, International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 22 (6) pp. 919-937 Springer Verlag
Purpose

Following the boom of shale gas production in the
USA and the decrease in the US gas prices, increasing interest
in shale gas is developing in many countries holding shale
reserves and exploration is already taking place in some EU
countries, including the UK. Any commercial development of
shale gas in Europe requires a broad environmental assessment,
recognizing the different European conditions and
legislations.

Methods

This study focuses on the UK situation and estimates
the environmental impacts of shale gas using lifecycle
assessment (LCA); the burdens of shale gas production
in the UK are compared with the burdens of the current UK
natural gas mix. The main focus is on the analysis of water
impacts, but a broad range of other impact categories are also
considered. A sensitivity analysis is performed on the most
environmentally criticized operations in shale gas production,
including flowback disposal and emission control, by considering
a range of possible process options.

Results and discussion

Improper waste water management
and direct disposal or spills of waste water to river can lead
to high water and human ecotoxicity. Mining of the sand and
withdrawal of the water used in fracking fluids determine the
main impacts on water use and degradation. However, the
water degradation of the conventional natural gas supply to
the UK is shown to be even higher than that of shale gas. For
the global warming potential (GWP), the handling methods of
the emissions associated with the hydraulic fracturing influence
the results only when emissions are vented. Finally, the
estimated ultimate recovery of the well has the greatest impact
on the results as well as the flowback ratio and flowback
disposal method.

Conclusions

This paper provides insights to better understand
the future development of shale gas in the UK. Adequate
waste water management and emission handling significantly
reduce the environmental impacts of shale gas production.
Policy makers should consider that shale gas at the same time
increases the water consumption and decreases the water degradation
when compared with the gas mix supply.
Furthermore, the environmental impacts of shale gas should
be considered according to the low productivity that force the
drilling and exploitation of a high number of wells.

Evangelisti S, Clift R, Tagliaferri C, Lettieri P (2017) A life cycle assessment of distributed energy production from organic
waste: Two case studies in Europe,
Waste Management 64 pp. 371-385 Elsevier
By means of the life cycle assessment methodology, the purpose of this study is to assess the environmental
impact when biomethane from organic waste produced at residential level is used to supply
energy to a group of dwellings in the distributed generation paradigm. Three different Combined Heat
and Power systems, such as fuel cells, Stirling engine and micro gas turbine, installed at household level
are assessed in two different settings: one in Northern Europe (UK) and one in Southern Europe (Italy).
Different operating strategies are investigated for each technology. Moreover, marginal electricity production
technologies are analysed to assess their influence on the results. This study has demonstrated
that the type of bio-methane fed micro-CHP technology employed has a significantly different environmental
impact: fuel cells are the most environmentally friendly solution in every category analysed;
Stirling engines, although can supply heat to the largest number of dwellings are the least environmentally
friendly technology. However, key factors investigated in the model presented in this paper influence
the decision making on the type of technology adopted and the operating strategy to be
implemented.
Tagliaferri C, Clift R, Lettieri P, Chapman C (2017) Liquefied natural gas for the UK: a life cycle assessment, International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 22 (12) pp. 1944-1956 Springer
Purpose

Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is expected to become
an important component of the UK?s energy supply because
the national hydrocarbon reserves on the continental shelf
have started diminishing. However, use of any carbon-based
fuel runs counter to mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions
(GHGs). Hence, a broad environmental assessment to analyse
the import of LNG to the UK is required.

Methods

A cradle to gate life cycle assessment has been carried
out of a specific but representative case: LNG imported to
the UK fromQatar. The analysis covers the supply chain, from
gas extraction through to distribution to the end-user, assuming
state-of-the-art facilities and ships. A sensitivity analysis
was also conducted on key parameters including the energy
requirements of the liquefaction and vaporisation processes,
fuel for propulsion, shipping distance, tanker volume and
composition of raw gas.

Results and discussion

All environmental indicators of the
CML methodology were analysed. The processes of liquefaction,
LNG transport and evaporation determine more than 50% of the cradle to gate global warming potential (GWP).
When 1% of the total gas delivered is vented as methane
emissions leakage throughout the supply chain, the GWP increases
by 15% compared to the GWP of the base scenario.
The variation of the GWP increases to 78% compared to the
base scenario when 5% of the delivered gas is considered to be
lost as vented emissions. For all the scenarios analysed, more
than 75% of the total acidification potential (AP) is due to the
sweetening of the natural gas before liquefaction. Direct emissions
from transport always determine between 25 and 49%of
the total eutrophication potential (EP) whereas the operation
and maintenance of the sending ports strongly influences the
fresh water aquatic ecotoxicity potential (FAETP).

Conclusions

The study highlights long-distance transport of
LNG and natural gas processing, including sweetening, liquefaction
and vaporisation, as the key operations that strongly
affect the life cycle impacts. Those cannot be considered negligible
when the environmental burdens of the LNG supply
chain are considered. Furthermore, the effect of possible fugitive
methane emissions along the supply chain are critical for
the impact of operations such as extraction, liquefaction, storage
before transport, transport itself and evaporation.

Tagliaferri C, Evangelisti S, Clift R, Lettieri P (2018) Life cycle assessment of a biomass CHP plant in
UK: The Heathrow energy centre case,
Chemical Engineering Research and Design 133 pp. 210-221 Elsevier
Bioenergy has an important role to play in helping the UK meet its carbon target in 2050
and the European Renewable Energy Directive objectives for 2030. There are however uncertainties
associated with the use of bioenergy, and whether or how much it contributes to
green-house gas emission reductions. In order to help identifying environmental benefits
and burdens associated with biomass use for energy production, an attributional life cycle
assessment has been carried out of a biomass-fired CHP plant: the Heathrow Airport energy
centre. This facility burns woodchips sourced from nearby forests providing 2 MWe of electricity
and 8 MWth of thermal energy which delivers heat and cooling to Heathrow Terminal
2 and low temperature hot water to Terminal 5. A hot spot analysis is conducted to identify
the process steps with the largest environmental impact, starting from the harvesting of the
forest residue to the disposal of the boiler ash. A scenario analysis is performed to compare
the impacts of the biomass plant against fossil alternatives and to identify which renewable
energy sources, between biomass and MSW, should be prioritised for development and
investment. The results show a reduction in GHG emissions from using biomass, with further
benefits if the bottom ash is collected and re-used as a soil conditioner for land-farming
or forestry. The paper also discusses the treatment of biogenic carbon in the assessment.
Garcia R, Freire F, Clift R (2017) Effects on Greenhouse Gas Emissions
of Introducing Electric Vehicles into
an Electricity System with Large
Storage Capacity,
Journal of Industrial Ecology 22 (2) pp. 288-299 Wiley
Under some circumstances, electric vehicles (EVs) can reduce overall environmental impacts
by displacing internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs) and by enabling more intermittent
renewable energy sources (RES) by charging with surplus power in periods of low demand.
However, the net effects on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of adding EVs into a national
or regional electricity system are complex and, for a system with significant RES, are affected
by the presence of storage capacity, such as pumped hydro storage (PHS). This article
takes the Portuguese electricity system as a specific example, characterized by relatively
high capacities of wind generation and PHS. The interactions between EVs and PHS are
explored, using life cycle assessment to compare changes in GHG emissions for different
scenarios with a fleet replacement model to describe the introduction of EVs. Where there
is sufficient storage capacity to ensure that RES capacity is exploited without curtailment,
as in Portugal, any additional demand, such as introduction of EVs, must be met by the next
marginal technology. Whether this represents an average increase or decrease in GHG
emissions depends on the carbon intensity of the marginal generating technology and on
the fuel efficiency of the ICEVs displaced by the EVs, so that detailed analysis is needed
for any specific energy system, allowing for future technological improvements. A simple
way to represent these trade-offs is proposed as a basis for supporting strategic policies on
introduction of EVs.
Du C, Ugaya C, Freire F, Dias L, Clift R (2018) Enriching the results of screening social life cycle assessment using content analysis: a case study of sugarcane in Brazil, The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment Springer Verlag
Purpose

Screening social life cycle assessment (S-LCA) can be applied to identify the social hotspots associated with a production activity or supply chain. The objective of this paper is to explore how the quality of the results of a screening S-LCA can be improved, illustrated by a case study of sugarcane production in Brazil, an activity which has been criticized for its records on social sustainability due to issues such as poor working conditions for field workers and treatment of migrant workers.

Methods

Cradle-to-gate production of sugarcane in Brazil has been modeled using input-output analysis. The associated social impacts have been modeled using the framework of the Social Hotspots Database (SHDB), which is one of the first databases providing information on social risks along supply chains. The results from the SHDB were complemented with results from a systematic analysis of relevant literature. Content analysis was applied to 38 publications in English relevant to the social impacts of sugarcane production in Brazil, including peer-reviewed articles, ?gray literature,? non-governmental organization reports, and conference presentations. Qualitative data analysis software NVivo 8 was used to facilitate the analysis of the publications. A deductive category system was established based on the subcategories recommended in the UNEP/SETAC social life cycle assessment guidelines. Social impacts were further aggregated and analyzed by social themes and impact categories.

Results and discussion

The social impacts of the sugarcane life cycle in Brazil arise almost exclusively within the Brazilian sugarcane sector itself. Fifteen social themes are identified as hotspots in the SHDB, and nine of them are also identified by content analysis. Health and safety and labor rights and decent work are the impact categories with the highest risks. Besides negative impacts, content analysis is capable of identifying several positive impacts related to sugarcane production. Due to the use of aggregated country-level data, social impacts of manual and mechanical harvesting of sugarcane cannot be differentiated in SHDB; however, this can be achieved by content analysis.

Conclusions

SHDB is effective for identifying social impacts at the country level, but the data are inevitably aggregated and only show averages across different technologies and geographical areas; therefore, the database is of limited value in distinguishing between alternative operations and locations. Content analysis can facilitate foreground data collection by differentiating operations and identifying both negative and positive impacts at the level of individual activities. We recommend that S-LCA databases can be integrated with results of content analysis to improve the richness?representativity and specificity?of results from a screening S-LCA, to differentiate between alternative production routes and processes.