Professor Roland Clift

Research Interests

Environmental System Analysis, including Life Cycle Assessment, Industrial Ecology and Sustainable Energy Systems; Bioenergy; Sustainable Supply Chains; Engineering Ethics. 

Research Collaborations

National Industrial Symbiosis Programme (NISP)

TSEC-Biosys research consortium (NERC)

Departmental Duties

Emeritus - research and p/g supervision

Contact Me

E-mail:
Phone: 01483 68 9271

Find me on campus
Room: 35 BA 01

Publications

Journal articles

  • Azapagic A, Clift R, 高橋 輝. '海外文献抄訳シリ-ズ-109-生産システムの環境最適化--ライフサイクルアセスメントと線形計画法'. 流通研究社 Material flow, 38 (7), pp. 105-108.
  • Du C, Ugaya C, Freire F, Dias L, Clift R. (2018) 'Enriching the results of screening social life cycle assessment using content analysis: a case study of sugarcane in Brazil'. Springer Verlag The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment,

    Abstract

    Purpose

    Screening social life cycle assessment (S-LCA) can be applied to identify the social hotspots associated with a production activity or supply chain. The objective of this paper is to explore how the quality of the results of a screening S-LCA can be improved, illustrated by a case study of sugarcane production in Brazil, an activity which has been criticized for its records on social sustainability due to issues such as poor working conditions for field workers and treatment of migrant workers.

    Methods

    Cradle-to-gate production of sugarcane in Brazil has been modeled using input-output analysis. The associated social impacts have been modeled using the framework of the Social Hotspots Database (SHDB), which is one of the first databases providing information on social risks along supply chains. The results from the SHDB were complemented with results from a systematic analysis of relevant literature. Content analysis was applied to 38 publications in English relevant to the social impacts of sugarcane production in Brazil, including peer-reviewed articles, “gray literature,” non-governmental organization reports, and conference presentations. Qualitative data analysis software NVivo 8 was used to facilitate the analysis of the publications. A deductive category system was established based on the subcategories recommended in the UNEP/SETAC social life cycle assessment guidelines. Social impacts were further aggregated and analyzed by social themes and impact categories.

    Results and discussion

    The social impacts of the sugarcane life cycle in Brazil arise almost exclusively within the Brazilian sugarcane sector itself. Fifteen social themes are identified as hotspots in the SHDB, and nine of them are also identified by content analysis. Health and safety and labor rights and decent work are the impact categories with the highest risks. Besides negative impacts, content analysis is capable of identifying several positive impacts related to sugarcane production. Due to the use of aggregated country-level data, social impacts of manual and mechanical harvesting of sugarcane cannot be differentiated in SHDB; however, this can be achieved by content analysis.

    Conclusions

    SHDB is effective for identifying social impacts at the country level, but the data are inevitably aggregated and only show averages across different technologies and geographical areas; therefore, the database is of limited value in distinguishing between alternative operations and locations. Content analysis can facilitate foreground data collection by differentiating operations and identifying both negative and positive impacts at the level of individual activities. We recommend that S-LCA databases can be integrated with results of content analysis to improve the richness—representativity and specificity—of results from a screening S-LCA, to differentiate between alternative production routes and processes.

  • Tagliaferri C, Evangelisti S, Clift R, Lettieri P. (2018) 'Life cycle assessment of a biomass CHP plant in UK: The Heathrow energy centre case'. Elsevier Chemical Engineering Research and Design, 133, pp. 210-221.

    Abstract

    Bioenergy has an important role to play in helping the UK meet its carbon target in 2050 and the European Renewable Energy Directive objectives for 2030. There are however uncertainties associated with the use of bioenergy, and whether or how much it contributes to green-house gas emission reductions. In order to help identifying environmental benefits and burdens associated with biomass use for energy production, an attributional life cycle assessment has been carried out of a biomass-fired CHP plant: the Heathrow Airport energy centre. This facility burns woodchips sourced from nearby forests providing 2 MWe of electricity and 8 MWth of thermal energy which delivers heat and cooling to Heathrow Terminal 2 and low temperature hot water to Terminal 5. A hot spot analysis is conducted to identify the process steps with the largest environmental impact, starting from the harvesting of the forest residue to the disposal of the boiler ash. A scenario analysis is performed to compare the impacts of the biomass plant against fossil alternatives and to identify which renewable energy sources, between biomass and MSW, should be prioritised for development and investment. The results show a reduction in GHG emissions from using biomass, with further benefits if the bottom ash is collected and re-used as a soil conditioner for land-farming or forestry. The paper also discusses the treatment of biogenic carbon in the assessment.

  • Russell E, Lee J, Clift R. (2018) 'Can the SDGs Provide a Basis for Supply Chain Decisions in the Construction Sector?'. MDPI Sustainability, 10 (3) Article number 629

    Abstract

    The Construction sector is characterised by complex supply networks delivering unique end products over short time scales. Sustainability has increased in importance but continues to be difficult to implement in this sector; thus, new approaches and practices are needed. This paper reports an empirical investigation into the value of the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), especially Sustainable Consumption and Production (SDG12), when used as a framework for action by organisations to drive change towards sustainability in global supply networks. Through inductive research, two different and contrasting approaches to improving the sustainability of supply networks have been revealed. One approach focuses on the “bottom up” ethical approach typified by the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) certification of timber products, and the other on “top-down” regulations exemplified by the UK Modern Slavery Act. In an industry noted for complex supply networks and characterised by adversarial relationships, the findings suggest that, in the long term, promoting shared values aligned with transparent, third-party monitoring will be more effective than imposing standards through legislation and regulation in supporting sustainable consumption and production.

  • Gear M, Sadhukhan J, Thorpe R, Clift R, Seville J, Keast M. (2018) 'A life cycle assessment data analysis toolkit for the design of novel processes - A case study for a thermal cracking process for mixed plastic waste'. Elsevier Journal of Cleaner Production, 180, pp. 735-747.

    Abstract

    The earlier in the development of a process a design change is made, the lower the cost and the higher the impact on the final performance. This applies equally to environmental and technical performance, but in practice the environmental aspects often receive less attention. To maximise sustainability, it is important to review all of these aspects through each stage, not just after the design. Tools that integrate environmental goals into the design process would enable the design of more environmentally friendly processes at a lower cost. This paper brings together approaches based on Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) including comparisons of design changes, hotspot analysis, identification of key impact categories, environmental break-even analysis, and decision analysis using ternary diagrams that give detailed guidance for design while not requiring high quality data. The tools include hotspot analysis to reveal which unit operations dominate the impacts and therefore should be the focus of further detailed process development. This approach enables the best variants to be identified so that the basic design can be improved to reduce all significant environmental impacts. The tools are illustrated by a case study on the development of a novel process with several variants: thermal cracking of mixed plastic waste to produce a heavy hydrocarbon product that can displace crude oil, naphtha, or refinery wax or be used as a fuel. The results justified continuing with the development by confirming that the novel process is likely to be a better environmental option than landfill or incineration. The general approach embodied in the toolkit should be applicable in the development of any new process, particularly one producing multiple products.

  • Arena N, Alpay E, Kirkby N, Lee J, Clift R. (2017) 'An on demand chilling system: Activated carbon based desorptive cooling'. Elsevier Journal of Cleaner Production, 176, pp. 937-945.

    Abstract

    Every year in Europe refrigerant gases with a greenhouse-warming equivalent of more than 30 Mt CO2 are emitted from retail refrigerators. Furthermore, the effective efficiency of such refrigerators is far below that achievable under ideal (e.g. optimal-load; minimum access) operation. In this work the design of an alternative on-demand cooling unit is presented. The unit is based on the cooling effect provided by desorption of carbon dioxide previously adsorbed onto a bed of graphite-bonded activated carbon: in this paper, a case study of a self-chilling beverage can is used to demonstrate the technology. The high compaction of the activated carbon, and the presence of graphite, enhances the heat transfer properties of the adsorbent, thus enhancing the efficiency of cooling. Furthermore, potential exists for the use of activated carbon and CO2 from waste sources. This paper provides an overview of the design basis and environmental advantages of the unit, and experimental and simulation studies on the thermal dynamics of the cooling process. Particular attention is given to the effective thermal conductivity of the activated carbon bed. The results indicate that adequate on-demand cooling can be achieved within a portable unit. However, scope exists for enhancing the heat transfer within the cooling chamber through design and bed composition alterations. Recommendations for improved unit design are presented.

  • Garcia R, Freire F, Clift R. (2017) 'Effects on Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Introducing Electric Vehicles into an Electricity System with Large Storage Capacity'. Wiley Journal of Industrial Ecology, 22 (2), pp. 288-299.

    Abstract

    Under some circumstances, electric vehicles (EVs) can reduce overall environmental impacts by displacing internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs) and by enabling more intermittent renewable energy sources (RES) by charging with surplus power in periods of low demand. However, the net effects on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of adding EVs into a national or regional electricity system are complex and, for a system with significant RES, are affected by the presence of storage capacity, such as pumped hydro storage (PHS). This article takes the Portuguese electricity system as a specific example, characterized by relatively high capacities of wind generation and PHS. The interactions between EVs and PHS are explored, using life cycle assessment to compare changes in GHG emissions for different scenarios with a fleet replacement model to describe the introduction of EVs. Where there is sufficient storage capacity to ensure that RES capacity is exploited without curtailment, as in Portugal, any additional demand, such as introduction of EVs, must be met by the next marginal technology. Whether this represents an average increase or decrease in GHG emissions depends on the carbon intensity of the marginal generating technology and on the fuel efficiency of the ICEVs displaced by the EVs, so that detailed analysis is needed for any specific energy system, allowing for future technological improvements. A simple way to represent these trade-offs is proposed as a basis for supporting strategic policies on introduction of EVs.

  • Evangelisti S, Clift R, Tagliaferri C, Lettieri P. (2017) 'A life cycle assessment of distributed energy production from organic waste: Two case studies in Europe'. Elsevier Waste Management, 64, pp. 371-385.

    Abstract

    By means of the life cycle assessment methodology, the purpose of this study is to assess the environmental impact when biomethane from organic waste produced at residential level is used to supply energy to a group of dwellings in the distributed generation paradigm. Three different Combined Heat and Power systems, such as fuel cells, Stirling engine and micro gas turbine, installed at household level are assessed in two different settings: one in Northern Europe (UK) and one in Southern Europe (Italy). Different operating strategies are investigated for each technology. Moreover, marginal electricity production technologies are analysed to assess their influence on the results. This study has demonstrated that the type of bio-methane fed micro-CHP technology employed has a significantly different environmental impact: fuel cells are the most environmentally friendly solution in every category analysed; Stirling engines, although can supply heat to the largest number of dwellings are the least environmentally friendly technology. However, key factors investigated in the model presented in this paper influence the decision making on the type of technology adopted and the operating strategy to be implemented.

  • Tagliaferri C, Clift R, Lettieri P, Chapman C. (2017) 'Liquefied natural gas for the UK: a life cycle assessment'. Springer International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 22 (12), pp. 1944-1956.

    Abstract

    Purpose

    Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is expected to become an important component of the UK’s energy supply because the national hydrocarbon reserves on the continental shelf have started diminishing. However, use of any carbon-based fuel runs counter to mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs). Hence, a broad environmental assessment to analyse the import of LNG to the UK is required.

    Methods

    A cradle to gate life cycle assessment has been carried out of a specific but representative case: LNG imported to the UK fromQatar. The analysis covers the supply chain, from gas extraction through to distribution to the end-user, assuming state-of-the-art facilities and ships. A sensitivity analysis was also conducted on key parameters including the energy requirements of the liquefaction and vaporisation processes, fuel for propulsion, shipping distance, tanker volume and composition of raw gas.

    Results and discussion

    All environmental indicators of the CML methodology were analysed. The processes of liquefaction, LNG transport and evaporation determine more than 50% of the cradle to gate global warming potential (GWP). When 1% of the total gas delivered is vented as methane emissions leakage throughout the supply chain, the GWP increases by 15% compared to the GWP of the base scenario. The variation of the GWP increases to 78% compared to the base scenario when 5% of the delivered gas is considered to be lost as vented emissions. For all the scenarios analysed, more than 75% of the total acidification potential (AP) is due to the sweetening of the natural gas before liquefaction. Direct emissions from transport always determine between 25 and 49%of the total eutrophication potential (EP) whereas the operation and maintenance of the sending ports strongly influences the fresh water aquatic ecotoxicity potential (FAETP).

    Conclusions

    The study highlights long-distance transport of LNG and natural gas processing, including sweetening, liquefaction and vaporisation, as the key operations that strongly affect the life cycle impacts. Those cannot be considered negligible when the environmental burdens of the LNG supply chain are considered. Furthermore, the effect of possible fugitive methane emissions along the supply chain are critical for the impact of operations such as extraction, liquefaction, storage before transport, transport itself and evaporation.

  • Clift R, Sim S, King H, Chenoweth JL, Christie IP, Clavreul J, Mueller C, Posthuma L, Boulay A, Chaplin-Kramer R, Chatterton J, DeClerck F, Druckman A, France CM, Franco A, Gerten D, Goedkoop M, Hauschild M, Huijbregts M, Koellner T, Lambin E, Lee J, Mair SJ, Marshall S, McLachlan M, Milà i Canals L, Mitchell C, Price E, Rockström J, Suckling JR, Murphy RJ. (2017) 'The Challenges of Applying Planetary Boundaries as a Basis for Strategic Decision-Making in Companies with Global Supply Chains'. MDPI Sustainability, 9 (2)

    Abstract

    The Planetary Boundaries (PB) framework represents a significant advance in specifying the ecological constraints on human development. However, to enable decision-makers in business and public policy to respect these constraints in strategic planning, the PB framework needs to be developed to generate practical tools. With this objective in mind, we analyse the recent literature and highlight three major scientific and technical challenges in operationalizing the PB approach in decision-making: first, identification of thresholds or boundaries with associated metrics for different geographical scales; second, the need to frame approaches to allocate fair shares in the ‘safe operating space’ bounded by the PBs across the value chain and; third, the need for international bodies to co-ordinate the implementation of the measures needed to respect the Planetary Boundaries. For the first two of these challenges, we consider how they might be addressed for four PBs: climate change, freshwater use, biosphere integrity and chemical pollution and other novel entities. Four key opportunities are identified: (1) development of a common system of metrics that can be applied consistently at and across different scales; (2) setting ‘distance from boundary’ measures that can be applied at different scales; (3) development of global, preferably open-source, databases and models; and (4) advancing understanding of the interactions between the different PBs. Addressing the scientific and technical challenges in operationalizing the planetary boundaries needs be complemented with progress in addressing the equity and ethical issues in allocating the safe operating space between companies and sectors.

  • Kleemann R, Chenoweth J, Clift R, Morse S, Pearce P, Saroj D. (2016) 'Comparison of phosphorus recovery from incinerated sewage sludge ash (ISSA) and pyrolysed sewage sludge char (PSSC)'. Elsevier Waste Management, 60, pp. 201-210.

    Abstract

    This research compares and contrasts the physical and chemical characteristics of incinerator sewage sludge ash (ISSA) and pyrolysis sewage sludge char (PSSC) for the purposes of recovering phosphorus as a P-rich fertiliser. Interest in P recovery from PSSC is likely to increase as pyrolysis is becoming viewed as a more economical method of sewage sludge thermal treatment compared to incineration. The P contents of ISSA and PSSC are 7.2–7.5% and 5.6%, respectively. Relative to the sludge, P concentrations are increased about 8-fold in ISSA, compared to roughly 3-fold in PSSC. Both PSSC and ISSA contain whitlockite, an unusual form of calcium phosphate, with PSSC containing more whitlockite than ISSA. Acid leaching experiments indicate that a liquid/solid ratio of 10 with 30 min contact time is optimal to release PO4-P into leachate for both ISSA and PSSC. The proportion of P extracted from PSSC is higher due to its higher whitlockite content. Heavy metals are less soluble from PSSC because they are more strongly incorporated in the particles. The results suggest there is potential for the development of a process to recover P from PSSC.

  • Arena N, Sinclair P, Lee J, Clift R. (2016) 'Life cycle engineering of production, use and recovery of self-chilling beverage cans'. Journal of Cleaner Production,
  • Tagliaferri C, Clift R, Lettieri P, Chapman C. (2016) 'Shale gas: a life-cycle perspective for UK production'. Springer Verlag International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 22 (6), pp. 919-937.

    Abstract

    Purpose

    Following the boom of shale gas production in the USA and the decrease in the US gas prices, increasing interest in shale gas is developing in many countries holding shale reserves and exploration is already taking place in some EU countries, including the UK. Any commercial development of shale gas in Europe requires a broad environmental assessment, recognizing the different European conditions and legislations.

    Methods

    This study focuses on the UK situation and estimates the environmental impacts of shale gas using lifecycle assessment (LCA); the burdens of shale gas production in the UK are compared with the burdens of the current UK natural gas mix. The main focus is on the analysis of water impacts, but a broad range of other impact categories are also considered. A sensitivity analysis is performed on the most environmentally criticized operations in shale gas production, including flowback disposal and emission control, by considering a range of possible process options.

    Results and discussion

    Improper waste water management and direct disposal or spills of waste water to river can lead to high water and human ecotoxicity. Mining of the sand and withdrawal of the water used in fracking fluids determine the main impacts on water use and degradation. However, the water degradation of the conventional natural gas supply to the UK is shown to be even higher than that of shale gas. For the global warming potential (GWP), the handling methods of the emissions associated with the hydraulic fracturing influence the results only when emissions are vented. Finally, the estimated ultimate recovery of the well has the greatest impact on the results as well as the flowback ratio and flowback disposal method.

    Conclusions

    This paper provides insights to better understand the future development of shale gas in the UK. Adequate waste water management and emission handling significantly reduce the environmental impacts of shale gas production. Policy makers should consider that shale gas at the same time increases the water consumption and decreases the water degradation when compared with the gas mix supply. Furthermore, the environmental impacts of shale gas should be considered according to the low productivity that force the drilling and exploitation of a high number of wells.

  • Martin G, Clift R, Christie IP. (2016) 'Urban Cultivation and Its Contributions to Sustainability: Nibbles of Food but Oodles of Social Capital'. MDPI Sustainability, 8 (5), pp. 409-409.

    Abstract

    The contemporary interest in urban cultivation in the global North as a component of sustainable food production warrants assessment of both its quantitative and qualitative roles. This exploratory study weighs the nutritional, ecological, and social sustainability contributions of urban agriculture by examining three cases—a community garden in the core of New York, a community farm on the edge of London, and an agricultural park on the periphery of San Francisco. Our field analysis of these sites, confirmed by generic estimates, shows very low food outputs relative to the populations of their catchment areas; the great share of urban food will continue to come from multiple foodsheds beyond urban peripheries, often far beyond. Cultivation is a more appropriate designation than agriculture for urban food growing because its sustainability benefits are more social than agronomic or ecological. A major potential benefit lies in enhancing the ecological knowledge of urbanites, including an appreciation of the role that organic food may play in promoting both sustainability and health. This study illustrates how benefits differ according to local conditions, including population density and demographics, operational scale, soil quality, and access to labor and consumers. Recognizing the real benefits, including the promotion of sustainable diets, could enable urban food growing to be developed as a component of regional foodsheds to improve the sustainability and resilience of food supply, and to further the process of public co-production of new forms of urban conviviality and wellbeing.

  • Arena N, Lee J, Clift R. (2016) 'Life Cycle Assessment of activated carbon production from coconut shells'. ELSEVIER SCI LTD JOURNAL OF CLEANER PRODUCTION, 125, pp. 68-77.
  • Evangelisti S, Tagliaferri C, Clift R, Lettieri P, Taylor R, Chapman C. (2015) 'Life cycle assessment of conventional and two-stage advanced energy-from-waste technologies for municipal solid waste treatment'. Journal of Cleaner Production, 100, pp. 212-223.
  • Sinclair P, Cohen B, Hansen Y, Basson L, Clift R. (2015) 'Stakeholder engagement within the sustainability assessment of bioenergy: Case studies in heat, power and perennial and annual crops from the UK'. Biomass and Bioenergy, 73, pp. 11-22.
  • Zhang S, Bi XT, Clift R. (2015) 'Life cycle analysis of a biogas-centred integrated dairy farm-greenhouse system in British Columbia'. Process Safety and Environmental Protection, 93, pp. 18-30.
  • Evangelisti S, Tagliaferri C, Lettieri P, Taylor R, Chapman C, Clift R. (2014) 'Life cycle assessment of conventional and two-stage advanced energy-from-waste technologies for municipal solid waste treatment'. Journal of Cleaner Production,
  • Brandão M, Clift R, Cowie A, Greenhalgh S. (2014) 'The Use of Life Cycle Assessment in the Support of Robust (Climate) Policy Making: Comment on "Using Attributional Life Cycle Assessment to Estimate Climate-Change Mitigation"'. Journal of Industrial Ecology, 18 (3), pp. 461-463.
  • Evangelisti S, Lettieri P, Borello D, Clift R. (2014) 'Life cycle assessment of energy from waste via anaerobic digestion: A UK case study'. Waste Management, 34 (1), pp. 226-237.
  • Evangelisti S, Lettieri P, Clift R, Borello D. (2014) 'Distributed generation by energy from waste technology: A life cycle perspective'. Process Safety and Environmental Protection,
    [ Status: Accepted ]
  • Zhang S, Bi XT, Clift R. (2014) 'Life cycle analysis of a biogas-centred integrated dairy farm-greenhouse system in British Columbia'. Process Safety and Environmental Protection,
    [ Status: Accepted ]
  • Evangelisti S, Lettieri P, Borello D, Clift R. (2014) 'Life cycle assessment of energy from waste via anaerobic digestion: A UK case study'. Waste Management, 34 (1), pp. 226-237.
  • Evangelisti S, Lettieri P, Borello D, Clift R. (2014) 'Life cycle assessment of energy from waste via anaerobic digestion: A UK case study.'. Waste Management, United States: 34 (1), pp. 226-237.
  • Zhang S, Bi XT, Clift R. (2013) 'A Life Cycle Assessment of integrated dairy farm-greenhouse systems in British Columbia.'. Bioresource Technology, England: 150, pp. 496-505.
  • Zhang S, Bi XT, Clift R. (2013) 'A Life Cycle Assessment of integrated dairy farm-greenhouse systems in British Columbia'. Bioresource Technology, 150, pp. 496-505.
  • Lee J, Keller E, Mila a Canals L, King H, Clift R. (2013) 'Agri-food certification schemes: how do they address greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions'. Taylor and Francis Greenhouse Gas Measurement and Management,
  • Munoz I, Mila i Canals L, Clift R. (2012) 'Consider a Spherical Man: A Simple Model to Include Human Excretion in Life Cycle Assessment of Food Products. Journal of Industrial Ecology (vol 12, pg 521, 2010)'. JOURNAL OF INDUSTRIAL ECOLOGY, 16 (2), pp. 286-286.
  • Clift R. (2012) 'Integrated waste management: environmental assessment and planning'. February 2012 Edition. Ambiente Rischio Comunicazione, (2), pp. 74-89.
  • Theis TL, Bakshi BR, Clift R, Durham D, Fthenakis VM, Gutowski TG, Isaacs JA, Seager T, Wiesner MR. (2012) 'A life cycle framework for the investigation of environmentally benign nanoparticles and products (vol 5, pg 312, 2011)'. PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI-RAPID RESEARCH LETTERS, 6 (2), pp. 98-98.
  • Levasseur A, Brandão M, Lesage P, Margni M, Pennington D, Clift R, Samson R. (2012) 'Valuing temporary carbon storage'. Nature Climate Change, 2 (1), pp. 6-8.
  • Theis TL, Bakshi BR, Clift R, Durham D, Fthenakis VM, Gutowski TG, Isaacs JA, Seager T, Wiesner MR. (2012) 'Erratum: A life cycle framework for the investigation of environmentally benign nanoparticles and products [Phys. Status Solidi RRL 5, No. 9, 312-317 (2011)]'. Physica Status Solidi - Rapid Research Letters, 6 (2)
  • Levasseur A, Brandao M, Lesage P, Margni M, Pennington D, Clift R, Samson R. (2012) 'COMMENTARY: Valuing temporary carbon storage'. NATURE CLIMATE CHANGE, 2 (1), pp. 6-8.
  • Brandao M, Mila i Canals L, Clift R. (2011) 'Soil organic carbon changes in the cultivation of energy crops: Implications for GHG balances and soil quality for use in LCA'. PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD BIOMASS & BIOENERGY, 35 (6), pp. 2323-2336.
  • Cederberg C, Persson UM, Neovius K, Molander S, Clift R. (2011) 'Including Carbon Emissions from Deforestation in the Carbon Footprint of Brazilian Beef'. AMER CHEMICAL SOC ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, 45 (5), pp. 1773-1779.
  • Weston N, Clift R, Holmes P, Basson L, White N. (2011) 'Streamlined Life Cycle Approaches for Use at Oil Refineries and Other Large Industrial Facilities'. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, 50 (3), pp. 1624-1636.
  • Mayers K, Peagam R, France C, Basson L, Clift R. (2011) 'Redesigning the Camel The European WEEE Directive'. WILEY-BLACKWELL JOURNAL OF INDUSTRIAL ECOLOGY, 15 (1), pp. 4-8.
  • Clift R. (2011) 'Sustainable consumption and supportable investment'. Journal of Industrial Ecology, 15 (5), pp. 648-650.
  • Clift R, Allwood J. (2011) 'Rethinking the economy'. Chemical Engineer, (837), pp. 30-31.
  • Brandão M, Clift R, Milà i Canals L, Basson L. (2010) 'A Life-Cycle Approach to Characterising Environmental and Economic Impacts of Multifunctional Land-Use Systems: An Integrated Assessment in the UK'. Sustainability, 2 (12), pp. 3747-3776.
  • Mila i Canals L, Chapagain A, Orr S, Chenoweth J, Anton A, Clift R. (2010) 'Assessing freshwater use impacts in LCA, part 2: case study of broccoli production in the UK and Spain'. SPRINGER HEIDELBERG INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT, 15 (6), pp. 598-607.
  • Clift R, Lopez PI, Cripps A, Jefferis S. (2010) 'The use of operational waste benchmarks to estimate waste quantities and composition for waste strategies and to assess environmental performance of building developments within cities'. 10 Edition. Communications in Waste and Resource Management, 1, pp. 28-34.
  • Clift R, Basson L, Cobbledick D. (2009) 'Accounting for carbon'. INST CHEMICAL ENGINEERS TCE, (819), pp. 35-37.
  • Mila i Canals L, Chenoweth J, Chapagain A, Orr S, Anton A, Clift R. (2009) 'Assessing freshwater use impacts in LCA: Part I-inventory modelling and characterisation factors for the main impact pathways'. SPRINGER HEIDELBERG INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT, 14 (1), pp. 28-42.
  • Munoz I, Canals LMI, Clift R. (2008) 'Consider a Spherical Man - A Simple Model to Include Human Excretion in Life Cycle Assessment of Food Products'. WILEY-BLACKWELL JOURNAL OF INDUSTRIAL ECOLOGY, 12 (4), pp. 521-538.
  • Weston N, Clift R, Basson L, Pouton A, White N. (2008) 'Assessment of cleaner process options: A case study from petroleum refining'. WILEY-BLACKWELL CANADIAN JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING, 86 (3), pp. 302-315.
  • Elghali L, Clift R, Begg KG, McLaren S. (2008) 'Decision support methodology for complex contexts'. THOMAS TELFORD PUBLISHING PROCEEDINGS OF THE INSTITUTION OF CIVIL ENGINEERS-ENGINEERING SUSTAINABILITY, 161 (1), pp. 7-22.
  • Clift R, Lloyd S. (2008) 'Nanotechnology: A new organism in the industrial ecosystem?'. Journal of Industrial Ecology, 12 (3), pp. 259-262.
  • Vermeylen S, Martin G, Clift R. (2008) 'Intellectual Property Rights Systems and the Assemblage of Local Knowledge Systems'. International Journal of Cultural Property, 15 Article number 02 , pp. 201-221-201-221.
  • Clift R, Lloyd S. (2008) 'Nanotechnology'. Blackwell Publishing Inc Journal of Industrial Ecology, 12 Article number 3 , pp. 259-262.
  • Elghali L, Clift R, Sinclair P, Panoutsou C, Bauen A. (2007) 'Developing a sustainability framework for the assessment of bioenergy systems'. ELSEVIER SCI LTD ENERGY POLICY, 35 (12), pp. 6075-6083.
  • Clift R, Mulugetta Y. (2007) 'A plea for common sense (and biomass)'. INST CHEMICAL ENGINEERS TCE, (796), pp. 24-26.
  • Geldermann J, Schollenberger H, Rentz O, Huppes G, van Oers L, France C, Nebel B, Clift R, Lipkova A, Saetta S, Desideri U, May T. (2007) 'An integrated scenario analysis for the metal coating sector in Europe'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC TECHNOLOGICAL FORECASTING AND SOCIAL CHANGE, 74 (8), pp. 1482-1507.
  • Sim S, Barry M, Clift R, Cowell SJ. (2007) 'The relative importance of transport in determining an appropriate sustainability strategy for food sourcing'. ECOMED PUBLISHERS INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT, 12 (6), pp. 422-431.
  • Geyer R, Davis J, Ley J, He J, Clift R, Kwan A, Sansom M, Jackson T. (2007) 'Time-dependent material fl{ligature}ow analysis of iron and steel in the UK. Part 1: Production and consumption trends 1970-2000'. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 51 (1), pp. 101-117.
  • Clift R. (2007) 'Don't bury your head in the nanostuff'. FUTURE MEDICINE LTD NANOMEDICINE, 2 (3), pp. 267-270.
  • Clift R. (2007) 'Climate change and energy policy: The importance of sustainability arguments'. Energy, 32 Article number 4 , pp. 262 - 268-262 - 268.
  • Davis J, Geyer R, Ley J, He J, Clift R, Kwan A, Sansom M, Jackson T. (2007) 'Time-dependent material flow analysis of iron and steel in the UK. Part 2. Scrap generation and recycling'. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 51 (1), pp. 118-140.
  • Clift R. (2007) 'Time to leave the process sandpit'. Chemical Engineer, (793), pp. 21-22.
  • Burningham K, Barnett J, Carr A, Clift R, Wehrmeyer W. (2007) 'Industrial constructions of publics and public knowledge: a qualitative investigation of practice in the UK chemicals industry'. Public Understanding of Science, 16 (1), pp. 23-43.
  • Clift R. (2007) 'Climate change and energy policy: The importance of sustainability arguments'. Energy, 32 Article number 4 , pp. 262 - 268-262 - 268.
  • Sinclair P, Cowell S, Löfsted R, Clift R. (2007) 'A case study in participatory environmental systems assessment with the use of multimedia materials and quantitative LCA'. Journal of Environmental Assessment Policy and Management, 9 (4), pp. 399-421.
  • Clift R. (2007) 'Sustainable fuel or folly?'. Freight Transport Review, 15, pp. 24-25.
  • Clift R. (2006) 'wind worries'. INST CHEMICAL ENGINEERS TCE, (780), pp. 62-62.
  • Clift R. (2006) 'Wind worries'. INST CHEMICAL ENGINEERS TCE, (779), pp. 74-74.
  • Elghali L, Cowell SJ, Begg KG, Clift R. (2006) 'Support for sustainable development policy decisions - A case study from highway maintenance'. ECOMED PUBLISHERS INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT, 11, pp. 29-39.
  • Canals LMI, Clift R, Basson L, Hansen Y, Brandao M. (2006) 'Expert workshop on land use impacts in life cycle assessment (LCA)'. ECOMED PUBLISHERS INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT, 11 (5), pp. 363-368.
  • Mungkung RT, de Haes HAU, Clift R. (2006) 'Potentials and limitations of life cycle assessment in setting ecolabelling criteria: A case study of Thai shrimp aquaculture product'. ECOMED PUBLISHERS INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT, 11 (1), pp. 55-59.
  • Clift R, Sinclair P, Johnsson F. (2006) 'Windows of Opportunity'. Parliamentary Monitor (section Energy), 141 (July/August), pp. 47-47.
  • Clift R. (2006) 'Reactions: Wind worries'. Chemical Engineer, (779)
  • Clift R, France C. (2006) 'Extended Producer Responsibility in the EU - A visible march of folly'. M I T PRESS JOURNAL OF INDUSTRIAL ECOLOGY, 10 (4), pp. 5-7.
  • Pritchard C, Martin D, Clift R, Seaman M. (2005) 'So what does "sustainable" mean then?'. INST CHEMICAL ENGINEERS TCE, (772), pp. 38-38.
  • Clift R, Hoskins B. (2005) 'Energy and climate change mission possible'. INST CHEMICAL ENGINEERS TCE, (770), pp. 21-25.
  • Wright E, Azapagic A, Stevens G, Mellor W, Clift R. (2005) 'Improving recyclability by design: a case study of fibre optic cable'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV RESOURCES CONSERVATION AND RECYCLING, 44 (1), pp. 37-50.
  • Clift R. (2005) 'Precaution and sustainability'. INST CHEMICAL ENGINEERS TCE, (764), pp. 20-22.
  • Clift R, Malcolm R, Baumann H, Connell L, Rice G. (2005) 'Eco-labels and electric monks'. Journal of Industrial Ecology, 9 (3), pp. 4-7.
  • Clift R. (2005) 'Biomass, Heat and Biofuels - Examples of Policy Issues in Developing IE'. ISIE News, 5 (3)
  • Clift R. (2005) 'Bioenergy and its potential in the UK'. UK Power, 1, pp. 49-51.
  • Hart A, Clift R, Riddlestone S, Buntin J. (2005) 'Use of life cycle assessment to develop industrial ecologies - A case study graphics paper'. Process Safety and Environmental Protection, 83 (4 B), pp. 359-363.
  • Arena U, Mastellone ML, Perugini F, Clift R. (2004) 'Environmental assessment of paper waste management options by means of LCA methodology'. AMER CHEMICAL SOC INDUSTRIAL & ENGINEERING CHEMISTRY RESEARCH, 43 (18), pp. 5702-5714.
  • Clift R. (2004) 'Sustainability - Game or reality?'. INST CHEMICAL ENGINEERS PROCESS SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION, 82 (B5), pp. 381-382.
  • Clift R. (2004) 'How many lives?'. I O M COMMUNICATIONS LTD INST MATERIALS MATERIALS WORLD, 12 (7), pp. 23-24.
  • Kronenberg J, Clift R. (2004) 'Industrial ecology in Poland'. Journal of Industrial Ecology, 8 (4), pp. 13-17.
  • Castell A, Clift R, France C. (2004) 'Extended producer responsibility policy in the european union: A horse or a camel?'. Journal of Industrial Ecology, 8 (1-2), pp. 4-7.
  • Clift R. (2004) 'What a waste!'. Materials Today, 7 (2)
  • Dowling A, Clift R, Grobert N, Hutton D, Oliver R, O'Neill O, Pethica J, Pidgeon N, Porritt J, Ryan J, Seaton A, Tendler S, Welland M, Whatmore R. (2003) 'Nanotechnology under the microscope'. IOP PUBLISHING LTD NANOTECHNOLOGY, 14 (9)
  • Clift R. (2003) 'Metrics for supply chain sustainability'. Springer Berlin / Heidelberg Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy, 5, pp. 240-247 - 240-247.
  • Clift R. (2003) 'An introduction to life cycle assessment'. IB Revija (Ljubliana), XXXVII (4), pp. 70-79.
  • Shiels S, Garner D, Clift R. (2002) 'Using life-cycle assessment to inform the nuclear debate'. BRITISH NUCLEAR ENERGY SOC NUCLEAR ENERGY-JOURNAL OF THE BRITISH NUCLEAR ENERGY SOCIETY, 41 (6), pp. 375-381.
  • Mellor W, Wright E, Clift R, Azapagic A, Stevens G. (2002) 'A mathematical model and decision-support framework for material recovery, recycling and cascaded use'. PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SCIENCE, 57 (22-23) Article number PII S0009-2509(02)00282-8 , pp. 4697-4713.
  • Wilson KC, Clift R, Sellgren A. (2002) 'Operating points for pipelines carrying concentrated heterogeneous slurries'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA POWDER TECHNOLOGY, 123 (1) Article number PII S0032-5910(01)00423-5 , pp. 19-24.
  • Clift R. (2002) 'The Hydrogen Saga: Why the Energy Future could be in Iceland'. Town and Country Planning, (December), pp. 315-317.
  • Hunton-Clarke L, Wehrmeyer W, Clift R, McKeown P, King H. (2002) 'Employee participation in environmental initiatives: Facilitating more environmentally conscious decision-making in innovation'. Greener Management International, (40), pp. 45-56.
  • Malcolm R, Clift R. (2002) 'Barriers to industrial ecology: The strange case of "The Tombesi Bypass"'. Journal of Industrial Ecology, 6 (1), pp. 4-7.
  • Clift R, Morris N. (2002) 'Engineering with a human face'. Engineering Management Journal, 12 (5), pp. 226-230.
  • Clift R. (2001) 'Think global; shop local; roll your own'. Journal of Industrial Ecology, 5 (1), pp. 7-9.
  • Clift R, Mellor W, Williams E, Stevens G, Azapagic A. (2001) 'Utility Based Framework for Material and Process Selection in the Integrated Chain Management of Polymers'. Journal of Environmental Management and Health, 12 (3), pp. 277-285.
  • Clift R, Eagles E, Gilmore AB, Sarangi JDDN, Wehrmeyer W, Murray VSG. (2001) 'Acute Chemical Incidents Involving Fuel: Developing Best Practice Guidance'. Public Health Medicine, (3)
  • Clift R. (2001) 'Combined Heat and Power: Affordable Warmth and District Heating'. Greener Government, November, pp. 22-22.
  • Clift R, Wright L. (2000) 'Relationships Between Environmental Impacts and Added Value Along the Supply Chain'. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 65 (3), pp. 281-295.
  • Clift R, Doig A, Finnveden G. (2000) 'The application of Life Cycle Assessment to Integrated Solid Waste Management - Part 1 - Methodology'. INST CHEMICAL ENGINEERS PROCESS SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION, 78 (B4), pp. 279-287.
  • Clift R. (2000) 'Special topic issue - Sustainable development'. INST CHEMICAL ENGINEERS PROCESS SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION, 78 (B4), pp. 235-235.
  • Nicholas M, Clift R, Azapagic A, Walker F, Porter D. (2000) 'Determination of 'best available techniques' for integrated pollution prevention and control: A life cycle approach'. Process Safety and Environmental Protection, 78 (3), pp. 193-203.

    Abstract

    The EC Directive on Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC), now to be implemented in the UK under the Pollution Prevention and Control Act (1999), will widen the range of issues to be considered by enforcing authorities when determining the Best Available Techniques (BAT) for an installation. IPPC requires integrated control of emissions to air, water and land, the efficient use of energy and raw materials and the avoidance or reduction of impacts caused by disposal of wastes. This paper demonstrates that adopting a life cycle approach for the assessment of candidate techniques can fulfil these new requirements when choosing BAT. The glass manufacturing industry is used as a case study to show that the methodology can be used to assess both primary (in-process) and secondary (end-of-pipe) techniques for pollution prevention and control. General conclusions are drawn regarding the use of life cycle approaches to support the assessment of BAT, limitations in the current methodology and the requirements for future research. © Institution of Chemical Engineers.

  • Clift R, Morgan N, Smith G. (2000) 'Pipe dreams'. Chemistry in Britain, 36 (4), pp. 36-41.
  • Clift R, Perdan S, Azapagic A. (2000) 'Teaching sustainable development to engineering students'. International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, 1 (3), pp. 267-279.
  • Azapagic A, Clift R. (2000) 'Allocation of environmental burdens in co-product systems: Process and product-related burdens (Part 2)'. International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 5 (1), pp. 31-36.
  • Clift R. (2000) 'Engineering for Sustainable Development'. Imperial College Engineer, 28, pp. 16-18.
  • Cowell SJ, Clift R. (2000) 'Methodology for assessing soil quantity and quality in life cycle assessment'. Journal of Cleaner Production, 8 (4), pp. 321-331.
  • Azapagic A, Clift R. (1999) 'The application of life cycle assessment to process optimisation'. PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD COMPUTERS & CHEMICAL ENGINEERING, 23 (10), pp. 1509-1526.
  • Azapagic A, Clift R. (1999) 'Allocation of environmental burdens in multiple-function systems'. Journal of Cleaner Production, 7 (2), pp. 101-119.
  • Wrisberg N, Clift R. (1999) 'Industrial ecology in Europe: The CHAINET concerted action'. Journal of Industrial Ecology, 3 (4), pp. 8-9.
  • Azapagic A, Clift R. (1999) 'Erratum: Linear programming as a tool in life cycle assessment (International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 3:6 (308))'. International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 4 (2)
  • Clift R, Frischknecht R, Huppes G, Tillman A-M, Weidema B. (1999) 'Inventory Enhancement: a summary of the results of the working group on inventory enhancement'. SETAC-Europe News, 10 (3), pp. 14-20.
  • Azapagic A, Clift R. (1999) 'Allocation of environmental burdens in co-product systems: Product- related burdens (Part 1)'. International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 4 (6), pp. 357-369.
  • Azapagic A, Clift R. (1999) 'Life cycle assessment and multiobjective optimisation'. Journal of Cleaner Production, 7 (2), pp. 135-143.
  • Azapagic A, Clift R. (1999) 'Life cycle assessment as a tool for improving process performance: A case study on boron products'. International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 4 (3), pp. 133-142.
  • Dennison FJ, Sindall D, Azapagic A, Clift R, Colbourne JS. (1999) 'Assessing sludge disposal options using LCA'. Environmental Protection Bulletin, (59), pp. 10-18.
  • Earl G, Clift R. (1999) 'Stakeholder value analysis: a methodology for intergrating stakeholder values into corporate enviromental investment decisions'. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Business Strategy and the Environment, 8 Article number 3 , pp. 149-162.
  • Clift R, Dennison FJ, Azapagic A, Colbourne J. (1999) 'Assessing management options for sludge disposal by applying the environmental tool life cycle assessment'. IChemE Environmental Protection Bulletin, 59, pp. 10-18.
  • Clift R. (1999) 'SETAC Working Groups 1993-1998 Brussels, Belgium'. SETAC-Europe News, 10 (2)
  • Clift R, Dennison FJ, Azapagic A, Clayton CRI. (1999) 'Life cycle assessment: comparing strategic options for the mains infrastructure'. Water Science and Technology, 39 (10-11), pp. 315-319.
  • Michaelis P, Jackson T, Clift R. (1998) 'Exergy analysis of the life cycle of steel'. PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD ENERGY, 23 (3), pp. 213-220.
  • Clift R, Earl G. (1998) 'How important is environmental performance? A case study measuring the environmental preferences of business-to-business consumers'. Journal of Sustainable Product Design, 6, pp. 18-27.
  • Clift R, Dennison F, Azapagic A, Colbourne J. (1998) 'Assessing management options for wastewater treatment works in the context of life cycle assessment'. Water Science and Technology, 38 (11), pp. 22-30.
  • Clift R. (1998) 'Engineering for the environment: The new model engineer and her role'. Process Safety and Environmental Protection, 76 (2), pp. 151-160.
  • Biswas G, Clift R, Davis G, Ehrenfeld J, Förster R, Jolliet O, Knoepfel I, Luterbacher U, Russell D, Hunkeler D. (1998) 'Identification, categorization and life cycle validation'. International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 3 (4), pp. 184-190.
  • Jackson T, Clift R. (1998) 'Where’s the Profit in lndustrial Ecology?'. MIT Press Journal of Industrial Ecology, 2 Article number 1 , pp. 3-5.
  • Nicholas M, Azapagic A, Clift R. (1998) 'IPPC and Producer Responsibility- A Possible Way to ’Embed’ Industrial Ecology?'. MIT Press Journal of Industrial Ecology, 2 Article number 4 , pp. 4-6.
  • Azapagic A, Clift R. (1998) 'Linear programming as a tool in life cycle assessment'. International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 3 (6), pp. 305-316.
  • Clift R. (1997) 'V.C. Marshall, 1990, the social acceptability of the chemical and process industries: A proposal for an integrated approach, Trans IChemE, 68 (part B): 83-93. Commentary'. INST CHEMICAL ENGINEERS CHEMICAL ENGINEERING RESEARCH & DESIGN, 75, pp. S6-S6.
  • Clift R. (1997) 'Clean technology - The idea and the practice'. WILEY-BLACKWELL JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY AND BIOTECHNOLOGY, 68 (4), pp. 347-350.
  • Clift R, Audsley A, Alber S, Cowell S, Crettaz P, Gaillard G, Hausheer J, Jolliet O, Kleijn R, Mortensen B, Pearce D, Roger E, Teulon H, Weidema B, van Zeijts H. (1997) 'Harmonisation of Environmental Life Cycle Assessment for Agriculture'. Silsoe Research Institute,
  • Wright M, Allen D, Clift R, Sas H. (1997) 'Measuring Corporate Environmental Performance : The ICI Environmental Burden System'. Journal of Industrial Ecology, 1 (4), pp. 117-127.
  • Duo W, Kirkby NF, Seville JPK, Clift R. (1997) 'Patchy cleaning of rigid gas filters .1. A probabilistic model'. PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SCIENCE, 52 (1), pp. 141-151.
  • Wrisberg N, De Udo Haes HA, Clift R, Frischknecht R, Grisel L, Hofstetter P, Jensen AA, Lindfors LG, Schmidt-Bleek F, Stiller H. (1997) 'European network for strategic life-cycle assessment research and development: A strategic research programme for life cycle assessment'. International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 2 (2), pp. 71-72.
  • Solberg-Johansen B, Clift R, Jeapes A. (1997) 'Irradiating the environment: Radiological impacts in life cycle assessment'. International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 2 (1), pp. 16-19.
  • Rice G, Clift R, Burns R. (1997) 'LCA software review: Comparison of currently available European LCA software'. International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 2 (1), pp. 53-59.
  • Clift R. (1997) 'The ECTEL Trials'. MIT Press Journal of Industrial Ecology, 1 Article number 2 , pp. 3-5.
  • Cowell SJ, Clift R. (1997) 'Impact assessment for LCAs involving agricultural production'. International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 2 (2), pp. 99-103.
  • O'Brien M, Doig A, Clift R. (1996) 'Social and environmental life cycle assessment (SELCA): Approach and methodological development'. International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 1 (4), pp. 231-237.
  • Koch D, Seville J, Clift R. (1996) 'Dust cake detachment from gas filters'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA LAUSANNE POWDER TECHNOLOGY, 86 (1), pp. 21-29.
  • Clift R, Azapagic A, Cowell S, Doig A, Hogan S, Solberg-Johansen B. (1996) 'Allocation in Life Cycle Inventory Analysis'. Report for Groupe des Sages, DGXI Brussels,
  • Clift R. (1995) 'Greenpeace life cycle appeal'. INST CHEMICAL ENGINEERS CHEMICAL ENGINEER-LONDON, (600), pp. 3-3.
  • LEGROS R, CLIFT R, MILLINGTON CA. (1995) 'DEVELOPMENT OF A MOBILIZATION TECHNIQUE FOR FIBROUS MATERIALS'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA LAUSANNE POWDER TECHNOLOGY, 85 (2), pp. 105-114.
  • DUO W, KIRKBY NF, SEVILLE JPK, CLIFT R. (1995) 'ALTERATION WITH REACTION PROGRESS OF THE RATE-LIMITING STEP FOR SOLID-GAS REACTIONS OF CA-COMPOUNDS WITH HCL'. PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SCIENCE, 50 (13), pp. 2017-2027.
  • DUO W, SEVILL JPK, KIRKBY NF, CLIFT R. (1995) 'FORMATION OF PRODUCT LAYERS IN SOLID-GAS REACTIONS FOR REMOVAL OF ACID GASES (VOL 49, PG 4429, 1994)'. PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SCIENCE, 50 (11), pp. 1849-1849.
  • CLIFT R. (1995) 'CLEAN TECHNOLOGY - AN INTRODUCTION'. JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY AND BIOTECHNOLOGY, 62 (4), pp. 321-326.
  • CLIFT R. (1995) 'PERSONAL COMMENTS'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA LAUSANNE POWDER TECHNOLOGY, 83 (1), pp. R5-R5.
  • CLIFT R. (1995) 'MASSIMILLA,LEOPOLDO (1930-1993) - OBITUARY'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA LAUSANNE POWDER TECHNOLOGY, 82 (3), pp. 215-216.
  • MUSMARRA D, POLETTO M, VACCARO S, CLIFT R. (1995) 'DYNAMIC WAVES IN FLUIDIZED-BEDS'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA LAUSANNE POWDER TECHNOLOGY, 82 (3), pp. 255-268.
  • Azapagic A, Clift R. (1995) 'Life cycle assessment and linear programming environmental optimisation of product system-'. Computers & Chemical Engineering, 19, Supplement 1 Article number 0 , pp. 229 - 234-229 - 234.
  • Clift R. (1995) 'The Concept of Cleaner Technology'. Clean Technology, 1 (5)
  • Clift R, Udo de Haes HA, Bensahel JF, Fussler CR, Griesshammer R, Jensen AA. (1995) 'Research Needs in Life Cycle Assessment for the EU Ecolabelling Programme, final report of the second phase, Groupe de Sages'. Commission of the European Union,
  • Clift R. (1995) 'Disposable Assets - if you care for the environment don't recycle newsprint'. 5 September Edition. Times Higher Eductaion Supplement,
  • Clift R, Petrie JG. (1995) 'Life Cycle Assessment'. Mining and Environment Research Network Research Bulletin and Newsletter, 7, pp. 9-11.
  • Clift R. (1994) 'ACTION AND PRO-ACTION'. INST CHEMICAL ENGINEERS CHEMICAL ENGINEER-LONDON, (574), pp. S3-S3.
  • Clift R. (1994) 'UNTITLED'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA LAUSANNE POWDER TECHNOLOGY, 80 (1), pp. R5-R5.
  • Clift R. (1994) 'UNTITLED - REPLY'. MILLER FREEMAN TECHNICAL LTD PROCESS ENGINEERING, 75 (6), pp. 17-17.
  • Clift R. (1994) 'Preface'. Powder Technology, 78 (2), pp. 107-?.
  • Clift R. (1994) 'Editorial'. Powder Technology, 80 (1)
  • Clift R. (1994) 'Action and Pro-Action'. Environment Supplement Edition. The Chemical Engineer: the essential magazine for the chemical and process industries, 574
  • LEGROS R, MILLINGTON CA, CLIFT R. (1994) 'DRYING OF TOBACCO PARTICLES IN A MOBILIZED BED'. MARCEL DEKKER INC DRYING TECHNOLOGY, 12 (3), pp. 517-543.
  • CLIFT R. (1993) 'MASSIMILLA,LEOPOLDO (1930-1993) - OBITUARY'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA LAUSANNE POWDER TECHNOLOGY, 76 (3), pp. R5-R6.
  • GHADIRI M, SEVILLE JPK, CLIFT R. (1993) 'FLUIDIZED-BED FILTRATION OF GASES AT HIGH-TEMPERATURES'. INST CHEMICAL ENGINEERS CHEMICAL ENGINEERING RESEARCH & DESIGN, 71 (A4), pp. 371-381.
  • HAILU L, PLAKA F, CLIFT R, DAVIDSON JF. (1993) 'MEASUREMENT OF GAS-FLOW THROUGH A 2-DIMENSIONAL BUBBLE IN A FLUIDIZED-BED'. INST CHEMICAL ENGINEERS CHEMICAL ENGINEERING RESEARCH & DESIGN, 71 (A4), pp. 382-389.
  • CLIFT R, RAFAILIDIS S. (1993) 'INTERPARTICLE STRESS, FLUID PRESSURE, AND BUBBLE MOTION IN GAS-FLUIDIZED BEDS'. PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SCIENCE, 48 (9), pp. 1575-1582.
  • Godfrey MA, Kwasowski P, Clift R, Marks V. (1993) 'Assessment of the suitability of commercially available SpA affinity solid phases for the purification of murine monoclonal antibodies at process scale.'. J Immunol Methods, NETHERLANDS: 160 (1), pp. 97-105.
  • CLIFT R. (1993) 'SPECIALIZATION MUST BE THE FUTURE'. INST CHEMICAL ENGINEERS CHEMICAL ENGINEER-LONDON, (538), pp. 4-4.
  • CLIFT R. (1993) 'FORMATION OF UNITED-STATES PARTICLE TECHNOLOGY FORUM'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA LAUSANNE POWDER TECHNOLOGY, 74 (2), pp. R9-R9.
  • CLIFT R. (1993) '$publication.get('TITLE')'. Blackie Gas Cleaning at High Temperatures,
  • Clift R. (1993) 'Life cycle assessment and ecolabelling'. Journal of Cleaner Production, 1 (3-4), pp. 155-159.
  • Clift R. (1993) 'Burn or Recycle? An Example of Life Cycle Analysis'. Competitive Edge, (3), pp. 14-15.
  • Clift R. (1993) 'Formation of US particle technology forum'. Powder Technology, 74 (2)
  • Clift R. (1993) 'Pollution & Waste Management 1 : Cradle to Grave Analysis'. Science in Parliament, 50 (3), pp. 29-32.
  • SADD PA, LAMB JA, CLIFT R. (1992) 'THE EFFECT OF SURFACTANTS ON HEAT AND MASS-TRANSFER TO WATER DROPS IN AIR'. PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SCIENCE, 47 (17-18), pp. 4415-4424.
  • GHADIRI M, MARTIN CM, MORGAN JEP, CLIFT R. (1992) 'AN ELECTROMECHANICAL VALVE FOR SOLIDS'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA LAUSANNE POWDER TECHNOLOGY, 73 (1), pp. 21-35.
  • CLIFT R. (1992) 'ON THE FORMULATION OF HYDRODYNAMIC STABILITY-CRITERIA IN FLUIDIZED-BEDS'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA LAUSANNE POWDER TECHNOLOGY, 72 (3), pp. 199-199.
  • HORIO M, CLIFT R. (1992) 'A NOTE ON TERMINOLOGY - CLUSTERS AND AGGLOMERATES'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA POWDER TECHNOLOGY, 70 (3), pp. 196-196.
  • Godfrey MA, Kwasowski P, Clift R, Marks V. (1992) 'A sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of staphylococcal protein A (SpA) present as a trace contaminant of murine immunoglobulins purified on immobilized protein A.'. J Immunol Methods, NETHERLANDS: 149 (1), pp. 21-27.
  • HOFFMANN AC, VANSANTEN A, ALLEN RWK, CLIFT R. (1992) 'EFFECTS OF GEOMETRY AND SOLID LOADING ON THE PERFORMANCE OF GAS CYCLONES'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA LAUSANNE POWDER TECHNOLOGY, 70 (1), pp. 83-91.
  • CLIFT R. (1992) '5TH INTERNATIONAL-CONFERENCE - FBC TECHNOLOGY AND THE ENVIRONMENTAL CHALLENGE - RAPPORTEURS REVIEW OF THE PAPERS DEALING WITH EMISSIONS PERFORMANCE'. INST ENERGY JOURNAL OF THE INSTITUTE OF ENERGY, 65 (462), pp. 10-14.
  • CLIFT R. (1992) 'PROFLIGATE ENVIRONMENTALISM'. INST CHEMICAL ENGINEERS CHEMICAL ENGINEER-LONDON, (513), pp. 3-3.
  • Wilson KC, Addie GR, Clift R. (1992) 'Slurry transport using centrifugal pumps'.
  • Koch D, Cheung W, Seville JPK, Clift R. (1992) 'Effects of dust properties on gas cleaning using rigid ceramic filters'. Filtration and Separation, 29 (4)
  • CLIFT R. (1991) 'THE ANALYSIS OF PRESSURE-FLUCTUATIONS IN A 2-DIMENSIONAL FLUIDIZED-BED - CLOSURE'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA LAUSANNE POWDER TECHNOLOGY, 68 (3), pp. 290-291.
  • COURY J, RAPER JA, GUANG D, CLIFT R. (1991) 'MEASUREMENT OF ELECTROSTATIC CHARGE ON GAS-BORNE PARTICLES AND THE EFFECT OF CHARGES ON FABRIC FILTRATION'. INST CHEMICAL ENGINEERS PROCESS SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION, 69 (B2), pp. 97-106.
  • ABDELGHANI M, PETRIE JG, SEVILLE JPK, CLIFT R, ADAMS MJ. (1991) 'MECHANICAL-PROPERTIES OF COHESIVE PARTICULATE SOLIDS'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA LAUSANNE POWDER TECHNOLOGY, 65 (1-3), pp. 113-123.
  • CLIFT R. (1991) 'POWDER TECHNOLOGY'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA LAUSANNE POWDER TECHNOLOGY, 65 (1-3), pp. R9-R9.
  • CLIFT R, GHADIRI M, HOFFMAN AC. (1991) 'A CRITIQUE OF 2 MODELS FOR CYCLONE PERFORMANCE'. AMER INST CHEMICAL ENGINEERS AICHE JOURNAL, 37 (2), pp. 285-289.
  • Rafailidis SV, Clift R. (1991) 'Study of the influence of bubble formation at the distributor on fluidized bed behavior'. AIChE Symposium Series, 87 (281), pp. 47-57.
  • Addis EJ, Bagshaw W, Napier BA, Rogers EA, Rafailidis S, Clift R. (1991) 'Experimental study of bubble formation and flow in coal-fired fluidised bed combustors'. Proceedings of the International Conference on Fluidized Bed Combustion, 2, pp. 763-770.
  • Clift R. (1991) 'Editorial'. Powder Technology, 65 (1-3)
  • CLIFT R. (1991) 'A critique of two models for cyclone performance'. AlChE J., 37, pp. 285-289.
  • Clift R. (1991) 'Editorial'. Powder Technology, 64 (1-2)
  • WILSON KC, CLIFT R, ADDIE GR, MAFFETT J. (1990) 'EFFECT OF BROAD PARTICLE GRADING ON SLURRY STRATIFICATION RATIO AND SCALE-UP'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA LAUSANNE POWDER TECHNOLOGY, 61 (2), pp. 165-172.
  • Withers CJ, West AA, Twigg AN, Courtney RS, Seville JPK, Clift R. (1990) 'Improvements in the performance of ceramic media for filtration of hot gases'. Filtration and Separation, 27 (1)
  • Clift R. (1990) 'Introduction'. Powder Technology, 60 (1)
  • CLIFT R. (1990) 'COMMEMORATIVE ISSUE TO MARK THE RETIREMENT OF WILLIAMS,J.C. AS EDITOR-IN-CHIEF OF POWDER TECHNOLOGY - INTRODUCTION'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA LAUSANNE POWDER TECHNOLOGY, 60 (1), pp. R5-R5.
  • Seville J, Clift R, Withers C, Keidel W. (1989) 'Rigid ceramic media for filtering hot gases'. Filtration and Separation, 26 (4), pp. 265-271.

    Abstract

    A new generation of gas filter media is becoming available, based on rigidly bonded ceramic granules or fibres, and suitable for high-temperature duty. This paper outlines the main considerations in selecting and applying such a medium. Pressure drop through a 'virgin' medium is readily predictable from simple tests at ambient conditions. Behaviour on 'conditioning' over many cycles of filtration and cleaning can be determined by a simple 'coupon test', which shows the range of filter velocities which can be used and the cleaning action needed. Low-density media have some advantages, and this paper concentrates on one such medium which has been found to have good performance: Cerafil 12H10, formed as a bonded mat of synthetic ceramic fibres. It is currently supplied as cylindrical candles, but other geometries are under development. Experience in using Cerafil to filter gases generated by a pyrolytic incinerator treating contaminated soil is outlined.

  • Seville J, Cheung W, Clift R. (1989) 'Patchy-cleaning interpretation of dust cake release from non-woven fabrics'. Filtration and Separation, 26 (3)

    Abstract

    In reverse-flow cleaning of cakes deposited on porous filters, the pressure drop induced across the cake at the point of its detachment is the cleaning stress, ie the tensile stress which must be applied to overcome adhesion of the cake to the medium or the cohesion of the cake itself. A thicker cake requires a smaller pressure gradient for removal and therefore less cleaning gas flow and less pressure drop through the medium itself. Provided that true surface filtration occurs, the cleaning stress should be independent of cake areal mass. J. Sievert and F. Loeffler's data for a singed polyester needlefelt suggests that this is indeed so, and that the cleaning stresses induced by reverse-flow cleaning are close to those required if the filter is cleaned by mechanically-induced acceleration.

  • Seville JPK, Cheung W, Clift R. (1989) 'Patchy-cleaning interpretation of dust-cake release from nonwoven fabrics'.
  • Seville J, Clift R, Withers C, Keidel W. (1989) 'Rigid ceramic media for filtering hot gases.'. FILTR. & SEP., 26 (4 , Ju)

    Abstract

    A new generation of gas filter media is becoming available, based on rigidly bonded ceramic granules or fibres, and suitable for high temperature duty. This papers outlines the main considerations in selecting and applying such a medium. Pressure drop through a 'virgin' medium is readily predictable from simple tests at ambient conditions. Behaviour on 'conditioning' over many cycles of filtration and cleaning can be determined by a simple 'coupon test', which shows the range of filter velocities which can be used and the cleaning action needed. Low density media have some advantages, and this paper concentrates on one such medium which has been found to have good performance: Cerafil 12H10, formed as a bonded mat of synthetic ceramic fibres. It is currently supplied as cylindrical candles, but other geometries are under development. Experience in using Cerafil to filter gases generated by a pyrolytic incinerator treating contaminated soil is outlined.

  • Seville JPK, Clift R, Withers CJ, Keidel W. (1989) 'Rigid ceramic media for filtering hot gases'.
  • Rathbone RR, Ghadiri M, Clift R. (1989) 'Measurement of particle velocities and associated stresses on immersed surfaces in fluidized beds'.
  • Evans PL, Seville JPK, Clift R. (1989) 'Mobilisation of cohesive particles in a novel spouted bed'.
  • Clift R. (1988) 'Editorial'. Powder Technology, 54 (1)
  • CLIFT R. (1987) 'THE FUTURE TEACHING AND EMPLOYMENT OF CHEMICAL-ENGINEERS'. INST CHEMICAL ENGINEERS CHEMICAL ENGINEER-LONDON, (443), pp. 45-48.
  • CARTER B, GHADIRI M, CLIFT R, JURY AW. (1987) 'THE BEHAVIOR OF LARGE JETSAM PARTICLES IN FLUIDIZED-BEDS'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA LAUSANNE POWDER TECHNOLOGY, 52 (3), pp. 263-266.
  • COURY J, THAMBIMUTHU KV, CLIFT R. (1987) 'CAPTURE AND REBOUND OF DUST IN GRANULAR BED GAS FILTERS'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA POWDER TECHNOLOGY, 50 (3), pp. 253-265.
  • BEYZAVI K, HAMPTON S, KWASOWSKI P, FICKLING S, MARKS V, CLIFT R. (1987) 'COMPARISON OF HORSERADISH-PEROXIDASE AND ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE-LABELED ANTIBODIES IN ENZYME IMMUNOASSAYS'. ROYAL SOC MEDICINE SERVICES LTD ANNALS OF CLINICAL BIOCHEMISTRY, 24, pp. 145-152.
  • PATERSON AHJ, CLIFT R. (1987) 'LIQUID HOLDUP MEASUREMENTS IN TURBULENT BED CONTACTORS BY A TRACER TECHNIQUE'. CANADIAN SOC CHEMICAL ENGINEERING CANADIAN JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING, 65 (1), pp. 10-17.
  • YUREGIR KR, GHADIRI M, CLIFT R. (1987) 'IMPACT ATTRITION OF SODIUM-CHLORIDE CRYSTALS'. PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SCIENCE, 42 (4), pp. 843-853.
  • Morris K, Allen R, Clift R. (1987) 'ADHESION OF CAKES TO FILTER MEDIA.'. Filtration and Separation, 24 (1), pp. 41-45.

    Abstract

    To model the behaviour of a fabric filter it is essential to be able to predict the amount of cake removed as a result of the force applied to the filter medium by a cleaning pulse. Experimental measurements have been made of the fraction of cake removed as a function of the force exerted by an impulse tester designed to simulate the conditions experienced in a pulse jet filter. These experiments have shown that the force required to remove a given quantity of cake depends upon the areal cake density. The nature of this dependence has been predicted from theoretical consideration of the role of adhesion and cohesion forces, assuming that the cake breaks away in spalls of a regular shape and uniform size.

  • Morris K, Allen R, Clift R. (1987) 'Adhesion of cakes to filter media'.

    Abstract

    Experimental measurements were made of the fraction of cake removed from a polyester needled filter fabric as a function of the force exerted by an impulse tester designed to simulate the conditions experienced in a pulse-jet filter.

  • Hoffmann AC, van Santen A, Clift R, Allen RWK. (1987) 'PERFORMANCE OF GAS CYCLONES AT VARYING SOLID LOADINGS.'. American Institute of Chemical Engineers, National Meeting,
  • CLIFT R, SEVILLE JPK, MOORE SC, CHAVARIE C. (1987) 'COMMENTS ON BUOYANCY IN FLUIDIZED-BEDS'. PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SCIENCE, 42 (1), pp. 191-194.
  • YUREGIR KR, GHADIRI M, CLIFT R. (1986) 'OBSERVATIONS ON IMPACT ATTRITION OF ANTIGRANULOCYTES SOLIDS'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA LAUSANNE POWDER TECHNOLOGY, 49 (1), pp. 53-57.
  • CLIFT R, GHADIRI M. (1986) 'HIGH-TEMPERATURE HEROICS'. INST CHEMICAL ENGINEERS CHEMICAL ENGINEER-LONDON, (427), pp. 13-13.
  • Morris K, Allen RWK, Clift R. (1986) 'ADHESION OF CAKES TO FILTER MEDIA.'. 1
  • Ghadiri M, Seville JPK, Clift R. (1986) 'The use of fluidised beds to filter gases at high temperatures.'. IN: GAS CLEANING AT HIGH TEMPERATURE SYMP., (GUILDFORD, U.K.: SEP. 16-18, 1986), RUGBY, U.K., INST. CHEM. ENGRS, 1986, PAPER, (99 ))
  • Morris K, Allen RWK, Clift R. (1986) 'Adhesion of cakes to filter media.'. IN: 4TH WORLD FILTRATION CONGRESS, PROC. PART I, (OSTEND, BELGIUM: APR. 22-25, 1986), R. VANBRABANT; J. HERMIA; R.A. WEILER (, 8 )
  • Tate AHJ, Seville JPK, Singh A, Clift R. (1986) 'On-line non-sampling determination of the size and concentration of particles entrained in a gas.'. IN: GAS CLEANING AT HIGH TEMPERATURE SYMP., (GUILDFORD, U.K.: SEP. 16-18, 1986), RUGBY, U.K., INST. CHEM. ENGRS, 1986, PAPER, (99 ))
  • Clift R, Grace JR. (1985) 'Continuous bubbling and slugging.'.
  • Ghadiri M, Seville JPK, Clift R. (1985) 'A high-temperature agglomerating filter.'. IN: POWTECH '85 PARTICLE TECHNOLOGY, (BIRMINGHAM, U.K.: MAR. 5-7, 1985), RUGBY, U.K., INST. CHEM. ENGRS., 1985, PAPER 7, (41 ))
  • Clift R, Grace JR. (1985) 'CONTINUOUS BUBBLING AND SLUGGING.'. Fluidization, , pp. 73-132.
  • MACCUAIG N, SEVILLE JPK, GILBOY WB, CLIFT R. (1985) 'APPLICATION OF GAMMA-RAY TOMOGRAPHY TO GAS-FLUIDIZED BEDS'. OPTICAL SOC AMER APPLIED OPTICS, 24 (23), pp. 4083-4085.
  • Scandrett LA, Clift R. (1984) 'THERMODYNAMIC ASPECTS OF ALKALI COLLECTION IN FLUIDISED BED COMBUSTION OF COAL.'.
  • SEVILLE JPK, CLIFT R. (1984) 'THE EFFECT OF THIN LIQUID LAYERS ON FLUIDIZATION CHARACTERISTICS'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA LAUSANNE POWDER TECHNOLOGY, 37 (JAN-), pp. 117-129.
  • Seville JPK, Clift R. (1984) 'The effect of thin liquid layers on fluidisation characteristics'. Powder Technology, 37 (1), pp. 117-129.
  • SCANDRETT LA, CLIFT R. (1984) 'THE THERMODYNAMICS OF ALKALI REMOVAL FROM COAL-DERIVED GASES'. INST ENERGY JOURNAL OF THE INSTITUTE OF ENERGY, 57 (433), pp. 391-397.
  • Clift R. (1983) 'FUNDAMENTAL PROCESSES IN GAS FILTRATION.'. 1
  • Clift R. (1983) 'FUNDAMENTAL PROCESSES IN GAS FILTRATION.'. Transactions of the Institution of Engineers, Australia. Mechanical engineering, ME8 (4), pp. 181-191.
  • CLIFT R. (1983) 'AN OCCAMIST VIEW OF FLUIDIZED-BED REACTOR MODELING'. INST CHEMICAL ENGINEERS CHEMICAL ENGINEER-LONDON, (388), pp. 29-&.
  • Clift R, Wilson K, Addie G, Carstens M. (1982) 'MECHANISTICALLY-BASED METHOD FOR SCALING PIPELINE TESTS FOR SETTLING SLURRIES.'. Hydrotransport, , pp. 91-101.
  • Clift R, Wilson K, Addie G, Carstens M. (1982) 'A mechanistically-based method for scaling pipeline tests for settling slurries.'.

    Abstract

    The difficulties in predicting the frictional energy gradient for pipeline flow of settling slurries are well known. Whenever possible, it is desirable to carry out tests on a representative sample of the material to be conveyed, and scale the results to other pipe sizes. This paper presents a mechanistic approach to scaling tests results, based on the physical processes of solid trnapsort identified in the work of Newitt, Shook and Wilson. A basic distinction is drawn between solids conveyed in pseudo-homogeneous suspension, and solids stratified at higher concentration in the lower part of the pipe. The suspended and non-suspended solids are assumed to contribute independently to the friction gradient, in a fashion characterised by material constants which depend on the slurry under consideration. The proportion of solids conveyed as stratified load is taken to vary with mixture velocity in the general manner proposed by Wilson. The tests were designed to determine the material constants which describe the variation of pressure drop with mixture velocity in heterogeneous flow. The approach is illustrated by results obtained for three settling slurries of foundry sand, masonry sand and crusted granite, in horizontal pipes of diameter 0.20 m and 0.44 m (8 inch and 18 inch nominal). In each case, the validity of the scaling method is demonstrated. (A)

  • CLIFT R, CLIFT DHM. (1981) 'CONTINUOUS MEASUREMENT OF THE DENSITY OF FLOWING SLURRIES'. PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MULTIPHASE FLOW, 7 (5), pp. 555-561.
  • Clift R, Ghadri M, Thambimuthu K. (1981) 'Filtration of gases in fluidised beds.'. IN: PROGRESS IN FILTRATION AND SEPARATION, R.J. WAKEMAN (ED.), 2 , Am, pp. 75-123.

    Abstract

    The following review concentrates on the fundamental processes occurring in fluidised filters. Section II gives a brief summary of filtration in fixed granular beds, to define terms and concepts used in analysis of fluidised filtration. Attention is restricted to 'stationary' filtration, in which the collection medium is the granular material itself, without discussing 'non-stationary' effects caused by structural changes resulting from dust accumulation within the filter. Section III sets out an analysis of filtration in a fluidised bed, derived from conventional models of filtration in fixed beds and reaction in fluidised beds. The interpretation of available experimental results in terms of this model is summarised in Section IV. Section V reviews two variations which have been proposed on a simple configuration of: electrofluidised filters, and rotating fluidised beds. Actual and potential applications of the technique are discussed very briefly in Section VI. (from paper)

  • Clift R, Ghadiri M, Thambimuthu K. (1981) 'Filtration of gases in fluidised beds.'.

    Abstract

    This review concentrates of the fundamental processes occurring in fluidized filters especially when concerned with the removal of gases by filtration. (from paper)

  • Thambimuthu KV, Tan BKC, Clift R. (1980) 'Mechanisms of steady filtration of gases in packed beds.'. IN: PROC. INT. SYMP. ON SOLIDS SEPARATION PROCESSES, (DUBLIN, EIRE: APR. 1980), RUGBY, U.K., INST. CHEM. ENGRS., 1980, SESSIO, (231 ).)
  • Farrokhalaee T, Clift R. (1980) 'Mechanistic prediction of bubble properties in freely-bubbling fluidised beds.'.
  • Thambimuthu KV, Tan BKC, Clift R. (1980) 'MECHANISMS OF STEADY FILTRATION OF GASES IN PACKED BEDS.'. Institution of Chemical Engineers Symposium Series, (59)
  • Farrokhalaee T, Clift R. (1980) 'Mechanistic prediction of bubble properties in freely-bubbling fluidised beds.'.
  • GHADIRI M, CLIFT R. (1980) 'JET PENETRATION INTO A FLUIDIZED-BED AT HIGH-TEMPERATURE'. AMER CHEMICAL SOC INDUSTRIAL & ENGINEERING CHEMISTRY FUNDAMENTALS, 19 (4), pp. 440-440.
  • GRACE J, CLIFT R. (1979) 'DEPENDENCE OF SLUG RISE VELOCITY ON TUBE REYNOLDS-NUMBER IN VERTICAL GAS-LIQUID FLOW'. PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SCIENCE, 34 (11), pp. 1348-1350.
  • CLIFT R. (1978) '$publication.get('TITLE')'. Adacemic Press Bubbles, Drops, and Particles., 221
  • CLIFT R. (1978) '$publication.get('TITLE')'. Academic Press Bubbles, Drops, and Particles, 97
  • CLIFT R. (1978) '$publication.get('TITLE')'. Academic Press Bubbles, Drops and Particles, , pp. 169-202.
  • CLIFT R. (1978) '$publication.get('TITLE')'. Academic Press Bubbles, Drops and Particles, 195
  • CLIFT R. (1978) '$publication.get('TITLE')'. Academic Press Bubbles, Drops and Particles, 112
  • CLIFT R. (1978) '$publication.get('TITLE')'. Academic Press Bubbles, Drops, and Particles, 380
  • CLIFT R. (1978) '$publication.get('TITLE')'. Academic Press, Inc. Bubbles Drops, and Particles, , pp. 97-141.
  • CLIFT R. (1978) '$publication.get('TITLE')'. Academic Press Bubbles. Drops and Particles, 30
  • DOGANOGLU Y, JOG V, THAMBIMUTHU KV, CLIFT R. (1978) 'REMOVAL OF FINE PARTICULATES FROM GASES IN FLUIDIZED-BEDS'. INST CHEMICAL ENGINEERS TRANSACTIONS OF THE INSTITUTION OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERS, 56 (4), pp. 239-248.
  • CLIFT R. (1978) '$publication.get('TITLE')'. Academic Press Bubbles, Drops, and Particles, 172
  • Subzwari MP, Clift R, Pyle DL. (1978) 'BUBBLING BEHAVIOUR OF FLUIDIZED BEDS AT ELEVATED PRESSURES.'. , pp. 50-54.
  • CLIFT R. (1978) 'Bubbles'. Academic Press Drops and Particles,
  • CLIFT R. (1978) '$publication.get('TITLE')'. Academic Press Bubbles Drops, and Particles,
  • CLIFT R. (1978) '$publication.get('TITLE')'. Academic Press Bubbles Drops and particles, , pp. 121-124.
  • CLIFT R. (1978) '$publication.get('TITLE')'. Academic Press Bubbles, Drops, and Particles, 171
  • CLIFT R. (1978) '$publication.get('TITLE')'. Academic Press Bubbles, Drops, and Particles, 111
  • CLIFT R. (1978) '$publication.get('TITLE')'. Academic Press Drops, and Particles,
  • CLIFT R. (1978) '$publication.get('TITLE')'. Academic Press Bubbles, Drops and Particles, , pp. 30-141.
  • CLIFT R. (1978) '$publication.get('TITLE')'. Academic Press Bubbles Drops and particles, 117
  • Clift R, Filla M, Massimilla L. (1976) 'Gas and particle motion in jets in fluidized beds'. International Journal of Multiphase Flow, 2 (5-6), pp. 549-561.
  • Clift R, GRACE J, WEBER M. (1976) 'STABILITY OF BUBBLES IN FLUIDIZED-BEDS'. AMER CHEMICAL SOC INDUSTRIAL & ENGINEERING CHEMISTRY FUNDAMENTALS, 15 (1), pp. 87-87.
  • Grace JR, Johnsson JE, Clift R, Nyugen TH. (1976) 'Prediction of bubble distributions in freely-bubbling three-dimensional fluidized beds.'. IN: FLUIDIZATION TECHNOLOGY, PROC. INT. FLUIDIZATION CONF., (PACIFIC GROVE, U.S.A.: JUN.15-20, 1975), KEAIRNS, D.L. (ED.)., 1 , Washington, U.S.A., Hemisphere Publishing Corp., 1976, pp. 205-214.
  • Tuot J, Clift R. (1975) 'Titanium Carbide Production in Electrothermic Fluidized Bed.'. Int Round Table on Study and Appl of Transp Phenom in Therm Plasmas, Conf Proc, Odeillo, Fr, Sep 12-16 1975,
  • Clift R, Grace J, Sollazzo V. (1974) 'CONTINUOUS SLUG FLOW IN VERTICAL TUBES.'. Journal of Heat Transfer, 96 Ser (3), pp. 371-376.

    Abstract

    Paper No. 74-HT-EE.

  • Clift R, GRACE J, SOLLAZZO V. (1974) 'CONTINUOUS SLUG FLOW IN VERTICAL TUBES'. ASME-AMER SOC MECHANICAL ENG JOURNAL OF HEAT TRANSFER-TRANSACTIONS OF THE ASME, 96 (3), pp. 371-376.
  • Henein H, Guthrie RIL, Clift R. (1974) 'CONTACTING PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH ALUMINIUM AND FERRO-ALLOY.'. , pp. 29-43.
  • CLIFT R, GRACE J, WEBER ME. (1974) 'STABILITY OF BUBBLES IN FLUIDIZED-BEDS'. AMER CHEMICAL SOC INDUSTRIAL & ENGINEERING CHEMISTRY FUNDAMENTALS, 13 (1), pp. 45-51.
  • JOHNSSON JE, CLIFT R, GRACE JR. (1974) 'PREDICTION OF BUBBLE DISTRIBUTIONS IN FREELY-BUBBLING TWO-DIMENSIONAL FLUIDIZED BEDS.'. MULTI-PHASE FLOW SYSTEMS, I.CHEM.E.SYMP.SERIES 38, 1 , PAPER B5
  • GRACE J, CLIFT R. (1974) 'COALESCENCE OF BUBBLE PAIRS IN A 3-DIMENSIONAL FLUIDIZED-BED'. CANADIAN SOC CHEMICAL ENGINEERING CANADIAN JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING, 52 (3), pp. 417-419.
  • Clift R, GRACE J, WEBER M. (1974) 'STABILITY OF BUBBLES IN FLUIDIZED BEDS.'. IND.ENGNG.CHEM.FUNDAM., 13 (1)

    Abstract

    A LINEARIZED STABILITY ANALYSIS OF THE UPPER SURFACE OF A BUBBLE IN A FLUIDIZED BED LEADS TO PREDICTIONS OF INITIAL GROWTH RATES AND MOST SENSITIVE WAVELENGTHS FOR DISTURBANCES OF THE INTERFACE.IT IS SHOWN THAT THE DEGREE OF INSTABILITY IS PRIMARILY A FUNCTION OF THE EFFECTIVE KINEMATIC VISCOSITY OF THE DENSE PHASE, WHILE THE INTERSTITIAL FLUID VELOCITY HAS A COMPARATIVELY MINOR INFLUENCE.THE RESULTS ARE CONSISTENT WITH AVAILABLE EVIDENCE ON THE INCIDENCE OF BUBBLE SPLITTING IN FLUIDIZED SYSTEMS.(A)

  • Grace JR, Clift R. (1974) 'On the two-phase theory of fluidization'. Chemical Engineering Science, 29 (2), pp. 327-334.
  • GRACE JR, CLIFT R. (1974) 'ON THE TWO-PHASE THEORY OF FLUIDIZATION.'. Chemical Engineering Science, 29 (2)
  • GRACE J, CLIFT R. (1974) '2-PHASE THEORY OF FLUIDIZATION'. PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SCIENCE, 29 (2), pp. 327-334.
  • GARCIA A, GRACE J, CLIFT R. (1973) 'BEHAVIOR OF GAS BUBBLES IN FLUIDIZED-BEDS'. AMER INST CHEMICAL ENGINEERS AICHE JOURNAL, 19 (2), pp. 369-370.
  • DO HT, CLIFT R, GRACE J. (1972) 'PARTICLE EJECTION AND ENTRAINMENT FROM FLUIDIZED-BEDS'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA POWDER TECHNOLOGY, 6 (4), pp. 195-&.
  • CLIFT R, CHEUNG L, GRACE J, DO TH. (1972) 'GAS AND SOLIDS MOTION AROUND DEFORMED AND INTERACTING BUBBLES IN FLUIDIZED-BEDS'. CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS JOURNAL OF FLUID MECHANICS, 51 (JAN11), pp. 187-&.
  • TUOT J, CLIFT R. (1972) 'HEAT-EXCHANGE IN FLUIDIZED-BED'. CHIMIE AND INDUSTRIE GENIE CHIMIQUE, 105 (15), pp. C51-&.
  • CLIFT R, GRACE J. (1972) 'MECHANISM OF BUBBLE BREAK-UP IN FLUIDIZED-BEDS'. PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SCIENCE, 27 (12), pp. 2309-&.
  • CLIFT R, GRACE J. (1972) 'COALESCENCE OF BUBBLE CHAINS IN FLUIDIZED-BEDS'. INST CHEMICAL ENGINEERS TRANSACTIONS OF THE INSTITUTION OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERS AND THE CHEMICAL ENGINEER, 50 (4), pp. 364-&.
  • CLIFT R, GRACE J. (1971) 'BUBBLE COALESCENCE IN FLUIDIZED BEDS - COMPARISON OF 2 THEORIES'. AMER INST CHEMICAL ENGINEERS AICHE JOURNAL, 17 (1), pp. 252-&.
  • CLIFT R, GAUVIN WH. (1971) 'MOTION OF ENTRAINED PARTICLES IN GAS STREAMS'. CANADIAN SOC CHEMICAL ENGINEERING CANADIAN JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING, 49 (4), pp. 439-&.
  • CLIFT R, GAUVIN WH. (1971) 'MOTION OF PARTICLES IN TURBULENT GAS STREAMS'. BRITISH CHEMICAL ENGINEERING, 16 (2-3), pp. 229-&.
  • GRACE J, KROCHMAL L, CLIFT R, FARKAS EJ. (1971) 'EXPANSION OF LIQUIDS AND FLUIDISED BEDS IN SLUG FLOW'. PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SCIENCE, 26 (5), pp. 617-&.
  • CLIFT R. (1971) 'FORMATION OF GAS CLOUDS IN FLUIDIZED-BEDS'. CANADIAN SOC CHEMICAL ENGINEERING CANADIAN JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING, 49 (6), pp. 876-&.
  • CLIFT R. (1970) '$publication.get('TITLE')'. Proc. Chemeca'70, 1
  • CLIFT R, GRACE J. (1970) 'BUBBLE INTERACTION IN FLUIDIZED BEDS'. 66 (105), pp. 14-27.
  • CLIFT R, PRITCHAR C, NEDDERMA R. (1966) 'EFFECT OF VISCOSITY ON FLOODING CONDITIONS IN WETTED WALL COLUMNS'. PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SCIENCE, 21 (1), pp. 87-&.
  • Clift R. (1966) 'Fundamental processes in gas filtration.'. TRANS. INST. ENGRS. AUST. MECH. ENGRS., ME8 (4 , Dec. 1983), pp. 181-191.
  • Seville J, Cheung W, Clift R. (1966) 'A patchy-cleaning interpretation of dust cake release from non-woven fabrics.'. FILTR. & SEP., 26 (3 , Ma)

    Abstract

    Sievert and Loeffler have recently presented data on the cleaning behaviour of a range of non-woven fabrics when subjected both to reverse gas flow and to mechanically induced acceleration. In common with other workers in the field they suggest that, for reverse flow, cleaning is easier if the deposited cake mass is greater; i.e. the pressure drop required across the filter in order to release the cake, and the reverse gas flowrate through it, are both reduced for thicker cakes. In this short paper Sievert and Loeffler's results show that the stress which must be imposed on the cake in order to detach it, is independent of cake loading and that this level is consistent with the stress required to detach the cake by mechanically induced acceleration.

Conference papers

  • Clift R, Cowell SJ. 'Life Cycle Assessment for Food Production Systems'. San Diego: Fifth World Congress of Chemical Engineering
  • Clift R. 'Rapporteur's Summary from Proceedings'. The Royal Academy of Engineering, London: Engineering for Sustainable Development
  • Clift R, Solberg-Johansen B, Yule L. 'Life Cycle Assessment of Nuclear Fuel Processing and Reprocessing'. Giardini Naxos Taormina, Sicily: Sixth SETAC-Europe Annual Meeting
  • Clift R. 'Waste Treatment Processes I'. Leiden, The Netherlands: International workshop on Life Cycle Assessment of Solid Waste
  • Clift R, Azapagic A. 'System Analysis and Allocation in Multi-input Waste Treatment Processes'. Leiden, The Netherlands: International workshop on Life Cycle Assessment of Solid Waste
  • Clift R, Cowell S, Doig A. 'A Case Study in Allocation vs. System Extension'. Stockholm: IVL Conference on LCA and Waste Management
  • Clift R, Cowell SJ. 'Life Cycle Assessment for Food Production Systems'. Cambridge: International Conference of the Fertiliser Society
  • Clift R. 'Public Sector Decisions and the Limits on Technological Assessment'. IChemE London: 2nd International Symposium on "Incineration & Flue Gas Treatment Technologies"
  • Clift R, Azapagic A. 'System Analysis and Allocation in Multiple-Input Waste Treatment Processes'. Stockholm: IVL Conference on LCA and Waste Management
  • Clift R, Doig A. 'Applying Life Cycle Thinking to Solid Waste Management'. Culham Laboratory, Oxfordshire: National Conference on Life Cycle Inventory Analysis for Waste Management
  • Clift R. 'Application of Life Cycle Assessment to Waste Management'. San Diego: Fifth World Congress of Chemical Engineering
  • Clift R, Doig A. 'The Environmental Implications of Recovering Energy from Waste'. Capri: Energy and Environment towards the Year 2000, Third International Symposium
  • Clift R, Cowell SJ, Doig A. 'A Case study of LCI by Allocation & System Extension: Straw'. Leiden, The Netherlands: International workshop on Life Cycle Assessment of Solid Waste
  • Clift R. 'Clean Technology and the Future Process of Process Engineering'. Cape Town: South African Institution of Chemical Engineers
  • Clift R, Cowell SJ. 'Farming for the Future - an Environmental Perspective'. Chester: Royal Agricultural Society of the Commonwealth Conference
  • Clift R, O'Brien M, Doig A. 'Social and Environmental Life Cycle Assessment'. Giardini Naxos Taormina, Sicily: Sixth SETAC-Europe Annual Meeting
  • Clift R. 'Rapporteur's Report on Session 1: Waste Treatment Processes'. Stockholm: International Workshop on Life Cycle Assessment and Treatment of Solid Waste
  • Clift R, Cowell SJ. 'Impact Assessment for LCAs involving Agricultural Procution'. Giardini Naxos Taormina, Sicily: SETAC Europe Congress, Environmental Thresholds and Pollutant Stress
  • Clift R, Shaw H. (2012) 'An Industrial Ecology Approach to the Use of Phosphorus'. Proceedia Engineering, Marrakech: SYMPHOS 2011 - 1st International Symposium on Innovation and Technology in the Phosphate Industry 46, pp. 39-44.
  • Hospido A, Mila i Canals L, McLaren S, Truninger M, Edwards-Jones G, Clift R. (2009) 'The role of seasonality in lettuce consumption: a case study of environmental and social aspects'. SPRINGER HEIDELBERG INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT, Gothenburg, SWEDEN: 5th International Conference LCA in Foods 14 (5), pp. 381-391.
  • Clift R. (2007) 'Climate change and energy policy: The importance of sustainability arguments'. PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD ENERGY, Trodheim, NORWAY: 18th International Conference on Efficiency, Costs, Optimization, Simulation, and Envirinmental Impact of Energy Systems 32 (4), pp. 262-268.
  • Clift R. (2006) 'Sustainable development and its implications for chemical engineering'. PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SCIENCE, Scottsdale, AZ: Research Conference on English Language Learners Struggling to Learn - Emergent Research on Linguistic Differences and Learning Disabilities 61 (13), pp. 4179-4187.
  • Barnett J, Carr A, Clift R. (2006) 'Going public: Risk, trust and public understandings of nanotechnology'. EARTHSCAN PUBLICATIONS LTD Nanotechnology: Risk, Ethics and Law, Twickenham, ENGLAND: Workshop on Nanotechnology Risk, Ethics and Law, pp. 196-212.
  • Clift R. (2006) 'Risk management and regulation in an emerging technology'. EARTHSCAN PUBLICATIONS LTD Nanotechnology: Risk, Ethics and Law, Twickenham, ENGLAND: Workshop on Nanotechnology Risk, Ethics and Law, pp. 140-153.
  • Hart A, Clift R, Riddlestone S, Buntin J. (2005) 'Use of life cycle assessment to develop industrial ecologies - A case study - Graphics paper'. INST CHEMICAL ENGINEERS PROCESS SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION, Glasgow, SCOTLAND: 7th World Congress of Chemical Engineering 83 (B4), pp. 359-363.
  • Clift R. (2005) 'Climate change and energy policy: The importance of sustainability arguments'. NORWEGIAN UNIV SCI TECHNOL Proceedings of ECOS 2005, Vols 1-3, Trondheim, NORWAY: 18th International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems (ECOS 2005), pp. 11-18.
  • Clift R. (2004) 'Metrics for supply chain sustainability'. SPRINGER-VERLAG BERLIN TECHNOLOGICAL CHOICES FOR SUSTAINABILITY, Maribor, SLOVENIA: NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Technological Choices for Sustainability, pp. 239-253.
  • Jamieson S, Hilbron R, Rice G, Clift R, Wehrmeyer W. (2004) 'A practical approach to implementing CSR in the electronics industry: Global supply chain management focusing on corporate social responsibility'. FRAUNHOFER IRB VERLAG Electronics Goes Green 2004 (Plus): Driving Forces for Future Electronics, Proceedings, Berlin, GERMANY: International Congress and Exhibition on Electronics Goes Green 2004+, pp. 591-596.
  • Agnew J, Clift R, Darton R, Guy K, Lefroy G. (2003) 'Commentary on the visions'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV CHEMICAL ENGINEERING: VISIONS OF THE WORLD, MELBOURNE, AUSTRALIA: 6th World Congress of Chemical Engineering, pp. 117-125.
  • Wright E, Azapagic A, Mellor W, Clift R, Stevens G. (2003) 'Improving recyclability by design - a fibre optic cable case study'. PROFESSIONAL ENGINEERING PUBLISHING LTD DESIGN AND MANUFACTURE FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT 2003, HOMETON COLL, CAMBRIDGE, ENGLAND: 2nd International Conference on Design and Manufacture for Sustainable Development, pp. 247-256.
  • Geyer R, Jackson T, Clift R. (2002) 'Economic and environmental comparison between recycling and reuse of structural steel sections'. INT IRON AND STEEL INST STEEL IN SUSTAINABLE CONSTRUCTION: IISI WORLD CONFERENCE 2002, CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS, LUXEMBOURG: International-Iron-and-Steel-Institute World Conference, pp. 13-18.
  • Davis J, Geyer R, Clift R, Jackson T, Azapagic A. (2002) 'A time series material flow analysis of the UK steel sector'. INT IRON AND STEEL INST STEEL IN SUSTAINABLE CONSTRUCTION: IISI WORLD CONFERENCE 2002, CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS, LUXEMBOURG: International-Iron-and-Steel-Institute World Conference, pp. 267-272.
  • Clift R, Wright L. (2000) 'Relationships between environmental impacts and added value along the supply chain'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC TECHNOLOGICAL FORECASTING AND SOCIAL CHANGE, LISBON, PORTUGAL: International Conference on Technology Policy and Innovation 65 (3), pp. 281-295.
  • Nicholas M, Clift R, Azapagic A, Walker F, Porter D. (2000) 'Determination of 'best available techniques' for integrated pollution prevention and control: A life cycle approach'. INST CHEMICAL ENGINEERS PROCESS SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION, UNIV BATH, BATH, ENGLAND: IChemE Research 2000 Conference 78 (B3), pp. 193-203.
  • Clift R, Azapagic A. (1999) 'The application of Life Cycle Assessment to process selection, design and operation'. SPRINGER TOOLS AND METHODS FOR POLLUTION PREVENTION, PRAGUE, CZECH REPUBLIC: NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Tools and Methods for Pollution Prevention 62, pp. 69-84.
  • Dennison FJ, Azapagic A, Clift R, Colbourne JS. (1999) 'Life Cycle Assessment: Comparing strategic options for the mains infrastructure - Part I'. PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD WATER SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, CAPE TOWN, SOUTH AFRICA: International Specialised Conference on Chemical Process Industries and Environmental Management 39 (10-11), pp. 315-319.
  • Clift R. (1998) 'A role for tribology in life cycle design'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV TRIBOLOGY FOR ENERGY CONSERVATION, IMPERIAL COLL SCI TECHNOL & MED, LONDON, ENGLAND: 24th Leeds-Lyon Symposium on Tribology 34, pp. 3-9.
  • Dennison F, Azapagic A, Clift R, Colbourne J. (1998) 'Assessing management options for wastewater treatment works in the context of life cycle assessment'. PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD WATER SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, VANCOUVER, CANADA: 19th Biennial Conference of the International-Association-on-Water-Quality 38 (11), pp. 23-30.
  • Jorgensen KM, Azapagic A, Clift R, Ericson SO, Lofstedt R. (1997) 'Life cycle assessment of a circulating fluidised bed combustion process utilising forest residues as a fuel'. INST CHEMICAL ENGINEERS 1997 JUBILEE RESEARCH EVENT, VOLS 1 AND 2, EAST MIDLANDS CONFERENCE CTR, NOTTINGHAM, ENGLAND: Symposium on 1997 Jubilee Research Event, pp. 53-56.
  • SolbergJohansen B, Clift R, Jeapes A. (1997) 'Environmental life cycle assessment of the nuclear fuel cycle'. INST CHEMICAL ENGINEERS 1997 JUBILEE RESEARCH EVENT, VOLS 1 AND 2, EAST MIDLANDS CONFERENCE CTR, NOTTINGHAM, ENGLAND: Symposium on 1997 Jubilee Research Event, pp. 137-140.
  • Clift R. (1996) 'Powder technology and particle science'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA LAUSANNE POWDER TECHNOLOGY, DENVER, CO: 1st International Particle Technology Forum 88 (3), pp. 335-339.
  • Clift R. (1996) 'Life Cycle Assessment and its application to process design and waste management'. INST CHEMICAL ENGINEERS 1996 ICHEME RESEARCH EVENT - SECOND EUROPEAN CONFERENCE FOR YOUNG RESEARCHERS IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING, VOLS 1 AND 2, UNIV LEEDS, LEEDS, ENGLAND: 1996 IChemE Research Event - 2nd European Conference for Young Researchers in Chemical Engineering, pp. 3-5.
  • Azapagic A, Clift R, Cowell SJ, Lamb J. (1996) 'Environmental management of product system - Application of multiobjective linear programming to life cycle assessment'. INST CHEMICAL ENGINEERS 1996 ICHEME RESEARCH EVENT - SECOND EUROPEAN CONFERENCE FOR YOUNG RESEARCHERS IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING, VOLS 1 AND 2, UNIV LEEDS, LEEDS, ENGLAND: 1996 IChemE Research Event - 2nd European Conference for Young Researchers in Chemical Engineering, pp. 558-560.
  • AZAPAGIC A, CLIFT R. (1995) 'LIFE-CYCLE ASSESSMENT AND LINEAR-PROGRAMMING - ENVIRONMENTAL OPTIMIZATION OF PRODUCT SYSTEM'. PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD COMPUTERS & CHEMICAL ENGINEERING, BLED, SLOVENIA: European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering-5 (ESCAPE-5) 19, pp. S229-S234.
  • DUO W, SEVILLE JPK, KIRKBY NG, CLIFT R. (1995) 'PATCHY CLEANING OF FILTER CAKES AND ITS INFLUENCE ON DRY SCRUBBING OF ACID GASES - A SIMULATION'. INST CHEMICAL ENGINEERS 1995 ICHEME RESEARCH EVENT - FIRST EUROPEAN CONFERENCE FOR YOUNG RESEARCHERS IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING, VOLS 1 AND 2, UNIV EDINBURGH, EDINBURGH, SCOTLAND: 1st European Conference for Young Researchers in Chemical Engineering - The 1995 IChemE Research Event, pp. 547-549.
  • AZAPAGIC A, CLIFT R. (1995) 'WHOLE SYSTEM MODELLING AND LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT'. INST CHEMICAL ENGINEERS 1995 ICHEME RESEARCH EVENT - FIRST EUROPEAN CONFERENCE FOR YOUNG RESEARCHERS IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING, VOLS 1 AND 2, UNIV EDINBURGH, EDINBURGH, SCOTLAND: 1st European Conference for Young Researchers in Chemical Engineering - The 1995 IChemE Research Event, pp. 429-431.
  • DUO W, SEVILL JPK, KIRKBY NF, CLIFT R. (1994) 'FORMATION OF PRODUCT LAYERS IN SOLID-GAS REACTIONS FOR REMOVAL OF ACID GASES'. PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SCIENCE, BALTIMORE, MD: 13th International Symposium on Chemical Reaction Engineering - Science and Technology (ISCRE 13) 49 (24A), pp. 4429-4442.
  • DAAE E, CLIFT R. (1994) 'A LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF THE IMPLICATIONS OF PAPER USE AND RECYCLING'. INST CHEMICAL ENGINEERS 1994 ICHEME RESEARCH EVENT, VOLS 1 AND 2, UNIV COLL LONDON, LONDON, ENGLAND: 1994 IChemE Research Event Symposium, pp. 305-307.
  • CLIFT R. (1993) 'AN OCCAMIST REVIEW OF FLUIDIZED-BED MODELING'. AMER INST CHEMICAL ENGINEERS FLUID-PARTICLE PROCESSES: FUNDAMENTALS AND APPLICATIONS, MIAMI BEACH, FL: AIChe Annual Meeting on Fluid-Particle Processes: Fundamentals and Applications 89 (296), pp. 1-17.
  • DUO W, KIRKBY NF, SEVILLE JPK, CLIFT R. (1993) 'MODELING OF DRY SCRUBBING OF ACID GASES IN FILTER CAKES'. 1993 INCINERATION CONFERENCE 1993 INCINERATION CONFERENCE: PROCEEDINGS, KNOXVILLE, TN: 1993 Incineration Conference: Thermal Treatment of Radioactive, Hazardous Chemical, Mixed, Energetic, Chemical Weapon, and Medical Wastes, pp. 207-212.
  • SIMONS SJR, SEVILLE JPK, CLIFT R, GILBOY WB, HOSSEINIASHRAFI ME. (1993) 'APPLICATION OF GAMMA-RAY TOMOGRAPHY TO GAS-FLUIDIZED AND SPOUTED BEDS'. COMPUTATIONAL MECHANICS PUBLICATIONS LTD TOMOGRAPHIC TECHNIQUES FOR PROCESS DESIGN AND OPERATION, MANCHESTER, ENGLAND: WORKSHOP ON TOMOGRAPHIC TECHNIQUES FOR PROCESS DESIGN AND OPERATION, pp. 227-238.
  • RAFAILIDIS SV, CLIFT R. (1990) 'MODELING IN PARALLEL WITH TRANSPUTERS OF BUBBLE FLOWS IN FLUIDIZED-BEDS'. COMPUTATIONAL MECHANICS PUBLICATIONS LTD PARALLEL PROCESSING IN ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS, SOUTHAMPTON, ENGLAND: 1ST INTERNATIONAL CONF ON PARALLEL PROCESSING FOR COMPUTATIONAL MECHANICS, pp. 43-54.
  • ABDELGHANI M, PETRIE JG, SEVILLE JPK, CLIFT R, ADAMS MJ. (1990) 'MECHANICAL-PROPERTIES OF POWDER COMPACTS - A NEW EXPERIMENTAL-TECHNIQUE TO INVESTIGATE SCALING EFFECTS IN FRACTURE'. FINE PARTICLE SOC 2 WORLD CONGRESS : PARTICLE TECHNOLOGY, PTS 1-5, KYOTO, JAPAN: 2ND WORLD CONGRESS ON PARTICLE TECHNOLOGY, pp. A116-A123.

Books

  • Azapagic A, Perdan S, Clift R. (2004) Sustainable Development in Practice: Case Studies for Engineers and Scientists. Wiley
  • Wrisberg N, Haes HAUD, Clift R, Triebswetter U, Eder P. (2002) Analytical tools for environmental design and management in a systems perspective. Kluwer Academic Publishers
  • Seville JPK, Tüzün U, Clift R. (1997) Processing of Particulate Solids. Springer
  • Staff TEC, Hodgson S, Cowell SJ, Clift R. (1997) Manager's Introduction to Product Design and the Environment.
  • Clift R. (1991) Particulate technology.
  • Davidson JF, Clift R, Harrison D. (1985) Fluidization. Academic Press, London

Book chapters

  • Clift R, Druckman A. (2015) 'Introduction: The Industrial Ecology Paradigm'. in Clift R, Druckman A (eds.) Taking Stock of Industrial Ecology First Edition. Springer
  • Clift R. (2012) 'Going Public: Risk, Trust and Public Understanding of Nanotechnologies'. in Hunt G, Mehta M (eds.) Nanotechnology: Risk, Ethics and Law Routledge , pp. 196-212.
  • Clift R. (2012) 'Risk Management and Regulation in an Emerging Technology'. in Hunt G, Mehta M (eds.) Nanotechnology: Risk, Ethics and Law Routledge , pp. 140-153.

    Abstract

    Geoffrey Hunt first developed an interest in nanotechnology in late 2002 when planning a visit to Japan to discuss the ethical implications of technological futures, and he put forward a tentative overview of nanotechnological possibilities in a ...

  • Clift R, Sprent J, Ekins P. (2008) 'Climate Change: The Need to Alter our Patterns of Energy Generation and Use'. in Galbraith CA (ed.) Energy and the Natural Heritage Scottish Natural Heritage , pp. 5-16.
  • Barnett J, Carr A, Clift R. (2006) 'Going Public: Risk, Trust and Public Understandings of Nanotechnology'. in Hunt G (ed.) Nanotechnology & Society: Ethics, Law & Policy' London : Earthscan
  • Clift R, Azapagic A, Duff C. (2004) 'Integrated Prevention and Control of Air Pollution: The Case of Nitrogen Oxides'. in Azapagic A, Perdan S (eds.) Sustainable Development in Practice: Case Studies for Engineers and Scientists Wiley , pp. 85-117.
  • Clift R, Mitchell CA, Carew AL. (2004) 'The Role of the Professional Engineer and Scientist in Sustainable Development'. in Azapagic A, Perdan S (eds.) Sustainable Development in Practice: Case Studies for Engineers and Scientists Wiley , pp. 29-55.
  • Clift R, Azapagic A, Duff C. (2004) 'Waste Water Management: Identifying Sustainable Processes'. in Azapagic A, Perdan S (eds.) Sustainable Development in Practice: Case Studies for Engineers and Scientists Wiley , pp. 60-88.
  • Clift R. (2004) 'Metrics for Supply Chain Sustainability'. in Sikdar S, Glavič P, Jain R (eds.) Technological Choices for Sustainability Springer Verlag , pp. 239-253.

    Abstract

    The objective of the book is to critically evaluate current scientific work on defining the issue of sustainability and on measuring progress towards a sustainable state.

  • Clift R, Agnew J, Darton R, Guy K, Lefroy G. (2003) 'Commentary on the Visions'. in Darton R, Wood D, Prince R (eds.) Chemical Engineering: Visions of the World Elsevier Science , pp. 117-125.

    Abstract

    This book presents six visionary essays on the past, present and future of the chemical and process industries, together with a critical commentary.

  • Clift R, Freire F, Williams E, Azapagic A, Stevens G, Mellor W. (2002) 'Life Cycle Activity Analysis: A Case Study of Plastic Panels'. in Thore SAO (ed.) Technology Commercialization Springer , pp. 323-352.
  • Clift R, Ransome T. (2002) 'The Supply, Use and Waste Management of Domestic Clothes Washing: A CHAINET Case Study'. in Wrisberg N, Haes HAUD (eds.) Analytical Tools for Environmental Design and Management in a Systems Perspective Springer , pp. 205-230.
  • Clift R. (2001) 'Clean Technology and Industrial Ecology'. in Harrison RM (ed.) Pollution - Causes, Effects and Control , pp. 411-444.
  • Clift R, Azapagic A. (1999) 'The Application of Life Cycle Assessment to Process Selection, Design and Operation'. in Sikdar S, Diwekar U, Diwekar U (eds.) Tools and Methods for Pollution Prevention Springer , pp. 69-84.

    Abstract

    This is the first compilation of methods, tools and models that can be used to design products and manufacturing processes that prevent pollution from occurring in the first place, rather than treating the wastes after they are formed.

  • Clift R, Earl G. (1999) 'Environmental Performance: What is it worth?'. in Charter M, Polonsky MJ (eds.) Greener marketing , pp. 255-274.
  • Clift R, Davey A, Earl G. (1999) 'Driving Environmental Strategy with Stakeholder Preferences - A Case Study of the University of Surrey'. in Filho WL (ed.) Sustainability and university life: Environmental Education, Communication and Sustainability Peter Lang Pub Inc , pp. 47-66.
  • Clift R, Cowell SJ, Hodgson SB. (1998) 'Teamworking for Environmental Excellence in a University Context'. in Moxen J, Strachan PA (eds.) Managing green teams: Concepts and Cases Greenleaf Pubns , pp. 131-144.
  • Clift R, Earl G, Moilanen T. (1998) 'Reducing the Uncertainty in Environmental Investments: Integrating stakeholder values into corporate decisions'. in Bennett M, James P (eds.) The Green Bottom Line: Environmental Management Accounting - Current Practice and Future Trends Greenleaf Publications , pp. 236-257.
  • Clift R, Cowell SJ, Hogan SB. (1997) 'Positioning and Applications of LCA'. in Udo de Haes HA, Wrisberg N (eds.) Life Cycle Assessment: State of the Art and Research Priorities , pp. 33-57.
  • Clift R. (1995) 'The New Industrial Ecology'. in Castle JE, Kelly MJ (eds.) Advanced materials in the marketplace Woodhead Pub Ltd , pp. 129-143.
  • Clift R, Burningham K, Lofstedt R. (1995) 'Environmental Perspectives and Environmental Assessment'. in Guerrier Y (ed.) Values and the environment: A Social Science Perspective Wiley , pp. 19-31.
  • Clift R, Longley AJ. (1994) 'Introduction to Clean Technology'. in Kirkwood RC, Longley AJ (eds.) Clean Technology and the Environment Springer , pp. 174-198.

Reports

  • Clift R, Doig A. (1995) Developing Life Cycle Inventories for Waste Management. HMSO
  • Clift R, Udo de Haes HA, Bensahel JF, Fussler CR, Griesshammer R, Jensen AA . (1994) Guidelines for the Application of Life Cycle Assessment in the EU Ecolabelling Programme.

Theses and dissertations

  • De Lazzari M. (2018) Sustainability-inspired business startups (SiBS) : an exploratory study of early-stage UK companies from the creative industry..
    [ Status: Approved ]

    Abstract

    This study focuses on British Sustainability-inspired Business Startups (SiBS) from two sectors of the creative industry: fashion clothing and gifts. These two sectors are some of those that motivate most entrepreneurship, by using distinct elements of business models to attract their consumers. While price and style have led consumers to look for products with short lifespans, reducing sustainability impact is a growing concern in the fashion clothing and gifts sectors, what motivates some sustainable initiatives to be taken in place. However, although some sustainable initiatives have emerged, there is no clear understanding of how they are based in the business drivers or in the business models, and if these initiatives are contributing to startups to succeed. This research aims to provide new understanding of the role of sustainability in the business startups from the fashion clothing and gifts sectors which offer manufactured green products. In order to narrow the presenting study, specific research questions are: What are the drivers of SiBS and do they differ from generic-mainstream startups? What business models are adopted by SiBS, how and why? and What are the factors affecting the longevity of the startups investigated and why? Case study method was chosen to allow in-depth investigation and analyses of multiple variables in each startup investigated. Then, qualitative data from each startup was collected by different sources: interviews, direct observation and documentation. The use of multiple sources of evidence allowed triangulation between data collected. Fifteen British startups were examined, covering generic-mainstream and SiBS, business lifetimes up to ten years, and two sectors in the experimental group (fashion clothing, with four startups; and gifts, with six startups) and one sector in the control group (energy, with five startups). Data analysis consisted of within-case study and multi-case study. In-depth investigation provided richness of information from each startup and the identification of similarities and differences between groups of startups investigated. Accordingly, the findings of this research suggest that: Regarding business drivers, startups in the gifts and fashion clothing sectors are more motivated by lifestyle and less motivated by money than energy firms; Also, SiBS are driven by the founder’s motivation when aiming to incorporate sustainability aspects into their business activities, while generic- mainstream startups are driven by money with focus on profits; Regarding business models, iii SiBS prioritise environmental and social issues as main elements of their business models; Furthermore, business models do not really change throughout the growth of startups; Regarding business longevity, most startups in the gifts and fashion clothing sectors do not have clear financial strategies but this is commonly clear in the energy firms. Important differences in outlook between different groups and types of business startups (generic-mainstream and SiBS) investigated in this study lead to the conclusion that: The awareness of two financial aspects (financial literacy and financial importance) provide an opportunity to increase chances of success in the early days of SiBS; The dissemination of the types of business models innovation for sustainability may motivate the development of more sustainable practices into the SiBS operations; And the emphasis on sustainability in business startups, either as through the business drivers or the business models adopted, is a central and long-term strategy that may increase the significance, the number and the importance of SiBS.

"Sustainable Development in Practice - case studies for engineers and scientists"; ed. A. Azapagic, S. Perdan and R. Clift, John Wiley and Sons (2004).

"Slurry Transport using Centrifugal Pumps", 3rd ed.; K. C. Wilson, G. R. Addie, A. Sellgren and R. Clift, Springer-Verlag (2005).

"Bubbles, Drops and Particles"; R. Clift, J. R. Grace and M. E. Weber, Academic Press (1978), republished by Dover (2005).

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