McLaughlin R, Yang X, Quirk B, Lorenser D, Kirk R, Noble P, Sampson D (2012) Static and dynamic imaging of alveoli using optical coherence tomography needle probes, Journal of Applied Physiology 113 (6) pp. 967-974
Imaging of alveoli in situ has for the most part been infeasible due to the high resolution required to discern individual alveoli and limited access to alveoli beneath the lung surface. In this study, we present a novel technique to image alveoli using optical coherence tomography (OCT). We propose the use of OCT needle probes, where the distal imaging probe has been miniaturized and encased within a hypodermic needle (as small as 30-gauge, outer diameter 310 Î¼m), allowing insertion deep within the lung tissue with minimal tissue distortion. Such probes enable imaging at a resolution of
Hillman T, Curatolo A, Kennedy B, Sampson D (2010) Detection of multiple scattering in optical coherence tomography by speckle correlation of angle-dependent B-scans, Optics Letters 35 (12) pp. 1998-2000
Angular diversity is a successful speckle-reduction technique in optical coherence tomography (OCT). We employ angle-dependent detection for a different purpose: to distinguish the singly backscattered and multiply scattered signal components. Single backscattering is highly correlated over a large range of detection angles; multiple scattering rapidly decorrelates as the angle is varied. Theoretical justification is provided using a linear-systems description of the OCT imaging process; detection of multiple scattering is corroborated experimentally. Â
Kennedy K, Chin L, McLaughlin R, Latham B, Saunders C, Sampson D, Kennedy B (2015) Quantitative micro-elastography: Imaging of tissue elasticity using compression optical coherence elastography, Scientific Reports 5 Nature Publishing Group
Probing the mechanical properties of tissue on the microscale could aid in the identification of diseased tissues that are inadequately detected using palpation or current clinical imaging modalities, with potential to guide medical procedures such as the excision of breast tumours. Compression optical coherence elastography (OCE) maps tissue strain with microscale spatial resolution and can delineate microstructural features within breast tissues. However, without a measure of the locally applied stress, strain provides only a qualitative indication of mechanical properties. To overcome this limitation, we present quantitative micro-elastography, which combines compression OCE with a compliant stress sensor to image tissue elasticity. The sensor consists of a layer of translucent silicone with well-characterized stress-strain behaviour. The measured strain in the sensor is used to estimate the two-dimensional stress distribution applied to the sample surface. Elasticity is determined by dividing the stress by the strain in the sample. We show that quantification of elasticity can improve the ability of compression OCE to distinguish between tissues, thereby extending the potential for inter-sample comparison and longitudinal studies of tissue elasticity. We validate the technique using tissue-mimicking phantoms and demonstrate the ability to map elasticity of freshly excised malignant and benign human breast tissues.
Lorenser D, Quirk B, Auger M, Madore W, Kirk R, Godbout N, Sampson D, Boudoux C, McLaughlin R (2013) Dual-modality needle probe for combined fluorescence imaging and three-dimensional optical coherence tomography, Optics Letters 38 (3) pp. 266-268
To the best of our knowledge, we present the first needle probe for combined optical coherence tomography (OCT), and fluorescence imaging. The probe uses double-clad fiber (DCF) that guides the OCT signal and fluorescence excitation light in the core and collects and guides the returning fluorescence in the large-diameter multimode inner cladding. It is interfaced to a 1310 nm swept-source OCT system that has been modified to enable simultaneous 488 nm fluorescence excitation and >500 nm emission detection by using a DCF coupler to extract the returning fluorescence signal in the inner cladding with high efficiency. We present imaging results from an excised sheep lung with fluorescein solution infused through the vasculature. We were able to identify alveoli, bronchioles, and blood vessels. The results demonstrate that the combined OCT plus fluorescence needle images provide improved tissue differentiation over OCT alone.
Scolaro L, Lorenser D, McLaughlin R, Quirk B, Kirk R, Sampson D (2012) High-sensitivity anastigmatic imaging needle for optical coherence tomography, Optics Letters 37 (24) pp. 5247-5249
We present a high-optical-quality imaging needle for optical coherence tomography (OCT) that achieves sensitivity and resolution comparable to conventional free-space OCT sample arms. The side-viewing needle design utilizes total internal reflection from an angle-polished fiber tip, encased in a glass microcapillary. Fusion of the capillary to the fiber provides a robust, optical-quality output window. The needle's focusing optics are based on an astigmatism-free design, which exploits the "focal shift" phenomenon for focused Gaussian beams to achieve equal working distances (WDs) for both axes. We present a fabricated needle with a WD ratio of 0.98 for imaging in an aqueous environment. Our needle achieves the highest sensitivity of currently reported OCT imaging needles (112 dB), and we demonstrate its performance by superficial imaging of human skin and 3D volumetric imaging within a biological sample.
Kennedy B, Malheiro F, Chin L, Sampson D (2014) Three-dimensional optical coherence elastography by phase-sensitive comparison of C-scans, Journal of Biomedical Optics 19 (7)
We present an acquisition method for optical coherence elastography (OCE) that enables acquisition of three-dimensional elastograms in 5 s, an order of magnitude faster than previously reported. In this method, based on compression elastography, the mechanical load applied to the sample is altered between acquisitions of consecutive optical coherence tomography volume scans (C-scans). The voxel-by-voxel phase difference between the volumes is used to determine the axial displacement and determining the gradient of the axial displacement versus depth gives the local axial strain. We demonstrate sub-100-microstrain sensitivity and high contrast in elastograms, acquired in 5 s, of structured phantoms and freshly excised rat muscle tissue that are comparable in strain sensitivity and dynamic range to our previously reported B-scan-based method. The much higher acquisition speed may expedite the translation of OCE to clinical and in vivo applications
McLaughlin R, Williamson J, Phillips M, Armstrong J, Becker S, Hillman D, Eastwood P, Sampson D (2008) Applying anatomical optical coherence tomography to quantitative 3D imaging of the lower airway, Optics Express 16 (22) pp. 17521-17529 Optical Society of America (OSA)
Endoscopic treatment of lower airway pathologies requires accurate quantification of airway dimensions. We demonstrate the application of a real-time endoscopic optical coherence tomography system that can image lower airway anatomy and quantify airway lumen dimensions intra-operatively. Results demonstrate the ability to acquire 3D scans of airway anatomy and include comparison against a pre-operative X-ray CT. The paper also illustrates the capability of the system to assess the real-time dynamic changes within the airway that occur during respiration.
Es'haghian S, Gong P, Chin L, Harms K, Murray A, Rea S, Kennedy B, Wood F, Sampson D, McLaughlin R (2017) Investigation of optical attenuation imaging using optical coherence tomography for monitoring of scars undergoing fractional laser treatment, Journal of Biophotonics 10 (4) pp. 511-522 Wiley-VCH Verlag
We demonstrate the use of the near-infrared attenuation coefficient, measured using optical coherence tomography (OCT), in longitudinal assessment of hypertrophic burn scars undergoing fractional laser treatment. The measurement method incorporates blood vessel detection by speckle decorrelation and masking, and a robust regression estimator to produce 2D en face parametric images of the attenuation coefficient of the dermis. Through reliable co-location of the field of view across pre- and post-treatment imaging sessions, the study was able to quantify changes in the attenuation coefficient of the dermis over a period of ~20 weeks in seven patients. Minimal variation was observed in the mean attenuation coefficient of normal skin and control (untreated) mature scars, as expected. However, a significant decrease (13 ± 5%, mean ± standard deviation) was observed in the treated mature scars, resulting in a greater distinction from normal skin in response to localized damage from the laser treatment. By contrast, we observed an increase in the mean attenuation coefficient of treated (31 ± 27%) and control (27 ± 20%) immature scars, with numerical values incrementally approaching normal skin as the healing progressed. This pilot study supports conducting a more extensive investigation of OCT attenuation imaging for quantitative longitudinal monitoring of scars. (Figure presented.) En face 2D OCT attenuation coefficient map of a treated immature scar derived from the pre-treatment (top) and the post-treatment (bottom) scans. (Vasculature (black) is masked out.) The scale bars are 0.5 mm.
Leigh M, Paduch A, Armstrong J, Walsh J, Hillman D, Eastwood P, Sampson D (2006) Anatomical optical coherence tomography: Endoscopic quantitative imaging of the upper airway, Optical Society of America
We have developed an anatomical optical coherence tomography system for imaging the human upper airway in vivo. We describe an example of clinical research currently underway with this system; the ability to measure the change in airway dimensions due to anatomical position. Although the system imaging range is well-matched to a typical airway, we have observed a range of conditions which preclude the capture of full airway profiles in a small number of cases. Here, we demonstrate an improvement in the system range which allows us to successfully measure a larger percentage of subjects.
Sampson D, Wada N, Kitayama K, Chujo W (2000) Demonstration of reconfigurable all-optical code conversion for photonic code-division multiplexing and networking, Electronics Letters 36 (5) pp. 445-447 IEE
A scheme for all-optical conversion of codes for coherent code-division multiplexing is proposed. The key functionality of the scheme is demonstrated by error-free conversion of an encoded data stream at 10 Gbit/s from one code to another. The scheme may enable routing and add/drop multiplexing based on optical codes.
Lamouche G, Kennedy B, Kennedy K, Bisaillon C, Curatolo A, Campbell G, Pazos V, Sampson D (2012) Review of tissue simulating phantoms with controllable optical, mechanical and structural properties for use in optical coherence tomography, Biomedical Optics Express 3 (6) pp. 1381-1398 OSA - The Optical Society
We review the development of phantoms for optical coherence tomography (OCT) designed to replicate the optical, mechanical and structural properties of a range of tissues. Such phantoms are a key requirement for the continued development of OCT techniques and applications. We focus on phantoms based on silicone, fibrin and poly(vinyl alcohol) cryogels (PVA-C), as we believe these materials hold the most promise for durable and accurate replication of tissue properties.
Adie S, Hillman T, Sampson D (2007) Detection of multiple scattering in optical coherence tomography using the spatial distribution of Stokes vectors, Optics Express 15 (26) pp. 18033-18049 Optical Society of American (OSA)
Multiple scattering is one of the main degrading influences in optical coherence tomography, but to date its presence in an image can only be indirectly inferred. We present a polarization-sensitive method that shows the potential to detect it more directly, based on the degree to which the detected polarization state at any given image point is correlated with the mean state over the surrounding region. We report the validation of the method in microsphere suspensions, showing a strong dependence of the degree of correlation upon the extent to which multiply scattered light is coherently detected. We demonstrate the method's utility in various tissues, including chicken breast ex vivo and human skin and nailfold in vivo.
Klyen B, Armstrong J, Adie S, Radley H, Grounds M, Sampson D (2008) Three-dimensional optical coherence tomography of whole-muscle autografts as a precursor to morphological assessment of muscular dystrophy in mice, Journal of Biomedical Optics 13 (1)
Three-dimensional optical coherence tomography (3D-OCT) is used to evaluate the structure and pathology of regenerating mouse skeletal muscle autografts for the first time. The death of myofibers with associated inflammation and subsequent new muscle formation in this graft model represents key features of necrosis and inflammation in the human disease Duchenne muscular dystrophy. We perform 3D-OCT imaging of excised autografts and compare OCT images with coregistered histology. The OCT images readily distinguish the necrotic and inflammatory tissue of the graft from the intact healthy muscle fibers in the underlying host tissue. These preliminary findings suggest that, with further development, 3D-OCT could be used as a tool for the evaluation of small-animal muscle morphology and pathology, in particular, for analysis of mouse models of muscular dystrophy.
Kennedy K, Chin L, Wijesinghe P, McLaughlin R, Latham B, Sampson D, Saunders C, Kennedy B (2016) Investigation of optical coherence micro-elastography as a method to visualize micro-architecture in human axillary lymph nodes, BMC Cancer 16 (1) BioMed Central Ltd.
Evaluation of lymph node involvement is an important factor in detecting metastasis and deciding whether to perform axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) in breast cancer surgery. As ALND is associated with potentially severe long term morbidity, the accuracy of lymph node assessment is imperative in avoiding unnecessary ALND. The mechanical properties of malignant lymph nodes are often distinct from those of normal nodes. A method to image the micro-scale mechanical properties of lymph nodes could, thus, provide diagnostic information to aid in the assessment of lymph node involvement in metastatic cancer. In this study, we scan axillary lymph nodes, freshly excised from breast cancer patients, with optical coherence micro-elastography (OCME), a method of imaging micro-scale mechanical strain, to assess its potential for the intraoperative assessment of lymph node involvement.
Twenty-six fresh, unstained lymph nodes were imaged from 15 patients undergoing mastectomy or breast-conserving surgery with axillary clearance. Lymph node specimens were bisected to allow imaging of the internal face of each node. Co-located OCME and optical coherence tomography (OCT) scans were taken of each sample, and the results compared to standard post-operative hematoxylin-and-eosin-stained histology.
The optical backscattering signal provided by OCT alone may not provide reliable differentiation by inspection between benign and malignant lymphoid tissue. Alternatively, OCME highlights local changes in tissue strain that correspond to malignancy and are distinct from strain patterns in benign lymphoid tissue. The mechanical contrast provided by OCME complements the optical contrast provided by OCT and aids in the differentiation of malignant tumor from uninvolved lymphoid tissue.
The combination of OCME and OCT images represents a promising method for the identification of malignant lymphoid tissue. This method shows potential to provide intraoperative assessment of lymph node involvement, thus, preventing unnecessary removal of uninvolved tissues and improving patient outcomes.
Sampson D, Gong P, An D, Menghini M, Hansen A, Mackey D, Sampson D, Chen F (2017) Axial length variation impacts on superficial retinal vessel density and foveal avascular zone area measurements using optical coherence tomography angiography, Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 58 (7) pp. 3065-3072 Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology Inc.
Purpose: To evaluate the impact of image magnification correction on superficial retinal vessel density (SRVD) and foveal avascular zone area (FAZA) measurements using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA).
Methods: Participants with healthy retinas were recruited for ocular biometry, refraction, and RTVue XR Avanti OCTA imaging with the 3 × 3-mm protocol. The foveal and parafoveal SRVD and FAZA were quantified with custom software before and after correction for magnification error using the Littman and the modified Bennett formulae. Relative changes between corrected and uncorrected SRVD and FAZA were calculated.
Results: Forty subjects were enrolled and the median (range) age of the participants was 30 (18?74) years. The mean (range) spherical equivalent refractive error was ?1.65 (?8.00 to +4.88) diopters and mean (range) axial length was 24.42 mm (21.27?28.85). Images from 13 eyes were excluded due to poor image quality leaving 67 for analysis. Relative changes in foveal and parafoveal SRVD and FAZA after correction ranged from ?20% to +10%, ?3% to +2%, and ?20% to +51%, respectively. Image size correction in measurements of foveal SRVD and FAZA was greater than 5% in 51% and 74% of eyes, respectively. In contrast, 100% of eyes had less than 5% correction in measurements of parafoveal SRVD.
Conclusions: Ocular biometry should be performed with OCTA to correct image magnification error induced by axial length variation. We advise caution when interpreting interocular and interindividual comparisons of SRVD and FAZA derived from OCTA without image size correction.
Zysk A, Adie S, Armstrong J, Leigh M, Paduch A, Nguyen F, Sampson D, Boppart S (2007) Needle-probe system for the measurement of tissue refractive index, 6430
Needle-based devices, which are in wide clinical use for needle biopsy procedures, may be augmented by suitable optical techniques for the localization and diagnosis of diseased tissue. Tissue refractive index is one optical contrast mechanism with diagnostic potential. In the case of mammary tissue, for example, recent research indicates that refractive index variations between tissue types may be useful for the identification of cancerous tissue. While many coherence-based forward-sensing devices have been developed to detect scattering changes, none have demonstrated refractive index measurement capabilities. We present a novel needle-based device that is capable of simultaneously measuring refractive index and scattering. Coupled to the sample arm of an optical coherence tomography system, the needle device detects the scattering response and optical pathlength through tissue residing in a fixed-width channel. Near-infrared measurements of tissues and materials with known optical properties using a prototype device will be presented. This work demonstrates the feasibility of integrated in vivo measurement of refractive index and scattering in conjunction with existing clinical needle-based devices.
Hillman T, Alexandrov S, Gutzler T, Sampson D (2006) Microscopic particle discrimination using spatially-resolved Fourier-holographic light scattering angular spectroscopy, Optics Express 14 (23) pp. 11088-11102 Optical Society of American (OSA)
We utilize Fourier-holographic light scattering angular spectroscopy to record the spatially resolved complex angular scattering spectra of samples over wide fields of view in a single or few image captures. Without resolving individual scatterers, we are able to generate spatially-resolved particle size maps for samples composed of spherical scatterers, by comparing generated spectra with Mie-theory predictions. We present a theoretical discussion of the fundamental principles of our technique and, in addition to the sphere samples, apply it experimentally to a biological sample which comprises red blood cells. Our method could possibly represent an efficient alternative to the time-consuming and laborious conventional procedure in light microscopy of image tiling and inspection, for the characterization of microscopic morphology over wide fields of view.
Karnowski K, Li Q, Villiger M, Sampson D (2017) Local polarization properties of human anterior segment with single-measurement, full-range polarization-sensitive OCT, 2017-J pp. 291-292 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
We report single-measurement, full-range imaging of local polarization properties in the human anterior segment in vivo with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT). Off-pivot galvanometer-mirror phase shifting used to extend the system's axial imaging range sufficiently to reconstruct local polarization properties of the anterior segment.
Pendock G, Sampson D (1997) Signal-to-noise ratio of modulated sources of ASE transmitted over dispersive fiber, IEEE Photonics Technology Letters 9 (7) pp. 1002-1004
We investigate, both theoretically and experimentally, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of modulated amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) transmitted over dispersive fiber. We observe two significant effects; firstly, the signal-to-excess-noise ratio (SNR ex) varies across the pulse reaching its maximum value near the peak of the detected signal; and secondly, this maximum value decreases with increasing fiber dispersion-induced pulse broadening. Accurate calculation of transmission performance of high bit-rate optical communication systems employing ASE sources, such as spectrum slicing, requires inclusion of these effects.
Clements J, Zvyagin A, Silva K, Wanner T, Sampson D, Cowling W (2004) Optical coherence tomography as a novel tool for non-destructive measurement of the hull thickness of lupin seeds, Plant Breeding 123 (3) pp. 266-270
Hull thickness is an important component of seed quality, which effects dehulling ability, feed or food nutritional aspects and cooking times. A breeding objective in Lupinus angustifolius crop improvement is to reduce hull thickness and a rapid screening method is needed to efficiently screen genotypes. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging using infrared illumination at 980 nm was used to compare hull thickness of genotypes of four lupin species. OCT-derived hull layer thickness correlated highly with actual hull thickness determined by environmental scanning electron microscopy (r = 0.90) and allowed reliable distinction between mutant (thin-hulled) and parent genotypes of L. angustifolius. The imaging could clearly penetrate lupin seed to a depth of approximately 200 ¼m. The use of OCT to measure hull thickness has the advantage that it is rapid and non-destructive and should be very useful in selecting thin hull lines of lupins and other species on a single seed basis in germplasm or progeny from crosses.
Cicchi R, Pavone F, Massi D, Stambouli D, Sampson D (2006) Diffusion of optical clearing agents in skin by two-photon microscopy, 6163
We report the effects on two-photon excitation microscopy of applying optical clearing agents to human skin tissue samples. We demonstrate that the agents glycerol, propylene glycol and glucose in aqueous solution are all effective in enhancing penetration depth (by up to a factor of 2) and in increasing image contrast (by up to a factor of 90 at 80 ¼m depth) in 150 ¼m thick sections. We analysed the dynamics of the clearing process, by developing a simple theoretical model based on the free diffusion of the agent into the tissue. In experiments employing simultaneous two-photon excitation and second harmonic generation microscopy similar contrast was produced. A preliminary measurement of the clearing effect on a bulk skin sample is also presented. All three agents are potentially biocompatible and effective in reducing scattering; hence, in improving light penetration depth and image contrast. As such, they could be suitable for in vivo application in two-photon microscopy, as well as in other techniques performing optical biopsy of human skin tissue.
Allen W, Wijesinghe P, Kennedy K, Chin L, Sampson D, Kennedy B (2015) Quantifying tissue stiffness and the effect of nonlinearity using compression optical coherence elastography, OSA - The Optical Society
We demonstrate the modification of optical coherence elastography to advance from relative strain images to quantified tissue stiffness on the micro-scale. We highlight the nonlinear dependence of tissue stiffness on the applied load and consider how nonlinearity may help characterise soft tissues.
Gong P, Es'haghian S, Harms K, Murray A, Rea S, Kennedy B, Wood F, Sampson D, Mclaughlin R (2016) Optical coherence tomography for longitudinal monitoring of vasculature in scars treated with laser fractionation, Journal of Biophotonics 9 (6) pp. 626-636 Wiley-VCH Verlag
This study presents the first in vivo longitudinal assessment of scar vasculature in ablative fractional laser treatment using optical coherence tomography (OCT). A method based on OCT speckle decorrelation was developed to visualize and quantify the scar vasculature over the treatment period. Through reliable co?location of the imaging field of view across multiple imaging sessions, and compensation for motion artifact, the study was able to track the same scar tissue over a period of several months, and quantify changes in the vasculature area density. The results show incidences of occlusion of individual vessels 3 days after the first treatment. The subsequent responses Ü20 weeks after the initial treatment show differences between immature and mature scars. Image analysis showed a distinct decrease (25 ± 13%, mean ± standard deviation) and increase (19 ± 5%) of vasculature area density for the immature and mature scars, respectively. This study establishes the feasibility of OCT imaging for quantitative longitudinal monitoring of vasculature in scar treatment.
Holloway W, Keating A, Sampson D (1997) Multiwavelength source for spectrum-sliced WDM access networks and LAN's, IEEE Photonics Technology Letters 9 (7) pp. 1014-1016
We demonstrate a multiwavelength source of amplified spontaneous emission suitable for spectrum-sliced, wavelength-division multiplexed access and local-area networks. The source, based on flat-gain optical amplification of a Fabry-Perot laser biased below threshold, provides up to 30-wavelength channels spaced by 138 GHz. We show the potential of the source in network applications by demonstrating wavelength-stabilized, low (<10-9) error rate operation of all 30 wavelength channels at 622 Mb/s.
Pillai R, Lorenser D, Sampson D (2011) Deep-tissue access with confocal fluorescence microendoscopy through hypodermic needles, Optics Express 19 (8) pp. 7213-7221 Optical Society of American (OSA)
We report on the design and implementation of a gradient-index microendoscope suitable for accessing tissues deep within the body using confocal fluorescence imaging. The 350-¼m diameter microendoscope has a length of 27 mm, which enables it to be inserted through a 22-gauge hypodermic needle. A prototype imaging system is demonstrated to obtain images of tissue samples at depths of ~15 mm with a lateral resolution of ~700 nm. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest resolution and imaging depth reported for a confocal probe of these dimensions. We employ a scanning arrangement using a lensed fiber that can conveniently control the input beam parameters without causing off-axis aberrations typically present in the optical relay lenses used in galvanometer-mirror scanning systems.
McLaughlin R, Lorenser D, Sampson D (2013) Fiber-optic needle probes: Applications in deep tissue Imaging, OSA - The Optical Society
Fiber-optic needle probes are highly miniaturized imaging devices that enable imaging deep inside the body. Utilizing optical coherence tomography (OCT), these devices replace the standard scanning mechanism of an OCT scanner with all-fiber focusing optics small enough to be encased within a hypodermic needle. We describe recent innovation in the design of these probes, including novel fiber-optic configurations to achieve extended depth of focus, and the use of double-clad fiber to enable the first dual-modality fiber-optic needle probe, simultaneously acquiring both OCT and fluorescence images.
McLaughlin R, Noble P, Sampson D (2014) Optical coherence tomography in respiratory science and medicine: From airways to alveoli, Physiology 29 (5) pp. 369-380 American Physiological Society
Optical coherence tomography is a rapidly maturing optical imaging technology, enabling study of the in vivo structure of lung tissue at a scale of tens of micrometers. It has been used to assess the layered structure of airway walls, quantify both airway lumen caliber and compliance, and image individual alveoli. This article provides an overview of the technology and reviews its capability to provide new insights into respiratory disease.
Sampson D, Holloway W, Murthy K, Murthy C (1994) Transmission of 622Mbit/s spectrum-sliced WDM channel over 60km of nondispersion-shifted fibre at 1550nm, Electronics Letters 30 (21) pp. 1767-1768
The transmission of a spectrum-sliced WDM channel at 622 Mbit/s over 60 km of nondispersion-shifted fibre using an optical bandwidth of only 0.23 nm is reported. This is the highest single channel bit rate-length product (40Gbit/s-km) and smallest channel bandwidth reported to date for spectrum-sliced WDM systems. The bit error rate performance is theoretically predicted and experimentally confirmed and limits on the bit rate-length products of spectrum-sliced WDM channels using nondispersion-shifted fibre in the 1550nm window are given.
Smith E, Zvyagin A, Sampson D (2002) Real-time dispersion compensation in scanning interferometry, Optics Letters 27 (22) pp. 1998-2000 Optical Society of America (OSA)
The real-time dispersion compensation in scanning interferometry was discussed. The static grating tilt in a scanning frequency-domain optical delay line was shown to produce dispersion that was linearly proportional to scan position. It was found that this device has application in scanning interferometry in general and in optical coherence tomography (OCT) in particular.
Lucey A, King A, Tetlow G, Wang J, Armstrong J, Leigh M, Paduch A, Walsh J, Sampson D, Eastwood P, Hillman D (2010) Measurement, reconstruction, and flow-field computation of the human pharynx with application to sleep apnea, IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering 57 (10 PAR) pp. 2535-2548
Repetitive closure of the upper airway characterizes obstructive sleep apnea. It disrupts sleep causing excessive daytime drowsiness and is linked to hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Previous studies simulating the underlying fluid mechanics are based upon geometries, time-averaged over the respiratory cycle, obtained usually via MRI or CT scans. Here, we generate an anatomically correct geometry from data captured in vivo by an endoscopic optical technique. This allows quantitative real-time imaging of the internal cross section with minimal invasiveness. The steady inhalation flow field is computed using a k- shear-stress transport (SST) turbulence model. Simulations reveal flow mechanisms that produce low-pressure regions on the sidewalls of the pharynx and on the soft palate within the pharyngeal section of minimum area. Soft-palate displacement and side-wall deformations further reduce the pressures in these regions, thus creating forces that would tend to narrow the airway. These phenomena suggest a mechanism for airway closure in the lateral direction as clinically observed. Correlations between pressure and airway deformation indicate that quantitative prediction of the low-pressure regions for an individual are possible. The present predictions warrant and can guide clinical investigation to confirm the phenomenology and its quantification, while the overall approach represents an advancement toward patient-specific modeling.
Kennedy B, Mclaughlin R, Kennedy K, Chin L, Curatolo A, Tien A, Latham B, Saunders C, Sampson D (2014) Optical coherence micro-elastography: Mechanical-contrast imaging of tissue microstructure, Biomedical Optics Express 5 (7) pp. 2113-2124 OSA - The Optical Society
We present optical coherence micro-elastography, an improved form of compression optical coherence elastography. We demonstrate the capacity of this technique to produce en face images, closely corresponding with histology, that reveal micro-scale mechanical contrast in human breast and lymph node tissues. We use phase-sensitive, three-dimensional optical coherence tomography (OCT) to probe the nanometer-to-micrometer-scale axial displacements in tissues induced by compressive loading. Optical coherence micro- elastography incorporates common-path interferometry, weighted averaging of the complex OCT signal and weighted least-squares regression. Using three-dimensional phase unwrapping, we have increased the maximum detectable strain eleven-fold over no unwrapping and the minimum detectable strain is 2.6 Î¼Îµ. We demonstrate the potential of mechanical over optical contrast for visualizing micro-scale tissue structures in human breast cancer pathology and lymph node morphology.
Alexandrov S, Hillman T, Gutzler T, Sampson D (2006) Synthetic aperture fourier holographic optical microscopy, Physical Review Letters 97 (16)
We report a new synthetic aperture optical microscopy in which high-resolution, wide-field amplitude and phase images are synthesized from a set of Fourier holograms. Each hologram records a region of the complex two-dimensional spatial frequency spectrum of an object, determined by the illumination field's spatial and spectral properties and the collection angle and solid angle. We demonstrate synthetic microscopic imaging in which spatial frequencies that are well outside the modulation transfer function of the collection optical system are recorded while maintaining the long working distance and wide field of view.
Karnowski K, Li Q, Villiger M, Sampson D (2017) Evaluation of changes in birefringence for samples subjected to various stress sources measured with polarization-sensitive OCT, 10340 SPIE
Polarization-sensitive OCT (PS-OCT) has proven useful in determining the stress-induced birefringence of non-biological materials, but such utility in biological tissues subjected to stress has not been well studied yet. To study stress-induced birefringence of biological tissues, we use a swept-source PS-OCT system with passively depth-encoded, orthogonal polarization states in the illumination path and polarization-diversity detection and a Mueller formalism in post-processing. We present measurements of stress-induced changes in the birefringence of non-biological and biological samples that provide useful benchmarks in further assessing the utility of this approach.
Kennedy B, Wijesinghe P, Sampson D (2017) The emergence of optical elastography in biomedicine, Nature Photonics 11 (4) pp. 215-221 Nature Publishing Group
Optical elastography, the use of optics to characterize and map the mechanical properties of biological tissue, involves measuring the deformation of tissue in response to a load. Such measurements may be used to form an image of a mechanical property, often elastic modulus, with the resulting mechanical contrast complementary to the more familiar optical contrast. Optical elastography is experiencing new impetus in response to developments in the closely related fields of cell mechanics and medical imaging, aided by advances in photonics technology, and through probing the microscale between that of cells and whole tissues. Two techniques ? optical coherence elastography and Brillouin microscopy ? have recently shown particular promise for medical applications, such as in ophthalmology and oncology, and as new techniques in cell mechanics.
Wijesinghe P, Sampson D, Kennedy B (2017) Computational optical palpation: A finiteelement approach to micro-scale tactile imaging using a compliant sensor, Journal of the Royal Society Interface 14 (128) Royal Society
High-resolution tactile imaging, superior to the sense of touch, has potential for future biomedical applications such as robotic surgery. In this paper, we propose a tactile imaging method, termed computational optical palpation, based on measuring the change in thickness of a thin, compliant layer with optical coherence tomography and calculating tactile stress using finite-element analysis. We demonstrate our method on test targets and on freshly excised human breast fibroadenoma, demonstrating a resolution of up to 15?25 µm and a field of view of up to 7 mm. Our method is open source and readily adaptable to other imaging modalities, such as ultrasonography and confocal microscopy.
Larin K, Sampson D (2015) Introduction, 9327 pp. xi-xii SPIE
Gutzler T, Hillman T, Alexandrov S, Sampson D (2010) Coherent aperture-synthesis, wide-field, high-resolution holographic microscopy of biological tissue, Optics Letters 35 (8) pp. 1136-1138 Optical Society of America (OSA)
We show for the first time, to our knowledge, high-resolution wide-field images of biological samples recorded using coherent aperture-synthesis Fourier holography. To achieve this, we combined off-axis plane-wave polarized illumination with an axial sample rotation and polarization-sensitive collection of backscat- tered light. We synthesized 180 Fourier holograms using an efficient postdetection phase-matching correlation scheme. The result was an annular spatial frequency-space synthetic aperture (NA=0.93) with an effective area 25 times larger than that due to a single hologram. A high-resolution high-contrast microscopic reconstruction of biological tissue was computed over a sample area of 9mm2 from holograms acquired at 34 mm working distance.
Kennedy K, Kennedy B, McLaughlin R, Sampson D (2012) Needle optical coherence elastography for tissue boundary detection, Optics Letters 37 (12) pp. 2310-2312
We incorporate, for the first time, optical coherence elastography (OCE) into a needle probe and demonstrate its ability to measure the microscopic deformation of soft tissues located well beyond the depth limit of reports to date. Needle OCE utilizes the force imparted by the needle tip as the loading mechanism and measures tissue deformation ahead of the needle during insertion. Measurements were performed in tissue-mimicking phantoms and ex vivo porcine trachea. Results demonstrate differentiation of tissues based on mechanical properties and highlight the potential of needle OCE for in vivo tissue boundary detection.
Wijesinghe P, Johansen N, Curatolo A, Sampson D, Ganss R, Kennedy B (2017) Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Elastography Images Cellular-Scale Stiffness of Mouse Aorta, Biophysical Journal 113 (11) pp. 2540-2551 Biophysical Society
Cellular-scale imaging of the mechanical properties of tissue has helped to reveal the origins of disease; however, cellular-scale resolution is not readily achievable in intact tissue volumes. Here, we demonstrate volumetric imaging of Young?s modulus using ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence elastography, and apply it to characterizing the stiffness of mouse aortas. We achieve isotropic resolution of better than 15 ¼m over a 1-mm lateral field of view through the entire depth of an intact aortic wall. We employ a method of quasi-static compression elastography that measures volumetric axial strain and uses a compliant, transparent layer to measure surface axial stress. This combination is used to estimate Young?s modulus throughout the volume. We demonstrate differentiation by stiffness of individual elastic lamellae and vascular smooth muscle. We observe stiffening of the aorta in regulator of G protein signaling 5-deficient mice, a model that is linked to vascular remodeling and fibrosis. We observe increased stiffness with proximity to the heart, as well as regions with micro-structural and micro-mechanical signatures characteristic of fibrous and lipid-rich tissue. High-resolution imaging of Young?s modulus with optical coherence elastography may become an important tool in vascular biology and in other fields concerned with understanding the role of mechanics within the complex three-dimensional architecture of tissue.
Kennedy B, Wojtkowski M, Szkulmowski M, Kennedy K, Karnowski K, Sampson D (2012) Improved measurement of vibration amplitude in dynamic optical coherence elastography, Biomedical Optics Express 3 (12) pp. 3138-3152 OSA - The Optical Society
Optical coherence elastography employs optical coherence tomography (OCT) to measure the displacement of tissues under load and, thus, maps the resulting strain into an image, known as an elastogram. We present a new improved method to measure vibration amplitude in dynamic optical coherence elastography. The tissue vibration amplitude caused by sinusoidal loading is measured from the spread of the Doppler spectrum, which is extracted using joint spectral and time domain signal processing. At low OCT signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), the method provides more accurate vibration amplitude measurements than the currently used phasesensitive method. For measurements performed on a mirror at OCT SNR = 5 dB, our method introduces 20% using the phasesensitive method. We present elastograms of a tissue-mimicking phantom and excised porcine tissue that demonstrate improvements, including a 50% increase in the depth range of reliable vibration amplitude measurement.
Adie S, Kennedy B, Armstrong J, Alexandrov S, Sampson D (2009) Audio frequency in vivo optical coherence elastography, Physics in Medicine and Biology 54 (10) pp. 3129-3139
We present a new approach to optical coherence elastography (OCE), which probes the local elastic properties of tissue by using optical coherence tomography to measure the effect of an applied stimulus in the audio frequency range. We describe the approach, based on analysis of the Bessel frequency spectrum of the interferometric signal detected from scatterers undergoing periodic motion in response to an applied stimulus. We present quantitative results of sub-micron excitation at 820 Hz in a layered phantom and the first such measurements in human skin in vivo.
Scolaro L, McLaughlin R, Klyen B, Wood B, Robbins P, Saunders C, Jacques S, Sampson D (2012) Parametric imaging of the local attenuation coefficient in human axillary lymph nodes assessed using optical coherence tomography, Biomedical Optics Express 3 (2) pp. 366-379 OSA - The Optical Society
We report the use of optical coherence tomography (OCT) to determine spatially localized optical attenuation coefficients of human axillary lymph nodes and their use to generate parametric images of lymphoid tissue. 3D-OCT images were obtained from excised lymph nodes and optical attenuation coefficients were extracted assuming a single scattering model of OCT. We present the measured attenuation coefficients for several tissue regions in benign and reactive lymph nodes, as identified by histopathology. We show parametric images of the measured attenuation coefficients as well as segmented images of tissue type based on thresholding of the attenuation coefficient values. Comparison to histology demonstrates the enhancement of contrast in parametric images relative to OCT images. This enhancement is a step towards the use of OCT for in situ assessment of lymph nodes.
Walsh J, Leigh M, Paduch A, Maddison K, Armstrong J, Sampson D, Hillman D, Eastwood P (2008) Effect of body posture on pharyngeal shape and size in adults with and without obstructive sleep apnea, Sleep 31 (11) pp. 1543-1549 American Academy of Sleep Medicine
Study Objectives: In patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), the severity and frequency of respiratory events is increased in the supine body posture compared with the lateral recumbent posture. The mechanism responsible is not clear but may relate to the effect of posture on upper airway shape and size. This study compared the effect of body posture on upper airway shape and size in individuals with OSA with control subjects matched for age, BMI, and gender. Participants: 11 males with OSA and 11 age- and BMI-matched male control subjects. Results: Anatomical optical coherence tomography was used to scan the upper airway of all subjects while awake and breathing quietly, initially when supine, and then in the lateral recumbent posture. A standard head, neck, and tongue position was maintained during scanning. Airway cross-sectional area (CSA) and anteroposterior (A-P) and lateral diameters were obtained in the oropharyngeal and velopharyngeal regions in both postures. A-P to lateral diameter ratios provided an index of regional airway shape. In equivalent postures, the ratio of A-P to lateral diameter in the velopharynx was similar in OSA and control subjects. In both groups, this ratio was significantly less for the supine than for the lateral recumbent posture. CSA was smaller in OSA subjects than in controls but was unaffected by posture. Conclusions: The upper airway changes from a more transversely oriented elliptical shape when supine to a more circular shape when in the lateral recumbent posture but without altering CSA. Increased circularity decreases propensity to tube collapse and may account for the postural dependency of OSA.
Cahill M, Pendock G, Sampson D (1997) Hybrid coherence multiplexing/coarse wavelength-division multiplexing passive optical network for customer access, IEEE Photonics Technology Letters 9 (7) pp. 1032-1034
We propose a passive optical network for customer access based on a hybrid coherence multiplexing/coarse wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) technique. Coherence multiplexing provides asynchronous multichannel transmission, and coarse WDM provides bidirectional transmission. A costshared superfluorescent source is used for downstream transmission, and inexpensive light-emitting diodes are employed for upstream transmission. Asynchronous two channel transmission at 40 Mb/s per channel is demonstrated for both upstream and downstream. Our experiment indicates that upstream and downstream aggregate bit rates of 640 Mb/s are feasible based on current commercially available components.
Chin L, Yang X, McLaughlin R, Noble P, Sampson D (2013) Birefringence imaging for optical sensing of tissue damage, 1 pp. 45-48
We present an automated technique to detect and quantify damage to biological tissue by sensing changes in the tissue's optical birefringence. Birefringence is a property of many types of tissue, which decreases with damage. Using a polarisation-sensitive optical coherence tomography scanner, the method first acquires a 3D scan of the area of tissue under analysis. By calculating the birefringence at each location on the surface of the tissue, we build a 2D image indicative of the biological microstructure, with areas of abnormally low birefringence indicating tissue damage. The technique is demonstrated using a model of localised thermal damage on porcine tendon. The resulting birefringence images are validated against a histological gold standard, showing strong correspondence between areas of low and high birefringence, and areas of damaged and undamaged tissue respectively.
Hillman T, Adie S, Seemann V, Armstrong J, Jacques S, Sampson D (2006) Correlation of static speckle with sample properties in optical coherence tomography, Optics Letters 31 (2) pp. 190-192
We present theoretical calculations, based on a random phasor sum model, which show that the optical coherence tomography speckle contrast ratio is dependent on the local density of scattering particles in a sample, provided that the effective number of scatterers in the probed volume is less than about five. We confirm these theoretical predictions experimentally, using suspensions of microspheres in water. The observed contrast ratios vary in value from the Rayleigh limit of 0.52 to in excess of 2, suggesting that the contrast ratio could be useful in optical coherence tomography, particularly when imaging in ultrahigh-resolution regimes.
Kennedy K, McLaughlin R, Kennedy B, Tien A, Latham B, Saunders C, Sampson D (2013) Needle optical coherence elastography for the measurement of microscale mechanical contrast deep within human breast tissues, Journal of Biomedical Optics 18 (12)
Optical coherence elastography (OCE) is an emerging imaging technique that probes microscale mechanical contrast in tissues with the potential to differentiate healthy and malignant tissues. However, conventional OCE techniques are limited to imaging the first 1 to 2 mmof tissue in depth. We demonstrate, for the first time, OCE measurements deep within human tissues using needle OCE, extending the potential of OCE as a surgical guidance tool. We use needle OCE to detect tissue interfaces based on mechanical contrast in both normal and malignant breast tissues in freshly excised human mastectomy samples, as validated against histopathology. Further, we demonstrate the feasibility of in situ measurements 4 cm from the tissue surface using ultrasound guidance of the OCE needle probe. With further refinement, our method may potentially aid in accurate detection of the boundary of the tumor to help ensure full removal of all malignant tissues, which is critical to the success of breast-conserving surgery.
Lauto A, Foster L, Avolio A, Sampson D, Raston C, Sarris M, McKenzie G, Stoodley M (2008) Sutureless nerve repair with laser-activated chitosan adhesive: A pilot in vivo study, Photomedicine and Laser Surgery 26 (3) pp. 227-234
Objective: The anastomosis of peripheral nerves is a demanding procedure that has potential complications due to foreign body reactions elicited by sutures. In this study, the sutureless in vivo anastomosis of rat tibial nerves was successfully performed, using for the first time a chitosan-based laser-activated adhesive. The nerve thermal damage caused by the laser irradiation was quantitatively assessed. Materials and Methods: A novel adhesive composed of chitosan, indocyanine green, acetic acid, and water, was fabricated in thin sheets. Its adhesive strength was tested in vitro by bonding strips (surface area 2, thickness 2), using a fiber-coupled diode laser (n = 13). The tensile strength of the adhesive/tissue bonds was measured after tissue repair. The chitosan adhesive was then used to perform sutureless anastomosis of tibial nerves in vivo (n = 6). Adhesive strips were also bonded in vivo onto intact rat sciatic nerves (n = 6) in order to quantitatively assess, by counting myelinated axons, the thermal damage induced by the laser. Results: The adhesive bonded well to tissue with a tensile strength of 12.5 ± 2.6 KPa (mean ± SD; n = 13). The in vivo anastomosed nerves were in continuity 3 d after surgery. Axon counting showed the number and morphology of myelinated axons were normal proximally (
Li J, Quirk B, Noble P, Kirk R, Sampson D, McLaughlin R (2017) Flexible needle with integrated optical coherence tomography probe for imaging during transbronchial tissue aspiration, Journal of Biomedical Optics 22 (10) SPIE
Transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA) of small lesions or lymph nodes in the lung may result in nondiagnostic tissue samples. We demonstrate the integration of an optical coherence tomography (OCT) probe into a 19-gauge flexible needle for lung tissue aspiration. This probe allows simultaneous visualization and aspiration of the tissue. By eliminating the need for insertion and withdrawal of a separate imaging probe, this integrated design minimizes the risk of dislodging the needle from the lesion prior to aspiration and may facilitate more accurate placement of the needle. Results from in situ imaging in a sheep lung show clear distinction between solid tissue and two typical constituents of nondiagnostic samples (adipose and lung parenchyma). Clinical translation of this OCT-guided aspiration needle holds promise for improving the diagnostic yield of TBNA.
Pendock G, Premaratne M, Sampson D (1996) Practical optical bandwidth constraints on spectrum-sliced WDM systems, 2 pp. 341-344 IEEE
We evaluate the trade-off in optical bandwidth between signal-to-excess optical noise ratio and dispersion penalty in Gbit/s spectrum-sliced WDM systems. Furthermore, we demonstrate for the first time that, apart from producing intersymbol interference, dispersion also increases the excess optical noise.
Dong L, Wijesinghe P, Dantuono J, Sampson D, Munro P, Kennedy B, Oberai A (2016) Quantitative Compression Optical Coherence Elastography as an Inverse Elasticity Problem, IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics 22 (3) Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
Quantitative elasticity imaging seeks to retrieve spatial maps of elastic moduli of tissue. Unlike strain, which is commonly imaged in compression elastography, elastic moduli are intrinsic properties of tissue, and therefore, this approach reconstructs images that are largely operator and system independent, enabling objective, longitudinal, and multisite diagnoses. Recently, novel quantitative elasticity imaging approaches to compression elastography have been developed. These methods use a calibration layer with known mechanical properties to sense the stress at the tissue surface, which combined with strain, is used to estimate the tissue's elastic moduli by assuming homogeneity in the stress field. However, this assumption is violated in mechanically heterogeneous samples. We present a more general approach to quantitative elasticity imaging that overcomes this limitation through an efficient iterative solution of the inverse elasticity problem using adjoint elasticity equations. We present solutions for linear elastic, isotropic, and incompressible solids; however, this method can be employed for more complex mechanical models. We retrieve the spatial distribution of shear modulus for a tissue-simulating phantom and a tissue sample. This is the first time, to our knowledge, that the iterative solution of the inverse elasticity problem has been implemented on experimentally acquired compression optical coherence elastography data.
Klyen B, Shavlakadze T, Radley-Crabb H, Grounds M, Sampson D (2011) Identification of muscle necrosis in the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy using three-dimensional optical coherence tomography, Journal of Biomedical Optics 16 (7)
Three-dimensional optical coherence tomography (3D-OCT) was used to image the structure and pathology of skeletal muscle tissue from the treadmill-exercised mdx mouse model of human Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) images of excised muscle samples were compared with coregistered hematoxylin and eosin-stained and Evans blue dye fluorescence histology. We show, for the first time, structural 3D-OCT images of skeletal muscle dystropathology well correlated with co-located histology. OCT could identify morphological features of interest and necrotic lesions within the muscle tissue samples based on intrinsic optical contrast. These findings demonstrate the utility of 3D-OCT for the evaluation of small-animal skeletal muscle morphology and pathology, particularly for studies of mouse models of muscular dystrophy.
Kirk R, Kennedy B, Sampson D, McLaughlin R (2015) Near Video-Rate Optical Coherence Elastography by Acceleration With a Graphics Processing Unit, Journal of Lightwave Technology 33 (16) pp. 3481-3485 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
We present a graphics processing unit (GPU)-accelerated optical coherence elastography (OCE) system capable of generating strain images (elastograms) of soft tissue at near video-rates. The system implements phase-sensitive compression OCE using a pipeline of GPU kernel functions to enable a highly parallel implementation of OCE processing using the OpenCL framework. Developed on a commercial-grade GPU and desktop computer, the system achieves a processing rate of 21 elastograms per second at an image size of 960 X 400 pixels, enabling high-rate visualization during acquisition. The system is demonstrated on both tissue-simulating phantoms and fresh ex vivo mouse muscle. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first implementation of near video-rate OCE and the fastest reported OCE processing rate, enabling, for the first time, a system capable of computing and displaying OCE elastograms interactively during acquisition. This advance provides new opportunities for medical imaging of soft tissue stiffness using optical methods.
Sampson D, Holloway W (1994) 100 mW spectrally-uniform broadband ASE source for spectrum-sliced WDM systems, Electronics Letters 30 (19) pp. 1611-1612
A > 100mW source of broadband ASE with exceptionally flat spectral density and 22nm bandwidth is presented. The source is ideally suited for spectrum-sliced WDM systems. Data transmission at 622Mbit/s using a spectraily-sliced channel tuned over a 15nm range is demonstrated.
Sampson D (2004) Trends and prospects for optical coherence tomography, 5502 pp. 25-32
After more than a decade of research, optical coherence tomography is in the early phases of establishing a niche as a medical imaging technology for routine clinical use. Far from tailing off, however, research activity is, if anything, on the increase. In this paper, we briefly and selectively review the current state-of-the-art in the more prominent areas of activity in the technology and its application. One is inevitably drawn to the conclusion that optical coherence tomography has much more to offer clinical practice than has yet been transferred.