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Professor Adel Sharif


Professor of Water Engineering and Process Innovation

Academic and research departments

Department of Chemical and Process Engineering.

Biography

Biography

Adel Sharif is Professor of Water Engineering and Process Innovation, and Founder Director of the Centre for Osmosis Research and Applications, (CORA) at the University of Surrey, UK. Prof. Sharif is a winner of The Queen's 2011 Anniversary Prize for Water Research and the 2005 UK Royal Society Brian Mercer Senior Award for Innovation in Science and Technology. He is also the winner of the 2008 Science Business first pan-European Academic Enterprise Award in the category of Energy/Environment. CORA water technologies were also awarded the Institute of Chemical Engineers 2011 Innovation and Excellence award in the Water Supply and Management category.

He is a founder of Modern Water plc, a London Exchange AIM Market listed company specialised in desalination and renewable power generation. Prof. Sharif is a member of the Qatar Foundation's Expatriate Arab Scientists Forum. He obtained his first degree in Chemical Engineering from Baghdad University in 1986, followed by M.Sc and PhD from University of Wales Swansea in 1989 and 1992 respectively. He has over 100 publications; is an inventor and co-inventor of more than 15 patents and has supervised over twenty PhD projects and more than 40 M.Sc dissertations.

My publications

Publications

Merdaw AA, Sharif AO, Derwish GAW (2010) Estimation of concentrations in ternary solutions, JOURNAL OF FOOD ENGINEERING 101 (4) pp. 424-429 ELSEVIER SCI LTD
Merdaw AA, Sharif AO, Derwish GAW (2011) Mass transfer in pressure-driven membrane separation processes, Part I, Chemical Engineering Journal
Sharif AO, Sanduk M, Taleb HM (2010) The date palm and its role in reducing soil salinity and global warming, ISHS Acta Horticulturae 882 pp. 59-64
Hassan GF, Sharif AO, Tuzun U, Tate A (2010) The effect of many-body interactions on the electrostatic force in an array of spherical particles, JOURNAL OF COLLOID AND INTERFACE SCIENCE 346 (1) pp. 232-235 ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE
Mahood HB, Campbell AN, Sharif AO, Thorpe RB (2016) Heat transfer measurement in a three-phase direct-contact condenser under flooding conditions, APPLIED THERMAL ENGINEERING 95 pp. 106-114 PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
Sulaymon AH, Sharif AO, Al-Shalchi TK (2011) Effect of tubes bundle electrode on removal of cadmium from simulated wastewaters by electrodeposition, JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY AND BIOTECHNOLOGY 86 (5) pp. 651-657 WILEY-BLACKWELL
Merdaw AA, Sharif AO, Derwish GAW (2011) Mass transfer in pressure-driven membrane separation processes, Part II, Chemical Engineering Journal 168 (1) pp. 229-240
Bowen WR, Hall NJ, Pan LC, Sharif AO, Williams PM (1998) The relevance of particle size and zeta-potential in protein processing, NATURE BIOTECHNOLOGY 16 (8) pp. 785-787 NATURE AMERICA INC
An experimental investigation of heat exchange in a three-phase direct contact condenser was carried out using a 70-cm-high Perspex tube with a 4-cm inner diameter. The active direct contact condenser comprised 48 cm. Pentane vapour at three initial temperatures (40?,43.5?, and 47.5?) and water at a constant temperature (19?) were used as the dispersed and continuous phases, respectively, with different mass flow rate ratios. The results showed that the continuous phase outlet temperature increased with increasing mass flow rate ratio. On the contrary, the continuous phase temperature decreased with increases in the continuous mass flow rate. The initial temperature of the dispersed phase slightly affected the direct contact condenser output, which confirms a latent phase effect in this type of heat exchanger.
Hamdan M, Sharif AO, Derwish G, Al-Aibi S, Altaee A (2015) Draw solutions for Forward Osmosis process: Osmotic pressure of binary and ternary aqueous solutions of magnesium chloride, sodium chloride, sucrose and maltose, Journal of Food Engineering 155 pp. 10-15 Elsevier
The objective of the present work is to investigate the behaviour of binary and ternary aqueous systems, which could be employed in the selection criteria for draw agents (DA) to be used in Forward Osmosis (FO) process applications. In this study the osmotic properties of the selected binary and ternary aqueous solutions of magnesium chloride (MgCl2), sodium chloride (NaCl), sucrose and maltose are investigated. Osmotic pressures were calculated from water activities obtained from measured relative humidity of the solutions of concentrations in the range 0.5-6.0 mol kg-1 at 298.15 K. The osmotic behaviours of the ternary systems were compared with their binary counter parts; the results showed either positive or negative osmotic synergic effects. This could be used besides transport properties for considering the selection of favourable draw agents from those that exhibited positive synergy, i.e. the osmotic pressure of a ternary solution is greater than the sum of the pressures of the corresponding binary solutions. The results showed that the ternary aqueous solutions of MgCl2 + NaCl showed significant positive synergy and therefore are possible suitable candidates as draw solutions, less so were the sugar-electrolyte systems.
Bowen WR, Sharif AO (1999) Long-range electrostatic attraction between like-charge spheres in a charged pore (vol 393, pg 663, 1998), NATURE 402 (6763) pp. 841-841 MACMILLAN MAGAZINES LTD
AlHathal Al-Anezi A, Sharif AO, Sanduk MI, Khan AR (2013) Potential of membrane distillation - A comprehensive review, International Journal of Water 7 (4) pp. 317-346
Membrane distillation (MD) is a recent and unique separation technology, in use in the process industry. The process of separation in MD involves the simultaneous heat and mass transfer through a hydrophobic semi permeable membrane, using thermal energy. Consequently a separation of the feed solution into two components - the permeate or product and the retentate or the return stream occurs. MD utilises low grade or alternative energy, e.g., solar energy, geothermal energy, etc., as a source and is the most cost effective separation technology. Hence the process has come to acquire the attention and interest of researchers, experimentalists and theoreticians all over the world. This article is a comprehensive review of the prominent research in the field of MD technology, including its basic principle, MD configurations, area of applications, membrane characteristics and modules, experimental studies involving the effect of main operating parameters, MD energy and economic, fouling and long-term performance. Copyright © 2013 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.
Merdaw AA, Sharif AO, Derwish GAW (2010) Estimation of concentrations in ternary solutions, Journal of Food Engineering 101 (4) pp. 424-429
A simple method to predict the concentrations of homogeneous ternary mixtures by measuring two of their physical properties is presented. The method, which may be constructed by using a suitable graphical tool or software, can be used in chemical analysis of ternary aqueous solutions, for example. In order to validate the suggested method, four application examples are presented for different solution systems using available literature data of different physical properties. The method, which is found to be precise, may reduce the need for analytical measurements by replacing them with graphical methods. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Moghadasi J, Dehdari V, Sharif AO (2007) Radiotracer applications in reservoir evaluation, SPE RESERVOIR EVALUATION & ENGINEERING 10 (4) pp. 376-381 SOC PETROLEUM ENG
Sulaymon AH, Sharif AO, Al-Shalchi TK (2011) Removal of cadmium from simulated wastewaters by electrodeposition on stainless steeel tubes bundle electrode, DESALINATION AND WATER TREATMENT 29 (1-3) pp. 218-226 DESALINATION PUBL
Mahood HB, Sharif AO, Al-Aibi S, Hawkins D, Thorpe R (2014) Analytical solution and experimental measurements for temperature distribution prediction of three-phase direct-contact condenser, Energy 67 pp. 538-547
An experimental and analytical investigation for the temperature distribution prediction of a three-phase bubble-type direct-contact condenser conducted, using a short Perspex column with 4cm internal diameter and 70cm height as a direct contact condenser. Vapour pentane and water were exploited as dispersed phase and continuous phase respectively. The effect of mass flow rate ratio (43.69%, 22.97%, 12.23%, 8.61% and 6.46%) and initial dispersed phase temperature (37.6°C, 38.4°C and 41.7°C) on the direct contact condenser output were studied. Linear temperature distributions along direct contact condensers were found experimentally, except at mass flow rate ratio 43.69% and with less magnitude at 22.97%, for different initial vapour temperatures, while theoretically this behaviour is purely linear. The results showed that the mass flow rate ratio and the hold up have a dominant effect on the direct contact condenser output. On the other hand, the initial vapour temperature had a slight effect on the direct contact condenser output temperature which indicates that the latent heat is controlled in the exchange process. The analytical model is based on the one-dimensional mass and energy equations. New expressions for average heat transfer coefficient and two-phase bubbles relative velocity are derived implicitly. Furthermore, the model correlated very well against experimental data obtained. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Toffoletto M, Merdaw AA, Sharif AO, Bertucco A (2010) Experimental approaches to feed solution permeability in pressure-driven membrane separation processes, JOURNAL OF MEMBRANE SCIENCE 364 (1-2) pp. 27-33 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Bowen WR, Hilal N, Jain M, Lovitt RW, Sharif AO, Wright CJ (1999) The effects of electrostatic interactions on the rejection of colloids by membrane pores - visualisation and quantification, CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SCIENCE 54 (3) pp. 369-375 PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
Bowen WR, Sharif AO (2002) Prediction of optimum membrane design: pore entrance shape and surface potential, COLLOIDS AND SURFACES A-PHYSICOCHEMICAL AND ENGINEERING ASPECTS 201 (1-3) PII S0927-7757(01)01023-8 pp. 207-217 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
The current study highlights the advancement in Pressure Retarded Osmosis (PRO) process and covers most recent development in the process applications. The first application of PRO process goes back to 1973 by Sidney Loeb who suggested using the concept of osmotic energy for power generation. In principle, two solutions of different concentrations are separated by semipermeable membrane of, relatively, high water permeability and solute rejection rate. The high-concentration solution is usually known as the draw solution while the low-concentration solution is called the feed solution. The draw solution is pressurized before entering the membrane. Due to the osmotic pressure gradient across the membrane, fresh water transports in the direction of the osmotic pressure gradients resulting in the dilution of the high-concentration solution. After leaving the membrane, the diluted draw solution is depressurized in a turbine system for power generation. Different types of membrane materials and solute gradient resources were proposed and their impact on the performance of PRO process was investigated. In addition to power generation, the hybridization of PRO process with membrane and thermal processes for power generation and seawater desalination is not unusual nowadays. The current study provides a critical review about the recent advancements in the PRO process and research outcomes.
Toffoletto M, Merdaw AA, Sharif AO, Bertucco A (2010) Experimental approaches to feed solution permeability in pressure-driven membrane separation processes, Journal of Membrane Science 364 (1-2) pp. 27-33
Mahood HB, Campbell AN, Thorpe RB, Sharif AO (2015) Experimental measurements and theoretical prediction for the volumetric heat transfer coefficient of a three-phase direct contact condenser, International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer 66 pp. 180-188
AlTaee A, Sharif AO (2011) Alternative design to dual stage NF seawater desalination using high rejection brackish water membranes, Desalination
Mahood HB, Campbell AN, Thorpe RB, Sharif AO (2015) Heat transfer efficiency and capital cost evaluation of a three-phase direct contact heat exchanger for the utilisation of low-grade energy sources, ENERGY CONVERSION AND MANAGEMENT 106 pp. 101-109 PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
Bowen RW, Sharif AO (1997) Adaptive finite-element solution of the nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann equation: A charged spherical particle at various distances from a charged cylindrical pore in a charged planar surface, JOURNAL OF COLLOID AND INTERFACE SCIENCE 187 (2) pp. 363-374 ACADEMIC PRESS INC JNL-COMP SUBSCRIPTIONS
Merdaw AA, Sharif AO, Derwish GAW (2010) Water permeability in polymeric membranes, Part I, Desalination 260 (1-3) pp. 180-192 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
PITTMAN JFT, RICHARDSON JF, SHARIF AO, SHERRARD CP (1994) HEAT-TRANSFER FROM A PLANAR SURFACE TO A FLUID IN LAMINAR-FLOW - AN EXPERIMENTAL AND COMPUTATIONAL STUDY, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER 37 pp. 333-346 PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
Aryafar M, Hosseini SA, Sharif AO (2012) Hybrid desalination method: Application of forward osmosis in desalination, Procedia Engineering 44
Bowen WR, Sharif AO (1996) The hydrodynamic and electrostatic interactions on the approach and entry of a charged spherical particle to a charged cylindrical pore in a charged planar surface with implications for membrane separation processes, PROCEEDINGS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY A-MATHEMATICAL PHYSICAL AND ENGINEERING SCIENCES 452 (1952) pp. 2121-2140 ROYAL SOC
Moghadasi J, Dehdari V, Sharif AO (2006) Radiotracer applications in reservoir evaluation, Proceedings - SPE International Symposium on Formation Damage Control 2006 pp. 379-386
When primary oil production decreases in a field because of reduction in original pressure, water is usually injected to increase oil production. Injected water in special wells (injection wells) forces the oil remaining in certain layers to emerge from other wells (production wells) surrounding the injector. This technique, commonly called secondary recovery, contributes in extracting up to 50% of the original oil in place. Although this technique was first used in old reservoirs where oil production had decreased, it is today a common practice to begin the exploitation of new wells with fluid injection as a way to optimize oil recovery. For this reason, the name secondary recovery is being replaced by the more general term water flooding. Efficiency of the water flooding process is highly dependent on the rock and fluid characteristics. In general, it will be less efficient if heterogeneity is present in the reservoir, such as permeability barriers or high permeability channels that impede a good oil displacement by the injected water [1]. On the other hand Most of the scales found in oil fields forms either by direct precipitation from the water that occurs naturally in reservoir rocks, or as a result of produced water becoming oversaturated with scale components when two incompatible waters meet downhole. The present study attempts to establish the tracer technology as a reliable source of information in scaling experiments and reservoir evaluation such as reservoir heterogeneity. In a series of calcite scaling experiments in sand, Ca2+ was used as a tracer to monitor the CaCO3 precipitation. The results show that the introduction of tracer technology, for the first time in scaling experiments in porous media, has been successful [3]. Copyright 2006, Society of Petroleum Engineers.
Mahood H, Sharif A, Al-Aibi S, Hawkins D, Thorpe R (2014) Analytical solution and experimental measurements for temperature distribution prediction of three-phase direct-contact condenser, ENERGY 67 pp. 538-547 PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
An experimental and analytical investigation for the temperature distribution prediction of a three-phase bubble-type direct-contact condenser conducted, using a short Perspex column with 4 cm internal diameter and 70 cm height as a direct contact condenser. Vapour pentane and water were exploited as dispersed phase and continuous phase respectively. The effect of mass flow rate ratio (43.69%, 22.97%, 12.23%, 8.61% and 6.46%) and initial dispersed phase temperature (37.6 °C, 38.4 °C and 41.7 °C) on the direct contact condenser output were studied. Linear temperature distributions along direct contact condensers were found experimentally, except at mass flow rate ratio 43.69% and with less magnitude at 22.97%, for different initial vapour temperatures, while theoretically this behaviour is purely linear. The results showed that the mass flow rate ratio and the hold up have a dominant effect on the direct contact condenser output. On the other hand, the initial vapour temperature had a slight effect on the direct contact condenser output temperature which indicates that the latent heat is controlled in the exchange process. The analytical model is based on the one-dimensional mass and energy equations. New expressions for average heat transfer coefficient and two-phase bubbles relative velocity are derived implicitly. Furthermore, the model correlated very well against experimental data obtained. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Bowen WR, Filippov AN, Sharif AO, Starov VM (1999) A model of the interaction between a charged particle and a pore in a charged membrane surface, ADVANCES IN COLLOID AND INTERFACE SCIENCE 81 (1) pp. 35-72 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
BOWEN WR, SHARIF AO (1994) TRANSPORT THROUGH MICROFILTRATION MEMBRANES - PARTICLE HYDRODYNAMICS AND FLUX REDUCTION, JOURNAL OF COLLOID AND INTERFACE SCIENCE 168 (2) pp. 414-421 ACADEMIC PRESS INC JNL-COMP SUBSCRIPTIONS
Merdaw AA, Sharif AO, Derwish GAW (2011) Mass transfer in pressure-driven membrane separation processes, Part I, Chemical Engineering Journal 168 (1) pp. 215-228
Eow JS, Ghadiri M, Sharif AO, Williams TJ (2001) Electrostatic enhancement of coalescence of water droplets in oil: a review of the current understanding, CHEMICAL ENGINEERING JOURNAL 84 (3) pp. 173-192 ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA
Merdaw AA, Sharif AO, Derwish GAW (2010) Water permeability in polymeric membranes, Part I, Desalination 260 (1-3) pp. 180-192
AlTaee A, Sharif AO (2011) Alternative design to dual stage NF seawater desalination using high rejection brackish water membranes, Desalination 273 (2-3) pp. 391-397
Mahood H, Thorpe R, Campbell A, Sharif A (2015) Effect of Various Parameters on the Temperature Measurements In a Three-Phase Direct Contact Condenser, International Journal of Thermal Technologies 5 (1) pp. 23-27
Bowen WR, Pan LC, Sharif AO (1998) Predicting equilibrium constants for ion exchange of proteins - a colloid science approach, COLLOIDS AND SURFACES A-PHYSICOCHEMICAL AND ENGINEERING ASPECTS 143 (1) pp. 117-131 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Sharif AO, Merdaw AA, Al-Bahadili H, Al-Taee A, Al-Aibi S, Rahal Z, Derwish GAW (2009) A new theoretical approach to estimate the specific energy consumption of reverse osmosis and other pressure-driven liquid-phase membrane processes, Desalination and Water Treatment 3 (1-3) pp. 111-119
Bowen WR, Sharif AO (1997) Adaptive finite-element solution of the nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann equation: A charged spherical particle at various distances from a charged cylindrical pore in a charged planar surface (vol 187, pg 363, 1997), JOURNAL OF COLLOID AND INTERFACE SCIENCE 188 (2) pp. 517-517 ACADEMIC PRESS INC JNL-COMP SUBSCRIPTIONS
Sharif AO, Tabatabaian Z, Bowen WR (2002) The wall and multivalent counterion effects on the electrostatic force between like-charged spherical particles confined in a charged pore, JOURNAL OF COLLOID AND INTERFACE SCIENCE 255 (1) pp. 138-144 ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE
Mahood HB, Thorpe RB, Campbell AN, Sharif AO (2015) Experimental Measurements and Theoretical Prediction for the Transient Characteristic of a Two-Phase Two-component Direct Contact Condenser, Applied Thermal Engineering 87 pp. 161-174
Bowen WR, Hilal N, Lovitt RW, Sharif AO, Williams PM (1997) Atomic force microscope studies of membranes: Force measurement and imaging in electrolyte solutions, JOURNAL OF MEMBRANE SCIENCE 126 (1) pp. 77-89 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Bowen WR, Sharif AO (1998) Hydrodynamic and colloidal interactions effects on the rejection of a particle larger than a pore in microfiltration and ultrafiltration membranes, CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SCIENCE 53 (5) pp. 879-890 PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
Mahdi JT, Smith BE, Sharif AO (2010) An experimental wick-type solar still system: Design and construction, Desalination
Sharif AO, Afshar MH, Moghadasi J, Williams TJ (2003) The effect of many-body interactions on the electrostatic force on a finite chain of spheres confined in a long charged tube, POWDER TECHNOLOGY 135 pp. 76-81 ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA
Merdaw AA, Sharif AO, Derwish GAW (2011) Mass transfer in pressure-driven membrane separation processes, Part II, Chemical Engineering Journal
Merdaw AA, Sharif AO, Derwish GAW (2010) Water permeability in polymeric membranes, Part II, Desalination 257 (1-3) pp. 184-194
This study is a combination of experimental and theoretical works in an attempt to produce a new useful empirical model for the mass transfer in pressure-driven membrane separation processes. Following on from our previous work in Part I, this part II paper introduces three new permeability models when using aqueous solutions as feed. The Solution-Diffusion Pore-Flow Concentration-Polarization (SDPFCP) model, which is a combination between the Solution-Diffusion Pore-Flow (SDPF) model [1] and the Concentration Polarization (CP) model, is presented. The SDPFCP model examines the CP model to represent the transfer phenomena outside the membrane by merging its effect within the water permeability coefficient. A further development for this model, the SDPFCP+, is obtained by adding an additional resistance to the system in series with the membrane resistance and the CP. The second model shows fair representation of the experimental results. The Solution-Diffusion Pore-Flow Fluid-Resistance (SDPFFR) model is then proposed to provide better representation for the system. The feed solution resistance to water flux, the Fluid Resistance (FR), is suggested to replace the CP and the additional resistance. The latter model shows excellent fitting to the experimental results; it may be useful for development and design applications, when based on experimental data. Crown Copyright © 2010.
Eow JS, Sharif AO, Ghadiri M (2003) Adaptive finite element analysis of electrostatic interactions: a sphere between two charged walls and two isolated spheres, CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AND PROCESSING 42 (11) PII S0255-2701(02)00123-X pp. 847-856 ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA
PITTMAN JFT, RICHARDSON JF, SHARIF AO, SHERRARD CP (1992) CONVECTION HEAT-TRANSFER FROM A FLAT-PLATE WITH UNIFORM SURFACE HEAT-FLUX - EXPERIMENTAL AND COMPUTED RESULTS, HEAT TRANSFER, VOLS 1 AND 2 129 pp. 1243-1252 INST CHEMICAL ENGINEERS
Eow JS, Ghadiri M, Sharif AO (2007) Electro-hydrodynamic separation of aqueous drops from flowing viscous oil, JOURNAL OF PETROLEUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING 55 (1-2) pp. 146-155 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Bowen WR, Sharif AO (1998) Long-range electrostatic attraction between like-charge spheres in a charged pore, NATURE 393 (6686) pp. 663-665 MACMILLAN MAGAZINES LTD
Mahdi JT, Smith BE, Sharif AO (2011) An experimental wick-type solar still system: Design and construction, Desalination 267 (2-3) pp. 233-238
Eow JS, Ghadiri M, Sharif AO (2002) Electrostatic and hydrodynamic flowing separation of aqueous drops in a viscous oil, CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AND PROCESSING 41 (8) PII S0255-2701(01)00183-0 pp. 649-657 ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA
Mahood H, Campbell A, Thorpe R, Sharif A (2017) Measuring the overall volumetric heat transfer coefficient in a vapour-liquid-liquid three-phase direct contact heat exchanger, Heat Transfer Engineering 39 (3) pp. 208-216 Taylor & Francis
An experimental investigation of the volumetric heat transfer coefficient in a three-phase direct contact condenser was carried out. A 75-cm long cylindrical Perspex column with a 4 cm diameter was used. Only 48 cm of the column was utilised as the active direct contact condensation height. Pentane vapour at three different initial temperatures (40°C, 43.5°C and 47.5°C), with differing mass flow rates, and tap water at a constant initial temperature (19°C) with five different mass flow rates were employed as the dispersed phase and the continuous phases, respectively. The results showed that the volumetric heat transfer coefficient increased with increasing mass flow rate ratio (variable dispersed phase mass flow rate per constant continuous phase mass flow rate), the continuous phase mass flow rate and holdup ratio. An optimal value of the continuous phase mass flow rate is shown for an individual dispersed phase mass flow rates. This value increases with increasing vapour (dispersed) phase mass flow rate. Furthermore, it was observed that the initial driving temperature difference had no effect on the volumetric heat transfer coefficient. While, the temperature gained by the continuous phase has a considerable effect.
Co-produced water re-injection is a mature recovery technique for oil fields. Co-produced water that is not re-injected is the largest wastage stream in the oil industry. Handling, treatment and management (especially re-injection back into the reservoir) is an expensive operation. PWRI is a secondary oil recovery method with a small recovery factor in the range of 15-25% and contributes to many surface and subsurface issues, e.g., scaling and reservoir plugging, resulting in the decline of water injectivity, and thus lower oil recovery. This reduction, of course, impinges significantly on the revenue stream of major oil corporations.
However, low-salinity (LowSal) water injection is an emerging method that boosts oil recovery by reducing the downsides of produced water re-injection. Using forward osmosis to produce low-salinity water for injection is a novel idea, in which the co-produced water will be the draw solution. In this concept, low-salinity water from water wells (brackish water) is used as the feed to dilute the co-produced water. The diluted co-produced water will then be re-injected as LowSal water. The obviously cheaper alternative of direct dilution of the co-produced water with the brackish water might not produce a water compatible with the oil reservoir in both ionic composition and strength.
Data have been collected from different oil fields with various co-produced water and formation characteristics. Different co-produced water treatments were observed in each oil field due to differences in co-produced water chemistry. The water sample for analysis was taken at the skim tanks prior to the water injection stage.
A theoretical resistance-in-series model for the forward osmosis stage is presented, which has been adapted from the literature, which incorporates the mass transfer equations, in which the boundary layer and thin-film theory for the membrane intrinsic layers are integrated. An improved shell mass transfer correlation is introduced in addition to the incorporation of a modified reflection coefficient into the resistance-in-series model. The collected data were then incorporated into the theoretical model to calculate and evaluate the forward osmosis performance and, in turn, the water chemistry before re-injection.
A forward osmosis rig has been erected to use the latest hollow fibre membrane supplied by the Toyobo Company (Japan). Water and solute flux were measured to validate the model estimations. The model estimated
Alaswad S, Al-aibi S, Alpay E, Sharif A (2018) Efficiency of Organic Draw Solutions in a Forward Osmosis Process Using Nano-filtration Flat Sheet Membrane, Journal of Chemical Engineering & Process Technology 9 (1) OMICS International
The aim of this study is to investigate the performance of specific organic osmotic agents, namely, Sucrose draw
solution and Glucose draw solution against deionized water in a Forward Osmosis (FO) process using NF flat sheet
membrane. The key parameters affecting the FO process studied were: temperature, flow rates of osmotic agent
and feed water, and concentration of osmotic agent. The experimental results showed that increasing the
concentration of osmotic agents yield lower water flux, recovery percentage and permeability, along with an
apparent increase in the specific energy consumption. Although the findings indicated superior performance of
Glucose over Sucrose as a better osmotic agent, it has to be emphasized that both organics were ineffective draw
solutions against deionized water for the Nano-filtration (TFC-SR2) membrane used in this study and the given
operating parameters.
Mahood Hameed B., Campbell Alasdair, Baqir Ali Sh., Sharif Adel, Thorpe Rex (2017) Convective Heat Transfer Measurements in a Vapour-Liquid-Liquid Three-Phase Direct Contact Heat Exchanger, Heat and Mass Transfer 54 (6) pp. 1697-1705 Springer Verlag
Energy usage is increasing around the world due to the continued development of technology, and population growth. Solar energy is a promising low-grade energy resource that can be harvested and utilised in different applications, such solar heater systems, which are used in both domestic and industrial settings. However, the implementation of an efficient energy conversion system or heat exchanger would enhance such low-grade energy processes. The direct contact heat exchanger could be the right choice due to its ability to efficiently transfer significant amounts of heat, simple design, and low cost. In this work, the heat transfer associated with the direct contact condensation of pentane vapour bubbles in a three-phase direct contact condenser is investigated experimentally. Such a condenser could be used in a cycle with a solar water heater and heat recovery systems. The experiments on the steady state operation of the three-phase direct contact condenser were carried out using a short Perspex tube of 70 cm in total height and an internal diameter of 4 cm. Only a height of 48 cm was active as the direct contact condenser. Pentane vapour, (the dispersed phase) with three different initial temperatures (40?,43.5? and 47.5?) was directly contacted with water (the continuous phase) at 19?. The experimental results showed that the total heat transfer rate per unit volume along the direct contact condenser gradually decreased upon moving higher up the condenser. Additionally, the heat transfer rate increases with increasing mass flow rate ratio, but no significant effect on the heat transfer rate of varying the initial temperature of the dispersed phase was seen. Furthermore, both the outlet temperature of the continuous phase and the void fraction were positively correlated with the total heat transfer rate per unit volume, with no considerable effect of the initial temperature difference between the dispersed and continuous phases.
Merdaw AA, Sharif AO, Derwish GAW (2010) Water permeability in polymeric membranes, Part II, DESALINATION 257 (1-3) pp. 184-194 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
This study is a combination of experimental and theoretical works in an attempt to produce a new useful empirical model for the mass transfer in pressure-driven membrane separation processes. Following on from our previous work in Part I, this part II paper introduces three new permeability models when using aqueous solutions as feed. The Solution-Diffusion Pore-Flow Concentration-Polarization (SDPFCP) model, which is a combination between the Solution-Diffusion Pore-Flow (SDPF) model [1] and the Concentration Polarization (CP) model, is presented. The SDPFCP model examines the CP model to represent the transfer phenomena outside the membrane by merging its effect within the water permeability coefficient. A further development for this model, the SDPFCP+, is obtained by adding an additional resistance to the system in series with the membrane resistance and the CP. The second model shows fair representation of the experimental results. The Solution-Diffusion Pore-Flow Fluid-Resistance (SDPFFR) model is then proposed to provide better representation for the system. The feed solution resistance to water flux, the Fluid Resistance (FR), is suggested to replace the CP and the additional resistance. The latter model shows excellent fitting to the experimental results; it may be useful for development and design applications, when based on experimental data. Crown Copyright (C) 2010 Published by Elsevier By. All rights reserved.
Mahdi Mustafa S., Mahood Hameed B., Khadom Anees A., Campbell Alasdair N., Hasan Mohanad, Sharif Adel O. (2019) Experimental investigation of the thermal performance of a helical coil latent heat thermal energy storage for solar energy applications, Thermal Science and Engineering Progress 10 pp. 287-298 Elsevier
Thermal performance of a Latent Heat helical coil Thermal Energy Storage (LHTS) was investigated experimentally for both phases; melting and solidification processes. Paraffin wax (type P56-58) and tap water were used as a Phase Change Material (PCM), and a Heat Transfer Fluid (HTF), respectively. The paraffin wax (PCM) thermos-physical properties were determined experimentally. To simulate the solar energy conditions, three different initial temperatures (70/°C, 75/°C and 80/°C) and flow rates (1/L/min, 3/L/min and 5/L/min) of the HTF were tested throughout the PCM melting experiments, while the temperature of HTF was only 30/°C with the same flow rates for solidification process. The storage was completely insulated to reduce the heat losses. The PCM temperature during the melting and solidification processes was measured with time using 16 K-type calibrated thermocouples distributed along the PCM axially and radially. The experimental results showed that contrary to the solidification process, the melting was a superior in the helical coil LHTS under different operational conditions. Axial and radial melting fronts were noticed during the PCM melting process which considerably shortened the melting time under the effect of convection and a shape like a pyramid is formed at the core of the storage. Initial temperature of heat transfer fluid (HTF) was significantly affected the melting process and the increased of it from 70/°C to 75/°C and from 75/°C to 80/°C resulted in shortening the total melting time by about 34.5% and 27.2% respectively. An optimum HTF flow rate was observed during the melting process and it was found to be 3/L/min under the operational conditions of the present experiments. Contrary, the flow rate of HTF was insignificant during the solidification process. The initial temperature of HTF was slightly affected the effectiveness of the melting process. In spite of the efficiency of the melting process, enhancement of the solidification in the coiled LHTS is necessary in order to use the process in the thermal applications of solar energy.