Professor Andrew Lockwood
I am the Forte Professor of Hospitality Management in the School of Hospitality and Tourism Management. I am happily married, have two lovely daughters, four grandchildren and live in the typically English village of Chiddingfold in the Surrey Hills.
I suppose being born into the family bakery business and growing up in hotels in Scarborough, it was only natural that my career would have something to do with food and accommodation. I did my first degree in Hotel and Catering Administration here at the University of Surrey and spent my professional training year at Grosvenor House Hotel on Park Lane in London. On graduation, I joined the then second largest UK hotel company on a management training scheme. After a number of years running other people's hotels, my wife and I were offered the opportunity of taking over the family's 40 bedroom hotel, which we continued to do until we decided to have a family. By this time, I was also working as a lecturer at the local technical college teaching craft and OND students about hotel and catering management. It was from here that I took my PGCE at Leeds University. Eventually, I moved on to become Assistant Head of Department at Guildford College and from there moved to become a lecturer at the University of Surrey.
I have now been at the University of Surrey for over 30 years but when you work at the best School of Hospitality and Tourism Management in the UK and one of the top Schools in the world, it is hard to find anywhere better to go.
Over my time at Surrey I have developed my own research in the area of operations management in the hospitality tourism and service industries specialising in aspects of quality management but also looking at aspects of service failure, service recovery, employee empowerment, total quality management and now especially productivity as we have recently completed a major ESRC grant in this area. I have had the pleasure of supervising twenty PhD students to completion in these areas.
I have always tried to maintain my close contacts with industry and have given a lot of time to the professional body of the industry - the Institute of Hospitality. I was one of the creators of the Institute's Hospitality Assured Standard and for five years I had the privilege of serving as the Chairman of the Executive Council.
Areas of specialism
Food and drink service management
Affiliations and memberships
Operations management in hospitality and service industries and specifically aspects of quality management, service, service failure and recovery and empowerment.
Productivity in hotels
Pedagogy in hospitality management education and specifically aspects of elearning
Courses I teach on
Postgraduate research supervision
Mr Thaib Alharethi - Exploring the development of customer loyalty in the hotel industry: antecedents and consequences.
Ms Celia Burke - Investigating the relationships between hotels, customers and OTAs
Mr James Ellerby - Investigating the critical factors for achieving success in independent restaurants in the UK
Completed postgraduate research projects I have supervised
Andrew Ghillyer : Organizational Perceptions of Empowerment
Marianna Sigala : Assessing the impact of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) on productivity in the hotel sector: an operations management approach
Tony Willis: An investigation of styles of purchasing and their effect on consumer decision processes in a tourism context
Edem Adenumey : Psychological climate, psychological empowerment and empowered behaviour: a study in a luxury hotel group
Dia Zeglat : An investigation of the relationship between service quality and profitability in the UK budget hotel sector
Khaled Odeh : The impact of frontline employee empowerment on service quality in the Jordanian restaurant industry
Heungyong Nam : The antecedents and consequences of brand equity in the hospitality industry
William Onuwa : Quality management practices and organisational performance (DBA)
Li Li: The use of technologies for hospitality managers' professional development
Barbara Rousaki : Implementing a continuous improvement tool
Noor Zainol : Service failure in Malaysian resort hotels
Ibrahim Al-Sini : Service orientation and service outcomes
Eid Al Otaibi : Exploring interaction quality in the service encounter
Mukhles Al-Ababneh : The role of employee creativity in Jordanian resort hotels
Samer Al-Sabi : The impact of service recovery
Anton Eisner : Transactional leadership and business performance (DBA)
Sainatee Chernbumroong : An Investigation of Entrepreneurial Motivation and its Link to Business Growth: Boutique Hotels in Northern Thailand
Duangthida Nunthapirat : An Examination Of The Factors Influencing Customers' Perceptions Of Hotel Online Brand Image
Hee Kyung Pyun : The effect of the servicescape on customer behaviours
Philip Murray : Performance measurement and management in the Irish Hotel Industry
Pyun K. and Lockwood A.J. (2018) Developing a Scale Measuring Customers’ Servicescape Perceptions in Upscale Hotels, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 30 (10)
Rashid Radha J, Lockwood A, Nolan E, (2016) The Influence of Guests’ Social Interaction on the Hostel Experience: A Conceptual Framework, Sains Humanika, 8: 4-2 (2016) 73–76 ISSN: 2289-6996
Lockwood AJ, Skokic V, Rienties B, (2016) Transnational tourism education and student approaches to learning: is there a mismatch?, Journal of Teaching in Travel & Tourism, 16(4):273-295 01 Jul 2016
Park S, Yaduma N, Lockwood AJ, Williams AM, (2016) Demand fluctuations, labour flexibility and productivity, ANNALS OF TOURISM RESEARCH, 59:93-112 01 Jul 2016
Yaduma N, Williams A, Lockwood A, Park S., (2015) Performance, labour flexibility and migrant workers in hotels: An establishment and departmental level analysis, International Journal of Hospitality Management, 01-September-2015
Yang W, Guan Y, Lai X, She Z, Lockwood AJ., (2015), Career adaptability and perceived overqualification: Testing a dual-path model among Chinese human resource management professionals, Journal of Vocational Behavior, 28-August-2015
with both an understanding of particular services and functions within the ...
As international economies continue their recovery after the 2008 global economic crisis, growth rates are regarded as being ?weak and uneven and reflective of different evolutions across different countries and regions? (IMF 2014). In such challenging competitive environments organisations tend to focus very strongly on the management and measurement of performance in order to meet the task of staying in business. Harris & Mongiello (2001) see a company?s emphasis on performance measurement (PM) as a route to competitive advantage, and turbulent business environments, such as those currently being experienced worldwide, can be seen as a key driver of both organisational and research interest in performance measurement.
However despite almost 30 years of research into performance measurement the discipline still has, what could be referred to as significant, foundational problems. There has been a lack of development of key concepts or a unified terminology in the subject area, this is mostly due to the multidisciplinary nature of the PM field which has ?vast richness, but unmanageable diversity? (Neely 2007, p.2) .
One of the most significant issues in the PM field is that there have been contradictory findings as to whether or not the measurement of performance actually has an impact on the achievement of performance outcomes (Franco & Bourne 2004). In fact it is suggested that measurement has become such an accepted approach that few organisations genuinely challenge why they should measure in the first place, concentrating instead on what can be measured and how to measure it (Robson 2004). In many cases the relationship between the measurement of performance and the achievement of performance outcomes is often described simplistically with catchall phrases like ?you can?t manage what you can?t measure?. These phrases imply a simple association between measurement and action in order to achieve performance. The reality of the relationship is however far more complex and the existence of a positive relationship between measurement and performance outcomes have yet to be definitively proven in the literature. Difficulties lie in the ability of researchers to capture the underlying factors that may mediate the relationship between measurement and performance and the considerable influence of organisational structures, culture or operating environments on the achievement of performance. The complex social structures at
Previous research has contributed to our knowledge of entrepreneurial motivation but it has shown many differences and identified many varied types of entrepreneurial motivation and there has been no clear agreement on which entrepreneurial motivation applies in any specific context. The majority of the research has been quantitative, which has provided only a partial explanation of the issue. Entrepreneurs in different contexts and different industrial settings would appear to be motivated by different things e.g. entrepreneurs in the hospitality and tourism industry have been seen to be motivated by lifestyle concerns. Importantly in previous research these lifestyle entrepreneurs have been believed to reject business growth. Research in the hospitality and tourism field has also been dominated by a Western context and the majority of the research has employed surveys of various types.
Therefore, the research reported in this thesis has been established with three clear objectives. The first is to identify and gain an insight into the motivation of entrepreneurs operating boutique hotels in Northern Thailand. Although entrepreneurs in the hospitality and tourism field have previously been seen to reject business growth, this research has moved away from this presumption. Hence, the second objective is to investigate how entrepreneurs in this specific context view business growth and to identify and gain an insight into the nature of business growth in boutique hotels in Northern Thailand. While the majority of the previous research has generated explanations based only on the views of customers and managers, the third objective is to compile and synthesise detailed information about boutique hotel from the views of the entrepreneurs themselves.
To provide a detailed insight into entrepreneurial motivation, business growth and boutique hotels, this research was conducted using a qualitative method. The researcher carried out in-depth interviews in a total of thirty two hotels, talking to twenty-nine owners/entrepreneurs and five managers. The interviews were transcribed in full by the researcher and thematic analysis was employed for the data analysis.
The findings can be separated into three parts. First, the research on entrepreneurial motivations revealed four significant themes. These were the influence of the family, the encouragement of friends, the attractiveness of the destination and the type of business. Importantly, the findings indicated that the entrepreneurs were driven largely by non-profit motivations. Second, the research on business growth revealed that, rather than avoiding business growth, the majority of these entrepreneurs had already grown their businesses or had plans to grow their business in the near future. The entrepreneurs focused on growth strategies which were concerned with increasing the number of rooms, establishing new hotels or other new businesses, adding facilities and activities to their existing operations, changing the style of the hotel and more generally improving the service they provided. The reasons behind the growth can be divided into five areas of which four were non-profit based. Business growth was
This paper describes the detailed process of development of a reliable scale to measure customer perceptions of the upscale hotel servicescape that could then be used as a basis for intra and inter-hotel comparisons and to examine relationships with other variables, such as emotions, satisfaction and loyalty.
A review of the existing service and hospitality literature provided a range of dimensions and attributes of the hotel servicescape which were used as the basis for a Q sort technique to determine the content adequacy of newly-developed and existing items. Testing the emergent items was done through a questionnaire that was distributed at five luxury upscale hotels in London providing 612 fully valid responses, which, using a split sample, were subjected to both exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis to explore the dimensionality and reliability of the instrument.
Although the Q-sort suggested four key dimensions, the outcome of the factor analyses revealed five dimensions with high reliability - aesthetic quality; functionality; atmosphere; spaciousness; and physiological conditions. ?Aesthetic quality? appeared to be the most important factor, followed by ?functionality?, ?atmosphere?, ?spaciousness? and ?physiological conditions?.
As this study was conducted with customers of upscale luxury hotels in London, the resulting scales need to be further tested in other hotel segments and in other locations.
This study provides upscale hotel managers with an effective measurement tool which will enable them to benchmark their operation and make improvements that could lead to a better impression and evaluation of their hotel. The scale has a variety of potential applications and can serve as a framework for further research in the hotel industry.
Despite the wide interest in and importance of the servicescape in hotels, there are only a few studies dealing with this subject in the hotel context. This study provides a new tool for measuring customers? perceptions.
Beginning with a reconceptualisation of performance as an emergent property rather than a contingent property, the research then applies the Critical Realist logic of inference, known as retroduction, which explains events through the identification of mechanisms which are capable of producing them. The emergence of performance in hospitality organisations is thus investigated through the exposure of the underlying factors, the structures and generative mechanisms which influence both measurement and performance outcomes. The research results in a new understanding of the role of leadership in stewarding performance by the selective deployment of the organisational measurement apparatus. It also re-evaluates the role of dissonant performance to promote innovative problem-solving to improve performance, and uncovers the delicate balancing act between the needs of principals and agents in the property owner / management company relationship. Most notably this work presents an augmented control theory of the measurement-performance link, which is a complex, multi-faceted and adaptive model with elements of the traditional control theory paradigm, as well as pre-emptive and pre-operational control elements.
The findings of this work challenge the prevailing paradigm of the subject area and update, refine and expand on the existing body of theory by offering a deeper, more comprehensive explanation of the measurement-performance link than previous works.
Previous research shows some links between customers? perceptions of their service experience in hotels, overall satisfaction and enhanced sales revenue. However, the ways in which the servicescape influences the customer and their perceptions of the hotel experience remains relatively unexplored.
This study explores the links between customers? perceptions of the hotel servicescape and their emotional and behavioural responses. Previous research has used scales developed for other industrial contexts and this study aims to develop an instrument directly relevant to the hotel context. To achieve this goal, a recently developed hotel specific servicescape scale was used but both the emotional and behavioural response scales were developed based on existing research but expanded to include items specifically for hotel customers.
Using a large-scale survey of hotel customers in London, analysis showed two dimensions of emotional responses and two dimensions of behavioural responses to be both valid and reliable for the hotel context. The study then successfully determined the relationship between five hotel servicescape dimensions and customers? emotional states and their behavioural responses. The findings showed the ways in which the hotel servicescape significantly affects both emotional and behavioural responses, having clear implications for both hotel design and management. The results also raised a number of interesting and potentially rewarding areas for further research.