David Russell-Jones

Professor David Russell-Jones

Vice-Chancellor's Fellow; Diabetes and Endocrinology
+44 (0)1483 688569
03 PGM 01

Academic and research departments

School of Biosciences.



Roselle A. Herring, Fariba Shojaee-Moradie, Robert Garesse, Mary Stevenage, Nicola Jackson, Barbara A. Fielding, Agampodi Mendis, Sigurd Johnsen, A. Margot Umpleby, Melanie Davies, David L. Russell-Jones (2020)Metabolic effects of an sglt2 inhibitor (Dapagliflozin) during a period of acute insulin withdrawal and development of ketoacidosis in people with type 1 diabetes, In: Diabetes care43(9)pp. 2128-2136 American Diabetes Association

OBJECTIVE To determine the effect of the sodium–glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor dapagliflozin on glucose flux, lipolysis, and ketone body concentrations during insulin withdrawal in people with type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study with a 4-week washout period was performed in 12 people with type 1 diabetes using insulin pump therapy. Participants received dapagliflozin or placebo in random order for 7 days. Stable isotopes were infused to measure the glucose Ra, Rd, and lipolysis. At isotopic steady state, insulin was withdrawn, and the study was terminated after 600 min or earlier if blood glucose reached 18 mmol/L, bicarbonate 27 and

Roselle A. Herring, Fariba Shojaee-Moradie, Robert Garesse, Mary Stevenage, Nicola Jackson, Barbara A. Fielding, Agampodi Mendis, Sigurd Johnsen, A. Margot Umpleby, Melanie Davies, David L. Russell-Jones (2021)Metabolic effects of an sglt2 inhibitor (Dapagliflozin) during a period of acute insulin withdrawal and development of ketoacidosis in people with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes care 2020;43:2128– 2136, In: Diabetes care44(3)E61 American Diabetes Association

Using the power of stable isotope techniques, our study explored the physiological effects of the SGLT2 inhibitor dapagliflozin on glucose flux, lipolysis, and ketone body concentration in people with acute absolute insulin withdrawal (1). The power of our study from the clinical perspective was the crossover design with each individual undergoing an identical insulin withdrawal protocol with the only difference being the presence or absence of an SGLT2 inhibitor.

Roselle A. Herring, Iain Parsons, Fariba Shojaee-Moradie, Mary Stevenage, Nicola Jackson, Ralph Manders, A. Margot Umpleby, Barbara A. Fielding, Melanie Davies, David L. Russell-Jones (2023)Effect of Dapagliflozin on Cardiac Function and Metabolic and Hormonal Responses to Exercise, In: The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism108(4)pp. 888-896 Oxford University Press

Objective This work aimed to investigate the effect of the SGLT2 inhibitor, dapagliflozin (DAPA), on cardiac function and the metabolic and hormonal response to moderate exercise in people with type 2 diabetes. Methods This was a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study with a 4-week washout period. Nine participants were randomly assigned to receive either 4 weeks of DAPA or 4 weeks of placebo. After each treatment, they underwent an exercise protocol with 2 consecutive 10-minute stages at a constant load corresponding to 40% and 70% maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), coupled with hormonal and metabolic analysis. A blinded transthoracic echocardiogram was performed 3 days later. Results During the exercise protocol, glucose and lactate were lower (P < .0001 and P < .05, respectively) and β-hydroxybutyrate (BOBH) and growth hormone (GH) were higher (P < .0005 and P = .01) following DAPA treatment compared to placebo. There was a trend for lower insulin with DAPA. Adrenalin, noradrenalin, and glucagon were not different. Following DAPA participants demonstrated an increased mean peak diastolic mitral annular velocity (e’) in comparison to placebo (P = .03). The indexed left atrial volume and right ventricular e” were reduced following DAPA compared with placebo (P = .045 and P = .042, respectively). Arterial stiffness was not different between treatments (DAPA 9.35 ± 0.60 m/s; placebo 9.07 ± 0.72 m/s). Conclusion During exercise, GH may be more important than catecholamines in driving the shift from glucose to fatty acid metabolism by SGLT2 inhibitors. The 4-week crossover design showed changes in cardiac function were rapid in onset and reversible.

Aleksandra Kotwica, Harry Knights, Nikhil Mayor, Emma Russell-Jones, Theodore Dassios, David Russell-Jones (2021)Intrapulmonary shunt measured by bedside pulse oximetry predicts worse outcomes in severe COVID-19, In: The European respiratory journal57(4)2003841 European Respiratory Soc Journals Ltd
Gillian L Garden, Julia L Hine, Stuart J Mitchell, Ewan J Hutchison, Thomas P Gaffney, Veronika Hofmann, Brian M Frier, Kenneth M Shaw, Simon R Heller, Gerd Koehler, Graham A Roberts, David L Russell-Jones (2020)An evaluation of the safety of pilots with insulin-treated diabetes in europe flying commercial and noncommercial aircraft, In: Diabetes care43(12)pp. 2923-2929

The risk of hypoglycemia in people with insulin-treated diabetes has debarred them from certain "safety-critical" occupations, including flying commercial aircraft. This report evaluates the effectiveness of a protocol enabling a large cohort of insulin-treated pilots to fly commercially. This was an observational study of pilots with insulin-treated diabetes who were granted medical certification to fly commercial and noncommercial aircraft. Clinical details, pre- and in-flight (hourly and 30 min before landing) blood glucose values were correlated against the protocol-specified ranges: green (5-15 mmol/L), amber (low, 4-4.9 mmol/L; high, 15.1-20 mmol/L), and red (low, 20 mmol/L). A total of 49 pilots with type 1 (84%) or type 2 (16%) diabetes who had been issued class 1 or class 2 certificates were studied. Median diabetes duration was 10.9 years. Mean HbA was 7.2% (55.0 mmol/mol) before certification and 7.2% (55.1 mmol/mol) after certification ( = 0.97). Blood glucose values ( = 38,621) were recorded during 22,078 flying hours. Overall, 97.69% of measurements were within the green range, 1.42% within the low amber range, and 0.75% within the high amber range. Only 0.12% of readings were within the low red range and 0.02% within the high red range. Out-of-range readings declined from 5.7% in 2013 to 1.2% in 2019. No episodes of pilot incapacitation occurred, and glycemic control did not deteriorate. The protocol is practical to implement, and no events compromising safety were reported. This study represents what is, to our knowledge, the most extensive data set from people with insulin-treated diabetes working in a "safety-critical" occupation, which may be relevant when estimating risk in other safety-critical occupations.

Harry Knights, Nikhil Mayor, Kristina Millar, Matthew Cox, Evgeniya Bunova, Morgan Hughes, Jack Baker, Sanju Mathew, David Russell-Jones, Aleksandra Kotwica (2020)Characteristics and outcomes of patients with COVID-19 at a district general hospital in Surrey, UK, In: Clinical medicine (London, England)20(5)pp. e148-E153

This retrospective cohort study aims to define the clinical findings and outcomes of every patient admitted to a district general hospital in Surrey with COVID-19 in March 2020, providing a snapshot of the first wave of infection in the UK. This study is the first detailed insight into the impact of frailty markers on patient outcomes and provides the infection rate among healthcare workers. Data were obtained from medical records. Outcome measures were level of oxygen therapy, discharge and death. Patients were followed up until 21 April 2020. 108 patients were included. 34 (31%) died in hospital or were discharged for palliative care. 43% of patients aged over 65 died. The commonest comorbidities were hypertension (49; 45%) and diabetes (25; 23%). Patients who died were older (mean difference ±SEM, 13.76±3.12 years; p

Nikhil Mayor, Harry Knights, Aleksandra Kotwica, Andrew Solomon Joseph Coppola, Harriet Hunter, Nathan Jeffreys, Alexander Morgan, Shivani Gupta, James Prentice, Rebecca Macfarlane, Emma Russell-Jones, Theodore Dassios, David Russell-Jones (2022)Intrapulmonary shunting is a key contributor to hypoxia in COVID-19: An update on the pathophysiology, In: PloS one17(10)0273402 Public Library Science

BackgroundThe pathophysiology of COVID-19 remains poorly understood. We aimed to estimate the contribution of intrapulmonary shunting and ventilation-to-perfusion (V-A/Q) mismatch using a mathematical model to construct oxygen-haemoglobin dissociation curves (ODCs). MethodsODCs were constructed using transcutaneous pulse oximetry at two different fractions of inspired oxygen (FiO(2)). 199 patients were included from two large district general hospitals in the South East of England from 1(st) to 14(th) January 2021. The study was supported by the National Institute of Health Research (NIHR) Clinical Research Network. ResultsOverall mortality was 29%. Mean age was 68.2 years (SEM 1 center dot 2) with 46% female. Median shunt on admission was 17% (IQR 8-24.5); V-A/Q was 0.61 (IQR 0.52-0.73). Shunt was 37.5% higher in deaths (median 22%, IQR 9-29) compared to survivors (16%, 8-21; p = 0.0088) and was a predictor of mortality (OR 1.04; 95% CI 1.01-1.07). Admission oxygen saturations were more strongly predictive of mortality (OR 0.91, 95% CI 0.87-0.96). There was no difference in V-A/Q mismatch between deaths (0.60; IQR 0.50-0.73) and survivors (0.61; IQR 0.52-0.73; p = 0.63) and it was not predictive of mortality (OR 0.68; 95% CI 0.18-2.52; p = 0.55). Shunt negatively correlated with admission oxygen saturation (R -0.533; p

David Russell-Jones, Zosanglura Bawlchhim (2023)Discovery of insulin 100 years on, In: Postgraduate medical journal99(1173)e22141651pp. 661-668 Oxford Univ Press

The discovery of insulin 100 years ago ranks among the greatest medical achievements ever. This sparked a revolution of scientific discovery and therapeutic intervention to treat people suffering with diabetes. A light was shone for other areas of medicine to illuminate what was possible with detailed scientific endeavour. There followed a range of firsts leading to the current time in which we now know more about this peptide hormone than almost any other protein in existence. This has allowed therapeutic advancement from a positon of knowledge leading to stunning innovation. This innovation is likely to lead to more physiological insulin replacement reducing the disease burden to individuals and society as whole.

S. Bain, M. Feher, M. Fisher, N. Hex, K. C. S. Lee, J. Mahon, D. Russell-Jones, H. Schou, E. G. Wilmot, M. Baxter (2020)A review of the NG17 recommendations for the use of basal insulin in type 1 diabetes, In: Diabetic medicine37(2)219pp. 219-228

Aims To revisit the data analysis used to inform National Institute of Health and Care Excellence (NICE) NG17 guidance for initiating basal insulin in adults with type 1 diabetes mellitus (diabetes). Methods We replicated the data, methodology and analysis used by NICE diabetes in the NG17 network meta‐analysis (NMA). We expanded this data cohort to a more contemporary data set (extended 2017 NMA) and restricted the studies included to improve the robustness of the data set (restricted 2017 NMA) and in a post hoc analysis, changed the index comparator from neutral protamine Hagedorn (NPH) insulin twice daily to insulin detemir twice daily. Results The absolute changes in HbA1c were similar to those reported in the NG17. However, all 95% credible intervals for change in HbA1c point estimates crossed the line of null effect, except for detemir twice daily (in the NICE and extended 2017 NMAs) and NPH four times daily. In the detemir twice‐daily centred post hoc analysis, the 95% credible intervals for change in HbA1c crossed the line of null effect for all basal therapies, except NPH. Conclusions In NG17, comparisons of basal insulins were based solely on efficacy of glycaemic control. Many of the trials used in this analysis were treat‐to‐target, which minimize differences in HbA1c. In the NMAs, statistical significance was severely undermined by the wide credible intervals. Despite these limitations, point estimates of HbA1c were used to rank the insulins and formed the basis of NG17 guidance. This study queries whether such analyses should be used to make specific clinical recommendations. What's new? This study found no significant differences in HbA1c reduction between twice‐daily detemir and modern basal insulin comparators in efficacy trials; the apparent wide variation in HbA1c undermines the statistical robustness and the clinical relevance of the recommendation in the current National Institute of Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidelines for type 1 diabetes in adults (NG17). The analyses highlight the importance of the quantity and quality of data used in network meta‐analyses to allow clinically meaningful recommendations. With the lack of differentiating evidence to support twice‐daily detemir as the basal insulin of choice for type 1 diabetes, selection of basal insulin should be personalized to individual needs.

Gillian L. Garden, Brian M. Frier, Julia L. Hine, Ewan J. Hutchison, Stuart J. Mitchell, Kenneth M. Shaw, Simon R. Heller, Gerd Koehler, Veronika Hofmann, Thomas P. Gaffney, Declan Maher, Graham A. Roberts, David L. Russell-Jones (2021)Blood glucose monitoring by insulin-treated pilots of commercial and private aircraft: An analysis of out-of-range values, In: Diabetes, obesity & metabolism23(10)2303pp. 2303-2310 Wiley

Aim To examine blood glucose measurements recorded as part of the diabetes protocol operated by the UK, Ireland and Austria, which allows commercial airline pilots with insulin-treated diabetes to fly. Methods An observational study was conducted in pilots with insulin-treated diabetes, granted medical certification to fly commercial or noncommercial aircraft, who recorded pre-flight and hourly in-flight blood glucose measurements. These values were correlated to a traffic light system (green 5.0 to 15.0 mmol/L; amber 4.0 to 4.9 mmol/L and 15.1 to 20.0 mmol/L; and red 20.0 mmol/L) and studied for trends in glucose concentrations, time course within flight and any consequences. Pilot demographics were also analysed. Results Forty-four pilots (90%) recorded one or more blood glucose value outside the green range during the 7 years of the study. Pilot age, diabetes type and duration, and follow-up period were comparable among subgroups, and mean glycated haemoglobin did not differ before and after certification in a way which would indicate poorer glycaemic control in any subgroup. A total of 892 blood glucose values (2.31%) were outside the green range, with half reported in-flight at various time intervals. There were 48 (0.12%) low red range values recorded, 14 (0.04%) of which occurred in-flight; all but four were restored to within the green range by the time of the next measurement. Appropriate corrective action was taken for all out-of-range values, with no reports of pilot incapacitation from any cause. Conclusions The traffic light system appears effective in identifying and reducing the frequency and severity of out-of-range values.

Roselle A Herring, Fariba Shojaee-Moradie, Mary Stevenage, Iain Parsons , NICOLA JACKSON, JEEWAKA MENDIS, BENITA ANNE MIDDLETON, A. Margot Umpleby , BARBARA ANN FIELDING, Melanie Davies, David L Russell-Jones (2022)The SGLT2 Inhibitor Dapagliflozin Increases the Oxidation of Ingested Fatty Acids to Ketones in Type 2 Diabetes, In: Diabetes care American Diabetes Association

Objective. To investigate the mechanism for increased ketogenesis following treatment with SGLT2 inhibitor, dapagliflozin in people with type 2 diabetes. Research, Design & Methods. This was a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study with a 4-week washout period. Participants received dapagliflozin or placebo in random order for 4 weeks. After each treatment, they ingested 30ml of olive oil containing [U-13C] palmitate to measure ketogenesis with blood sampling for 480 min. Stable isotopes of glucose and glycerol were infused to measure glucose flux and lipolysis respectively at 450-480 min. Results. Glucose excretion rate was higher and peripheral glucose uptake lower with dapagliflozin than placebo. Plasma beta-hydroxybutyrate (BOHB) concentrations and [13C2] BOHB concentrations were higher and glucose concentrations lower with dapagliflozin than placebo. Non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) were higher with dapagliflozin at 300 and 420 min but lipolysis at 450-480 min was not different. Triacylglycerol (TAG) at all time points and endogenous glucose production rate at 450-480 min were not different between treatments. Conclusions. The increase in ketone enrichment from the ingested palmitic acid tracer suggests meal derived fatty acids contribute to the increase in ketones during treatment with dapagliflozin. The increase in BOHB concentration with dapagliflozin, occurred with only minimal changes in plasma NEFA concentration and no change in lipolysis. This suggests a metabolic switch to increase ketogenesis within the liver.

Melanie J. Davies, Julio Rosenstock, Amar Ali, David Russell-Jones, Elisabeth Souhami, Karen Palmer, Chen Ji, Elisabeth Niemoeller, Neil Skolnik (2022)Efficacy of iGlarLixi in adults with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled (glycated haemoglobin ≥8%, ≥64 mmol/mol) on two oral antidiabetes drugs: Post hoc analysis of the LixiLan-O randomized trial, In: Diabetes, obesity & metabolism24(1)pp. 34-41 Blackwell Publishing Ltd
David L. Russell-Jones, Ewan J. Hutchison, Graham A. Roberts (2021)Pilots flying with insulin-treated diabetes, In: Diabetes, obesity & metabolism23(7)1439pp. 1439-1444 Wiley

People with diabetes treated with insulin have often faced blanket bans from safety-critical occupations, largely because of fear of incapacitation due to hypoglycaemia. Recent advances in insulin therapies, modes of administration, monitoring, and noninvasive monitoring techniques have allowed stereotypical views to be challenged. The aviation sector has led the way, in allowing pilots to fly while on insulin. Recently, countries that have traditionally been opposed to this have changed their minds, largely due to the increasing evidence of safety. The purpose of this review was to gather all available information to update clinicans. The physiology and pathophysiology underpinning glucose regulation and the management of diabetes in the air allowing certain insulin-treated pilots to fly are discussed.

David Russell-Jones, Roselle Herring (2021)100 years of physiology, discrimination and wonder, In: Diabetic medicine38(12)e14642pp. e14642-n/a

There has been 100 years of research detailing the role of insulin in glucose, protein and free fatty acid metabolism. We explore the learnings though evolution and changes in management with an understanding of how it has impacted the care of people with diabetes. The discrimination endured is described and recent advances to empower and counter this are highlighted.

Athena Philis-Tsimikas, Harpreet S Bajaj, Kamilla Begtrup, Roman Cailleteau, Amoolya Gowda, Ildiko Lingvay, Chantal Mathieu, David Russell-Jones, Julio Rosenstock (2023)Rationale and design of the phase 3a development programme (ONWARDS 1–6 trials) investigating once-weekly insulin icodec in diabetes, In: Diabetes, obesity & metabolism25(2)331pp. 331-341

To describe the phase 3a ONWARDS clinical development programme investigating insulin icodec (icodec), a once-weekly basal insulin, including the design and rationale for each of the ONWARDS 1-6 trials. Six randomized controlled trials have been initiated in adults with type 2 diabetes (T2D) (insulin-naive: ONWARDS 1, 3 and 5; previously insulin-treated: ONWARDS 2 and 4) and type 1 diabetes (T1D) (ONWARDS 6). Each trial will investigate icodec use in a unique clinical scenario, with consideration of long-term safety and varied comparator treatments (insulin glargine U100 or U300 or insulin degludec). ONWARDS 5 will incorporate real-world elements and a digital dose titration solution to guide icodec dosing. The primary objective for each of the trials is to compare the change in HbA1c from baseline to week 26 or week 52 between icodec and comparator arms. Secondary objectives include investigating other glycaemic control and safety parameters, such as fasting glucose, time in glycaemic range and hypoglycaemia. Patient-reported outcomes will assess treatment satisfaction. The ONWARDS 1-6 trials will evaluate the efficacy and safety of once-weekly icodec compared with currently available daily basal insulin analogues in T2D and T1D. These trials will generate comprehensive evidence of icodec use in diverse populations across the spectrum of diabetes progression and treatment experience.

Idrisu Sanusi, Alexander Sarnowski, David Russell-Jones, Lui G. Forni (2020)A potential diagnostic problem on the ICU: Euglycaemic diabetic Ketoacidosis associated with SGLT2 inhibition, In: Journal of critical care5719pp. 19-22 Elsevier

Sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are the latest class of oral hypoglycaemic agents approved to treat type II diabetes. Their use is increasing and as such more patients will present to critical care whilst on this treatment. However, there have been several case reports of euglycaemic diabetic ketoacidosis associated with the use of these agents. Under such circumstances the blood glucose is often normal or only moderately elevated and hence the diagnosis may be delayed resulting in inappropriate therapy. In this review we describe a case of SGLT2 mediated ketoacidosis who presented to our intensive care unit, discuss the proposed pathophysiology behind this development of ketoacidosis as well as its potential prevention, management and treatment. Crown Copyright (c) 2019 Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Gillian L Garden, Fariba Shojaee-Moradie, Ewan J Hutchison, Brian M Frier, Kenneth M Shaw, Simon R Heller, Gerd Koehler, Julia K Mader, Declan Maher, Graham A Roberts, David L Russell-Jones (2023)Continuous Glucose Monitoring by Insulin-Treated Pilots Flying Commercial Aircraft Within the ARA.MED.330 Diabetes Protocol: A Preliminary Feasibility Study, In: Diabetes technology & therapeutics25(8)pp. 543-548

A preliminary study compared the use of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) with the use of self-monitored blood glucose (SMBG) by aircraft pilots with insulin-treated diabetes in the United Kingdom, Ireland, and Austria, certified to fly commercial aircraft within the European Aviation Safety Agency ARA.MED.330 protocol. SMBG and simultaneous interstitial glucose measurements using CGM (Dexcom G6 ) were recorded during pre- and in-flight periods. Eight male pilots (seven with type 1 diabetes and one with type 3c diabetes), median age of 48.5 years and median diabetes duration of 11.5 years, participated. The correlation coefficient ( ) between 874 contemporaneously recorded SMBG and CGM values was 0.843,  

I. T. Parsons, A. T. Parsons, E. Balme, G. Hazell, R. Gifford, M. Stacey, D. R. Woods, D. Russell-Jones (2021)The use of routine blood tests to assist the diagnosis of COVID-19 in symptomatic hospitalized patients, In: Annals of clinical biochemistry58(4)0004563221999076pp. 318-326 Sage

Introduction Specific patterns of blood test results are associated with COVID-19 infection. The aim of this study was to identify which blood tests could be used to assist in diagnosing COVID-19. Method A retrospective review was performed on consecutive patients referred to hospital with a clinical suspicion of COVID-19 over a period of four weeks. The patient's clinical presentation and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR) were recorded. The patients were divided by diagnosis into COVID (COVID-19 infection) or CONTROL (an alternate diagnosis). A retrospective review of consecutive patients over a further two-week period was used for the purposes of validation. Results Overall, 399 patients (53% COVID, 47% CONTROL) were analysed. White cell count, neutrophils and lymphocytes were significantly lower, while lactate dehydrogenase and ferritin were significantly higher, in the COVID group in comparison to CONTROL. Combining the white cell count, lymphocytes and ferritin results into a COVID Combined Blood Test (CCBT) had an area under the curve of 0.79. Using a threshold CCBT of -0.8 resulted in a sensitivity of 0.85 and a specificity of 0.63. Analysing this against a further retrospective review of 181 suspected COVID-19 patients, using the same CCBT threshold, resulted in a sensitivity of 0.73 and a specificity of 0.75. The sensitivity was comparable to the SARS-CoV-2 RT PCR. Discussion Mathematically combining the blood tests has the potential to assist clinical acumen allowing for rapid streaming and more accurate patient flow pending definitive diagnosis. This may be of particular use in low-resource settings.

Bruce Bode, Aaron King, David Russell-Jones, Liana K. Billings (2021)Leveraging advances in diabetes technologies in primary care: a narrative review, In: Annals of medicine (Helsinki)53(1)pp. 805-816 Taylor & Francis

Primary care providers (PCPs) play an important role in providing medical care for patients with type 2 diabetes. Advancements in diabetes technologies can assist PCPs in providing personalised care that addresses each patient's individual needs. Diabetes technologies fall into two major categories: devices for glycaemic self-monitoring and insulin delivery systems. Monitoring technologies encompass self-measured blood glucose (SMBG), where blood glucose is intermittently measured by a finger prick blood sample, and continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) devices, which use an interstitial sensor and are capable of giving real-time information. Studies show people using real-time CGM have better glucose control compared to SMBG. CGM allows for new parameters including time in range (the time spent within the desired target glucose range), which is an increasingly relevant real-time metric of glycaemic control. Insulin pens have increased the ease of administration of insulin and connected pens that can calculate and capture data on dosing are becoming available. There are a number of websites, software programs, and applications that can help PCPs and patients to integrate diabetes technology into their diabetes management schedules. In this article, we summarise these technologies and provide practical information to inform PCPs about utility in their clinical practice. The guiding principle is that use of technology should be individualised based on a patient's needs, desires, and availability of devices. Diabetes technology can help patients improve their clinical outcomes and achieve the quality of life they desire by decreasing disease burden. KEY MESSAGES It is important to understand the role that diabetes technologies can play in primary care to help deliver high-quality care, taking into account patient and community resources. Diabetes technologies fall into two major categories: devices for glycaemic self-monitoring and insulin delivery systems. Modern self-measured blood glucose devices are simple to use and can help guide decision making for self-management plans to improve clinical outcomes, but cannot provide "live" data and may under- or overestimate blood glucose; patients' monitoring technique and compliance should be reviewed regularly. Importantly, before a patient is provided with monitoring technology, they must receive suitably structured education in its use and interpretation. Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) is now standard of care for people with type 1 diabetes and people with type 2 diabetes on meal-time (prandial) insulin. Real-time CGM can tell both the patient and the healthcare provider when glucose is in the normal range, and when they are experiencing hyper- or hypoglycaemia. Using CGM data, changes in lifestyle, eating habits, and medications, including insulin, can help the patient to stay in a normal glycaemic range (70-180 mg/dL). Real-time CGM allows for creation of an ambulatory glucose profile and monitoring of time in range (the time spent within target blood glucose of 70-180 mg/dL), which ideally should be at least 70%; avoiding time above range (>180 mg/dL) is associated with reduced diabetes complications and avoiding time below range (

H Soulsby, D Russell-Jones (2010)Does diabetes put you at risk of tetanus?, In: Practical Diabetes International27(9)pp. 381-382

This 81-year-old man with a history of type 2 diabetes presented with a cramping right arm, trismus, stiffness in the jaw, swallowing and breathing difficulties. He developed respiratory failure shortly after admission so was intubated on the intensive therapy unit where he received tetanus immunoglobulin and a course of metronidazole. Kilic et al. compared the level of tetanus antitoxin between patients with type 2 diabetes and healthy controls. They found a statistically significant difference between the groups, with people with diabetes having lower antitoxin levels. A further study shows that serum levels of tetanus antibody significantly decrease in diabetic patients older than 50 years of age. Among patients with diabetes only 55.9% had protective levels of antitoxin when aged 50-64 compared to 73.8% of controls. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

D Sennik, F Ahmed, D Russell-Jones (2012)Exenatide, a GLP-1 agonist in the treatment of Type 2 diabetes, In: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism7(1)pp. 15-26

Incretin-based therapies represent a new and innovative treatment modality in the management of Type 2 diabetes. Their therapeutic actions address many of the key metabolic defects in the pathophysiology of diabetes. Incretin hormones augment insulin secretion in a glucose-dependent manner. They have a low risk of inducing hypoglycemia, unlike many other antidiabetic medications. They also have the beneficial effect of being associated with early satiety, decreased caloric intake and weight loss. Exenatide was the first incretin-based therapy to be licensed for use and has now been developed in a once-weekly preparation. We review the evidence base for the use of exenatide and discuss the implications for the management of diabetes. © 2012 Expert Reviews Ltd.

Roselle A. Herring, Fariba Shojaee-Moradie, Robert Garesse, Mary Stevenage, Nicola Jackson, Barbara Fielding, Agampodi Mendis, Sigurd Johnsen, Margot Umpleby, Melanie Davies, David L. Russell-Jones (2020)Full Title Metabolic effects of an SGLT2 inhibitor (dapagliflozin) during a period of acute insulin withdrawal and development of ketoacidosis in people with type 1 diabetes., In: Diabetes Care American Diabetes Association

Objective: To determine the effect of SGLT2 inhibitor dapagliflozin on glucose flux, lipolysis and ketone body concentrations during insulin withdrawal in people with type 1 diabetes. Research Design and Methods: A double-blind placebo controlled crossover study with a 4-week wash out period was performed in 12 people with type 1 diabetes using insulin pump therapy. Participants received dapagliflozin or placebo in random order for 7 days. Stable isotopes were infused to measure the rate of glucose production (Ra), disappearance (Rd) and lipolysis. At isotopic steady state insulin was withdrawn and the study terminated after 600 minutes or earlier if blood glucose reached 18mmol/L, bicarbonate 27 and

D Russell-Jones, RM Cuddihy, M Hanefeld, A Kumar, JG González, M Chan, AM Wolka, MK Boardman, DURATION-4 Study Group (2012)Efficacy and safety of exenatide once weekly versus metformin, pioglitazone, and sitagliptin used as monotherapy in drug-naive patients with type 2 diabetes (DURATION-4): a 26-week double-blind study., In: Diabetes Care35(2)pp. 252-258

To test the safety and efficacy of exenatide once weekly (EQW) compared with metformin (MET), pioglitazone (PIO), and sitagliptin (SITA) over 26 weeks, in suboptimally treated (diet and exercise) drug-naive patients with type 2 diabetes.

F Smeeton, F Shojaee Moradie, RH Jones, L Westergaard, H Haahr, AM Umpleby, DL Russell-Jones (2009)Differential effects of insulin detemir and neutral protamine Hagedorn (NPH) insulin on hepatic glucose production and peripheral glucose uptake during hypoglycaemia in type 1 diabetes., In: Diabetologia52(11)pp. 2317-2323

We compared the symptoms of hypoglycaemia induced by insulin detemir (NN304) (B29Lys(epsilon-tetradecanoyl),desB30 human insulin) and equally effective doses of neutral protamine Hagedorn (NPH) insulin in relation to possible differential effects on hepatic glucose production and peripheral glucose uptake.

HL Simpson, NC Jackson, F Shojaee-Moradie, RH Jones, DL Russell-Jones, PH Sonksen, DB Dunger, AM Umpleby (2004)Insulin-like growth factor I has a direct effect on glucose and protein metabolism, but no effect on lipid metabolism in type 1 diabetes, In: JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGY & METABOLISM89(1)pp. 425-432 ENDOCRINE SOC
D Russell-Jones, R Khan (2007)Insulin-associated weight gain in diabetes - causes, effects and coping strategies, In: DIABETES OBESITY & METABOLISM9(6)pp. 799-812 BLACKWELL PUBLISHING
Martin B Whyte, Fariba Shojaee-Moradie, Sharaf E Sharaf, Nicola Jackson, Barbara Fielding, Roman Hovorka, Jeewaka Mendis, David Russell-Jones, A Margot Umpleby (2018)Lixisenatide reduces chylomicron triacylglycerol due to increased clearance, In: The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism104(2)pp. 359-368 Oxford University Press (OUP)

Context GLP-1 agonists control postprandial glucose and lipid excursion in type 2 diabetes; however the mechanism(s) are unclear. Objective To determine the mechanism(s) of postprandial lipid and glucose control with lixisenatide (GLP-1 analogue) in type 2 diabetes. Design Randomised, double-blind, cross-over study. Setting Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology, and Research, Royal Surrey County Hospital, Guildford, UK Patients Eight obese men with type 2 diabetes (57.3±1.9yrs; BMI 30.3±1.0kg/m2, HbA1C 66.5±2.6mmol/mol, [8.2±0.3%]). Interventions Two metabolic studies, four-weeks after lixisenatide or placebo; with cross-over and repetition of studies. Main outcome measures Study one: very-low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and chylomicron (CM) triacylglycerol (TAG) kinetics were measured with iv bolus of [2H5]glycerol in a 12h study, with hourly feeding. Oral [13C]triolein, in a single meal, labelled enterally-derived TAG. Study two: glucose kinetics were measured with [U-13C]glucose in a mixed-meal (plus acetaminophen to measure gastric emptying) and variable iv [6,6-2H2]glucose infusion. Results Study one: CM-TAG (but not VLDL-TAG) pool-size, was lower with lixisenatide (P=0.046). Lixisenatide reduced CM [13C]oleate AUC60-480min concentration (P=0.048) and increased CM-TAG clearance; with no effect on CM-TAG production rate. Study two: postprandial glucose and insulin AUC0-240min were reduced with lixisenatide (P=0.0051, P˂0.05). Total glucose production rate (Ra) (P=0.015), Rameal (P=0.0098) and acetaminophen AUC0-360min (P=0.006) were lower with lixisenatide than placebo. Conclusions Lixisenatide reduced [13C]oleate concentration, derived from a single meal in CM-TAG, as well as glucose Rameal, through delayed gastric emptying. However day-long CM production, measured with repeated meal-feeding, was not reduced by lixisenatide and decreased CM-TAG concentration was due to increased CM-TAG clearance.

SB Bowes, M Umpleby, MH Cummings, NC Jackson, PV Carroll, C Lowy, PH Sonksen, DL RussellJones (1997)The effect of recombinant human growth hormone on glucose and leucine metabolism in Cushing's syndrome, In: JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGY & METABOLISM82(1)pp. 243-246 ENDOCRINE SOC
A Brackenridge, ER Pearson, F Shojaee-Moradie, AT Hattersley, D Russell-Jones, AM Umpleby (2006)Contrasting insulin sensitivity of endogenous glucose production rate in subjects with hepatocyte nuclear factor-1 beta and -1 alpha mutations, In: DIABETES55(2)pp. 405-411 AMER DIABETES ASSOC

Liraglutide is a new glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist and a true GLP-1 analogue. After successful phase 2 studies, liraglutide was assessed in a series of phase 3 trials [(Liraglutide Effect and Action in Diabetes (LEAD)] designed to demonstrate efficacy and safety across the continuum of type 2 diabetes antihyperglycaemic care, both as monotherapy and in combination with commonly used oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs). The LEAD programme also compared liraglutide with other OADs. As a monotherapy, liraglutide demonstrated significant improvements in glycaemic control in comparison with glimepiride. When combined with one or two OADs, reductions in haemoglobin A1c, fasting plasma glucose and postprandial glucose were generally greater with liraglutide than with comparators. Throughout the trials, liraglutide was associated with weight reduction; in most instances, the reduction from baseline was significantly greater than that seen with comparators. Improvements in assessments of beta-cell function were consistently shown with liraglutide treatment across all trials. Furthermore, reductions in systolic blood pressure were reported. Liraglutide was associated with a low risk of hypoglycaemia and was generally well tolerated. The majority of adverse effects were gastrointestinal, the most frequent of which was nausea.

R Herring, DL Russell-Jones, C Pengilley, H Hopkins, B Tuthill, J Wright, SV Hordern, S Davidson (2013)Management of raised glucose, a clinical decision tool to reduce length of stay of patients with hyperglycaemia., In: Diabet Med30(1)pp. 81-87

To assess whether the introduction of a management of raised glucose clinical decision tool could improve assessment of patients with hyperglycaemia by non-specialist physicians, leading to early discharge and improved quality of inpatient care.

C Pedersen, U Ijaz, E Gallagher, F Horton, R Ellis, Etana Joy Jaiyeola, T Duparc, David Russell-Jones, P Hinton, P Cani, Roberto La Ragione, Margaret Robertson (2018)Faecal Enterobacteriales enrichment is associated with increased in-vivo intestinal permeability in humans, In: Physiological Reports6(7)e13649 Wiley Open Access

Type 2 diabetes (T2D) has been linked with increased intestinal permeability, but the clinical significance of this phenomenon is unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential link between glucose control, intestinal permeability, diet and intestinal microbiota in patients with T2D. Thirty-two males with well-controlled T2D and 30 age-matched male controls without diabetes were enrolled in a case-control study. Metabolic parameters, inflammatory markers, endotoxaemia and intestinal microbiota in individuals subdivided into high (HP) and normal (LP) colonic permeability groups, were the main outcomes. In T2D, the HP group had significantly higher fasting glucose (P = 40 0.034) and plasma non-esterified fatty acid levels (P = 0.05) compared with the LP group. Increased colonic permeability was also linked with altered abundances of selected microbial taxa. The microbiota of both T2D and control HP groups was enriched with Enterobacteriales. In conclusion, high intestinal permeability was associated with poorer fasting glucose control in T2D patients and changes in some microbial taxa in both T2D patients and non-diabetic controls. Therefore, enrichment in the gram- negative order Enterobacteriales may characterise impaired colonic permeability prior to/independently from a disruption in glucose tolerance.

D Russell-Jones, A Vaag, O Schmitz, BK Sethi, N Lalic, S Antic, M Zdravkovic, GM Ravn, R Simó, Liraglutide Effect and Action in Diabetes 5 (LEAD-5) met+SU Stud (2009)Liraglutide vs insulin glargine and placebo in combination with metformin and sulfonylurea therapy in type 2 diabetes mellitus (LEAD-5 met+SU): a randomised controlled trial., In: Diabetologia52(10)pp. 2046-2055

The aim of the study was to compare the efficacy and safety of liraglutide in type 2 diabetes mellitus vs placebo and insulin glargine (A21Gly,B31Arg,B32Arg human insulin), all in combination with metformin and glimepiride.

D Russell-Jones (2010)The safety and tolerability of GLP-1 receptor agonists in the treatment of type-2 diabetes., In: Int J Clin Pract64(10)pp. 1402-1414

Established therapies for type-2 diabetes effectively reduce blood glucose, but are often associated with adverse effects that pose risks to patient's health or diminish adherence to treatment. Weight gain, hypoglycaemia and gastrointestinal symptoms are commonly reported and some agents may not be safe for use in patients with renal impairment or elevated cardiovascular risk. New treatments based on the action of the endogenous human hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), including exenatide and liraglutide, are available. These therapies provide a novel pharmacological approach to glycaemic control via multiple mechanisms of action, and accordingly exhibit different safety and tolerability profiles than conventional treatments. GLP-1 receptor agonists stimulate insulin release only in the presence of elevated blood glucose and are therefore associated with a fairly low risk of hypoglycaemia. Gastrointestinal symptoms are common but transient, and there appears to be little potential for interaction with other drugs. GLP-1 receptor agonists are associated with weight loss rather than weight gain. As protein-based therapies, these agents have the potential to induce antibody formation, but the impact on efficacy and safety is minor. GLP-1 receptor agonists thus offer a new and potentially useful option for clinicians concerned about some of the common adverse effects of type-2 diabetes therapies.

CE Higham, S Rowles, D Russell-Jones, AM Umpleby, PJ Trainer (2009)Pegvisomant improves insulin sensitivity and reduces overnight free fatty acid concentrations in patients with acromegaly., In: J Clin Endocrinol Metab94(7)pp. 2459-2463

Acromegaly is complicated by an increased incidence of diabetes mellitus caused by impaired insulin sensitivity and reduced beta-cell function. Pegvisomant blocks activity at GH receptors, normalizing IGF-I in over 90% of patients and improving insulin sensitivity. The mechanisms for this increase in insulin sensitivity are not fully determined. We used stable isotope techniques to investigate the effects of pegvisomant on glucose and lipid metabolism in acromegaly.

Study Type - Therapy (RCT) Level of Evidence 1b What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Men with prostate cancer have higher rates of non-cancer mortality and CV morbidity and some of that excess risk has been attributed to the treatment they receive. ADT is an established treatment option for men with locally-advanced and metastatic prostate cancer and, although it has been shown to confer a disease-free survival advantage, it has also been associated with an increased incidence of CV disease and the metabolic syndrome (characterized by a cluster of CV risk factors, including insulin resistance). The benefits of the insulin sensitizer metformin and lifestyle intervention for reducing the incidence of metabolic syndrome have been shown in patients with impaired glucose tolerance. At the time of writing, the present study is the first to use metformin and lifestyle intervention in men with prostate cancer with the aim of reducing the risk of developing ADT-related CV morbidity and the metabolic syndrome. The study shows that lifestyle changes and metformin may indeed reduce the complications of androgen suppression in these men. Although further investigations are needed to establish which of the two interventions may be most beneficial, the favourable effects of a combination of these interventions on patients' quality of life and the potential for improved overall survival are of clinical significance.

D Russell-Jones, S Gough (2012)Recent advances in incretin-based therapies., In: Clin Endocrinol (Oxf)77(4)pp. 489-499

The global burden of type 2 diabetes is growing. Traditional therapies are suboptimal and there is a clear unmet need for treatments that offer effective glucose control while addressing the comorbid factors associated with diabetes, such as obesity and risk of cardiovascular disease, without the fear of hypoglycaemia. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors offer a novel way of reducing hyperglycaemia by targeting the incretin system. This review provides an overview of the development of incretin-based therapies and explains their differing modes of action compared with traditional interventions. A comparison of the clinical profiles of current glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists [liraglutide and exenatide (twice-daily and once-weekly)] and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (sitagliptin, saxagliptin, vildagliptin and linagliptin) is performed alongside a discussion of the placement of incretin-based therapies in treatment guidelines. Further improvements in this class are expected, and we will examine some of the novel glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors currently under development.

S Zachariah, B Sheldon, F Shojaee-Moradie, NC Jackson, K Backhouse, S Johnsen, RH Jones, AM Umpleby, DL Russell-Jones (2011)Insulin detemir reduces weight gain as a result of reduced food intake in patients with type 1 diabetes., In: Diabetes Care34(7)pp. 1487-1491 American Diabetes Association

Insulin detemir lacks the usual propensity for insulin to cause weight gain. We investigated whether this effect was a result of reduced energy intake and/or increased energy expenditure.

D Russell-Jones (2009)Molecular, pharmacological and clinical aspects of liraglutide, a once-daily human GLP-1 analogue, In: MOLECULAR AND CELLULAR ENDOCRINOLOGY297(1-2)pp. 137-140 ELSEVIER IRELAND LTD
Margaret Robertson, David Russell-Jones, A Umpleby, Derk-Jan Dijk (2013)Effects of three weeks of mild sleep restriction implemented in the home environment on multiple metabolic and endocrine markers in healthy young men, In: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental62(2)pp. 204-211 Elsevier

Objectives: Evidence for a causal relationship between sleep-loss and metabolism is derived primarily from short-term sleep deprivation studies in the laboratory. The objective of this study was to investigate whether small changes in sleep duration over a three week period while participants are living in their normal environment lead to changes in insulin sensitivity and other metabolic parameters. Methods: Nineteen healthy, young, normal-weight men were randomised to either sleep restriction (habitual bedtime minus 1.5 h) or a control condition (habitual bedtime) for three weeks. Weekly assessments of insulin sensitivity by hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp, anthropometry, vascular function, leptin and adiponectin were made. Sleep was assessed continuously using actigraphy and diaries. Results: Assessment of sleep by actigraphy confirmed that the intervention reduced daily sleep duration by 01:19 ± 00:15 (SE; p < 0.001). Sleep restriction led to changes in insulin sensitivity, body weight and plasma concentrations of leptin which varied during the three week period. There was no effect on plasma adiponectin or vascular function. Conclusions: Even minor reductions in sleep duration lead to changes in insulin sensitivity, body weight and other metabolic parameters which vary during the exposure period. Larger and longer longitudinal studies of sleep restriction and sleep extension are warranted. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

MD Robertson, JW Wright, E Loizon, C Debard, H Vidal, F Shojaee-Moradie, D Russell-Jones, AM Umpleby (2012)Insulin-sensitizing effects on muscle and adipose tissue after dietary fiber intake in men and women with metabolic syndrome., In: J Clin Endocrinol Metab97(9)pp. 3326-3332 The Endocrine Society

Context: Dietary fibers have been associated with a reduced incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in epidemiological studies; however, the precise mechanisms are unknown. Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and site of action of an insoluble dietary fiber derived from maize (HAM-RS2) in improving insulin resistance in subjects at increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Design: This study was a randomized, controlled crossover, dietary intervention study. Setting: The study was conducted at the Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology, and Research, Royal Surrey County Hospital, Guildford, United Kingdom. Participants: Fifteen men and women with insulin resistance participated in the study. Intervention: The intervention included 40 g/d HAM-RS2 compared with a matched placebo for 8 wk. Main Outcome Measures: After each supplement, participants underwent a two-step hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp study with the addition of glucose tracers; a meal tolerance test; arteriovenous sampling across forearm muscle tissue; and a sc adipose tissue biopsy for assessment of gene expression. Results: There was enhanced uptake of glucose into the forearm muscle measured by arteriovenous sampling (65 ± 15% increase after resistant starch; P < 0.001). Adipose tissue function was also affected, with enhanced fatty acid suppression after HAM-RS2 treatment and an increase in gene expression for hormone sensitive lipase (P = 0.005), perilipin (P = 0.011), lipoprotein lipase (P = 0.014), and adipose triglyceride lipase (P = 0.03) in biopsy samples. There was no effect on the insulin sensitivity of hepatic glucose production or plasma lipids after HAM-RS2. Conclusion: HAM-RS2 improved peripheral but not hepatic insulin resistance and requires further study as an intervention in patients with or at risk for type 2 diabetes.

AL Brackenridge, N Jackson, W Jefferson, M Stolinski, F Shojaee-Moradie, R Hovorka, AM Umpleby, D Russell-Jones (2009)Effects of rosiglitazone and pioglitazone on lipoprotein metabolism in patients with Type 2 diabetes and normal lipids, In: DIABETIC MEDICINE26(5)pp. 532-539 WILEY-BLACKWELL PUBLISHING, INC
K Backhouse, I Sarac, F Shojaee-Moradie, M Stolinski, MD Robertson, GS Frost, JD Bell, EL Thomas, JW Wright, D Russell-Jones, AM Umpleby (2012)Fatty acid flux and oxidation is increased by rimonabant in obese women, In: Metabolism-Clinical and Experimental
M Pollak, D Russell-Jones (2010)Insulin analogues and cancer risk: cause for concern or cause célèbre?, In: Int J Clin Pract64(5)pp. 628-636

People with diabetes, particularly those with type 2 diabetes, may be at an increased risk of cancer. Furthermore, their cancer risk may be modified by treatment choices. In this respect, metformin may be protective, whereas insulin and insulin analogues can function as growth factors and therefore have theoretical potential to promote tumour proliferation. Analogues causing inappropriate prolonged stimulation of the insulin receptor, or excess stimulation of the IGF-1 receptor, are the most likely to show mitogenic properties in laboratory studies. Some recent epidemiological studies appear to be consistent with these experimental findings, suggesting that there could be different relative risks for cancer associated with different insulins, although these studies have attracted some methodological criticism. However, it is biologically plausible that hormonal factors that influence neoplasia could begin to manifest their effects in surprisingly short timescales (within 2 years) and hence these epidemiological studies justify further research. Even if future research were to document an increase in cancer risk among insulin users, this would be unlikely to significantly diminish the favourable benefit-risk ratio for patients requiring insulin therapy. There is a need for further population studies and for the development of new laboratory models that are more sophisticated than previous experimental methods employed to assess potential tumour growth-promoting properties of insulins.

R Herring, R Knight, F Shojaee-Moradie, S Johnsen, AM Umpleby, N Jackson, R Jones, DJ Dijk, DL Russell-Jones (2015)Effect of Subcutaneous Insulin Detemir on Glucose Flux, Lipolysis and Electroencephalography in Type 1 Diabetes., In: Diabetes Obes Metab Wiley

To investigate the effects of subcutaneous detemir on glucose flux, lipid metabolism and brain function, twelve people with type 1 diabetes received in random order 0.5Units/kgBW detemir or NPH insulin. Glucose concentration was clamped at 5mmol/L then increased to 10mmol/L. Glucose production rate (glucose Ra), glucose uptake (glucose Rd) and glycerol production (glycerol Ra) were measured with a constant iv infusion of [6,6(2) H2 ]glucose and [(2) H5 ]glycerol. Electroencephalography direct (DC) and alternating (AC) current potentials were measured. While detemir induced comparable effects on glucose Ra, glucose Rd and glycerol Ra during euglycaemia, compared with NPH, it triggered a distinct negative shift in DC-potentials, with significant treatment effect in frontal cerebrocortical channels (p

AL Brackenridge, N Jackson, F Shojaee-Moradie, AM Umpleby, D Russell-Jones (2005)The effect of rosiglitazone and pioglitazone on VLDL apolipoprotein B metabolism in patients with type 2 diabetes, In: DIABETES54pp. A234-A234
AL Brackenridge, ER Pearson, F Shojaee-Moradie, AT Hattersley, D Russell-Jones, AM Umpleby (2005)Subjects with HNF-1 beta mutations have isolated insulin resistance of endogenous glucose production rate in contrast to normal insulin sensitivity in subjects with HNF-1 alpha mutations, In: DIABETOLOGIA48pp. A69-A69
FJ Smeeton, F Shojaee-Moradie, N Jackson, L Westergaard, L Endahl, H Haahr, AM Umpleby, D Russell-Jones (2007)No difference in cognitive function, symptoms or counter-regulatory responses after induced hypoglycaemia in subjects with type 1 diabetes, In: DIABETES56pp. A168-A168
P Carroll, E Christ, I Gowrie, N Jackson, R Hovorka, E Albany, S Bowes, M Umpleby, P Sonksen, D RussellJones (1997)Daily rhIGF-I augments the anabolic effect of insulin in adults with IDDM., In: DIABETES46pp. 945-945 AMER DIABETES ASSOC
DL Russell-Jones, AM Umpleby, TR Hennessy, SB Bowes, F Shojaee-Moradie, KD Hopkins, NC Jackson, JM Kelly, RH Jones, PH Sonksen (1994)Use of a leucine clamp to demonstrate that IGF-I actively stimulates protein synthesis in normal humans, In: American Journal of Physiology - Endocrinology and Metabolism267(4 30-4)

Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) is thought to mediate the anabolic action of growth hormone. A glucose and amino acid clamp technique was used to investigate the effects of a 3-h intravenous infusion of either 43.7 pmol · kg-1 · min-1 (20 μg · kg-1 · h-1) IGF-I or 3.4 pmol · kg-1 · min-1 (0.5 mU · kg-1 · min-1) insulin on whole body leucine turnover in five normal human volunteers. During the IGF-I infusion, IGF-I levels increased (P < 0.01; 26.6 ± 2.8 to 88.9 ± 14.2 nmol/l) and insulin levels fell (P < 0.05; 0.096 ± 0.018 to 0.043 ± 0.009 nmol/l). During the insulin infusion, insulin levels increased (P < 0.01; 0.057 ± 0.013 to 0.340 ± 0.099 nmol/l), and there was no change in IGF-I. There was no significant change in leucine production rate (R(a); a measure of protein degradation) during the IGF-I infusion (2.23 ± 0.17 to 2.13 ± 0.2 μmol · kg-1 · min-1), but there was an increase (P < 0.03) in nonoxidative leucine disposal rate (R(d); a measure of protein synthesis; 1.83 ± 0.15 to 2.05 ± 0.21 μmol · kg-1 · min-1). In contrast, insulin reduced (P < 0.02) leucine R(a) (1.81 ± 0.24 to 1.47 ± 0.24 μmol · kg-1 · min-1) and had no effect on nonoxidative leucine R(d) (1.44 ± 0.25 to 1.41 ± 0.22 μmol · kg-1 · min-1). We conclude that IGF-I under conditions of adequate substrate supply, directly increases protein synthesis in contrast to insulin, which exerts its anabolic action by reducing proteolysis.

A McGovern, M Rafiq, N Munro, L Butler, D Russell-Jones, S Jones, R Hinchcliffe, S de Lusignan (2017)Peripheral Sensory Neuropathy is a Predictor of Mortality in People with Diabetes

The 10g monofilament test is a simple method of detecting the presence of sensory neuropathy widely used by non-specialists; and included in pay-for-performance indicators for UK primary care. However, the association with increased mortality has not previously been explored. We performed a retrospective cohort analysis to determine if the presence of sensory neuropathy can be used as a predictor for increased risk of death. We used routinely recorded electronic data from 126 primary care centres across England, who participated in the Quality Improvement in Chronic Kidney Disease (QICKD) trial to follow a cohort of people with diabetes (N=35,502) over 30 months. The presence of sensory neuropathy was defined as present or absent based on routine 10g monofilament testing during 30 months prior to the observation period. The outcome measure was all-cause mortality. Known risk factors (age, gender, smoking status, co-morbidities, and HbA1c) were adjusted for using a multilevel logistic regression model. Monofilament testing was performed in 18,748 (52.2%) people during the baseline period. Abnormal sensation was identified in 1,548 (9.0%). Abnormal sensation was associated with an increased risk of mortality during the 30 month follow-up period: odds ratio 1.70 (95% confidence interval 1.41-2.06; p < 0.001). The association between mortality and sensory neuropathy was stronger than that with elevated HbA1c (OR 1.16; 95% CI 1.01-1.34; p = 0.037), and comparable to smoking, ischaemic heart disease, heart failure, and dyslipidaemia. Failure to monitor sensation using monofilament testing was also associated with an increased risk of mortality: OR 1.23 (95% CI 1.08-1.40; p = 0.002). The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) statistic for the model was 0.84. Sensory neuropathy is an important predictor of mortality in people with diabetes; and the monofilament test may have utility in primary care. People with abnormal sensation should be targeted for aggressive diabetes management.

AD Miras, JT Mogford, J Wright, NN Mendoza, P Xekouki, A Lakhani, NS Pellegata, CA Stratakis, F Roncaroli, D Russell-Jones (2015)Ovarian hyperstimulation from ectopic hypersecretion of follicle stimulating hormone, In: LANCET385(9965)pp. 392-392 ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC
V Hordern, J Wright, M Umpleby, L Jacobsen, D Russell-Jones (2001)Stable isotope studies show effect of insulin detemir and NPH on hepatic glucose output and peripheral glucose uptake after subcutaneous administration in healthy subjects, In: DIABETES50pp. A504-A505 AMER DIABETES ASSOC
FJ Smeeton, E Shojaee-Moradie, N Jackson, RH Jones, AM Umpleby, D Russell-Jones (2007)Is insulin detemir hepatoselective when compared to NPH insulin using stable isotope methodology at plasma glucose concentrations of less than 4 mmol/l?, In: DIABETOLOGIA50pp. S24-S25