Dr Hamidreza Taghvaee

Senior Research Fellow

Academic and research departments

Institute for Communication Systems.


Previous roles

01 September 2021 - 08 May 2023
Research Fellow
George Green Institute for Electromagnetics Research, University of Nottingham
15 March 2018 - 31 August 2021
Ph.D. Student
N3Cat: NaNoNetworking Center in Catalonia, Barcelona Tech
01 November 2019 - 31 January 2020
Doctoral Visiting Researcher
Aalto University, Department of Electronics and Nanoengineering


Research interests

Research projects


Ashwin Thelappilly Joy, Anton Tishchenko, Hamidreza Taghvaee, Paul Botham, Fraser Burton, Mohsen Khalily, Rahim Tafazolli (2023)From Reconfigurable Intelligent Surfaces to Holographic MIMO Surfaces and Back

Holographic Beamforming is a promising concept to reduce the power consumption of Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) antenna arrays. In a holographic approach, the impedance of antenna patches is varied through the inclusion of tuning elements, such as varactor diodes, which allow electronic control of the phase and amplitude of each antenna. In this work, we provide the electromagnetic framework for the design of a Holographic MIMO Surface (HMIMOS). We analyze its performance and compare its power consumption to passive Reconfigurable Intelligent Surfaces (RIS) and MIMO Active Phased Arrays (APA) at 5G Frequency Range (FR) 2. The results show that the power consumption of HMIMOS is lower than of MIMO APAs, but significantly higher than of RISs. However, a combination of active and passive elements on a RIS can offer many benefits in terms of environmental awareness and intelligence for Integrated Sensing and Communication (ISAC) in Beyond 5G (B5G) networks.

Hamidreza Taghvaee, Maryam Khodadadi, Gabriele Gradoni, Mohsen Khalily (2023)Fully Autonomous Reconfigurable Metasurfaces with Integrated Sensing and Communication

One of the most controversial issues in Reconfig-urable Intelligent Surfaces (RIS) is how to localize users. A potential solution is to integrate sensing and communication into the RIS platform to simultaneously detect a target and establish a communication link. By utilizing a shared spectrum, it is possible to optimize the channel with little to no mutual interference. To this end, a hybrid metasurface layout is proposed that supports beamforming while also enabling the sensing of incident signals from the user. This hybrid technology couples a small portion of the incident signal into a sensing layer. In the next step, a sensing scheme is introduced that leverages the inherent multiplexing of information within the metasurface's substrate to retrieve relevant information using a few sensing elements. The proposed metasurface can generate desired radiation patterns, and the addition of sensing capabilities has minimal impact on its primary functionality.

Hamidreza Taghvaee, Mohsen Khalily, Gabriele Gradoni (2023)Smart Propagation Environments Empowered by Metasurfaces: A Self-Consistent Study

Smart environments are expected to constitute a distributed wireless network that will support the physical and digital layers in a sustainable manner. Metasurfaces can be used to control radio waves in a way that is compliant with the current operation of wireless communications. In order to control wave propagation, we need a mathematical framework that captures the metasurface operation in the presence of the surrounding propagation environment. The scattering properties of such a complex propagation scenario need to be found self-consistently, i.e., requires a general method that captures multiple interactions between metasurface and environment. This translates into solving a Burton-Miller formulation for the associated boundary-value wave problem. Our methodology overcomes the non-uniqueness difficulties generated by inconsistent theories where the propagation problem and metasurface scattering are solved in isolation and then coupled afterward. Importantly, the use of the fast multipole method is adopted to improve the overall computational efficiency. Index Terms—Metasurface, wireless communication, physical layer, reconfigurable intelligent surface and smart skin.

Maryam Khodadadi, Hamidreza Taghvaee, Gabriele Gradoni, Mohsen Khalily (2024)Dual and Complementary-Impedance Metasurfaces for Enhanced Line Waves

his paper presents a new dual and complementaryimpedance metasurface platform for studying Line Waves (LWs), electromagnetic modes at interfaces of different metasurfaces like capacitive and inductive types. The excited states, characterized by efficient one-dimensional propagation and tight interface confinement, hold promise for robust waveguide applications, especially within fifth-generation (5G) technology. The research shows that LW, supporting broadband frequencies, can be tuned through capacitive or inductive properties, with a semi-analytical model developed for in-depth analysis. Additionally, a parallel plate waveguide composed of four metasurfaces demonstrates LW robust transmission capabilities, even under longitudinal warping. This highlights their potential in wearable wireless communications and flexible electronics, showcasing their adaptability and efficiency.

Hamidreza Taghvaee, Sergi Abadal, Robert Guirado, Akshay Jain, Elena Pereira de Santana, Peter Haring Bolivar, Mohamed Saeed, Renato Negra, Zhenxing Wang, Kun-Ta Wang, Max C. Lemme, Joshua Klein, Marina Zapater, Alexandre Levisse, David Atienza, Davide Rossi, Francesco Conti, Martino Dazzi, Geethan Karunaratne, Irem Boybat, Abu Sebastian (2022)Graphene-based Wireless Agile Interconnects for Massive Heterogeneous Multi-chip Processors, In: IEEE wireless communicationspp. 1-8 IEEE

The main design principles in computer architecture have recently shifted from a monolithic scaling-driven approach to the development of heterogeneous architectures that tightly co-integrate multiple specialized processor and memory chiplets. In such data-hungry multi-chip architectures, current Networksin- Package (NiPs) may not be enough to cater to their heterogeneous and fast-changing communication demands. This position paper makes the case for wireless in-package networking as the enabler of efficient and versatile wired-wireless interconnect fabrics for massive heterogeneous processors. To that end, the use of graphene-based antennas and transceivers with unique frequency-beam reconfigurability in the terahertz band is proposed. The feasibility of such a wireless vision and the main research challenges towards its realization are analyzed from the technological, communications, and computer architecture perspectives.

Hamidreza Taghvaee, Sergi Abadal, Alexandros Pitilakis, Odysseas Tsilipakos, Anna C. Tasolamprou, Christos Liaskos, Maria Kafesaki, Nikolaos V. Kantartzis, Albert Cabellos-Aparicio, Eduard Alarcon (2020)Scalability Analysis of Programmable Metasurfaces for Beam Steering, In: IEEE access8pp. 105320-105334 IEEE

Programmable metasurfaces have garnered significant attention as they confer unprecedented control over the electromagnetic (EM) response of any surface. Such feature has given rise to novel design paradigms such as Software-Defined Metamaterials (SDM) and Reconfigurable Intelligent Surfaces (RIS) with multiple groundbreaking applications. However, the development of programmable metasurfaces tailored to the particularities of a potentially large application pool becomes a daunting task because the design space becomes remarkably large. This paper aims to ease the design process by proposing a methodology that employs a semi-analytical formulation to model the response of a metasurface and, then, derives performance scaling trends as functions of a representative set of design and application-specific variables. Although the methodology is amenable to any EM functionality, this paper explores its use for the case of beam steering at 26 GHz for 5G applications. Conventional beam steering metrics are evaluated as functions of the unit cell size, number of unit cell states, and metasurface size for different incidence and reflection angles. It is shown that metasurfaces 5\lambda \times 5 \lambda or larger with unit cells of \lambda /3 and four unit cell states ensure good performance overall. Further, it is demonstrated that performance degrades significantly for angles larger than \theta > 60^{o} and that, to combat this, extra effort is needed in the development of the unit cell. These performance trends, when combined with power and cost models, will pave the way to optimal metasurface dimensioning.

Hamidreza Taghvaee, Akshay Jain, Xavier Timoneda, Christos Liaskos, Sergi Abadal, Eduard Alarcon, Albert Cabellos-Aparicio (2021)Radiation Pattern Prediction for Metasurfaces: A Neural Network-Based Approach, In: Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)21(8)2765 Mdpi

As the current standardization for the 5G networks nears completion, work towards understanding the potential technologies for the 6G wireless networks is already underway. One of these potential technologies for the 6G networks is reconfigurable intelligent surfaces. They offer unprecedented degrees of freedom towards engineering the wireless channel, i.e., the ability to modify the characteristics of the channel whenever and however required. Nevertheless, such properties demand that the response of the associated metasurface is well understood under all possible operational conditions. While an understanding of the radiation pattern characteristics can be obtained through either analytical models or full-wave simulations, they suffer from inaccuracy and extremely high computational complexity, respectively. Hence, in this paper, we propose a neural network-based approach that enables a fast and accurate characterization of the metasurface response. We analyze multiple scenarios and demonstrate the capabilities and utility of the proposed methodology. Concretely, we show that this method can learn and predict the parameters governing the reflected wave radiation pattern with an accuracy of a full-wave simulation (98.8-99.8%) and the time and computational complexity of an analytical model. The aforementioned result and methodology will be of specific importance for the design, fault tolerance, and maintenance of the thousands of reconfigurable intelligent surfaces that will be deployed in the 6G network environment.

Hamidreza Taghvaee, Albert Cabellos-Aparicio, Julius Georgiou, Sergi Abadal (2020)Error Analysis of Programmable Metasurfaces for Beam Steering, In: IEEE journal on emerging and selected topics in circuits and systems10(1)pp. 62-74 IEEE

Recent years have seen the emergence of programmable metasurfaces, where the user can modify the electromagnetic (EM) response of the device via software. Adding reconfigurability to the already powerful EM capabilities of metasurfaces opens the door to novel cyber-physical systems with exciting applications in domains such as holography, cloaking, or wireless communications. This paradigm shift, however, comes with a non-trivial increase of the complexity of the metasurfaces that will pose new reliability challenges stemming from the need to integrate tuning, control, and communication resources to implement the programmability. While metasurfaces will become prone to failures, little is known about their tolerance to errors. To bridge this gap, this paper examines the reliability problem in programmable metamaterials by proposing an error model and a general methodology for error analysis. To derive the error model, the causes and potential impact of faults are identified and discussed qualitatively. The methodology is presented and exemplified for beam steering, which constitutes a relevant case for programmable metasurfaces. Results show that performance degradation depends on the type of error and its spatial distribution and that, in beam steering, error rates over 20% can still be considered acceptable.

Hamidreza Taghvaee, Anna C. Tasolamprou, Alexandros Pitilakis, Sergi Abadal, Odysseas Tsilipakos, Xavier Timoneda, Mohammad Sajjad Mirmoosa, F Liu, Christos Liaskos, Ageliki Tsioliaridou, Sotiris Ioannidis, Nikolaos V. Kantartzis, Dionysios Manessis, Julius Georgiou, Albert Cabellos-Aparicio, Eduard Alarcon, Andreas Pitsillides, Ian F. Akyildiz, Sergei Tretyakov, Eleftherios N. Economou, Maria Kafesaki, Costas M. Soukoulis (2019)Exploration of Intercell Wireless Millimeter-Wave Communication in the Landscape of Intelligent Metasurfaces, In: IEEE access7pp. 122931-122948 IEEE

Software-defined metasurfaces are electromagnetically ultra-thin, artificial components that can provide engineered and externally controllable functionalities. The control over these functionalities is enabled by the metasurface tunability, which is implemented by embedded electronic circuits that modify locally the surface resistance and reactance. Integrating controllers within the metasurface able them to intercommunicate and adaptively reconfigure, thus imparting a desired electromagnetic operation, opens the path towards the creation of an artificially intelligent (AI) fabric where each unit cell can have its own sensing, programmable computing, and actuation facilities. In this work we take a crucial step towards bringing the AI metasurface technology to emerging applications, in particular exploring the wireless mm-wave intercell communication capabilities in a software-defined HyperSurface designed for operation in the microwave regime. We examine three different wireless communication channels within the landscape of the reflective metasurface: Firstly, in the layer where the control electronics of the HyperSurface lie, secondly inside a dedicated layer enclosed between two metallic plates, and, thirdly, inside the metasurface itself. For each case we examine the physical implementation of the mm-wave transceiver nodes, we quantify communication channel metrics, and we identify complexity vs. performance trade-offs.

Hamidreza Taghvaee, Nouman Ashraf, Taqwa Saeed, Sergi Abadal, Vasos Vassiliou, Christos Liaskos, Andreas Pitsillides, Marios Lestas (2023)Intelligent Beam Steering for Wireless Communication Using Programmable Metasurfaces, In: IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)

Reconfigurable Intelligent Surfaces (RIS) are well established as a promising solution to the blockage problem in millimeter-wave (mm-wave) and terahertz (THz) communications, envisioned to serve demanding networking applications, such as 6G and vehicular. HyperSurfaces (HSF) is a revolutionary enabling technology for RIS, complementing Software Defined Metasurfaces (SDM) with an embedded network of controllers to enhance intelligence and autonomous operation in wireless networks. In this work, we consider feedback-based autonomous reconfiguration of the HSF controller states to establish a reliable communication channel between a transmitter and a receiver via programmable reflection on the HSF when Line-of-sight (LoS) between them is absent. The problem is to regulate the angle of reflection on the metasurface such that the power at the receiver is maximized. Extremum Seeking Control (ESC) is employed with the control signals generated mapped into appropriate metasurface coding signals which are communicated to the controllers via the embedded controller network (CN). This information dissemination process incurs delays which can compromise the stability of the feedback system and are thus accounted for in the performance evaluation. Extensive simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method to maximize the power at the receiver within a reasonable time even when the latter is mobile. The spatiotemporal nature of the traffic for different sampling periods is also characterized.

Hamidreza Taghvaee, Odysseas Tsilipakos, Anna C. Tasolamprou, Alexandros Pitilakis, Fu Liu, Xuchen Wang, Mohammad Sajjad Mirmoosa, Dimitrios C. Tzarouchis, Sergi Abadal, Christos Liaskos, Ageliki Tsioliaridou, Julius Georgiou, Albert Cabellos-Aparicio, Eduard Alarcon, Sotiris Ioannidis, Andreas Pitsillides, Ian F. Akyildiz, Nikolaos V. Kantartzis, Eleftherios N. Economou, Costas M. Soukoulis, Maria Kafesaki, Sergei Tretyakov (2020)Toward Intelligent Metasurfaces: The Progress from Globally Tunable Metasurfaces to Software-Defined Metasurfaces with an Embedded Network of Controllers, In: Advanced optical materials8(17)2000783 Wiley

Metasurfaces, the ultrathin, 2D version of metamaterials, have recently attracted a surge of attention for their capability to manipulate electromagnetic waves. Recent advances in reconfigurable and programmable metasurfaces have greatly extended their scope and reach into practical applications. Such functional sheet materials can have enormous impact on imaging, communication, and sensing applications, serving as artificial skins that shape electromagnetic fields. Motivated by these opportunities, this progress report provides a review of the recent advances in tunable and reconfigurable metasurfaces, highlighting the current challenges and outlining directions for future research. To better trace the historical evolution of tunable metasurfaces, a classification into globally and locally tunable metasurfaces is first provided along with the different physical addressing mechanisms utilized. Subsequently, coding metasurfaces, a particular class of locally tunable metasurfaces in which each unit cell can acquire discrete response states, is surveyed, since it is naturally suited to programmatic control. Finally, a new research direction of software-defined metasurfaces is described, which attempts to push metasurfaces toward unprecedented levels of functionality by harnessing the opportunities offered by their software interface as well as their inter- and intranetwork connectivity and establish them in real-world applications.

Fu Liu, Ana Diaz-Rubio, Sergei Tretyakov, Hamidreza Taghvaee (2023)Perfect-Lens Theory Enables Metasurface Reflectors for Subwavelength Focusing, In: Physical Review Applied19(1) American Physical Society

Breaking the so-called diffraction limit on the resolution of optical devices and achieving subwavelength focusing requires tailoring the evanescent spectrum of wave fields. There are several possible approaches, all of which have limitations, such as the generation of strong additional scattering, limited focusing power, issues at the implementation step, and the need for a drain at the focal point. This paper presents a feasible strategy based on the concepts of the perfect lens and power flow-conformal metasurfaces. Desired fields for subwavelength focusing are integrated using double-negative media and then the surface profile of a focusing reflector is designed to be tangential to the desired power flow, so that the metasurface can be modeled as a local impedance boundary, and can be easily implemented using passive and lossless elements. Full-wave simulations demonstrate that an example reactive metasurface is able to break the diffraction limit and provide near-field focusing with subwavelength hotspot size. We expect that the outcome will find applications in antennas, beam-shaping devices, nonradiative wireless power transfer systems, microscopy, and lithography.

Hamidreza Taghvaee, Fu Liu, Ana Diaz-Rubio, Sergei Tretyakov (2021)Subwavelength focusing by engineered power-flow conformal metamirrors, In: Physical review. B104(23) Amer Physical Soc

Many advances in reflective metasurfaces have been made during the last few years, implementing efficient manipulations of wave fronts, especially for plane waves. Despite numerous solutions that have been developed throughout the years, a practical method to obtain subwavelength focusing without the generation of additional undesired scattering is a challenge to this day. In this paper, we introduce and discuss lossless reflectors for focusing incident waves into a point. The solution is based on the so-called power-flow conformal surfaces that allow theoretically arbitrary shaping of reflected waves. The metamirror shape is adapted to the power flow of the sum of the incident and reflected waves, allowing a local description of the reflector surface based on the surface impedance. In particular, we present a study of two scenarios. First, we study the scenario when the field is emitted by a point source and focused at an image point (in the considered example, with the lambda/20 resolution). Second, we analyze a metasurface capable of focusing the power of an illuminating plane wave. This work provides a feasible strategy for various applications, including detecting biological signals near the skin, sensitive power focusing for cancer therapy, and point-to-point power transfer.

Hamidreza Taghvaee, A. Habibi, A. Rezaee, F. Zarinkhat (2017)LOW PROFILE UHF LOOP ANTENNA PROTOTYPED AND INVESTIGATED BY CIRCUIT MODELING, In: Microwave and optical technology letters59(2)pp. 459-463 Wiley

Here we proposed a low profile antenna which is an electrically coupled loop fed by a coaxial cable and operates in UHF band. With acquisition of a square loop, near zone is covered by magnetic field that has no harm to living being. By optimizing the dimensions with genetic algorithm 12% of bandwidth, 2.45 dB realized gain and 33% miniaturization (lambda -> 2/3 lambda) at 500 MHz is obtained. Afterwards, the performance of the antenna is analyzed with a general circuit model and verified using frequency domain solver simulation. In the measurement phase a technique was discovered improving the bandwidth even more, hence 150 MHz bandwidth equal 30% at 500 MHz was achieved. These characteristics together make this antenna very beneficial in mobile terminals that have a very wide area of applications such as ground station targeting UAVs and where antennas need to operate close to the human body. Due to semidirectional radiation pattern it can be used in short and medium range remote wireless bridge networks. (C) 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Hamidreza Taghvaee, F Zarrinkhat, M S Abrishamian (2017)Terahertz Kerr nonlinearity analysis of a microribbon graphene array using the harmonic balance method, In: Journal of physics. D, Applied physics50(25) IOP Publishing

Transmission spectra of microribbon graphene arrays are investigated with a circuit model based on the transmission line method. The accuracy of the proposed method is comparable with full-wave electromagnetic simulation results versus chemical potential, incident angle, dimensions of microribbons and the permittivity of the substrate. This rigorous method takes less than a second to perform, therefore it can be employed to optimize other similar devices instead of numerical methods that involve heavy calculations. Furthermore, we depicted the Kerr effect with the harmonic balance method through calculating the parameters in steady state. The results of this novel approach exhibited an excellent agreement with full-wave simulation results.

Hamidreza Taghvaee, Akshay Jain, Sergi Abadal, Gabriele Gradoni, Eduard Alarcon, Albert Cabellos-Aparicio (2022)On the Enabling of Multi-Receiver Communications With Reconfigurable Intelligent Surfaces, In: IEEE transactions on nanotechnology21pp. 413-423 IEEE

The reconfigurable intelligent surface is a promising technology for the manipulation and control of wireless electromagnetic signals. In particular, it has the potential to provide significant performance improvements for wireless networks. However, to do so, a proper reconfiguration of the reflection coefficients of unit cells is required, which often leads to complex and expensive devices. To amortize the cost, one may share the system resources among multiple transmitters and receivers. In this paper, we propose an efficient reconfiguration technique providing control over multiple beams independently. Compared to time-consuming optimization techniques, the proposed strategy utilizes an analytical method to configure the surface for multi-beam radiation. This method is easy to implement, effective and efficient since it only requires phase reconfiguration. We analyze the performance for indoor and outdoor scenarios, given the broadcast mode of operation. The aforesaid scenarios encompass some of the most challenging scenarios that wireless networks encounter. We show that our proposed technique provisions sufficient improvements in the observed channel capacity when the receivers are close to the surface in the indoor office environment scenario. Further, we report a considerable increase in the system throughput given the outdoor environment.

Hamidreza Taghvaee, Alexandros Pitilakis, Odysseas Tsilipakos, Anna C. Tasolamprou, Nikolaos V. Kantartzis, Maria Kafesaki, Albert Cabellos-Aparicio, Eduard Alarcon, Sergi Abadal (2022)Multiwideband Terahertz Communications Via Tunable Graphene-Based Metasurfaces in 6G Networks Graphene Enables Ultimate Multiwideband THz Wavefront Control, In: IEEE vehicular technology magazine17(2)pp. 16-25 IEEE

The next generation of wireless networks is expected to tap into the terahertz (THz) band (0.1–10 THz) to satisfy the extreme latency and bandwidth density requirements of future applications. However, the development of systems in this band is challenging as THz waves confront severe spreading and penetration losses, as well as molecular absorption, which leads to strong line-of-sight requirements through highly directive antennas. Recently, reconfigurable intelligent surfaces (RISs) have been proposed to address issues derived from non-line-of-sight (non-LoS) propagation, among other impairments, by redirecting the incident wave toward the receiver and implementing virtual-line-of-sight communications. However, the benefits provided by a RIS may be lost if the network operates at multiple bands. In this article, the suitability of the RIS paradigm in indoor THz scenarios for 6G is assessed grounded on the analysis of a tunable graphene-based RIS that can operate in multiple wideband transparency windows. A possible implementation of such a RIS is provided and numerically evaluated at 0.65/0.85/1.05 THz separately, demonstrating that beam steering and other relevant functionalities are realizable with excellent performance. Finally, the challenges associated with the design and fabrication of multiwideband graphene-based RISs are discussed, paving the way to the concurrent control of multiple THz bands in the context of 6G networks.