Geographic distance has been studied extensively as an obstructer of tourism flows, whereas another distance measure, cultural distance (CD), receives less attention in tourism demand research. Using international tourist arrival data between 94 countries for the period 1995?2012, we estimate several Poisson gravity models incorporating a CD measure based on national cultural scores from the World Values Survey (WVS). Our estimation results show a negative and significant effect of CD on international tourist flows, the elasticity of which is ?0.158, and the effect appears significantly smaller between countries with historical colonial linkage. Most notably, the tourism-inhibiting effect of CD began a downward trend in 2003. In particular, we find that economic globalization and technology advancement can be used to explain the declining effect of CD. Major conclusions are substantiated in a robustness check using two alternative CD measures.
This study examines the impacts of distance factors on Mainland Chinese tourists' international destination choices in 2007 and 2015 and how these factors' effects change over time. A random-coefficients conditional logit model was utilized to investigate three types of destination choices: past destination choice, dream destination choice, and intended destination choice. We identified different effects of distance factors on these different types of destination choices. Our results reveal substantial heterogeneity in the effect of cultural distance; in most cases, positive and negative effects of cultural distance co-occurred among Chinese residents. In comparing estimates from different years, we found diminishing effects of geographic distance on dream and intended destination choices. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
The sharing of travel experiences has become ubiquitous in today?s era. This study focuses on a pervasive trend among Millennial consumers: the experience of benign envy toward others? positive travel experience sharing on social networking sites. Drawing on social comparison theory, the current study reveals why and under what conditions others? positive experience sharing may trigger Millennial consumers? destination visit intention. Using a mixed experimental design, this study finds that, among consumers with low trait self-esteem, luxury travel experiences shared by similar others stimulate focal consumers? own intentions to visit the same destination. In addition, destination visit intention is triggered by benign envy toward the experience sharer. Important theoretical insights are provided regarding peer influence mechanism on social networking sites and travel consumption. Finally, managerial implications for destination marketers are presented with a focus on how to improve the effectiveness of social media marketing in targeting Millennials.
Building on Li and Petrick's earlier work, this study applies the investment model to a destination context. Specifically, this study proposes that tourist satisfaction, perceived investment in a destination, and perceived quality of alternatives can be used to explain tourist loyalty to a destination. An alternative approach that indirectly measures quality of alternatives is proposed and compared against the direct approach used by other researchers. The proposed relationships were tested through an online panel, surveying American travelers on their perceptions of a southeastern US state as a vacation destination. Results provide empirical evidence to (i) support the use of an investment model as a theoretical foundation to explain destination loyalty and (ii) show that the indirect measure of quality of alternatives is more robust than the direct measure employed in this study. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.
Cultural distance is a key factor in international tourism. This study aims to use the perceptual measure of cultural distance to investigate: (1) the impact of destination familiarity and geographic distance on perceived cultural distance (PCD); and (2) the moderating effect of cultural motivation on PCD and Chinese potential outbound tourists? international destination choices. Findings reveal that while destination familiarity and geographic distance are important antecedents of PCD, PCD has no significant impact on international destination choice. When moderated by cultural motivation, however, PCD exerts a positive impact on destination choice for respondents with a higher level of cultural motivation and a negative impact on those with a lower level of cultural motivation. In closing, theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
Purpose ? This paper aims to examine the effects of perceived authenticity at an independent, fullservice mainstream ethnic restaurant and the moderating effects of diners? cultural familiarity and
cultural motivation on the influence of perceived authenticity on perceived value and behavioral
Design/methodology/approach ? A total of 417 self-administered questionnaires were collected from
customers of an independent, full-service Italian restaurant in southeastern USA. The data analysis was
performed using structural equation modeling.
Findings ? Restaurant authenticity has a positive influence on perceived value. Respondents who are more
familiar with and interested in Italian culture and food tend to attach more value to the restaurant
authenticity. Respondents tend to use authenticity to convey quality judgment of the restaurant.
Research limitations/implications ? First, this study advances previous literature on dining
authenticity by incorporating cultural familiarity and cultural motivation. Second, this study extends the
theoretical framework of perceived quality of ethnic restaurants by connecting authenticity perceptions and
Practical implications ? Results suggest that the managers at independent, full-service mainstream
ethnic restaurants should focus on the restaurants? environment and atmospheric authenticity, especially for
customers who possess cultural familiarity and cultural motivation, while also ensuring the quality of food
Originality/value ? This study makes an initial attempt at studying the role of authenticity in a
mainstream ethnic restaurant context and adds to the knowledge of restaurant authenticity from the
perspectives of cultural familiarity, cultural motivation and perceived quality.
The smart city strategy is an inevitable trend in the future development of Chinese cities. The smart tourism city is an important part and a practical attempt of the smart city strategy. The China National Tourism Administration has officially announced "Beautiful China: 2014 Year of Smart Travel" as tourism theme. Thus, huge development opportunities are in store for the future of smart tourism. This strategy attempts to combine the Internet of Things (IoT) technology with the development of the smart tourism industry and smart tourism cities. Many Chinese scholars stated their ideas on the technological structure of IoT and the extension of smart tourism industries. At the same time, many Chinese cities have attempted to combine IoT and smart tourism. There is a trend of embedding Application of Tourism IoT in China?s Scenic Spots. Smart tourism should build an IoT information technology public platform, covering service management to marketing management. The emerging smart tourism industry fits China?s economic growth and industrial transformation. Based on these developments, this research determines the current status and development potential of smart tourism in China, and offers recommendations for their applications in China.