Dr Jack Henderson

UKRI Future Leaders Fellow

Academic and research departments

Department of Physics.


My qualifications

PhD Physics
University of York
MPhys Physics
University of Manchester

Previous roles

2017 - 2020
Postdoctoral Researcher
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
2015 - 2017
Postdoctoral Researcher


SHAHEEN JAZRAWI, DANIEL THOMAS DOHERTY, J.M Allmond, PATRICK HENRY REGAN, R.V.F Janssens, W Korten, S Zhu, M Zielińska, D Radford, S Ansari, K Auranen, B Bucher, M.P Carpenter, WILTON NEIL CATFORD, K Hadyńska-Klek, JACK HENDERSON, M Hendricks, M Komorowska, F.G Kondev, T Lauritsen, JUERONG LI, GAVIN JAMES LOTAY, P.J Napiorkowski, E Padilla-Rodal, R.C Pardo, B.C Rasco, W Reviol, D.G Sarantites, D Seweryniak, D Santiago-Gonzalez, G Savard, P Singh, S.M Stolze, R Vondrasek, G Wilson, CHUAN-YU WU, J Wu (2020)A High-Resolution Study of the 110Tc → 110Ru → 110Rh → 110Pd Decay Chain with the GRETINA Array, In: Journal of Physics. Conference Series1643(1) IOP Publishing

Spectroscopic data, such as precise γ-ray branching and E2/M1 multipole-mixing ratios, provide vital constraints when performing multi-dimensional Coulomb-excitation analyses. Consequently, as part of our new Coulomb-excitation campaign aimed at investigating the role of exotic non-axial (triaxial) deformations in the unstable refractory Ru-Mo isotopes, additional beta-decay data was obtained. These measurements make use of ANL's CARIBU facility, which provides intense beams of radioactive refractory isotopes along with the excellent efficiency and angular resolution of the GRETINA γ-ray tracking array. In this article, we report on the analysis of the A = 110 decay chain, focussing on the identification of previously unreported states in 110Ru following the decay of 110Tc.

S. R Stroberg, J Henderson, G Hackman, P Ruotsalainen, G Hagen, J. D Holt (2022)Systematics of E2 strength in the sd-shell with the valence-space in-medium similarity renormalization group105 APS

Background: Recent developments in {\it ab initio} nuclear theory demonstrate promising results in medium- to heavy-mass nuclei. A particular challenge for many of the many-body methodologies, however, is an accurate treatment of the electric-quadrupole, $E2$, strength associated with collectivity. Purpose: The valence-space in-medium similarity renormalization group (VS-IMSRG) is a particularly powerful method for accessing medium- and high-mass nuclei but has been found to underpredict $E2$ strengths. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the isospin dependence of this underprediction. Methods: We perform a systematic comparison of valence-space in-medium similarity renormalization group (VS-IMSRG) calculations with available literature. We make use of isoscalar and isovector contributions to the $E2$ matrix elements to assess isoscalar and isovector contributions to the missing strength. Results: It is found that the $E2$ strength is consistent throughout $T_z=\left|\frac{1}{2}\right|$, $T_z=\left|1\right|$, $T_z=\left|\frac{3}{2}\right|$ and $T_z=2$ pairs within the $sd$-shell. Furthermore, no isovector contribution to the deficiency is identified. Conclusions: A comparison with toy-models and coupled-cluster calculations is used to discuss potential origins of the missing strength, which arises from missing many-particle, many-hole excitations out of the model space. The absence of any significant isovector contribution to the missing $E2$ strength indicates that the $E2$ strength discrepancy, and therefore any correction, is largely independent of the isospin of the nuclei in question.

S. A. Gillespie, J. Henderson, K. Abrahams, F. A. Ali, L Atar, G. C. Ball, N. Bernier, S. S. Bhattcharjee, R Caballero-Folch, M. Bowry, A. Chester, R. Coleman, T. Drake, E Dunling, A. B. Garnsworthy, B. Greaves, G. F. Grinyer, G. Hackman, E. Kasanda, R. LaFleur, D Muecher, S. Masango, C. Ngwetsheni, S. S. Ntshangase, B Olaizola, J. N. Orce, T. Rockman, Y Saito, L Sexton, P. Šiurytė, J. Smallcombe, J. K. Smith, C. E. Svensson, E. Timakova, R Wadsworth, J Williams, M. S. C. Winokan, C. Y Wu, T. Zidar (2021)Coulomb excitation of 80 , 82 Kr and a change in structure approaching N = Z = 40, In: Physical Review C104044313 American Physical Society

Background: Nuclei approaching N = Z = 40 are known to exhibit strongly deformed structures and are thought to be candidates for shape coexistence. In the krypton isotopes, 80 , 82 Kr are poorly characterized, preventing an understanding of evolving deformation approaching N = 40 . Purpose: The present work aims to determine electric quadrupole transition strengths and quadrupole moments of 80 , 82 Kr in order to better characterize their deformation. Methods: Sub-barrier Coulomb excitation was employed, impinging the isotopes of krypton on 196 Pt and 208 Pb targets. Utilizing a semiclassical description of the safe Coulomb-excitation process E 2 matrix elements could then be determined. Results: Eleven new or improved matrix elements are determined in 80 Kr and seven in 82 Kr . The new B ( E 2 ; 0 + 1 → 2 + 1 ) value in 82 Kr disagrees with the evaluated value by 3 σ , which can be explained in terms of deficiencies in a previous Coulomb-excitation analysis. Conclusions: Comparison of measured Q s ( 2 + 1 ) and B ( E 2 ; 0 + 1 → 2 + 1 ) values indicates that neutron-deficient ( N ≤ 42 ) isotopes of krypton are closer to axial deformation than other isotopic chains in the mass region. A continuation of this trend to higher Z may result in Sr and Zr isotopes exhibiting near-axial prolate deformation.

G. Lotay, J. Henderson, W. N. Catford, F. A. Ali, S. Hallam, J. Berean, M. Spencer, N. Bernier, M. Williams, S. S Bhattacharjee, M Bowry, R Caballero-Folch, B. Davids, T. E. Drake, A. B. Garnsworthy, F. Ghazi Moradi, S. A. Gillespie, B. Greaves, E Kasanda, G. Hackman, B.K. Luna, D. Hymers, D. Levy, A. Mathews, Z Meisel, M. Moukaddam, D Muecher, B Olaizola, NA Orr, H.P. Patel, MM Rajabali, Y Saito, J. Smallcombe, C. E. Svensson, K. Whitmore (2022)Single neutron transfer on 23Ne and its relevance for the pathway of nucleosynthesis in astrophysical X-ray bursts, In: Physics Letters B833137361 Elsevier

We present new experimental measurements of resonance strengths in the astrophysical 23Al(p,γ)24Si reaction, constraining the pathway of nucleosynthesis beyond 22Mg in X-ray burster scenarios. Specifically, we have performed the first measurement of the (d,p) reaction using a radioactive beam of 23Ne to explore levels in 24Ne, the mirror analog of 24Si. Four strong single-particle states were observed and corresponding neutron spectroscopic factors were extracted with a precision of ∼20%. Using these spectroscopic factors, together with mirror state identifications, we have reduced uncertainties in the strength of the key ℓ = 0 resonance at Er = 157 keV, in the astrophysical 23Al(p,γ) reaction, by a factor of 4. Our results show that the 22Mg(p,γ)23Al(p,γ) pathway dominates over the competing 22Mg(α,p) reaction in all but the most energetic X-ray burster events (T>0.85 GK), significantly affecting energy production and the preservation of hydrogen fuel.

J Henderson, G Hackman, P Ruotsalainen, J. D Holt, S. R Stroberg, C Andreoiu, G. C Ball, N Bernier, M Bowry, R Caballero-Folch, S Cruz, A. Diaz Varela, L. J Evitts, R Frederick, A. B Garnsworthy, M Holl, J Lassen, J Measures, B Olaizola, E O'Sullivan, O Paetkau, J Park, J Smallcombe, C. E Svensson, K Whitmore, C. Y Wu (2022)Coulomb excitation of the $\left|T_zight|=\frac{1}{2}$, $A=23$ mirror pair, In: PHYSICAL REVIEW C105034332 APS

Background: Electric-quadrupole (E2) strengths relate to the underlying quadrupole deformation of a nucleus and present a challenge for many nuclear theories. Mirror nuclei in the vicinity of the line of N = Z represent a convenient laboratory for testing deficiencies in such models, making use of the isospin-symmetry of the systems. Purpose: Uncertainties associated with literature E2 strengths in 23 Mg are some of the largest in Tz = 1 2 nuclei in the sd-shell. The purpose of the present work is to improve the precision with which these values are known, to enable better comparison with theoretical models. Methods: Coulomb-excitation measurements of 23 Mg and 23 Na were performed at the TRIUMF-ISAC facility using the TIGRESS spectrometer. They were used to determine the E2 matrix elements of mixed E2/M 1 transitions. Results: Reduced E2 transition strengths, B(E2), were extracted for 23 Mg and 23 Na. Their precision was improved by factors of approximately six for both isotopes, while agreeing within uncertainties with previous measurements. Conclusions: A comparison was made with both shell-model and ab initio valence-space in-medium similarity renormalization group calculations. Valence-space in-medium similarity-renormalization-group calculations were found to underpredict the absolute E2 strength-in agreement with previous studies.

M Debenham, M Bentley, J Davies, H Haylett, G Jenkins, P Joshi, L Sinclair, R Wadsworth, P Ruotsalainen, J Henderson, K Kaneko, K Auranen, H Badran, T Grahn, P Greenlees, A Herzaáň, U Jakobsson, J Konki, R Julin, M Leino, S Juutinen, J Sorri, J Pakarinen, P Papadakis, P Peura, J Partanen, P Rahkila, M Sandzelius, J Sarén, C Scholey, S Stolze, J Uusitalo, H.M David, G De Angelis, W Korten, G Lotay, M Mallaburn, Evren Sahin (2016)Spectroscopy of 70Kr and isospin symmetry in the T = 1 f pg shell nuclei, In: Physical Review. C, Nuclear Physics9454311 American Physical Society

The recoil-β tagging technique has been used in conjunction with the 40 Ca(32 S ,2n) reaction at a beam energy of 88 MeV to identify transitions associated with the decay of the 2 + and, tentatively, 4 + states in the nucleus 70 Kr. These data are used, along with previously published data, to examine the triplet energy differences (TED) for the mass 70 isobars. The experimental TED values are compared with shell model calculations, performed with the JUN45 interaction in the fpg model space, that include a J = 0 isospin nonconserving (INC) interaction with an isotensor strength of 100 keV. The agreement is found to be very good up to spin 4 and supports the expectation for analog states that all three nuclei have the same oblate shape at low-spin. The A = 70 results are compared with the experimental and shell model predicted TED and mirror energy differences (MED) for the mass 66 and 74 systems. The comparisons clearly demonstrate the importance of the isotensor INC interaction in replicating the TED data in this region. Issues related to the observed MED values and their interpretation within the shell model are discussed.

S Kisyov, C. Y Wu, JACK HENDERSON, A. Gade, K Kaneko, Y. Sun, N. Shimizu, T Mizusaki, D. Rhodes, S Biswas, A. Chester, M. Devlin, P. Farris, A.M Hill, J. Li, E. Rubino, D Weisshaar (2022)Structure of 126 , 128 Xe studied in Coulomb excitation measurements, In: Physical Review C106034311 APS
M.P Taggart, J Henderson, J O’Neill, R Hawrami, E Ariesanti, A Burger, P.J Sellin (2021)Fast-neutron response of the novel scintillator caesium hafnium chloride, In: Nuclear instruments & methods in physics research. Section A, Accelerators, spectrometers, detectors and associated equipment1012165224 Elsevier B.V

This paper reports on the performance of the inorganic scintillator caesium hafnium chloride (CHC) under exposure to the mixed radiation field of an AmBe neutron source and coupled to a silicon photomultiplier (SiPM). The neutron response is determined using the pulse shape discrimination charge comparison technique which can clearly identify both the (n,α) and (c) reactions in the material. Figures of merit for the pulse shape discrimination are presented and the quenching of the different channels is assessed through comparison to Monte Carlo simulations.

J Ash, H Iwasaki, T Mijatović, T Budner, R Elder, B Elman, M Friedman, A Gade, M Grinder, J Henderson, B Longfellow, A Revel, D Rhodes, M Spieker, Y Utsuno, D Weisshaar, C. Y Wu (2021)Cross-shell excitations in Ca 46 studied with fusion reactions induced by a reaccelerated rare isotope beam, In: Physical review. C103L051302 American Physical Society (APS)

Discovering unexplored high-spin states in neutron-rich nuclei can open up a new direction to study band structure and the associated shell structure in isospin-asymmetric many-body systems. However, experimental reach has so far been limited to neutron-deficient or stable nuclei which are preferentially produced in fusion reactions used in such studies. Here in this paper, we report the first γ-ray spectroscopy with fusion reactions using a reaccelerated rare-isotope beam of 45K performed at the ReA3 facility of the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory. Using particle and γ-ray coincidence techniques, three new higher-lying states around 6 MeV and five new γ-ray transitions were identified for 46Ca, suggesting three independent band structures formed from different particle-hole configurations. The rotational-like band built on the 0$^+_2$ state is established up to the tentatively assigned 6$^+_2$ state. New results are compared to large-scale shell model calculations, confirming the validity of the effective interaction describing particle-hole excitations across the Z=20 and N=28 shell gaps in the vicinity of doubly-magic 48Ca.

D. Rhodes, B. A. Brown, A. Gade, S Biswas, A. Chester, P.J Farris, JACK HENDERSON, A. Hill, J. Li, F. Nowacki, E. Rubino, D Weisshaar, C. Y Wu (2022)Evolution of shape and collectivity along the Ge isotopic chain: The case of 80 Ge, In: Physical review. C.105(2) APS
J Henderson, R.J Casperson, R.O Hughes, C.Y Wu (2021)Neutron response of the TLYC scintillator, In: Nuclear instruments & methods in physics research. Section A, Accelerators, spectrometers, detectors and associated equipment993165050 Elsevier B.V

The response of the recently developed Tl2LiYCl6(Ce) scintillator to neutrons was measured and the 35Cl(n,p) channel observed in the material for the first time. The scintillator was exposed to a 252Cf source mounted within a parallel-plate avalanche counter for fission-fragment coincident measurements. Proton- and t+α-like events are selected with the pulse-shape discrimination technique. Comparison of energy-deposition and time-of-flight allows the quenching of the different channels to be assessed. The 6Li(n,t)α channel is found to have its energy quenched to 37(1)% relative to γ-ray detection, while the proton energy deposition spectrum is quenched to 60(1)%.

D Rhodes, B. A Brown, J Henderson, A Gade, J Ash, P. C Bender, R Elder, B Elman, M Grinder, M Hjorth-Jensen, H Iwasaki, B Longfellow, T Mijatović, M Spieker, D Weisshaar, C. Y Wu (2021)Exploring the role of high- j configurations in collective observables through the Coulomb excitation of Cd106, In: Physical review. C103L051301 American Physical Society
M.P Taggart, J. Henderson (2020)Fast-neutron response of LaBr3(Ce) and LaCl3(Ce) scintillators, In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment Elsevier

The response of LaBr3(Ce) and LaCl3(Ce) scintillators to fast neutrons is investigated. Neutron-induced charged-particle reactions are observed in both materials when exposed to the fast neutrons produced by an AmBe source, with pulse-shape discrimination used to separate channels. LaBr3(Ce) is found to have the best separation between reaction channels, while LaCl3(Ce) has a significantly higher efficiency.

A. Matta, W. M. Catford, N. A. Orr, J. Henderson, P. Ruotsalainen, G. Hackman, A. B. Garnsworthy, F. Delaunay, R. Wilkinson, G. Lotay, Naofumi Tsunoda, Takaharu Otsuka, A. J. Knapton, G. C. Ball, N. Bernier, C. Burbadge, A. Chester, D. S. Cross, S. Cruz, C. Aa. Diget, T. Domingo, T. E. Drake, L. J. Evitts, F. H. Garcia, S. Hallam, E. MacConnachie, M. Moukaddam, D. Muecher, E. Padilla-Rodal, O. Paetkau, J. Park, J. L. Pore, U. Rizwan, J. Smallcombe, J. K. Smith, K. Starosta, C. E. Svensson, J. Williams, M. Williams (2019)Shell evolution approaching the N=20 island of inversion: Structure of ²⁹Mg, In: Physical Review C99044320 American Physical Society

The island of inversion for neutron-rich nuclei in the vicinity of N=20 has become the testing ground par excellence for our understanding and modeling of shell evolution with isospin. In this context, the structure of the transitional nucleus ²⁹Mg is critical. The first quantitative measurements of the single-particle structure of ²⁹Mg are reported, using data from the d(²⁸Mg, p γ)²⁹Mg reaction. Two key states carrying significant ℓ=3 (f-wave) strength were identified at 2.40±0.10 (Jπ=5/2¯) and 4.28±0.04 MeV (7/2¯). New state-of-the-art shell-model calculations have been performed and the predictions are compared in detail with the experimental results. While the two lowest 7/2¯ levels are well described, the sharing of single-particle strength disagrees with experiment for both the 3/2¯ and 5/2¯ levels and there appear to be general problems with configurations involving the p3/2 neutron orbital and core-excited components. These conclusions are supported by an analysis of the neutron occupancies in the shell-model calculations.

D O’Donnell, R D Page, T Grahn, F A Ali, K Auranen, L Capponi, R J Carroll, M. M. R Chishti, M C Drummond, P T Greenlees, J Henderson, A Herzan, U Jakobsson, D. T Joss, R Julin, S Juutinen, J Konki, M Labiche, M Leino, P. J. R Mason, C. G McPeake, J Pakarinen, P Papadakis, J Partanen, P Peura, P Rahkila, J Revill, P Ruotsalainen, M Sandzelius, J Sarén, B Sayği, C Scholey, J Simpson, J. F Smith, M Smolen, J Sorri, S Stolze, C. M Sullivan, A Thornthwaite, J Uusitalo, A Kumar, P C Srivastava (2020)High-spin states of 218Th, In: Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics47(9)095103 IOP Publishing

High-spin states in the N = 128 nucleus 218Th have been investigated following fusion–evaporation reactions, using the recoil-decay tagging technique. Due to the short-lived nature of the ground state of 218Th prompt γ rays have been correlated with the α decay of the daughter nucleus 214Ra. The level scheme representing the decay of excited states has been extended to (16+) with the observation of six previously unreported transitions. The observations are compared with the results of shell model calculations and within the context of the systematics of neighbouring nuclei.

Robin Adey-Johnson, J. Sam Henderson, David A. Faux, Paul J. Mclean, Peter J. McDonald (2018)Lattice boltzmann modelling of the water sorption cycle in a model wood microstructure: the role of cell wall pits and preliminary results for water induced swelling, In: Proceedings of Timber 2018 The Institute of Materials, Minerals and Mining (IOM3)

This paper describes results that combine Shan-Chen two-phase (liquid-vapour) and partial-bounce back (semi-permeable membrane) methods of Lattice Boltzmann numerical modelling of fluid dynamics in order to understand how bordered pits influence the drying and rewetting of wood. In addition, preliminary results that introduce pressure induced distortion are included.

P Ruotsalainen, DG Jenkins, MA Bentley, K Auranen, PJ Davies, T Grahn, PT Greenlees, J Henderson, A Herzáň, U Jakobsson, P Joshi, R Julin, S Juutinen, J Konki, M Leino, G Lotay, AJ Nichols, A Obertelli, J Pakarinen, J Partanen, P Peura, P Rahkila, M Sandzelius, J Sarén, C Scholey, J Sorri, S Stolze, J Uusitalo, R Wadsworth (2013)Spectroscopy of proton-rich 66^Se up to J^π = 6^+: isospin-breaking effect in the A = 66 isobaric triplet

Candidates for three excited states in the 66^Se have been identified using the recoil-{_beta} tagging method together with a veto detector for charged-particle evaporation channels. These results allow a comparison of mirror and triplet energy differences between analogue states across the A = 66 triplet as a function of angular momentum. The extracted triplet energy differences follow the negative trend observed in the f_7/2 shell. Shell-model calculations indicate a continued need for an additional isospin non-conserving interaction in addition to the Coulomb isotensor part as a function of mass.

J Henderson, P Ruotsalainen, DG Jenkins, C Scholey, K Auranen, PJ Davies, T Grahn, PT Greenlees, TW Henry, A Herzáň, U Jakobsson, P Joshi, R Julin, S Juutinen, J Konki, M Leino, G Lotay, AJ Nichols, A Obertelli, J Pakarinen, J Partanen, P Peura, P Rahkila, M Sandzelius, J Sarén, J Sorri, S Stolze, J Uusitalo, R Wadsworth (2013)Enhancing the sensitivity of recoil-beta tagging, In: Journal of Instrumentation8(4)

Tagging with β-particles at the focal plane of a recoil separator has been shown to be an effective technique for the study of exotic proton-rich nuclei. This article describes three new pieces of apparatus used to greatly improve the sensitivity of the recoil-beta tagging technique. These include a highly-pixelated double-sided silicon strip detector, a plastic phoswich detector for discriminating high-energy β-particles, and a charged-particle veto box. The performance of these new detectors is described and characterised, and the resulting improvements are discussed.© 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd and Sissa Medialab srl.