John Tribe

Professor John Tribe


Professor of Tourism

Biography

Biography

Professor John Tribe studied his first degree, Masters and PhD at the University of London. He was Head of the Department of Tourism at Surrey for ten years and has served as Chair of The Association for Tourism in Higher Education and Co-Chair of the UNWTO Education Council. He is a member of the scientific committee of the EAJG Journal Quality Guide with a responsibility for ranking Tourism and Hospitality journals. He holds fellowships from the Higher Education Academy, the International Academy for the Study of Tourism, the Association for Tourism in Higher Education and the Academy of the Social Sciences. He edits the Journal of Hospitality, Leisure Sport and Tourism Education and was editor of Annals of Tourism Research for ten years.

He has evaluated both the quality of teaching and research on behalf of the UK government and served on the RAE panel in 2008 and the REF panel in 2014. He has also taken part in development and evaluation programmes for teaching and research in Europe, South America, Africa, Asia and Australasia. He has led major EU projects on sustainable tourism development and curriculum development. John has authored key texts in tourism, published many research articles and presented numerous keynote addresses at International Conferences. He has published articles on tourism in The Times and The Guardian newspapers and was the recipient of the ICOT Lifetime Award for Achievement in Tourism Research.

Research interests

Sustainability, epistemology and education in tourism.

Affiliations

Fellow of the Academy of the Social Sciences

Fellow of the International Academy for the Study of Tourism

Fellow of the Association of Tourism in Higher Education

Fellow of the Higher Education Academy

Fellow of the Tourism Society

My publications

Publications

Tribe J (2004) Exploring the economic sustainability of the small tourism enterprise: a case study of Tobago,
Johan N, Tribe J, Sadler-Smith E (2008) Gap Year Travel: In the Gappers? Own Words,
Xin S, Tribe J, Chambers D (2013) Conceptual research in tourism, Annals of Tourism Research 41 pp. 66-88
Whilst quantitative and qualitative research methods have been comprehensively discussed in the literature there remains a notable absence of discussion about conceptual research. This study addresses this gap and provides an original contribution through a rigorous analysis of conceptual research in tourism. It distinguishes between conceptual and other research and provides a definition and evaluation of the concept. Quantitative and qualitative content analysis of published journal articles generates three significant outcomes. First, conceptual research, whilst increasing in popularity, is seen to be relatively marginal in tourism. Second a typology of conceptual research issues is constructed. Third a new definition is proposed. Finally an analysis of five examples provides a more holistic understanding of conceptual research and its processes and products. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Tribe J (2016) Strategy for Tourism,
Fully revised and updated, this second edition covers strategic management in a variety of tourism contexts.
Tribe J (2003) Whose Journeys? Where and why...and with what consequences?, In: Humberstone B, Brown H, Richards K (eds.), Whose Journeys? The Outdoors and Adventure as Social and Cultural Phenomena pp. 13-16
Tribe J (2008) Editorial, Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sports and Tourism Education 7 (1) pp. 1-3
Ayikoru M, Tribe J, Airey D (2009) Reading Tourism Education:Neoliberalism Unveiled, ANN TOURISM RES 36 (2) pp. 191-221 PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
This article deploys poststructuralist discourse theory to examine ideological influences in tourism higher education in England. It foregrounds neoliberalism and managerialism circulating from government policy to higher education institutions and illustrates how the notions of competition, markets, performativity and quality assurance, commonly associated with industry and commerce, converge in tourism higher education. It highlights the role of power in mediating the relationship between tourism higher education and institutions responsible for producing and disseminating the texts analyzed. It. points to the discursive construction of tourism higher education in England and concludes by posing the question: to what extent has this state of affairs contributed to furthering its venerability within the broader higher education academe?
Tribe J (2000) Indisciplined and unsubstantiated, ANNALS OF TOURISM RESEARCH 27 (3) pp. 809-813 PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
Tribe J (2002) Mystery shopping: theory and practice, In: Laws E (eds.), Tourism Marketing: quality and service management perspectives pp. 75-86 Thomson Learning
Tribe J (2009) Untitled, JOURNAL OF HOSPITALITY LEISURE SPORT & TOURISM EDUCATION 8 (1) pp. 1-3 HOSPITALITY LEISURE SPORT & TOURISM NETWORK
Tribe J, Xiao H, Chambers D (2012) The reflexive journal: Inside the black box, Annals of Tourism Research 39 (1) pp. 7-35
Tribe J (2006) Keynote presentation: Working in and and for the Real World,
Tribe J (2002) Technical Report on the Curriculum Development Project for Moldova,
Tribe J (2009) The Study of Tourism: Anthropological and Sociological Beginnings, TOURISM MANAGEMENT 30 (1) pp. 142-143 ELSEVIER SCI LTD
Tribe J (2006) Keynote presentation: (Re)presenting Tourism: the artist's gaze,
Tribe J (2002) Researching tourism education,
Tribe J (2002) Delivering higher education,
Tribe J (2005) Tourism, knowledge and the curriculum, In: Airey DW, Tribe J (eds.), An international handbook of tourism education Elsevier Science Ltd
This book is an essential reference work for all tourism departments and libraries; those planning, developing and delivering tourism courses; those studying ...
Tribe J, Kler B, Miller Graham (2006) Discover SCUBA. Experiencing Dive Destinations,
Tribe J (1997) TOURFOR: Tourism, forestry and the environment, FORESTRY CHRONICLE 73 (6) pp. 663-663 CANADIAN INST FORESTRY
Tribe J (2005) Strategy for tourism, In: Pender L, Sharpley R (eds.), The management of tourism Sage Publications Ltd
The text places the management of tourism in a structured framework, ordered around four principal themes: - Managing the Tourism System - Managing Tourism ...
Tribe J (2007) Keynote presentation: The Treachery of Tourism Research,
Tribe J (2005) The economics of recreation, leisure & tourism, Butterworth-Heinemann
International in its outlook, this text uses examples from Brazil, China, India and Japan, as well as Europe, North America and Australia.
Tribe J (2001) Research paradigms and the tourism curriculum, Journal of Travel Research 39 (4) pp. 442-448 Sage
A critique of tourism curriculum proposals in the literature enables different methodological approaches to curriculum design to be identified and evaluated. Three methodological paradigms for researching into the curriculum emerge. These are the scientific positivist, the interpretive, and the critical. The analysis of this article points to differences between research paradigms, the implications of using each of them for curriculum design, and the limitations of scientific-positivist approaches. It finds that methods that are exclusively scientific-positivist may have only limited application because of their lack of attention to meaning and values and underlines the importance of approaching curriculum design mindful of the full range of research paradigms.
Tribe J (2007) Critical Tourism: Rules and Resistance, In: Ateljevic I, Pritchard A, Morgan N (eds.), The critical turn in tourism studies: Innovative Research Methodologies pp. 29-39 Elsevier Science Ltd
The chapters in this volume reflect this emerging critical school of tourism studies and represent a coordinated effort of tourism scholars whose work engages ...
Tribe J (2003) Technical Report on Quality in Higher Education in Tourism,
Tribe J (2009) Editorial, Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sports and Tourism Education 8 (2) pp. 1-3
Tribe J (2000) Sustainable tourism a marketing perspective, TOURISM MANAGEMENT 21 (5) pp. 539-540 ELSEVIER SCI LTD
Tribe J (2005) Sharing tourism knowledge: beyond mum, dad and references A and B,
Tribe J (2003) The RAE-ification of tourism research,
Wu KL, Holmes K, Tribe J (2010) 'Where do you want to go today?' An analysis of family group decisions to visit museums, Journal of Marketing Management 26 (7-8) pp. 706-726
Families with children are important arts audiences. Yet, few studies have examined the pre-purchase behaviour of this market segment. In contrast to previous research, this paper employs an interpretative approach to study the interactive dynamics of family groups within a single decision context. The data were obtained from the participants' recollection of a freshly made decision - the decision to visit a museum. Based on group interviews with 37 families with children, this paper demonstrates the joint decisions made by the adults and children together, and identifies four decision patterns. The findings contribute new insights into the active roles that children play in museum consumption, including making purchase requests and suggestions, and acting as the decision makers. This paper also clarifies the role of each child in the decision-making process. A model for joint decision making is proposed for further testing and development in future research. © 2010 Westburn Publishers Ltd.
Tribe J (2005) Runaway tourism,
Scarles CE, Holmes K, Miller G, Tribe J (2008) Towards a conceptualisation of sustainable leisure,
Tribe J (2010) TRIBES, TERRITORIES AND NETWORKS IN THE TOURISM ACADEMY, ANNALS OF TOURISM RESEARCH 37 (1) pp. 7-33 PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
Tribe J, Airey D (2007) A Review of Tourism Research, In: Tribe J, Airey D (eds.), Developments in tourism research Elsevier Science Ltd
Tourism research has come a long way since the first developments in the identification and delineation of a tourism subject area in the mid 1960s.
Tribe J (2008) THE ART OF TOURISM, ANNALS OF TOURISM RESEARCH 35 (4) pp. 924-944 PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
Tribe J (2003) The RAE-ification of Tourism Research in the UK, International Journal of Tourism Research 5 (3) pp. 225-234 Wiley
Whereas those working on the inside of tourism generally feel that tourism research is making good progress, the 2001 Research Assessment Exercise (RAE) in the UK offered an outsiders' assessment of UK tourism research that was less benign. This paper examines the results and consequences of the RAE based on an examination of the submissions made by UK higher education institutions. It describes the position of tourism in the RAE and focuses on three key issues?structure, outcomes and visibility. It invokes Kuhnian and Foucauldian perspectives to foreground hidden consequences of the RAE (termed RAE-ification by the author) that threaten the development of UK tourism research. The article concludes that tourism research, finding itself on the periphery of UK research, faces similar problems to those faced by peripheral tourism regions.
Tribe J (2004) The state of tourism art,
Tribe J (2005) Curriculum, development and conflict: a case study of Moldova, In: Airey DW, Tribe J (eds.), An international handbook of tourism education Elsevier Science Ltd
This book is an essential reference work for all tourism departments and libraries; those planning, developing and delivering tourism courses; those studying ...
Tribe J (2001) Tourfor - award for quality of tourism, forests and the environment, In: Metla (eds.), Finnish Forest Research Institute, Research Papers 792 pp. 107-122
Tribe J (2010) Editorial, Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sports and Tourism Education 9 (1) pp. 1-3
Cuffy V, Tribe J, Airey D (2014) Collaborating Planning for Lifelong Tourism Education and Training,
Miller Graham, Rathouse K, Scarles C, Holmes K, Tribe John (2010) Public understanding of sustainable tourism, Annals of Tourism Research 37 (3) pp. 627-645 Elsevier
If tourism is to become part of a more sustainable lifestyle, changes are needed to the patterns of behaviour adopted by the public. This paper presents the results of research conducted amongst members of the public in England on their understanding of sustainable tourism; their response to four desired tourism behaviour goals, and expectations about the role of government and the tourism industry in encouraging sustainable tourism. The research shows a lack of awareness of tourism?s impact relative to day-to-day behaviour, feelings of disempowerment and an unwillingness to make significant changes to current tourism behaviour.
Tribe J, Liburd JJ (2016) The tourism knowledge system, ANNALS OF TOURISM RESEARCH 57 pp. 44-61 PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
Tribe J, Dann G (2015) Paradigms in tourism research: a trialogue, Tourism Recreation Research 40 (1) pp. 28-47 Taylor & Francis
This paper analyzes the nature and consequences of paradigms in tourism studies. It is somewhat unconventional in that its co-authors have not sought to produce a synthesized finished product. Rather, they have rendered their different perspectives visible through the structuring of the paper as a trialogue. It commences with Tribe's thesis that tourism studies is not governed by a restrictive paradigm at the field level but that at a societal level neoliberalism may be viewed as a restricting paradigm. Jamal and Dann then each deepen and extend the analysis of the term ?paradigm' as they engage with the thesis providing sometimes confirmatory and sometimes conflicting analyses. A final round of clarifications and comment concludes the piece.
Miller G, Kler BK, Tribe J (2006) Discover SCUBA. Experiencing Dive Destinations,
Tribe J (2007) Enhancing the Interpretive and Critical Approaches to Tourism Education Inquiry through a Discursive Analysis, In: Ateljevic I, Pritchard A, Morgan N (eds.), The critical turn in tourism studies: Innovative Research Methodologies Elsevier Science Ltd
The chapters in this volume reflect this emerging critical school of tourism studies and represent a coordinated effort of tourism scholars whose work engages ...
Tribe J (2008) Tourism: A Critical Business, JOURNAL OF TRAVEL RESEARCH 46 (3) pp. 245-255 SAGE PUBLICATIONS INC
Tribe J, Snaith T (1998) From SERVQUAL to HOLSAT: holiday satisfaction in Varadero, Cuba, TOURISM MANAGEMENT 19 (1) pp. 25-34 ELSEVIER SCI LTD
Tribe J (2003) Attitudes of the young to careers in hospitality and tourism: review and recommendation, In: Kusluvan S (eds.), Managing Employee Attitudes and Behaviors in the Tourism and Hospitality Industry Nova Science Pub Inc
The purpose of this book is to emphasise the critical role of employees for tourism and hospitality organisations and to examine the ways and means of managing ...
Tribe J (2002) Sustainability and the tourism curriculum: voices from the Caribbean,
Tribe J (2005) Is tourism studies critical,
Tribe J (2005) Higher education and opinion making in twentieth-century England, EDUCATIONAL REVIEW 57 (2) pp. 266-268 CARFAX PUBLISHING
Tribe J (2002) The philosophic practitioner, ANNALS OF TOURISM RESEARCH 29 (2) PII S0160-7383(01)00038-X pp. 338-357 PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
Tribe J (2011) Where do you want to go today?, Journal of Marketing Management 26 (7, 8) pp. 706-726
Eichhorn V, Miller Graham, Tribe John (2013) Tourism: a site of resistance strategies of individuals with a disability, Annals of Tourism Research 43 pp. 578-600 Elsevier
This research investigates resistance strategies employed by individuals with a disability, which remain unexplored at a theoretical and practical level. This lacuna is addressed by identifying and examining different strategies either enabling or preventing resistance. Linking resistance to identity positions, the study further juxtaposes individual and collective forms of resistance related to contextual differences between the everyday life and tourism. Findings highlight that a clear-cut dichotomy of strategies enabling or contrarily preventing resistance does not exist. Yet, while the everyday life leads to transformation by relying on a collective identity, tourism offers greater possibilities to develop a sense of self-identity, as highlighted by the strong denial to make use of specialised operators. This provides a locus for the industry to act upon.
Airey DW, Tribe J (2005) An international handbook of tourism education, Elsevier Science Ltd
This book is an essential reference work for all tourism departments and libraries; those planning, developing and delivering tourism courses; those studying ...
Tribe J (2015) The Economics of Recreation, Leisure and Tourism, Routledge
One of the leading texts in the field, The Economics of Recreation, Leisure and Tourism is the ideal introduction to the fundamentals of economics in these industries, helping you to pass an economics module as part of tourism, recreation, ...
Tribe J, Xiao H (2011) Developments in tourism social science, Annals of Tourism Research 38 (1) pp. 7-26
Tribe J (2012) Annals of tourism research and article-based publishing, Annals of Tourism Research 39 (2)
Kler BK, Tribe J (2012) Flourishing through SCUBA: Understanding the pursuit of dive experiences, Tourism in Marine Environments 8 (1-2) pp. 19-32
This article presents evidence for a new facet of our understanding of why scuba divers pursue their interest so fervently and are willing to travel to do so. The perennial question of why people travel is addressed through the concept of eudaimonia, the good life, or flourishing, an idea originating with Aristotle but currently enjoying renewed interest in the context of positive psychology and wellbeing tourism. Results of a qualitative study are presented through themes that resonate with the authentic happiness model used to evaluate long-term satisfaction, happiness, or eudaimonia. Exploratory findings indicate that participants gain meaning and fulfillment from the acts of learning and personal growth, and they are motivated to dive because this special interest promotes positive experiences, which may lead to the good life.
Jiang B, Tribe J (2009) 'Tourism jobs - short lived professions': Student attitudes towards tourism careers in China, JOURNAL OF HOSPITALITY LEISURE SPORT & TOURISM EDUCATION 8 (1) pp. 4-19 HOSPITALITY LEISURE SPORT & TOURISM NETWORK
Scarles CE, Miller G, Rathouse K, Holmes K, Tribe J (2008) Public Understanding of Sustainable Tourism,
Tribe J (2006) The truth about tourism, ANNALS OF TOURISM RESEARCH 33 (2) pp. 360-381 PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
Tribe J (1999) Sustainable tourism a marketing perspective, TOURISM MANAGEMENT 20 (3) pp. 375-377 ELSEVIER SCI LTD
Tribe J (1997) The indiscipline of tourism, ANNALS OF TOURISM RESEARCH 24 (3) pp. 638-657 PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
Scarles CE, Miller G, Rathouse K, Holmes K, Tribe J (2008) Public Understanding of Sustainable Tourism,
Tribe J (2003) Sustainability differences in small tourism enterprises in Tobago,
Scarles CE, Miller G, Rathouse K, Holmes K, Tribe J (2008) Public Understanding of Sustainable Tourism Torquay,
Tribe J (2001) Aims and values in tourism education,
Tribe J (2007) A Review of Tourism Research, In: Developments in Tourism Research
Tribe J (2005) Overview of research, In: Airey DW, Tribe J (eds.), An international handbook of tourism education Elsevier Science Ltd
This book is an essential reference work for all tourism departments and libraries; those planning, developing and delivering tourism courses; those studying ...
Cuffy V, Tribe J, Airey D (2012) Lifelong learning for tourism, Annals of Tourism Research 39 (3) pp. 1402-1424
This paper examines the provision of education and training for tourism in The Commonwealth of Dominica, a destination heavily dependent on tourism. It provides an original consideration of lifelong learning for tourism. It reports the perspectives of major stakeholders, who reveal that tourism is taught intermittently as one topic, among others, during formal schooling, followed by a strong instrumental focus in post-secondary education and training. Stakeholders interviewed in this study see this approach as inappropriate. They indicate that a lifelong spiralled approach with opportunities spanning all stages of both formal and informal education and training would be more suitable. The paper presents possible approaches to achieving this. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Sheldon PJ, Fesenmaier DR, Tribe J (2011) The Tourism Education Futures Initiative (TEFI): Activating change in tourism education, Journal of Teaching in Travel and Tourism 11 (1) pp. 2-23
The Tourism Education Futures Initiative (TEFI) seeks to provide vision, knowledge, and a framework for tourism education programs that promote global citizenship and optimism for a better world. This article provides background on TEFI, its inception, its development and its future. The article argues that a fundamental shift in tourism education is necessary to respond to global challenges impacting tourism at a fundamental level. These shifts demand higher levels of responsibility and stewardship by graduates and industry leaders. TEFI attempts to address the complexity and diversity of the shifts required by educational institutions and industry. TEFI's work began by defining a set of foundational values for tourism education programs worldwide (stewardship, ethics, knowledge, mutuality, professionalism). TEFI is now addressing other important shifts needed to provide an education of quality and relevance to tomorrow's tourism industry. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
Tribe J (2001) The process of developing an Ecolabel, In: Font X, Buckley R (eds.), Tourism ecolabelling: certification and promotion of sustainable management CABI
This book is the first substantial one to review this subject.
Tribe J (2006) Don?t Be a Tosser: Image Enriched Learning in Tourism,
Tribe J (2006) Image-enhanced Learning in Tourism,
Tribe J (2001) Tourism education and innovation in Moldova: the THEME project,
Tribe J (2004) Knowing about tourism, In: Phillimore J, Goodson L (eds.), Qualitative Research in Tourism: ontologies, epistemologies and methodologies
This book links theory with research practice to offer a more holistic account of how qualitative research can be used in tourism.
Tribe J (2007) Keynote presentation: Promoting an Academy of Hope,
Xiao H, Jafari J, Cloke P, Tribe J (2013) Annals: 40-40 vision, Annals of Tourism Research 40 (1) pp. 352-385
Four authors, including the current and founding editors, have collaborated to write this editorial that marks the 40th anniversary of Annals of Tourism Research. It has three objectives. The first is to look back and encourage reflection on the last 40. years of its development. This is done by recounting the twists and turns of the history and transformation of the journal as well as by analyzing the trends and patterns of knowledge formation. The second objective is to look sideways and examine developments in the broader social sciences of which Annals is part of. Finally the issues raised by the first two objectives provide the stimulus for a brief discussion about the future of the journal and the directions and challenges for tourism social science knowledge. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Johan N, Tribe J, Sadler-Smith E (2008) Travel, Transitions and Transformations: the Role of Gap Year Travel (GYT) in Young People?s Learning and Personal Transformation,
Johan N, Tribe J, Sadler-Smith E (2008) Mobilities and Transitions and Transformations: the role of Gap Year Travel (GYT),
Tribe J (2006) Keynote presentation: The philosophic practitioner,
Tribe J (2006) Keynote presentation: Professional Competence and Social Engagement in Tourism: The Role of Universities,
Tribe J (2006) The economic impacts of tourism, In: Beech J, Chadwick S (eds.), The business of tourism management Pearson Education
This exciting new book, firmly embedded in the management discipline, helps to equip students and future managers with both the business skills and an ...
Miller G, Holmes K, Scarles C, Tribe J (2009) Barriers to sustainable leisure, In: Caudwell J (eds.), Tourism and Leisure: Local communities and local cultures in the UK pp. 143-158 Leisure Studies Association
Tribe J (2001) Tourism education and community development in developing countries,
Tribe J (2003) The quality agenda,
Scarles CE, Miller G, Rathouse K, Holmes K, Tribe J (2007) Public Understanding of Sustainable Leisure and Tourism, In: Public Understanding of Sustainable Leisure and Tourism Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs
Tribe J, Airey D (2007) Developments in tourism research, Elsevier Science Ltd
Tourism research has come a long way since the first developments in the identification and delineation of a tourism subject area in the mid 1960s.
Tribe J (1996) Core skills: A critical examination, EDUCATIONAL REVIEW 48 (1) pp. 13-27 CARFAX PUBL CO
Existing research on tourism social media users rarely extends beyond their role as appraisers of tourism and hospitality products. Such research fails to identify the different modes of experience and behavior that these users assume in their cyberspace interactions. This article demonstrates that user interactions entail much more than evaluating products. Using data from TripAdvisor, it identifies five additional user roles that define their experience and comportment online: troll, activist, social critic, information seeker, and socialite. Adopting a netnographic approach, these categories are interrogated to provide a more nuanced understanding of the online user experience in tourism social media space. Further, for each role, we glean the implicit uses and gratifications users seek from using the media. It is argued that the combined enactment of these roles creates a rich repository of experiential narratives that tourism businesses and destination managers can tap into for insights into the modern tourism consumer.
Tribe J (2007) This is (not) tourism,
Tribe J (2009) Editorial, Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sports and Tourism Education 8 (1) pp. 1-3
Tribe J (2003) Tourism education: a big and messy business,
Roberts S, Tribe J (2008) Sustainability Indicators for Small Tourism Enterprises - An Exploratory Perspective, JOURNAL OF SUSTAINABLE TOURISM 16 (5) pp. 575-594 CHANNEL VIEW PUBLICATIONS
TRIBE J (2003) ECONOMIA DO LAZER E DO TURISMO,
Este livro traz explicações das teorias econômicas a partir de princípios básicos,aplicadas em questões do turismo e do lazer.
Tribe J (2006) Keynote presentation: Academic Renewal,
There is currently much debate about how knowledge of tourism can and indeed should be produced. Tourism knowledge production is criticised to rely too much on Western values with limited research methods. Although tourism, as a field of study is considered as demonstrating a notable ?critical turn? in recent years with the evidence of several books and journals published in response to this trend, the situation is not really as optimistic as it seems to be. This study seeks to redress this issue. The first part of the study-the theory of conceptual research in tourism- contributes to the ?methodological turn?. It focused on conceptual research which is an existing research strategy but has been somewhat overlooked in the methodological studies especially in tourism field. The idea originated from the process of identifying the research type and a proper research method for the research question that makes the concept(s) as the research object. By reviewing the methodological literatures, the rationale and existing definitions of conceptual research were discussed and presented. A sample of 471 tourism journal articles was determined to examine the conceptual research in tourism. The quantitative content analysis revealed that conceptual research is somewhat overlooked in the tourism research academy. The qualitative content analysis developed a typology of twelve conceptual research approaches in conceptual research by analysing 46 pure conceptual research articles. Based on the discussions and analysis, conceptual research in tourism was defined and nine quality issues of conceptual research were illustrated.

The second part of the study ?the practice of conceptual research (the reinterpretation of sustainable tourism in the light of Confucianism and Taoism) - is the advocating of the ?cultural turn? which lags behind the ?methodological turn?. The twelve conceptual research approaches developed in the first part were applied to analyse the concepts of Confucianism, Taoism and sustainable tourism. The definitions, developments and clarifications of Confucianism, Taoism and sustainable tourism were presented. Eleven Confucian values, three Taoist values and seven existing sustainable tourism principles were abstracted. And then the Confucian and Taoist values were translated to sustainable tourism with the results of the sustainable tourism principles were reinterpreted and sustainable tourism was reconceptualised in the light of Confucianism and Taoism.

Beard Lynn, Scarles Caroline, Tribe John (2017) MESS AND METHOD: USING ANT IN TOURISM RESEARCH, Annals of Tourism Research 60 pp. 97-110 Elsevier
The use of actor-network thinking is increasingly evident in tourism research. ANT offers the researcher a practical, fieldwork-based orientation, emphasising detailed description of relationships between actors in practice. However, questions which arise for the researcher in using ANT are seldom confronted in the literature. This paper contributes to the growing ANT literature in tourism by identifying five ?character traits? relating to selection and use of method in ANT research. It uses an empirical case study to show how these traits are performative in the researcher?s ?hinterland? of methodological choices, providing theoretical and practical reflections for future researchers. It ends by considering how acknowledging these traits in the account can demonstrate adherence to accepted criteria for research quality.
Tribe J, Mkono M (2017) Not such smart tourism? The concept of e-lienation, Annals of Tourism Research 66 pp. 105-115 Elsevier Masson
The concept of alienation was adapted to tourism by MacCannell who identified it as a key feature of modernity and a strong driver of tourism where tourists seek to reconnect to authentic places and selves. Meanwhile the post-modern world has witnessed a revolution in Information and Communication Technology (ICT) especially in the realm of smart tourism where its advocates talk eagerly of the internet of everything. Such a totalising prospect demands serious review and this article fills a critical gap by conceptualising the idea of e-lienation as a specific form of alienation in ICT-enabled tourism. It combines philosophic questions of meaning, sociological theory and empirical research to demonstrate the meanings of e-lienation, its dimensions, causes, consequences and strategies of resistance.
Airey DW, Tribe J, Benckendorff P, Xiao H (2015) The Managerial Gaze: The Long Tail of Tourism Education and Research, JOURNAL OF TRAVEL RESEARCH 54 (2) pp. 139-151 SAGE PUBLICATIONS INC
Tourism has been studied and researched in higher education for more than 40 years and in many ways it has now established itself as a significant part of the academy. However, at a time of change and rationalization in higher education, tourism, along with other areas of study, needs to be able to justify its position. Increasingly, academic managers are seeking such justifications, often using readily available metrics. The purpose of this study is to examine the position of tourism using these same metrics, for teaching, research, and impact and for three different countries, Australia, China, and the United Kingdom. In doing so, it highlights tourism?s strengths and weaknesses from a managerial perspective but at the same time it exposes the relative narrowness of this managerial gaze. It points to the need for the tourism community to strengthen its provision and broaden the gaze of the decision makers.
Ram Y, Tribe J, Biran A (2016) Sexual Harassment: Overlooked and under-researched, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management 28 (10) pp. 2110-2131 Emerald
Purpose

This paper aims to focus on the gap between the very high prevalence of sexual harassment in the tourism and hospitality industry (the phenomenon) and the limited academic discussion about it (academic knowledge), and suggests ways to bridge this gap.
Design/methodology/approach

The gap between phenomenon and knowledge is identified by comparing official data regarding sexual harassment in the tourism and hospitality industry with a content analysis of the academic literature. Tribe?s (2006) knowledge force-field model is used to analyze this gap.
Findings

The five truth barriers identified by Tribe (2006), namely, person, rules, position, ends and ideology, are confirmed by the data. Five counter-forces ? triangulation, interdisciplinary, collaboration, humanism and critical praxis ? are developed to counter these truth barriers.
Practical implications

The five counter-forces offer practical solutions for research, higher education programs and the tourism industry. They demonstrate ways to reduce the high prevalence of sexual harassment in the industry and improve the working conditions of employees.
Originality/value

Underpinned by Tribe?s conceptual model, the paper identifies and analyzes a relative silence regarding sexual harassment in the tourism and hospitality academy in contrast to its prevalence in the industry. Additionally, it advances Tribe?s model by identifying five truth-facilitating forces. Further, it offers a research agenda for revealing hidden topics and/or biased knowledge by understanding the relationship between tourism and hospitality phenomena and academic knowledge.

This thesis investigated the research impact discourse surrounding the REF?s 2014 (Research Excellence Framework) evaluation of research in the UK. The addressed knowledge gap dealt with critically evaluating the newly introduced disciplinary regime surrounding research impact and what influence it has on academic praxis and the research ecosystem as a whole. The utilised research methodology represented an evaluation of the research impact guidelines, submitted impact claims and interviews with academics. Specifically, a critical discourse analysis of the research impact case studies (in relation to tourism) and impact templates (of the submitting tourism studies faculties) was conducted. This was complemented with semi-structured interviews of tourism academics on all levels of the academic hierarchy.

The key findings are; firstly the research shows empirically that the newly introduced discourse of research impact shapes academic conduct to affiliate itself within the performance measures in a very pragmatic fashion (small scale and easy to reference). Secondly, the research showed that the research impact discourse disciplines behaviour along the entire chain of the social construction, from setting a word to the page all the way to employment decisions and universities budgets. Lastly, the analysis of the interviews showed the different levels of cognitive learning within the researchers? resulted in that each individual approached the same discourse differently, this multiplicity and the resulting uncertainty represents a force that is shaping the research ecosystem in its own right.

The work is original in that the here presented post-postmodern approach to studying (scientific) knowledge construction, not only offers an explanation of knowledge accumulation whilst still allowing being critical of it. The originality comes in that the research ecosystem approach allows a potential way to evaluate the vertical dimension of epistemology, allowing the dialectic to present a choice between different value assumptions shaping these disciplinary measures.

Tribe John (2018) Creating and Curating Tourism Knowledge, Annals of Tourism Research 73 pp. 14-25 Elsevier
This article examines the factors that lead to the creation of quality research and those that enable that research to be robustly yet fairly curated through the journal system. It approaches this problem mainly as an autoethnography presented as a critical professional reflection. This is enriched by triangulation with other experts in the field. The issues are significant since the canon of tourism is advanced at the very place where the creation of knowledge comes up against its curation. Its original contribution is to reveal and to make explicit norms and processes which have often been tacit or hidden or taken for granted and uninspected. Further its findings are translated into a series of practical tips and recommendations.
This study initially aims to investigate Chinese outbound backpackers? travel experiences through White (1949a)?s traditional system, which understands and classifies cultural theories into three layers (ideological, social and technological). However, this original system is too problematic to provide adequate explanations of the experiences of mobile individuals and their relations. Thus, beyond investigating Chinese backpackers? experiences, this study adopts an abductive approach that systematically combines theoretical and empirical approaches to reconceptualise the three-layer system of culture, and proposes the ?Fluid Networked System of Culture? to provide a framework for understanding mobile individuals? experiences. Theoretically, liquid modernity and the new mobilities paradigm create the theoretical constructs. Empirically, Chinese outbound backpackers? experiences develop and complete the reconceptualisation process by providing ?thick descriptions? of their travel experiences in Europe. Online participant observation and three fieldwork trips through a mobile and virtual ethnographic approach were undertaken between June and November, 2014. Overall, three sets of comprehensive field notes, twenty semi-structured interviews, other supporting data (for example, reflexive notes, conversational interviews) were collected and analysed through thematic analysis.

The findings show a complex and fluid picture of Chinese backpackers? travel experiences. Regarding mobile social relations, the findings suggest that the Chinese value of harmony plays a predominant role in backpacker group dynamics, which directly influence their travel experiences. While in terms of ideologies, multiple conflicting streams of values were identified in their perceptions and identities. In addition, multiple affording roles of materials and technologies were recognised in the Chinese backpackers? practice. This thesis then abductively proposes the ?Fluid Networked System of Culture? as the outcome of this reconceptualisation through the theoretical framing and empirical comprehension. The Fluid Networked System of Culture provides a comprehensive framework to explore issues in and beyond tourism.

Cai Wenjie, Cohen Scott A., Tribe John (2019) Harmony rules in Chinese backpacker groups, Annals of Tourism Research 75 pp. 120-130 Elsevier
Despite recognition that Chinese backpackers travel in small, self-organised groups, studies have yet to examine how group dynamics affect the travel experience. Multi-sited ethnography and netnography were deployed to follow Chinese backpackers in Europe to explore their group dynamics. The findings reveal that Chinese backpackers sustain hierarchical group relations by applying cultural attributes of ?respect for authority? and ?keqi?. A conflict-free status is achieved by following the codes of ?guanxi? and ?conformity?. Harmony is practiced to either develop harmonious relationships or resolve potential discord. This study contributes to the literature on harmony by synthesising relevant cultural attributes to understand their applications in group dynamic. It furthermore contributes to the literature on backpacker tourism and self-organised travel group dynamics.
Johan Novie, Sadler-Smith Eugene, Tribe John (2018) Informal and incidental learning in the liminal space of extended independent (gap year) travel, Academy of Management Learning & Education 18 (3) Academy of Management
Significant student learning experiences occur informally and incidentally in the liminal spaces that are ?betwixt and between? various educational, professional, and life stages. However, the learnings which take place in such liminal spaces are not well understood; they are both problematic and powerful and have untapped potential. Our research explored informal and incidental learning processes and outcomes in the liminal space of extended independent (gap year) travel. Based on an in-depth qualitative analysis of the detailed accounts of the learning experiences of 27 participants, we present a six-stage model of how learning occurs in the liminal space of extended independent travel. In studying the relationships between informal and incidental learning in this space we uncovered a process whereby participants, at times as the result of experiencing a disorienting dilemma, had the opportunity to reflect on old ?habitual? ways of being and, through reflexivity, engage with new ?re-authored? ways of being. The implications of our findings for learning in general and management learning and education in particular are discussed. Keywords: informal and incidental learning; liminality; reflection; reflexivity; transformation
Brauer Rene, Dymitrow Mirek, Tribe John (2019) The impact of tourism research, Annals of Tourism Research Elsevier
The exceedingly competitive climate of academia has increased the emphasis on performance-based
research funding. In this paper we evaluate the UK?s government assessment of research impact and
critically comment upon the implications for future research conduct. The key findings are as
follows; firstly we provide a summary of UK tourism research impact. Secondly, we demonstrate the
effect of the resulting significance gap, and comment upon the consequences of the Research
Excellence Frameworks' (REF) research impact assessment in terms of a research culture change.
Lastly, we proposition that the current assessment structure can have negative long-term
consequences in that key issues facing tourism fall outside ?good? research impact.