Dr Lei Xing

Lecturer in Chemical Engineering
+44 (0)1483 686576
32 BC 02



Research interests


Postgraduate research supervision




Full papers are available by clicking the bold journal name

  • 2023
  1. L. Xing, H. Jiang, S. Wang, V.J. Pinfield, J. Xuan*. Data-driven surrogate modelling and multi-variable optimization of trickle bed and packed bubble column reactors for CO2 capture via enhanced weathering. Chemical Engineering Journal, 2023, 454: 139997. 
  2. H. Mousa, L. Xing, P.K. Das*. Investigation of gradient platinum loading and porosity distribution for anion exchange membrane fuel cells. Journal of Electrochemical Energy Conversion and Storage, 2023, 20: 041001. 
  3. Z. Zhou, L. Xing, V. Venkatesan, H. Xu, W. Chen, J. Xuan*. Novel porous electrode designs for reversible solid oxide hydrogen planar cell through multi-physics modeling. Fuel Cells, 2023, Early View. 
  • 2022
  1. L. Xing, G. Chen, J. Xuan, Q. Xu, L. He, H. Su, S. Zhang, W. Shi*. Improvement of Pt-based catalyst utilisation in PEM fuel cells through inhomogeneous distribution of platinum under channels and ribs. Chemical Engineering Science, 2022, 263: 118077. 
  2. J. Yao, Z. Wu*, H. Wang, F. Yang, J. Xuan, L. Xing*, J. Ren, Z. Zhang*. Design and multi-objective optimization of low-temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells with efficient water recovery and high electrochemical performance. Applied Energy, 2022, 324: 119667. 
  3. G. Chen, W. Shi, J. Xuan, Q. Xu, H. Guo, Z. Penga, H. Su, L. Xing*. Improvement of under-the-rib oxygen concentration and water removal in PEMFCs through 3D metal printed novel flow fields. AIChE Journal, 2022, 68: e17758. 
  4. J. Wang, R. Ding, F. Cao, J. Li, H. Dong, T. Shi, L. Xing*, J. Liu*. Comparison of state-of-the-art machine learning algorithms and data-driven optimization methods for mitigating nitrogen crossover in PEM fuel cells. Chemical Engineering Journal, 2022, 442: 136064.   
  5. L. Xing, H. Pullin, L. Bullock, P. Renforth*, R. Darton, A. Yang*. Potential of enhanced weathering of calcite in packed bubble columns with seawater for carbon dioxide removal. Chemical Engineering Journal, 2022, 431: 134096.
  6. Y. Wang, X. Wang, G. Chen, C. Chen, X. Wang, Z. Penga, Z. Yang, L. Xing*. Reinforcement of PEM fuel cell performance through a novel flow field design with auxiliary channels and a hole array. AIChE Journal, 2022, 68: e17461.
  7. Y. Wang, H. Lei, S. Lu, Z. Yang, B. Xu, L. Xing*, X. Liu*. Cu2O nano-flowers/graphene enabled scaffolding structure catalyst layer for enhanced CO2 electrochemical reduction. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 2022, 305: 121022. 
  8. Y. Wang*, H. Xu, X. Wang, J. Guan, X. Su, Y. Qin*, L. Xing*. Multi-sub-inlets at cathode flow-field plate for current density homogenization and enhancement of PEM fuel cell in low relative humidity. Energy Conversion and Management, 2022, 252: 115069. 
  9. J. Zhang, P. Balkakrishnan, Z. Chang, P. Sun, H. Su, L. Xing*, Q. Xu*. Boosting the performance of alkaline direct ethanol fuel cell with low-Pd-loading nickel foam electrode via mixed acid-etching. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 2022, 47: 9672-9679.
  10. Q. Guo, H. Guo*, F. Ye, L. Xing, C.F. Ma. A numerical study of dynamic behaviours of a unitized regenerative fuel cell during gas purging. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 2022, 47: 22203-22214.
  11. S. Lu, Y. Wang, H. Xiang, H. Lei, B. Xu, L. Xing, E. Yu*, T. Liu*. Mass transfer effect to electrochemical reduction of CO2: electrode, electrocatalyst and electrolyte. Journal of Energy Storage, 2022, 52: 104764.
  12. P. Balakrishnan, F.D. Sanij, Z. Chang, P.K. Leung, H. Su, L. Xing, Q. Xu*. Nano-graphene layer from facile, scalable and eco-friendly liquid exfoliation strategy as effective barrier layer for high-performance and durable direct liquid alcohol fuel cells. Molecules, 2022, 27: 3044.
  13. S Ravichandran, N. Bhuvanendran, Q. Xu, T. Maiyalagan, L. Xing, H. Su*. Ordered mesoporous Pt-Ru-Ir nanostructures as superior bifunctional electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction/oxygen evolution reactions. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 2022, 608: 207-218.
  14. T. Chen, Z. Ma, Z. Qiu, Z. Zhong, L. Xing, Q. Guo, D. Luo, Z. Weng, F. Ge, Y. Huang, X. Zhang, H. He, X. Zhuang*, Q. Li*, T. Yuan*. Characterization of excipients to improve pharmaceutical properties of sirolimus in the supercritical anti-solvent fluidized process. International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 2022, 611: 121240.
  • 2021
  1. L. Xing, R. Darton, A. Yang*. Enhanced weathering to capture atmospheric carbon dioxide: modelling of a trickle-bed reactor. AIChE Journal, 2021, 67: e17202.
  2. L. Xing*, Y. Xu, Z. Penga, Q. Xu, H. Su, F. Barbir, W. Shi*, J. Xuan. A segmented fuel cell unit with functionally graded distribution of platinum loading and operating temperature. Chemical Engineering Journal, 2021, 406: 126889.
  3. G. Chen, Q. Xu*, J. Xuan, J. Liu, Q. Fu, W. Shi, H. Su, L. Xing*. Numerical study of inhomogeneous deformation of gas diffusion layer on proton exchange membrane fuel cells performance. Journal of Energy Storage, 2021, 44: 103486.
  4. W. Sun, C. Li, J. Bai*, L. Xing*. Carbon nanofibers-assembled tungsten oxide as unique hybrid electrode materials for high-performance symmetric supercapacitors. Energy & Fuels, 2021, 35: 11572-11579.
  5. L. Mihanović, Ž. Penga*, L. Xing*, V. Hacker. Combining baffles and secondary porous layers for performance enhancement of PEM fuel cells. Energies, 2021, 14: 3675.
  6. C. Chao, Y. Lu, L. Xing*. Levelling renewable power output using hydrogen-based storage system: A techno-economic analysis. Journal of Energy Storage, 2021, 37: 102413.
  7. Z. Chang, J. Zhang, W. Zhang, H. Su, L. Xing, Q. Ma, H. Zhang*, Q. Xu*. Enhanced cell performance and improved catalyst utilization for a direct methanol fuel cell with an in-plane gradient loading catalyst electrode. Processes, 2021, 9: 1787.
  8. W. Zhang, D. Yao, L. Tian, Z. Xie, Q. Ma, Q. Xu, S. Pasupathi, L. Xing, H. Su*. Enhanced performance of high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell using a novel dual catalyst layer structure cathode. Journal of Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers, 2021, 125: 285-290.
  9. F. Zheng, P. Hou, C. Corpstein, L. Xing, T. Li*. Muliphysics modelling and simulation of subcutaneous injection and absorption of biotherapeutics: Model development. Pharmaceutical Research, 2021, 38: 607-624.
  10. P. Hou, F. Zheng, C. Corpstein, L. Xing, T. Li*. Muliphysics modelling and simulation of subcutaneous injection and absorption of biotherapeutics: Sensitivity analysis. Pharmaceutical Research, 2021, 38: 1011-1030.
  11. K. Peng, W. Zhang, N. Bhuvanendran, Q. Xu, L. Xing, L. Khotseng, H. Su*. Pt-based (Zn, Cu) Nanodendrites with Enhanced Catalytic Efficiency and Durability toward Methanol Electro-oxidation via trace Ir-Doping Engineering. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 2021, 598: 126-135.
  12. Z. Xie, L. Tian, W. Zhang, Q. Ma, L. Xing, Q. Xu, L. Khotseng, H. Su*. Enhanced low-humidity performance of proton exchange membrane fuel cell by incorporating phosphoric acid-loaded covalent organic framework in anode catalyst layer. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 2021, 46: 10903-10912.
  13. P. Yue, Q. Fu*, J. Li, L. Zhang, L. Xing, Z. Kang, Q. Liao, X. Zhu. Triple-phase electrocatalysis for the enhanced CO2 reduction to HCOOH on hydrophobic surface. Chemical Engineering Journal, 2021, 405: 126975.
  14. Q. Xu*, W. Sun, J. Zhang, W. Zhang, Q. Ma, H. Su, L. Xing. Constructing a graphene-contained layer in anode to improve the performance of direct methanol fuel cells using high-concentration fuel. International Journal of Green Energy, 2021, 18: 566-577.
  15. Z. Yang, D. Li, L. Xing, J. Xuan, S. Cheng, E. H. Yu*, A. Yang*. Modelling and upscaling analysis of gas diffusion electrode based electrochemical carbon dioxide reduction systems. ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering, 2021, 9: 351-361.
  16. C. Tian, C. Li, D. Chen, Y. Li, L. Xing, X. Tian, Y. Cao, W. Huang*, Z. Liu*, Y. Shen*. Sandwich hydrogel with confined plasmonic Cu/carbon cells for efficient solar water purification. Journal of Materials Chemistry A, 2021, 9: 15462.
  • 2020
  1. L. Xing*, Y. Xu, Z. Penga, Q. Xu, H. Su, W. Shi*, F. Barbir. A novel flow field with controllable pressure gradient to enhance mass transport and water removal of PEM fuel cells. AIChE Journal, 2020, 66: e16957.
  2. Z. Liu, A. Wang, Q. Zhang*, J. Liu, H. Ma, D. Li, L. Xing*. Visible-light-driven photocatalytic activity of kaolinite: sensitized by in-situ growth of Cu-TiO2. Environmental Progress and Sustainable Energy, 2020, 40: e13479.
  3. Z. Zhu, H. Yin*, Y. Wang, C.H. Chuang, L. Xing, M. Dong, Y.R. Lu, G. Casillas-Garcia, Y. Zheng, S. Chen, Y. Dou, P. Liu, Q. Cheng, H. Zhao*. Coexisted single atomic Fe and Ni sites on hierarchically ordered porous carbon as highly efficient ORR electrocatalyst. Advanced Materials, 2020, 32: 2004670. (highly cited paper)
  4. S. Kuang, M. Li, R. Xia, L. Xing, Y Su, Q. Fan, J Liu, E.J.M. Hensen, X. Ma, S. Zhang*. Stable surface-anchored Cu nanocubes for CO2 electroreduction to ethylene. ACS Applied Nano Materials, 2020, 3: 8328-8334.
  5. J. Zhang, W. Zhang, Q. Ma, L. Xing, P. Leugn, C. Yang, H. Su, Q. Xu*. Balancing the electron conduction and mass transfer: Effect of nickel foam thickness on the performance of an alkaline direct ethanol fuel cell (ADEFC) with 3D porous anode. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 2020, 45: 19801-19812.
  6. K. Peng, N. Bhuvanendran, S. Raichandran, W. Zhang, Q. Ma, L. Xing, Q. Xu, L. Khotseng, H. Su*. Carbon supported PtPdCr ternary alloy nanoparticles with enhanced electrocatalytic activity and durability for methanol oxidation reaction. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 2020, 45: 22752-22760.
  7. K. Peng, N. Bhuvanendran, S. Raichandran, W. Zhang, Q. Ma, L. Xing, Q. Xu, L. Khotseng, H. Su*. Bimetallic Pt3Mn nanowire network structures with enhanced electrocatalytic performance for methanol oxidation. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 2020, 45: 30455 - 30462.
  8. J. Xu, Q. Ma, L. Xing, H. Li, P. Leung, W. Yang, H. Su, Q. Xu*. Modeling the effect of temperature on performance of an iron-vanadium redox flow battery with deep eutectic solvent (EDS) electrolyte. Journal of Power Sources, 2020, 449: 227491.
  9. Q. Ma, L. Xing, H. Su, W. Zhang, W. Yang, Q. Xu*. Numerical investigation on the dispersion effect in vanadium redox flow battery. Chemical Engineering Journal, 2020, 393: 124753.
  10. C. Tian, J. Liu, R. Ruan, X. Tian, X. Lai, L. Xing, Y. Su, W. Huang*, Y. Cao*, J. Tu*. Sandwich photothermal membrane with confined hierarchical carbon cells enabling high-efficiency solar steam generation. Small, 2020, 16: 2000573.
  • 2019
  1. L. Xing*, W. Shi*, H. Su, Q. Xu, P.K. Das, B. Mao, K. Scott*. Membrane electrode assemblies for PEM fuel cells: A review on functional graded design and optimization. Energy, 2019, 177: 445-464. (highly cited paper)
  2. L. Xing, Y. Xu, P.K. Das, B. Mao, Q. Xu, H. Su, W. Shi*. Numerical matching of anisotropic transport processes in porous electrodes of proton exchange membrane fuel cells. Chemical Engineering Science, 2019, 195: 127-140.
  3. L. Xing, Y. Li, T. Li*. Local concentrating, not shear stress, that may lead to possible instability of protein molecules during syringe injection: a fluid dynamic study with two-phase flow model. PDA Journal of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology, 2019, 73: 260-275.
  4. X. Chen, W. Cao*, L. Xing*. GA optimization method for a multi-vector energy system incorporating wind, hydrogen, and fuel cells for rural village applications. Applied Sciences, 2019, 9: 3554.
  5. W. Sun, W. Zhang, H. Su, P. Leung, L. Xing, L. Xu, C. Yang, Q. Xu*. Improving cell performance and alleviating performance degradation by constructing a novel structure of membrane electrode assembly (MEA) of DMFCs. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 2019, 44: 32231-32239.
  6. L. Guo, L. Xiang, F. Li, X. Liu, L. Xing, D. Li, Z. Luo, K. Luo*. Silver nanoparticle/multi-walled carbon nanotube hybrid as an effective electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction in alkaline medium. ChemElectroChem. 2019, 6: 2489-2496.
  7. Y. Wang*, C. Liu, J. Xiang, L. Xing, X. Ou, S. Chen. Electrocatalytic oxidation of methanol on nickel doped metal organic frameworks MIL-110 modified glassy carbon electrode in alkaline medium. International Journal of Electrochemical Science, 2019, 14: 5247-5258.
  8. Y. Yang, B. Mao*, G. Gong, D. Li, Y. Liu, W. Cao, L. Xing, J. Zeng, W. Shi*, S. Yuan. In-situ growth of Zn–AgIn5S8 quantum dots on g-C3N4 towards 0D/2D heterostructured photocatalysts with enhanced hydrogen production. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 2019, 44: 15882-15891. (highly cited paper)
  9. Z. Liu, X. Bao, L. Xing, J. Yang, Q. Zhang*. Template-free sol-hydrothermal synthesis of a nitrogen doped anatase/rutile/brookite TiO2 nano-rod bundle for visible light driven photocatalysis. Journal of Rare Metal Materials and Engineering, 2019, 48: 0077-0084.
  10. K. Zhang, Y. Liu, B. Wang, F. Yu, Y. Yang, L. Xing, J. Hao, J. Zeng, B. Mao*, W. Shi*, S. Yuan. Three-dimensional interconnected MoS2 nanosheets on industrial 316L stainless steel mesh as an efficient hydrogen evolution electrode. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 2019, 44: 1555-1564.
  11. X. Gao, C. Ma, Y. Liu, L. Xing, Y. Yan*. Self-induced Fenton reaction constructed by Fe(III) grafted BiVO4 nanosheets with improved photocatalytic performance and mechanism insight. Applied Surface Science, 2019, 467-468: 673-683.
  • 2018
  1. L. Xing*, Y. Wang, P.K. Das, K. Scott, W. Shi*. Homogenization of current density of PEM fuel cells by in-plane graded distributions of platinum loading and GDL porosity. Chemical Engineering Science, 2018, 192: 699-713.
  2. L. Xing*. An agglomerate model for PEM fuel cells operated with non-precious carbon-based ORR catalysts. Chemical Engineering Science, 2018, 179: 198-213.
  3. D. Yao, T.-C. Jao, W. Zhang, L. Xu, L. Xing, Q. Ma, Q. Xu, H. Li, S. Pasupathi, H. Su*. In-situ diagnosis on performance degradation of high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell by examining its electrochemical properties under operation. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 2018, 43: 21006 - 21016.
  4. Q. Xu*, J. Zhao, L. Xing, H. Su, H. Li. Effect of air supply on the performance of an active DMFC fed with neat methanol. International Journal of Green Energy, 2018, 15: 181-188.
  5. Y. Gu, S. Yuan, J. Pei, L. Xing, C. Stephen, F. Zhang, Y. Liu. Effects of blade thickness on hydraulic performance and structural dynamic characteristics of high-power coolant pump at overload condition. Journal of Power and Energy, 2018, 232: 992-1003.
  • 2017
  1. L. Xing*, P. K. Das, K. Scott, W. Shi*. Inhomogeneous spatial distribution of platinum and ionomer in porous electrode to maximize the performance of a PEM fuel cell. AIChE Journal, 2017, 63: 4895-4910.
  2. L. Xing, B. Zhuo, S. Bakalis, J. Castro, Z. Zhang*. Coating of sodium percarbonate particles using water soluble materials in a fluidized bed to achieve delayed release in aqueous environment. Cogent Engineering, 2017, 4: 1372730.
  3. J. Liu, L. Han, N. An, L. Xing*, H. Ma, L. Cheng*, J. Yang, Q. Zhang*. Enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity of carbon-doped anatase TiO2 based on the electron-withdrawing bidentate carboxylate linkage. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 2017, 202: 642-652.
  4. Z. Liu, H. Ma, J. Liu, L. Xing*, L. Cheng, J. Yang, B. Mao, Q. Zhang*. A low-cost clay based heterogeneous Fenton-like catalyst: activation, efficiency enhancement and mechanism study. Asia-Pacific Journal of Chemical Engineering, 2017, 13: e2156.
  5. Z. Liu, H. Ma, L. Xing*, J. Liu, Q. Zhang*, L. Cheng, J. Yang. Sulfated Ce doped TiO2 as visible light driven photocatalyst: preparation, characterization and photocatalytic performance. Environmental Progress and Sustainable Energy, 2017, 36: 494-504.
  6. Q. Li, D. Huang, T. Lu, J. P. K. Seville, L. Xing, G. A. Leeke*. Supercritical fluid coating of API on MCC changes drug release profile. Chemical Engineering Journal, 2017, 313: 317-327.
  • 2016
  1. L. Xing*, Q. Cai, X. Liu, C. Liu*, K. Scott, Y. Yan. Anode partial flooding modelling of proton exchange membrane fuel cells: optimisation of electrode properties and channel geometries. Chemical Engineering Science, 2016, 146: 88-103.
  2. L. Xing*, S. Du, R. Chen, M. Mamlouk, K. Scott. Anode partial flooding modelling of proton exchange membrane fuel cells: Model development and validation. Energy, 2016, 96: 80-95.
  3. L. Xing*, Q. Cai, C. Xu, C. Liu*, K. Scott, Y. Yan. Numerical study of the effect of relative humidity and stoichiometric flow ratio on PEM fuel cell performance with various channel lengths: An anode partial flooding modelling. Energy, 2016, 106: 631-645.
  4. Y. Deng, G. Wang, M. Fei, X. Huang, J. Cheng, X. Liu, L. Xing, K. Scott, C. Xu*. A polybenzimidazole/graphene oxide based three layer membranes for intermediate temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. RSC Advances, 2016, 6: 72224-72229.
  5. Y. Wang, J. Hu, L. Wang, D. Shan, X. Wang*, Y. Zhang, X. Mao, L. Xing, D. Wang. Acclimated sediment microbial fuel cells from a eutrophic lake for the in situ denitrification process. RSC Advances, 2016, 6: 80079-80085.
  • 2015 and before
  1. L. Xing, P. K. Das, X. Song*, M. Mamlouk, K. Scott. Numerical analysis of the optimum membrane/ionomer water content of PEMFCs: The interaction of Nafion ionomer content and cathode relative humidity. Applied Energy, 2015, 138: 242-257.
  2. L. Xing*, X. Liu, T. Alaje, R. Kumar, M. Mamlouk, K. Scott. A two-phase flow and non-isothermal agglomerate model for a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell. Energy, 2014, 73: 618-634.
  3. L. Xing*, M. Mamlouk, R. Kumar, K. Scott. Numerical investigation of the optimal Nafion ionomer content in cathode catalyst layer: An agglomerate two-phase flow modelling. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 2014, 39: 9087-9104.
  4. L. Xing*, M. Mamlouk, K. Scott. A two dimensional agglomerate model for a proton exchange membrane fuel cell. Energy, 2013, 61: 196-210.
  5. L. Xing, X. Song*, K. Scott, V. Pickert, W. Cao. Multi-variable optimisation of PEMFC cathodes based on surrogate modelling. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 2013, 38: 14295-14313.
  6. L. Xing*, K. Scott, Y.P. Sun. Transient Response and Steady-State Analysis of the Anode of Direct Methanol Fuel Cells Based on Dual-Site Kinetics. International Journal of Electrochemistry, 2011, Article ID 853261.
  7. Y.C. Cao*, C. Xu, X. Wu, X. Wang, L. Xing, K. Scott. A poly (ethylene oxide)/grapheme oxide electrolyte membrane for low temperature polymer fuel cells. Journal of Power Sources, 2011, 196: 8377-8382.
  8. Y.P. Sun*, L. Xing, K. Scott. Analysis of kinetics of methanol oxidation in a porous Pt-Ru anode. Journal of Power Sources, 2010, 195: 1-10.