Marialaura Di Domenico

Professor MariaLaura Di Domenico


Director of Research & Professor (Chair) of Entrepreneurship, Work and Organization
PhD, MRes, PGCert HE, BA(Hons), MCIPD, FHEA
16 MS 02
Student feedback & consultation hours: Please email me to arrange a meeting

Biography

Biography

MariaLaura Di Domenico is Director of Research & Professor of Entrepreneurship, Work and Organization at Surrey Business School, University of Surrey.

She has held various leadership positions at the University of Surrey including Deputy Head of Surrey Business School and Head of Department of Entrepreneurship and Innovation.

Previously she held academic positions at the Judge Business School, University of Cambridge, the Open University Business School, and the University of Westminster.

MariaLaura holds a PhD from the University of Strathclyde, is a Fellow of the Higher Education Academy (HEA), and a Full Member of the Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development (MCIPD).

Research 

MariaLaura is a leading international researcher known for her cutting edge research. Her research is focussed on social/ sustainable enterprise; entrepreneurship and new working practices in the digital age; work and wellbeing/ the work-life interface; and the sociology of work and organizations.

Her research interests and expertise centre on the following key areas:

  • Entrepreneurship; new working practices, mobile working and technological innovation; wellbeing, the work-life interface and the changing nature of work;
  • Sustainable enterprise; social entrepreneurship and social enterprises;
  • Socio-theoretical approaches to entrepreneurship, work and organizations.

MariaLaura's research is published in the leading management and social science journals including Journal of Management Studies; Human Relations; Organization Studies; Organization; Entrepreneurship, Theory and Practice; British Journal of Management; Journal of Business Ethics; International Small Business Journal; Journal of Management Inquiry; Regional Studies; Annals of Tourism Research; Tourism Management; Journal of Small Business ManagementNew Technology, Work and Employment; and Gender, Work and Organization. Her research is also published in books and monographs.

She is a member of the Editorial Board of the International Journal of Market Research and serves as a regular reviewer for many of the leading management and social science journals.

Her work has been funded by a range of bodies including the British Academy, RCUK, ESRC, EEUK, the Carnegie Trust for the Universities of Scotland, as well as Third Sector organizations. She is currently leading and researching a number of exciting and impactful research projects.

Teaching

Experienced at teaching a range of subjects including entrepreneurship and research methods (qualitative) at Doctoral, PG (including MBA) and UG levels.

Experienced PhD Supervisor and PhD Examiner.

University roles and responsibilities 

Previously:

- Deputy Head of Surrey Business School (Research)

- Head of Department of Entrepreneurship and Innovation

Currently: 

- Director of Research, Surrey Business School 

- PhD Supervisor

- PhD Examiner/ Viva Chair

- Personal Tutor (UG and PG students)

 

My publications

Publications

Di Domenico M, Miller Graham (2007)Are plastic cows the future for farming? Implications of an alternative diversification model, In: Tribe J, Airey D (eds.), Tourism Research: new directions, challenges and applications (Developments in tourism research)pp. 21-32 Elsevier Science Ltd
This book aims to be a showcase for cutting edge research offering a high-edited selection of the best paper submitted to the 2006 tourism conference at the ...
Ball Kirstie, Di Domenico MariaLaura, Nunan Daniel (2016)Big Data Surveillance and the Body-subject, In: Body and Society22(2)pp. 58-81 Sage
This paper considers the implications of big data practices for theories about the surveilled subject who, analysed from afar, is still gazed upon, although not directly watched as with previous surveillance systems. We propose this surveilled subject be viewed through a lens of proximity rather than interactivity, to highlight the normative issues arising within digitally mediated relationships. We interpret the ontological proximity between subjects, data flows and big data surveillance through Merleau-Ponty’s ideas combined with Levinas’ approach to ethical proximity and Coeckelberg’s work on proximity in the digital age. This leads us to highlight how competing normativities, and normative dilemmas in these proximal spaces, manipulate the surveilled subject’s embodied practices to lead the embodied individual towards experiencing them in a local sense. We explore when and how the subject notices these big data practices and then interprets them through translating their experiences into courses of action, inaction or acquiescence.
Power S., Di Domenico M., Miller Graham (2019)Risk-types and coping mechanisms for ethical tourism entrepreneurs: A new conceptual framework, In: Journal of Travel Research SAGE Publications
Risk is a widely accepted entrepreneurial construct and entrepreneurship is a key feature of the tourism industry. Yet, investigating types of risks and calls for research on ethical entrepreneurship in tourism have largely been neglected. This research provides an original contribution to academia about risk-types and subsequent coping mechanisms as faced by ethical tourism entrepreneurs. Using methods from Personal Construct Theory, 15 in-depth interviews with self-defined ethical tourism entrepreneurs were conducted. An existing consumer risk-framework (monetary, functional, social and psychological risk) provided a priori themes for analysis. Through constant comparison of data, different forms of intelligence (survival, system, emotional and spiritual) have emerged as coping mechanisms. These in vivo themes have been paired with risk-types to develop an original conceptual framework for risk faced by ethical tourism entrepreneurs. The implications of this framework are significant in providing support to nascent entrepreneurs, government start-up initiatives and entrepreneurial incubator programs.
Power S, Di Domenico MariaLaura, Miller Graham (2017)The nature of ethical entrepreneurship in tourism, In: Annals of Tourism Research65pp. 36-48 Elsevier
This article examines ethical entrepreneurship in tourism by developing a Weberian Ideal-Type Construct for an ethical tourism entrepreneur, and thereby deeper understanding of ethical tourism entrepreneurship. This research contributes to the extremely scarce literature at the academic juncture of ethics, tourism and entrepreneurship, which is significant as tourism is characterised by entrepreneurial idiosyncrasies with ethical challenges. The study is methodologically rooted in Personal Construct Theory. The qualitative findings from 15 semi-structured interviews with entrepreneurs, who have been commended for their ethical business conduct, show that ethical entrepreneurship in tourism is based on intuitionism, care and relationships, future-orientation, humility and benevolence as key virtues. These findings challenge the more traditional views of entrepreneurial attributes, such as egoism, risk-taking and opportunism.
This thesis uses three case-studies to evaluate the extent to which multi-sectorial Judicial Councils and Impeachment Juries protect judicial independence in the process for the removal of lower-court judges in the Argentine Republic. Based on 36 in-depth interviews conducted with a wide range of stakeholders in the removals process, this thesis considers two jurisdictions, the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires (ACBA) and the Argentine federal level, where since the late 1990s, removals have been conducted by way of a two-step process involving judicial councils and impeachment juries, and contrasts this with the experience of the province of Tucuman, where the process is conducted by a legislative committee and an impeachment jury. The thesis evaluates whether judicial independence is better protected where judicial removals processes have been professedly depoliticised by being entrusted to independent judicial councils. Differences at the Federal and ACBA levels also illustrate the strengths and weaknesses of the judicial council model in dealing with different challenges. It concludes that whilst multi-sectorial judicial councils do prevent the arbitrary removal of judges, they do not ensure adequate judicial accountability. Additionally, the early stages of investigation into judicial behaviour are susceptible to being used as a way to place pressure on judges.
Nunan D, Di Domenico MariaLaura (2017)Big Data: A Normal Accident Waiting to Happen?, In: Journal of Business Ethics145(3)pp. 481-491 Springer
Widespread commercial use of the internet has significantly increased the volume and scope of data being collected by organisations. ‘Big data’ has emerged as a term to encapsulate both the technical and commercial aspects of this growing data collection activity. To date, much of the discussion of big data has centred upon its transformational potential for innovation and efficiency, yet there has been less reflection on its wider implications beyond commercial value creation. This paper builds upon normal accident theory (NAT) to analyse the broader ethical implications of big data. It argues that the strategies behind big data require organisational systems that leave them vulnerable to normal accidents, that is to say some form of accident or disaster that is both unanticipated and inevitable. Whilst NAT has previously focused on the consequences of physical accidents, this paper suggests a new form of system accident that we label data accidents. These have distinct, less tangible and more complex characteristics and raise significant questions over the role of individual privacy in a ‘data society’. The paper concludes by considering the ways in which the risks of such data accidents might be managed or mitigated.
Di Domenico M, Tracey P, Haugh H (2009)Social Economy Involvement in Public Service Delivery: Community Engagement and Accountability, In: REG STUD43(7)pp. 981-992 ROUTLEDGE JOURNALS, TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD
Di Domenico M (2010)Entrepreneurial Lives iTunes
Di Domenico M, Fleming P (2009)'It's a guesthouse not a brothel': Policing sex in the home-workplace, In: HUMAN RELATIONS62(2)pp. 245-269 SAGE PUBLICATIONS LTD
Di Domenico M (2001)Brand images of place and new urban identities in Scotland, In: Horne J (eds.), Leisure, Cultures, Consumption and Commodificationpp. 81-92 Leisure Studies Association
Di Domenico M, Lynch P (2006)Commercial home enterprises: Identity, space and setting, In: Lashley C, Lynch P, Morrison A (eds.), Hospitality: A social lenspp. 117-128 Elsevier Science
Di Domenico M, Ball K (2011)A hotel inspector calls: exploring surveillance at the home-work interface, In: ORGANIZATION18(5)pp. 615-636 SAGE PUBLICATIONS LTD
This article, which examines inspection experiences in the home-based context of the B&B, makes a distinctive contribution to surveillance theory, and specifically the concept of „exposure‟. It draws on Levinas‟s phenomenological ideas on identity and his concept of „sensibility‟, in order to better place the „exposed‟ subject at the centre of analysis. Our empirical research shows how B&B proprietors negotiate their exposure to surveillance within their homes when they take part in the tourist board‟s accommodation grading process. Their „lifestyle businesses‟ involve exposing the context of their own lives to their paying guests, and by extension to the hotel inspectors from the tourist board with its own covert inspectorial procedures. These are described from both the inspector‟s and proprietor‟s perspectives. We explore not only their subjective experiences of the inspection process, but also the power dynamics between proprietor and inspector, and the various resistance and counter-resistance strategies which each employ
Di Domenico C, Di Domenico M (2007)Heritage and urban renewal in Dundee: Learning from the past when planning for the future of a post-industrial city (Reprinted in the journal of Retail and Leisure Property), In: Aitchison C, Richards G, Tallon A (eds.), Urban Transformations: Regeneration and renewal though leisure and tourismpp. 115-128 Leisure Studies Association
There has been little research into how organizations modify their identities in response to the various ethical and cultural changes that occur in wider society. This qualitative investigation of recent museum approaches to handling human remains is situated within a critique of “museum identity” dynamics in history, archaeological, and science museums in the U.K. public sector. The theoretical framework encapsulates various paradoxes inherent in museum response strategies to such identity challenges. This study reveals the discursive practices museums use to legitimate and privilege their historical identities, while simultaneously engaging with different alternative identities in processes defined here as “organizational sensitivization.” These involve either amalgamating identity challenges or diffusing them, usually by means of open dialogue. Those challenges perceived to be identity threats are marginalized by the museums to protect their articulated identities through engagement in self-legitimization processes. This can leave museums with paradoxically unresolved tensions and identity ambiguities.
Di Domenico M, Vangen S, Winchester N, Boojihawon DKB, Mordaunt J (2011)Organizational Collaboration: Themes and Issues Routledge
Many organizations today operate across boundaries - both internal and external to the organization. Exploring concepts and theories about different organizational, inter-organizational and international contexts, this student reader aids understanding of the individual’s experience of working within and across such boundaries. The book adopts a critical approach to individual experience and highlights the complexities inherent in these different layers and levels of organizing. Comprising a collection of key articles and extracts presented in a readable accessible way, this book also features an introductory chapter which provides an overall critique of the book. Each part features a brief introduction before analyzing the following key themes: managing aims power and politics cultural diversity international management perspectives the darker side of collaborative arrangements Some of the readings will specifically address collaboration ‘head on’ whilst others will provide an important context or highlight significant theoretical and practical issues that are considered relevant and interesting within the framework of the themes presented. As such, this book differs from existing titles as it sits bestride collaboration and organizational behaviour / theory in order to inform learning of exchange relationships on inter-personal, intra-organizational, and inter-organizational levels. The articles included are selected as critical in approach, straddling and addressing the central contexts described above, and highlighting the experience-centred nature of learning that can be derived from the content presented. This comprehensive reference will be useful supplementary reading for organizational behaviour courses as well as core reading for those students undertaking research on collaboration.
Di Domenico M, Di Domenico F (2004)Space and leisure as regenerative elements of an urban cityscape: The case of the Centre for Dundee Contemporary Arts (DCA), In: Aitchison C, Pussard H (eds.), Leisure, Space and Visual Culture: practices and meaningspp. 151-173 Leisure Studies Association
Di Domenico M (2001)Re-imaging the city: heritage tourism strategies for regeneration in Dundee, In: Di Domenico C, Law A, Skinner J, Smith M (eds.), Boundaries and Identities: nation, politics and culture in Scotlandpp. 191-214 Abertay University Press
Lynch P, Di Domenico M, Sweeney M (2007)Resident hosts and mobile strangers: Temporary exchanges within the topography of the commercial home, In: Molz JG, Gibson S (eds.), Mobilizing hospitality: the ethics of social relations in a mobile worldpp. 121-143 Ashgate Pub Co
Drawing on research from the fields of anthropology, geography, sociology and tourism studies, this volume examines the intersection between mobility and ...
Di Domenico C, Di Domenico M (2006)Conceptions of expatriate enclaves as islands: The case of Ibadan Nigeria, In: Skinner J, Hills M (eds.), Managing Island Life: social, economic and political dimensions of formality and informality in ‘island’ communitiespp. 41-60 Abertay University Press
Di Domenico C, Di Domenico M, Eneji T (2006)Southern Nigerian urban mothers: Role strain and working in the formal sector of the economy, In: Yuill C, van Teijlingen E (eds.), Global Perspectives & Local Issues: medical sociology in North-East Scotlandpp. 23-37 University of Aberdeen and The Robert Gordon University
Di Domenico M, Lynch P (2007)Host/guest encounters in the commercial home, In: Leisure Studies26(3)pp. 321-338
Di Domenico C, Di Domenico M (2005)Celebrating and reinterpreting a Scottish heroine at home and abroad: The Mary Slessor connection, In: Aitchison C, Prichard A (eds.), Festivals and Events: culture and identity in leisure, sport and tourism,pp. 153-168 Leisure Studies Association
Di Domenico M (2005)Producing hospitality, consuming lifestyles: Lifestyle entrepreneurship in urban Scotland, In: Jones E, Haven-Tang C (eds.), Tourism SMEs, Service Quality and Destination Competitivenesspp. 109-122 CABI Publishing
Di Domenico M, Phillips N (2008)Symbolic interactionism, In: Clegg S, Bailey JR (eds.), International encyclopedia of organization studies Sage Publications, Inc
Di Domenico C, Di Domenico M (2003)The role of 'the club' in Ibadan, Nigeria from 1960 to 2000: Exclusivity in post-colonial leisure and sports activities among members of the expatriate and Nigerian elites, In: Snape R, Thwaites E, Williams C (eds.), Access and Inclusion in Leisure and Tourismpp. 155-175 Leisure Studies Association
Di Domenico M, Phillips N (2009)Participant Observation, In: Mills AJ, Durepos G, Wiebe E (eds.), Encyclopedia of Case Study Research Sage
List of Entries Abduction Action-Based Data Collection Activity Theory Actor- Network Theory Agency Alienation Analysis of Visual Data Analytic ...
Di Domenico M, Daniel EM, Nunan D (2014)'Mental mobility' in the digital age: Entrepreneurs and the online home-based business, In: New Technology, Work and Employment29(3)pp. 266-281 Wiley
Home-based online business ventures are an increasingly pervasive yet under-researched phenomenon. The experiences and mindset of entrepreneurs setting up and running such enterprises require better understanding. Using data from a qualitative study of 23 online home-based business entrepreneurs, we propose the augmented concept of ‘mental mobility’ to encapsulate how they approach their business activities. Drawing on Howard P. Becker's early theorising of mobility, together with Victor Turner's later notion of liminality, we conceptualise mental mobility as the process through which individuals navigate the liminal spaces between the physical and digital spheres of work and the overlapping home/workplace, enabling them to manipulate and partially reconcile the spatial, temporal and emotional tensions that are present in such work environments. Our research also holds important applications for alternative employment contexts and broader social orderings because of the increasingly pervasive and disruptive influence of technology on experiences of remunerated work.
This article examines the business choices made by independent farming families, when confronting the need to diversify away from traditional agricultural activities by starting farm-based tourism businesses. Based on interviews with farm family members who have set up tourism attractions on their farms, and drawing upon the concept of experiential authenticity, the article explores their self-conceptions of their family identities. In so doing, it addresses the choices and dilemmas facing farm families who attempt diversification through the tourism attraction route, and considers how this affects their attitudes towards more traditional farming activities. Using qualitative case study data, an empirically grounded framework is proposed that expresses the choices and challenges facing tourism entrepreneurial family farm members in the UK, through the conceptual lens of experiential authenticity.
Nunan D, Di Domenico M (2015)Shamrock and Tartan in New York: Celebrating the National Days of Ireland and Scotland and Building Identities amongst Diasporas, In: Skinner J, Bryan D (eds.), Consuming St. Patrick's Day(Four)pp. 71-93 Cambridge Scholars Publishing
Di Domenico C, Di Domenico M (2009)Tourism in Rwanda: The challenges of managing and presenting a sensitive heritage, In: Fleming S (eds.), Leisure and Tourism: International Perspectives on Cultural Practicepp. 3-16 Leisure Studies Association
Nunan Daniel, Di Domenico MariaLaura Older Consumers, Digital Marketing and Public Policy A Review and Research Agenda, In: Journal of Public Policy and Marketingpp. 1-15 SAGE Publications
Addressing the challenges created by rapidly aging populations is a topic of intense interest for marketers, policy makers and researchers. However, relatively little research has been undertaken so far into the ways that older consumers are adopting or rejecting new digital technologies. With shifting economic power and growing digital adoption rates amongst older consumers, understanding how they adopt technology and use digital channels is becoming increasingly important to marketers. In order for marketers and policymakers to fully understand the future shape of a data-driven digital society, research must take more account of its influence across different older generational cohorts. This paper focuses on identifying research gaps across key digital marketing areas in relation to older-age consumers’ adoption and use of digital technology. Through a multidisciplinary review of the literature on aging, using the theoretical lens of generational cohorts, the authors identify key research challenges, opportunities, and implications for both marketers and policy makers.
Haugh H, Di Domenico M, Tracey P (2009)Strategic Partnerships: Results from a Survey of Development Trusts in the UK, In: Hockerts K, Mair J, Robinson J (eds.), Values and Opportunities in Social Entrepreneurshippp. 203-220 Palgrave MacMillan
Phillips N, Di Domenico M (2011)Discourse Analysis in Organizational Research: Methods and Debates, In: Buchanan D, Bryman A (eds.), Handbook of Organizational Research Methods Sage
Di Domenico M, Morrison A (2003)Social action research and small hospitality firms, In: International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management15(5)pp. 268-273
We advance both mobility and paradox theorizing by advocating the new concepts of “mobility-isolation paradox” and “paradoxical imagination”. These emerged from examining the nuanced, multifaceted conceptualizations of the mobility-isolation tensions facing homebased, self-employed, online knowledge-workers. We thereby enhance current conceptual understandings of mobility, isolation and paradox by analyzing knowledge-workers’ interrelated, multidimensional experiences within restrictive home-based working contexts. We compare the dearth of research and theorizing about these autonomous online knowledgeworkers with that available about other types of knowledge-workers, such as online homebased employees, and the more physically/corporeally mobile self-employed. This research into an increasingly prevalent knowledge-worker genre addresses these knowledge gaps by analyzing home-based knowledge-workers’ views, and tensions from paradoxical pressures to be corporeally mobile and less isolated. Despite enjoying career, mental and virtual mobility through internet-connectedness, they were found to seek face-to-face social and/or professional interactions, their isolation engendering loneliness, despite their solitude paradoxically often fostering creativity and innovation.
Di Domenico C, Di Domenico M (2007)Heritage and urban renewal in Dundee: Learning from the past when planning for the future of a post-industrial city, In: Journal of Retail and Leisure Property6(4)pp. 327-339
Nunan D, Di Domenico M (2016)Exploring reidentification risk Is anonymisation a promise we can keep?, In: International Journal of Market Research58(1)pp. 19-34 SAGE Publications
The anonymisation of personal data has multiple purposes within research: as a marker of ethical practice, a means of reducing regulation and as a safeguard for protecting respondent privacy. However, the growing capabilities of technology to gather and analyse data have raised concerns over the potential reidentification of anonymised data-sets. This has sparked a wide ranging debate amongst both academic researchers and policy makers as to whether anonymisation can continue to be relied upon. This debate has the potential to create important implications for market research. This paper analyses the key arguments both for and against anonymisation as an effective tool given the changing technological environment. We consider the future position of anonymisation and question whether anonymisation can remain its key role given the potential impact on both respondent trust and the nature of self-regulation within market research.
Di Domenico M (2010)The Home/Work Interface in Family Hospitality Businesses: Gender Dimensions and Constructions, In: Hamington M (eds.), Feminism and Hospitality: Gender in the Host/Guest Relationshippp. 207-220 Lexington Books
Di Domenico MariaLaura, Ball Kirstie (2011)A hotel inspector calls: Exploring surveillance at the home-work interface, In: Organization18(5)pp. 615-636 Sage
This article, which examines inspection experiences in the home-based context of the B&B, makes a distinctive contribution to surveillance theory, and specifically the concept of ‘exposure’. It draws on Levinas’s phenomenological ideas on identity and his concept of ‘sensibility’, in order to better place the ‘exposed’ subject at the centre of analysis. Our empirical research shows how B&B proprietors negotiate their exposure to surveillance within their homes when they take part in the tourist board’s accommodation grading process. Their ‘lifestyle businesses’ involve exposing the context of their own lives to their paying guests, and by extension to the hotel inspectors from the tourist board with its own covert inspectorial procedures. These are described from both the inspector’s and proprietor’s perspectives. We explore not only their subjective experiences of the inspection process, but also the power dynamics between proprietor and inspector, and the various resistance and counter-resistance strategies which each employ.
Di Domenico M, Phillips N (2009)Sustaining the Ivory Tower: Oxbridge Formal Dining as Organizational Ritual, In: JOURNAL OF MANAGEMENT INQUIRY18(4)pp. 326-343 SAGE PUBLICATIONS INC
Di Domenico M, Haugh H, Tracey P (2010)Social Bricolage: Theorizing Social Value Creation in Social Enterprises, In: ENTREPRENEURSHIP THEORY AND PRACTICE34(4)pp. 681-703 WILEY-BLACKWELL
Di Domenico M, Daniel EM, Nunan D (2014)'Mental mobility' in the digital age: Entrepreneurs and the online home-based business, In: New Technology, Work and Employment29(3)pp. 266-281 Wiley
Home-based online business ventures are an increasingly pervasive yet under-researched phenomenon. The experiences and mindset of entrepreneurs setting up and running such enterprises require better understanding. Using data from a qualitative study of 23 online home-based business entrepreneurs, we propose the augmented concept of ‘mental mobility’ to encapsulate how they approach their business activities. Drawing on Howard P. Becker's early theorising of mobility, together with Victor Turner's later notion of liminality, we conceptualise mental mobility as the process through which individuals navigate the liminal spaces between the physical and digital spheres of work and the overlapping home/workplace, enabling them to manipulate and partially reconcile the spatial, temporal and emotional tensions that are present in such work environments. Our research also holds important applications for alternative employment contexts and broader social orderings because of the increasingly pervasive and disruptive influence of technology on experiences of remunerated work.
Nunan Daniel, Di Domenico MariaLaura (2018)Theorizing piratical innovation: Regulatory illegitimacy and firm growth, In: Journal of Small Business Management Wiley
This article examines the growing phenomenon of firms in ‘winner takes all’ markets which adopt business models that prioritize exceptional levels of growth over other financial metrics. Often this growth results in firms breaking with regulatory norms, despite regulatory legitimacy being theorized as essential for resource acquisition in small firms. The article explores this apparent paradox. We propose piratical innovation as a firm level process built upon disrupting regulatory norms in a way that avoids negative legitimacy judgments. Extending labelling theory, we develop a conceptual model where piratical innovation blends a range of symbolic and substantive actions to enable these firms to maintain legitimacy amongst stakeholders, even when growth is underpinned by illegitimate acts. We conclude by considering the wider applicability of piratical innovation as a model for small firm growth, and the consequences for other firms which must compete against such innovations.
Adopting a deconstructionist research approach, this research problematizes prevailing logocentric decision theory and offers a critical enquiry into knowledge constituting the conditions of possibility for ‘nondecision’ at the Atherstone-on-Stour fire of 2nd November 2007 at which four firefighters were tragically killed. The research therefore, makes a philosophical and conceptual contribution, presenting the concept of nondecision as a radically alternative heuristic toward explaining institutional recursive behaviours and practice. Within this research, traditional research notions of the ‘situational specificity’ of an event are abandoned in favour of an exploration of the epistemological context governing conditions for knowledge, discourse and text. Consequently, a deconstructive genealogy research methodology is developed, wherein conventional linear-rationalist research approaches to data collection and analysis are problematized and abandoned for an integrated, iterative approach to the epistemological deconstruction of genealogically sourced archival text. In terms of methodology and praxis, deconstructive genealogy therefore provides opportunities for radical enquiry into institutional knowledge and understanding constituting behaviour and practice in relation to a research case. Case analysis involves the deconstruction of texts concerning institutional fire and rescue (FRS) decision making rules and subsequently involves the genealogical sourcing of influential and contributory narrative themes explicitly cited or immanent within the text, most notably concerning health and safety of firefighters, FRS ‘culture’, and firefighter ethos and identity. Consequently, this study offers a radical enquiry into the FRS institution. Specifically, it rejects and problematizes the tendency within the literature to pursue conventional research approaches which typically reinforce managerialist discourse and performative foundationalist notions of heroism and duty. Ultimately, nondecision, it is suggested, creates space for challenging our thinking, not only concerning the conditions of possibility for life - or death - of firefighters at fires, but future behaviour and practice, with implications for the ethics of ‘decision’ and the ethical governance of institutions and organizations.
Ethical entrepreneurship and by extension wider best practice are noble goals for the future of tourism. However, questions arise which concepts, such as values motivations, actions and challenges underpin these goals. This thesis seeks to answers these questions and in so doing develop an applied ethics analysis for best practice entrepreneurs in tourism. The research is situated in sustainable tourism, which is ethically very complex and has thus far been dominated by the economic, social and environmental triple bottom line thinking. This research takes a different approach by applying a value-behavioural lens to best practice entrepreneurship. In so doing, the focus shifts from impacts and consequences towards those values and actions that determine best practice entrepreneurship. The originality of the research is grounded in a two-pronged research strategy, combining archival research and methods from Personal Construct Theory through the process of iteration. Both strategies are currently underused in tourism research. This constitutes an important methodological contribution. Furthermore, a unique set of archival data in the form of Tourism for Tomorrow Awards applications and judges’ reports enhances the originality of the findings. Archival data was complemented by semi-structured interviews with so-called ethical tourism entrepreneurs. A mix of source and method triangulation has added significant rigour to this research. The key findings are that best practice in tourism is ethically very complex, which suggests a form of ethical pragmatism. Second, a dissonance exists between motivations for best practice, which are value-pluralistic, and ethical judgement making, which is more principle-based. Third, a further dissonance was identified between admittance/awareness and action for issues of misrepresentation, whereas no dissonance was found for relationship or distribution dilemmas. This thesis has combined three strands of research: business ethics, entrepreneurship and sustainable tourism. This original approach lays ground for change towards a more ethically-bound entrepreneurial practice in tourism.
A growing body of literature examines entrepreneurial intentions of people aged fifty and over who can be referred to as ‘later life’ entrepreneurs (e.g. Curran and Blackburn, 2001; Singh and DeNoble, 2003; Weber and Schaper, 2003). However, there is a significant gap in our knowledge about entrepreneurial (social) intentions for people in the same age group. This study uses qualitative research incorporating twenty-eight in-depth interviews with social entrepreneurs aged fifty and over as well as seven expert interviews with members of the Age Action Alliance. These were used to explore the factors these social entrepreneurs consider important in their decision to set up their social enterprises, their ‘everyday’ lives, and the challenges they face and how they might be supported. An interpretive social constructionist approach was adopted to examine and make sense of the participants’ daily lived experiences, from their perspectives. Data was analysed using a thematic analysis approach (Braun and Clarke, 2006) and the findings revealed the participants were driven by ‘making a difference’ to people’s lives, with each having a different interpretation of the factors they considered important in influencing their entrepreneurial (social) intentions, affecting their social orientations and their entrepreneurial (social) identity. The participants displayed a strong sense of commitment to the social need they identified. Nevertheless, despite some perceiving income generation to be significant for facilitating their ability to achieve their social objectives, others viewed income generation to be incompatible with their social mission. This study examines the subjective views of social entrepreneurs aged fifty and over and the ways in which they construct their ‘everyday lives’ as social entrepreneurs. It provides insights about the interplay between the participants’ motives for setting up their social enterprises and their age and entrepreneurial (social) identity. In addition, this study provides an in-depth understanding of the benefits the participants gained during the social entrepreneurial process, whilst bringing significant insights into the challenges and barriers they experienced and how they might be supported. As such, this study extends theoretical and empirical research on social entrepreneurship and social enterprise by developing our understanding of the ‘everyday’ lived experiences of social entrepreneurs in ‘later life’ from their own perspectives. It is recommended this study be used as a guide for policy makers and organisations that are supporting social entrepreneurs in this age group. Future research should, therefore, be carried out to examine entrepreneurial (social) intentions of different age groups, as more investigation is needed to explain whether the support required by social entrepreneurs is age specific. Furthermore, it is suggested this study could be useful for academic researchers who would like to further their knowledge on the underlying factors that drive those aged fifty and over to become social entrepreneurs and how they view their ‘everyday’ lives from their perspectives.
This research explores the naturally occurring metaphors of 30 business leaders from fifteen nationalities to discover what insight can be gained from a personalised approach to leader development. Building on the assertion that part of the complexity of leadership is its subjective and symbolic nature, this research explores the meaning that individuals make about their leadership and its development. This approach supports the development of authenticity in leaders, viewing authenticity as making one’s own meaning, relational and elusive. This longitudinal, phenomenological enquiry, situated in the social constructivist paradigm, seeks to explore how leaders construct and make sense of their world at an intra-personal level. It addresses the question; what can leaders learn about their leadership and development from an exploration of their inner worlds through metaphor? Using Clean Language, an innovative interview method to elicit naturally occurring metaphors, leaders were invited to surface and explore their metaphors of leadership verbally and in drawings. Results suggest leaders make meaning through surfacing and exploring their metaphors, gain clarity and confirmation about their leadership and view development as an on-going journey of becoming, rather than a fixed destination. Diverse conceptualisations of leadership are revealed in multiple and idiosyncratic metaphors, yet ten ‘key’ metaphors appear to underlie these diverse expressions. Moreover, the importance of relationship to provide subtle guidance and comfort during exploration of the inner world was revealed. In tandem with the purpose of this study, methodological advances are proposed for qualitative interviews that aim to surface individuals’ metaphors. This seeks to contribute to approaches for eliciting and analysing metaphors that can illuminate sensemaking within the management and organisational field.