This book aims to be a showcase for cutting edge research offering a high-edited selection of the best paper submitted to the 2006 tourism conference at the ...
Di Domenico M, Lynch P (2004) Home (dis)comforts and the host/guest encounter,
Current theorizations of bricolage in entrepreneurship studies require refinement and development to be used as a theoretical framework for social entrepreneurship. Our analysis traces bricolage's conceptual underpinnings from various disciplines, identifying its key constructs as making do, a refusal to be constrained by limitations, and improvisation. Although these characteristics appear to epitomize the process of creating social enterprises, our research identifies three further constructs associated with social entrepreneurship: social value creation, stakeholder participation, and persuasion. Using data from a qualitative study of eight U.K. social enterprises, we apply the bricolage concept to social entrepreneurial action and propose an extended theoretical framework of social bricolage. © 2010 Baylor University.
Di Domenico M, Ball K (2008) An inspector calls: Exploring surveillance at the home-work interface,
Widespread commercial use of the internet has significantly increased the volume and scope of data being collected by organisations. ?Big data? has emerged as a term to encapsulate both the technical and commercial aspects of this growing data collection activity. To date, much of the discussion of big data has centred upon its transformational potential for innovation and efficiency, yet there has been less reflection on its wider implications beyond commercial value creation. This paper builds upon normal accident theory (NAT) to analyse the broader ethical implications of big data. It argues that the strategies behind big data require organisational systems that leave them vulnerable to normal accidents, that is to say some form of accident or disaster that is both unanticipated and inevitable. Whilst NAT has previously focused on the consequences of physical accidents, this paper suggests a new form of system accident that we label data accidents. These have distinct, less tangible and more complex characteristics and raise significant questions over the role of individual privacy in a ?data society?. The paper concludes by considering the ways in which the risks of such data accidents might be managed or mitigated.
There has been little research into how organizations modify their identities in response to the various ethical and cultural changes that occur in wider society. This qualitative investigation of recent museum approaches to handling human remains is situated within a critique of ?museum identity? dynamics in history, archaeological, and science museums in the U.K. public sector. The theoretical framework encapsulates various paradoxes inherent in museum response strategies to such identity challenges. This study reveals the discursive practices museums use to legitimate and privilege their historical identities, while simultaneously engaging with different alternative identities in processes defined here as ?organizational sensitivization.? These involve either amalgamating identity challenges or diffusing them, usually by means of open dialogue. Those challenges perceived to be identity threats are marginalized by the museums to protect their articulated identities through engagement in self-legitimization processes. This can leave museums with paradoxically unresolved tensions and identity ambiguities.
Phillips N, Di Domenico M (2011) Discourse Analysis in Organizational Research: Methods and Debates, In: Buchanan D, Bryman A (eds.), Handbook of Organizational Research Methods Sage
Di Domenico C, Di Domenico M (2007) Heritage and urban renewal in Dundee: Learning from the past when planning for the future of a post-industrial city (Reprinted in the journal of Retail and Leisure Property), In: Aitchison C, Richards G, Tallon A (eds.), Urban Transformations: Regeneration and renewal though leisure and tourism pp. 115-128 Leisure Studies Association
Di Domenico M, Phillips N (2008) Symbolic interactionism, In: Clegg S, Bailey JR (eds.), International encyclopedia of organization studies Sage Publications, Inc
Lee A, Di Domenico M, Saunders MNK (2014) Location independent working in academia, Journal of Workplace Rights 17 (4) pp. 425-442
In this article, we consider the extent to which the practice of location independent working (LIW) enables academic employees to make choices and have agency in their life-work balance, and the extent to which it may support (or potentially be used as a form of resistance to) increased managerial control. Set within the context of an increasingly performance-led, managerialist public sector landscape, the impact and implications of these working practices are examined through the lens of labour process theory. Drawing on findings from an ongoing in-depth ethnographic study set in a post-1992 university business school in central England, we suggest that the practice of LIW is being used both to enable employees and to support managerial control.
Daniel EM, Anwar M, Di Domenico M (2014) Fixed, Tethered or Free: The Role of Space and Place in Online Home-Based Businesses,
The anonymisation of personal data has multiple purposes within research: as a marker of ethical practice, a means of reducing regulation and as a safeguard for protecting respondent privacy. However, the growing capabilities of technology to gather and analyse data have raised concerns over the potential reidentification of anonymised data-sets. This has sparked a wide ranging debate amongst both academic researchers and policy makers as to whether anonymisation can continue to be relied upon. This debate has the potential to create important implications for market research. This paper analyses the key arguments both for and against anonymisation as an effective tool given the changing technological environment. We consider the future position of anonymisation and question whether anonymisation can remain its key role given the potential impact on both respondent trust and the nature of self-regulation within market research.
This article explores effectual processes within home-based online businesses. Our empirical
evidence provides a number of refinements to the concept of effectuation in this specific domain.
First, the ubiquity of non-proprietary online trading platforms encourages the adoption of
effectual approaches and removes the importance of forming proprietary strategic alliances and
pre-commitments. Second, the notion of affordable loss ? a central tenet of effectuation ? should be extended beyond the notion of economic to social affordable loss, including loss of status and reputation, and finally, home-based online businesses allow effectuation to be associated with low
levels of entrepreneurial self-efficacy and experience.
Di Domenico M, Phillips N (2009) Participant Observation, In: Mills AJ, Durepos G, Wiebe E (eds.), Encyclopedia of Case Study Research Sage
List of Entries Abduction Action-Based Data Collection Activity Theory Actor-
Network Theory Agency Alienation Analysis of Visual Data Analytic ...
Di Domenico M, Vangen S, Winchester N, Boojihawon DKB, Mordaunt J (2011) Organizational Collaboration: Themes and Issues, Routledge
Many organizations today operate across boundaries - both internal and external to the organization. Exploring concepts and theories about different organizational, inter-organizational and international contexts, this student reader aids understanding of the individual?s experience of working within and across such boundaries. The book adopts a critical approach to individual experience and highlights the complexities inherent in these different layers and levels of organizing.
Comprising a collection of key articles and extracts presented in a readable accessible way, this book also features an introductory chapter which provides an overall critique of the book. Each part features a brief introduction before analyzing the following key themes:
power and politics
international management perspectives
the darker side of collaborative arrangements
Some of the readings will specifically address collaboration ?head on? whilst others will provide an important context or highlight significant theoretical and practical issues that are considered relevant and interesting within the framework of the themes presented. As such, this book differs from existing titles as it sits bestride collaboration and organizational behaviour / theory in order to inform learning of exchange relationships on inter-personal, intra-organizational, and inter-organizational levels. The articles included are selected as critical in approach, straddling and addressing the central contexts described above, and highlighting the experience-centred nature of learning that can be derived from the content presented.
This comprehensive reference will be useful supplementary reading for organizational behaviour courses as well as core reading for those students undertaking research on collaboration.
Di Domenico M (2002) Locating the Scottish guest house owner-occupier,
This article, which examines inspection experiences in the home-based context of the B&B, makes a distinctive contribution to surveillance theory, and specifically the concept of ?exposure?. It draws on Levinas?s phenomenological ideas on identity and his concept of ?sensibility?, in order to better place the ?exposed? subject at the centre of analysis. Our empirical research shows how B&B proprietors negotiate their exposure to surveillance within their homes when they take part in the tourist board?s accommodation grading process. Their ?lifestyle businesses? involve exposing the context of their own lives to their paying guests, and by extension to the hotel inspectors from the tourist board with its own covert inspectorial procedures. These are described from both the inspector?s and proprietor?s perspectives. We explore not only their subjective experiences of the inspection process, but also the power dynamics between proprietor and inspector, and the various resistance and counter-resistance strategies which each employ
Lynch P, Di Domenico M (2005) Representations of Scottish identity in commercial home enterprises,
Di Domenico M, Lynch P (2006) Commercial home enterprises: Identity, space and setting, In: Lashley C, Lynch P, Morrison A (eds.), Hospitality: A social lens pp. 117-128 Elsevier Science
Di Domenico M (2014) Linking back, linking forward: Developing a future research agenda for digital entrepreneurship,
Nunan D, Di Domenico M (2013) Market research and the ethics of big data, International Journal of Market Research 55 (4) pp. 41-56
Di Domenico M, Tracey P, Haugh H (2005) Theorising corporate-community enterprise partnerships: The dialectic of social exchange,
This article examines the business choices made by independent farming families, when confronting the need to diversify away from traditional agricultural activities by starting farm-based tourism businesses. Based on interviews with farm family members who have set up tourism attractions on their farms, and drawing upon the concept of experiential authenticity, the article explores their self-conceptions of their family identities. In so doing, it addresses the choices and dilemmas facing farm families who attempt diversification through the tourism attraction route, and considers how this affects their attitudes towards more traditional farming activities. Using qualitative case study data, an empirically grounded framework is proposed that expresses the choices and challenges facing tourism entrepreneurial family farm members in the UK, through the conceptual lens of experiential authenticity.
Di Domenico C, Di Domenico M (2009) Tourism in Rwanda: The challenges of managing and presenting a sensitive heritage, In: Fleming S (eds.), Leisure and Tourism: International Perspectives on Cultural Practice pp. 3-16 Leisure Studies Association
Di Domenico M, Morrison A (2002) Small hospitality firms: A conceptual framework for qualitative research,
Lynch P, Di Domenico M, Sweeney M (2007) Resident hosts and mobile strangers: Temporary exchanges within the topography of the commercial home, In: Molz JG, Gibson S (eds.), Mobilizing hospitality: the ethics of social relations in a mobile world pp. 121-143 Ashgate Pub Co
Drawing on research from the fields of anthropology, geography, sociology and tourism studies, this volume examines the intersection between mobility and ...
This article examines ethical entrepreneurship in tourism by developing a Weberian Ideal-Type Construct for an ethical tourism entrepreneur, and thereby deeper understanding of ethical tourism entrepreneurship. This research contributes to the extremely scarce literature at the academic juncture of ethics, tourism and entrepreneurship, which is significant as tourism is characterised by entrepreneurial idiosyncrasies with ethical challenges. The study is methodologically rooted in Personal Construct Theory. The qualitative findings from 15 semi-structured interviews with entrepreneurs, who have been commended for their ethical business conduct, show that ethical entrepreneurship in tourism is based on intuitionism, care and relationships, future-orientation, humility and benevolence as key virtues. These findings challenge the more traditional views of entrepreneurial attributes, such as egoism, risk-taking and opportunism.
Di Domenico M, Tracey P, Haugh H (2009) The Dialectic of Social Exchange: Theorizing Corporate-Social Enterprise Collaboration, ORGANIZATION STUDIES 30 (8) pp. 887-907 SAGE PUBLICATIONS LTD
Di Domenico C, Di Domenico M, Eneji T (2006) Southern Nigerian urban mothers: Role strain and working in the formal sector of the economy, In: Yuill C, van Teijlingen E (eds.), Global Perspectives & Local Issues: medical sociology in North-East Scotland pp. 23-37 University of Aberdeen and The Robert Gordon University
Di Domenico M (2001) The use of cultural heritage tourism in a bid to boost Dundee: 'City of Discovery' or 'Women?s City' of Scotland?,
This paper aims to critique the process of corporate-owned, high-tech start-up strategizing through an inductive, longitudinal, case study of ?UK-Research-Tech?. Insights are given through the combined ?dialectical?paradox? concept, thereby focusing on where ?dialectic? and ?paradox? theorizing overlap. This linked iterative, ?dialogical?dialectic? research approach also reflects chief executive officer/top management team (CEO/TMT) start-up dynamics over time. These foci fill important gaps that impede better understanding of dialectical, dialogical and paradoxical forces within strategic decision-making. As an interpretative tool, they illuminate CEO/TMT strategizing and changing interrelationships affected by broader, volatile, techno-economic contexts and parent-company influences on ventures. In this case study, it was found that the CEO's relatively autocratic, parent-framed approach combined with TMT members' contradictory reactions to create ?dialectical?paradox? oppositional forces, eventually only resolved through ?eleventh hour? business strategy changes to rescue the venture. This research contributes to more nuanced understandings of corporate-constrained ventures during early business development from start-up strategic decisions at parent-company level to subsequent conditions of more independent dynamic equilibrium. The ?dialectical?paradox? conceptual lens contributes an innovative critique of processes affecting strategic decision-making dynamics. Another important contribution is the empirically inspired conceptual model, developed for use both to guide subsequent case-study research analyses and as a reflective tool for CEO/TMT strategic decision-making, especially within corporate-inspired start-ups.
Di Domenico M, Haugh H (2007) Social enterprise cross-sector collaborations,
Nunan D, Di Domenico M (2015) Shamrock and Tartan in New York: Celebrating the National Days
of Ireland and Scotland and Building Identities amongst Diasporas, In: Skinner J, Bryan D (eds.), Consuming St. Patrick's Day Four pp. 71-93 Cambridge Scholars Publishing
Di Domenico C, Di Domenico M (2006) Conceptions of expatriate enclaves as islands: The case of Ibadan Nigeria, In: Skinner J, Hills M (eds.), Managing Island Life: social, economic and political dimensions of formality and informality in ?island? communities pp. 41-60 Abertay University Press
Haugh H, Di Domenico M, Tracey P (2009) Strategic Partnerships: Results from a Survey of Development Trusts in the UK, In: Hockerts K, Mair J, Robinson J (eds.), Values and Opportunities in Social Entrepreneurship pp. 203-220 Palgrave MacMillan
Di Domenico M (2004) Networking activities of lifestyle entrepreneurs in the hospitality sector,
Di Domenico M, Lynch P (2007) Host/guest encounters in the commercial home, Leisure Studies 26 (3) pp. 321-338
Di Domenico M (2001) Brand images of place and new urban identities in Scotland, In: Horne J (eds.), Leisure, Cultures, Consumption and Commodification pp. 81-92 Leisure Studies Association
This article explores an under-researched form of commercial hospitality provision by analysing the gender dynamics in the distinctive occupational setting of the home. The primary contribution is to extend understanding of traditionally female occupations by adding to accounts in the literature on gendered identities and occupational roles in small and micro enterprises. It is based on in-depth interview findings from 33 home-based commercial hospitality proprietors in Scotland. These enterprises perform the twin functions of private home and providing revenue-generating, short-term accommodation. The findings reveal three broad categories of proprietor; the female sole proprietor, proprietor couples and the male sole proprietor, all of whom reinforce traditional gender-based roles and stereotypes. As an extension of domestic labour, commercial 'home hosting' is inherently gendered. It is argued that this is very pronounced in home-based commercial hospitality where home and business spheres overlap. © 2008 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Miller G, DiDomenico M (2007) Are Plastic Cows the Future for Farming? Implications of an Alternative Diversification Model, In: Tribe J, Airey D (eds.), Developments in tourism research pp. 21-32 Elsevier Science Ltd
Tourism research has come a long way since the first developments in the identification and delineation of a tourism subject area in the mid 1960s.
Di Domenico M, Di Domenico F (2004) Space and leisure as regenerative elements of an urban cityscape: The case of the Centre for Dundee Contemporary Arts (DCA), In: Aitchison C, Pussard H (eds.), Leisure, Space and Visual Culture: practices and meanings pp. 151-173 Leisure Studies Association
Lynch P, Di Domenico ML, Sweeney M (2012) Resident hosts and mobile strangers: Temporary exchanges within the topography of the commercial home, In: Mobilizing Hospitality: The Ethics of Social Relations in a Mobile World pp. 121-144
Di Domenico M (2010) Entrepreneurial Lives, iTunes
Di Domenico M (2003) An examination of the justification, choice and use of a particular social scientific qualitative approach in an urban tourism research study,
Di Domenico M, Zyglidopoulos SC (2008) Legitimacy formation by social economy organizations: A political perspective on a form of stakeholder coalition,
Di Domenico C, Di Domenico M (2001) Metaphorical Islands: Expatriate communities in Ibadan, Nigeria,
Di Domenico M (2002) The Scottish guest house owner occupier: Lifestyle entrepreneur?,
Di Domenico M (2001) Re-imaging the city: heritage tourism strategies for regeneration in Dundee, In: Di Domenico C, Law A, Skinner J, Smith M (eds.), Boundaries and Identities: nation, politics and culture in Scotland pp. 191-214 Abertay University Press
Home-based online business ventures are an increasingly pervasive yet under-researched phenomenon. The experiences and mindset of entrepreneurs setting up and running such enterprises require better understanding. Using data from a qualitative study of 23 online home-based business entrepreneurs, we propose the augmented concept of ?mental mobility? to encapsulate how they approach their business activities. Drawing on Howard P. Becker's early theorising of mobility, together with Victor Turner's later notion of liminality, we conceptualise mental mobility as the process through which individuals navigate the liminal spaces between the physical and digital spheres of work and the overlapping home/workplace, enabling them to manipulate and partially reconcile the spatial, temporal and emotional tensions that are present in such work environments. Our research also holds important applications for alternative employment contexts and broader social orderings because of the increasingly pervasive and disruptive influence of technology on experiences of remunerated work.
Di Domenico M, Tracey P, Haugh H (2007) Bricolage, pragmatism and persuasion: Creating social value in deprived and under-resourced environments,
Di Domenico C, Di Domenico M (2003) The role of 'the club' in Ibadan, Nigeria from 1960 to 2000: Exclusivity in post-colonial leisure and sports activities among members of the expatriate and Nigerian elites, In: Snape R, Thwaites E, Williams C (eds.), Access and Inclusion in Leisure and Tourism pp. 155-175 Leisure Studies Association
Di Domenico M (2005) Producing hospitality, consuming lifestyles: Lifestyle entrepreneurship in urban Scotland, In: Jones E, Haven-Tang C (eds.), Tourism SMEs, Service Quality and Destination Competitiveness pp. 109-122 CABI Publishing
Di Domenico M (2010) The Home/Work Interface in Family Hospitality Businesses: Gender Dimensions and Constructions, In: Hamington M (eds.), Feminism and Hospitality: Gender in the Host/Guest Relationship pp. 207-220 Lexington Books
Di Domenico C, Di Domenico M (2007) Heritage and urban renewal in Dundee: Learning from the past when planning for the future of a post-industrial city, Journal of Retail and Leisure Property 6 (4) pp. 327-339
Di Domenico M (2008) Is flexibility the mother of invention? [online], Open2net article for the BBC's Money Programme (4 August 2008), Open2net article for the BBC's Money Programme
Di Domenico C, Di Domenico M (2005) Celebrating and reinterpreting a Scottish heroine at home and abroad: The Mary Slessor connection, In: Aitchison C, Prichard A (eds.), Festivals and Events: culture and identity in leisure, sport and tourism, pp. 153-168 Leisure Studies Association
We advance both mobility and paradox theorizing by advocating the new concepts of
?mobility-isolation paradox? and ?paradoxical imagination?. These emerged from examining
the nuanced, multifaceted conceptualizations of the mobility-isolation tensions facing homebased,
self-employed, online knowledge-workers. We thereby enhance current conceptual
understandings of mobility, isolation and paradox by analyzing knowledge-workers?
interrelated, multidimensional experiences within restrictive home-based working contexts.
We compare the dearth of research and theorizing about these autonomous online knowledgeworkers
with that available about other types of knowledge-workers, such as online homebased
employees, and the more physically/corporeally mobile self-employed. This research
into an increasingly prevalent knowledge-worker genre addresses these knowledge gaps by
analyzing home-based knowledge-workers? views, and tensions from paradoxical pressures to
be corporeally mobile and less isolated. Despite enjoying career, mental and virtual mobility
through internet-connectedness, they were found to seek face-to-face social and/or professional
interactions, their isolation engendering loneliness, despite their solitude paradoxically often
fostering creativity and innovation.
Ethical entrepreneurship and by extension wider best practice are noble goals for the future of tourism. However, questions arise which concepts, such as values motivations, actions and challenges underpin these goals. This thesis seeks to answers these questions and in so doing develop an applied ethics analysis for best practice entrepreneurs in tourism. The research is situated in sustainable tourism, which is ethically very complex and has thus far been dominated by the economic, social and environmental triple bottom line thinking. This research takes a different approach by applying a value-behavioural lens to best practice entrepreneurship. In so doing, the focus shifts from impacts and consequences towards those values and actions that determine best practice entrepreneurship.
The originality of the research is grounded in a two-pronged research strategy, combining archival research and methods from Personal Construct Theory through the process of iteration. Both strategies are currently underused in tourism research. This constitutes an important methodological contribution. Furthermore, a unique set of archival data in the form of Tourism for Tomorrow Awards applications and judges? reports enhances the originality of the findings. Archival data was complemented by semi-structured interviews with so-called ethical tourism entrepreneurs. A mix of source and method triangulation has added significant rigour to this research.
The key findings are that best practice in tourism is ethically very complex, which suggests a form of ethical pragmatism. Second, a dissonance exists between motivations for best practice, which are value-pluralistic, and ethical judgement making, which is more principle-based. Third, a further dissonance was identified between admittance/awareness and action for issues of misrepresentation, whereas no dissonance was found for relationship or distribution dilemmas. This thesis has combined three strands of research: business ethics, entrepreneurship and sustainable tourism. This original approach lays ground for change towards a more ethically-bound entrepreneurial practice in tourism.
This article examines the growing phenomenon of firms in ?winner takes all? markets which adopt business models that prioritize exceptional levels of growth over other financial metrics. Often this growth results in firms breaking with regulatory norms, despite regulatory legitimacy being theorized as essential for resource acquisition in small firms. The article explores this apparent paradox. We propose piratical innovation as a firm level process built upon disrupting regulatory norms in a way that avoids negative legitimacy judgments. Extending labelling theory, we develop a conceptual model where piratical innovation blends a range of symbolic and substantive actions to enable these firms to maintain legitimacy amongst stakeholders, even when growth is underpinned by illegitimate acts. We conclude by considering the wider applicability of piratical innovation as a model for small firm growth, and the consequences for other firms which must compete against such innovations.
This article, which examines inspection experiences in the home-based context of the B&B, makes a distinctive contribution to surveillance theory, and specifically the concept of ?exposure?. It draws on Levinas?s phenomenological ideas on identity and his concept of ?sensibility?, in order to better place the ?exposed? subject at the centre of analysis. Our empirical research shows how B&B proprietors negotiate their exposure to surveillance within their homes when they take part in the tourist board?s accommodation grading process. Their ?lifestyle businesses? involve exposing the context of their own lives to their paying guests, and by extension to the hotel inspectors from the tourist board with its own covert inspectorial procedures. These are described from both the inspector?s and proprietor?s perspectives. We explore not only their subjective experiences of the inspection process, but also the power dynamics between proprietor and inspector, and the various resistance and counter-resistance strategies which each employ.
A growing body of literature examines entrepreneurial intentions of people aged fifty and over who can be referred to as ?later life? entrepreneurs (e.g. Curran and Blackburn, 2001; Singh and DeNoble, 2003; Weber and Schaper, 2003). However, there is a significant gap in our knowledge about entrepreneurial (social) intentions for people in the same age group. This study uses qualitative research incorporating twenty-eight in-depth interviews with social entrepreneurs aged fifty and over as well as seven expert interviews with members of the Age Action Alliance. These were used to explore the factors these social entrepreneurs consider important in their decision to set up their social enterprises, their ?everyday? lives, and the challenges they face and how they might be supported. An interpretive social constructionist approach was adopted to examine and make sense of the participants? daily lived experiences, from their perspectives. Data was analysed using a thematic analysis approach (Braun and Clarke, 2006) and the findings revealed the participants were driven by ?making a difference? to people?s lives, with each having a different interpretation of the factors they considered important in influencing their entrepreneurial (social) intentions, affecting their social orientations and their entrepreneurial (social) identity. The participants displayed a strong sense of commitment to the social need they identified. Nevertheless, despite some perceiving income generation to be significant for facilitating their ability to achieve their social objectives, others viewed income generation to be incompatible with their social mission.
This study examines the subjective views of social entrepreneurs aged fifty and over and the ways in which they construct their ?everyday lives? as social entrepreneurs. It provides insights about the interplay between the participants? motives for setting up their social enterprises and their age and entrepreneurial (social) identity. In addition, this study provides an in-depth understanding of the benefits the participants gained during the social entrepreneurial process, whilst bringing significant insights into the challenges and barriers they experienced and how they might be supported. As such, this study extends theoretical and empirical research on social entrepreneurship and social enterprise by developing our understanding of the ?everyday? lived experiences of social entrepreneurs in ?later life? from their own perspectives. It is recommended this study be used as a guide for policy makers and organisations that are supporting social entrepreneurs in this age group. Future research should, therefore, be carried out to examine entrepreneurial (social) intentions of different age groups, as more investigation is needed to explain whether the support required by social entrepreneurs is age specific. Furthermore, it is suggested this study could be useful for academic researchers who would like to further their knowledge on the underlying factors that drive those aged fifty and over to become social entrepreneurs and how they view their ?everyday? lives from their perspectives.
Addressing the challenges created by rapidly aging populations is a topic of intense interest for marketers, policy makers and researchers. However, relatively little research has been undertaken so far into the ways that older consumers are adopting or rejecting new digital technologies. With shifting economic power and growing digital adoption rates amongst older consumers, understanding how they adopt technology and use digital channels is becoming increasingly important to marketers. In order for marketers and policymakers to fully understand the future shape of a data-driven digital society, research must take more account of its influence across different older generational cohorts. This paper focuses on identifying research gaps across key digital marketing areas in relation to older-age consumers? adoption and use of digital technology. Through a multidisciplinary review of the literature on aging, using the theoretical lens of generational cohorts, the authors identify key research challenges, opportunities, and implications for both marketers and policy makers.
Risk is a widely accepted entrepreneurial construct and entrepreneurship is a key feature of the tourism industry. Yet, investigating types of risks and calls for research on ethical entrepreneurship in tourism have largely been neglected. This research provides an original contribution to academia about risk-types and subsequent coping mechanisms as faced by ethical tourism entrepreneurs. Using methods from Personal Construct Theory, 15 in-depth interviews with self-defined ethical tourism entrepreneurs were conducted. An existing consumer risk-framework (monetary, functional, social and psychological risk) provided a priori themes for analysis. Through constant comparison of data, different forms of intelligence (survival, system, emotional and spiritual) have emerged as coping mechanisms. These in vivo themes have been paired with risk-types to develop an original conceptual framework for risk faced by ethical tourism entrepreneurs. The implications of this framework are significant in providing support to nascent entrepreneurs, government start-up initiatives and entrepreneurial incubator programs.
This paper considers the implications of big data practices for theories about the surveilled subject who, analysed from afar, is still gazed upon, although not directly watched as with previous surveillance systems. We propose this surveilled subject be viewed through a lens of proximity rather than interactivity, to highlight the normative issues arising within digitally mediated relationships. We interpret the ontological proximity between subjects, data flows and big data surveillance through Merleau-Ponty?s ideas combined with Levinas? approach to ethical proximity and Coeckelberg?s work on proximity in the digital age. This leads us to highlight how competing normativities, and normative dilemmas in these proximal spaces, manipulate the surveilled subject?s embodied practices to lead the embodied individual towards experiencing them in a local sense. We explore when and how the subject notices these big data practices and then interprets them through translating their experiences into courses of action, inaction or acquiescence.