# Dr Martin Wolf

## Academic and research departments

Mathematics at the Interface Group, School of Mathematics and Physics.## About

### Biography

For full details, please visit my website.

- 2011 - present: Lecturer, Senior Lecturer, and then Associate Professor (formerly known as Reader), University of Surrey
- 2010 - 2011: College Tutor, Wolfson College, University of Cambridge
- 2008 - 2011: STFC Postdoctoral Research Fellow, University of Cambridge
- 2008 - 2011: Senior Research Fellow, Wolfson College, University of Cambridge
- 2006 - 2008: Research Associate, Imperial College London
- 2003 - 2006: PhD student, Leibniz University of Hannover

### University roles and responsibilities

- Senior Personal Tutor

## Research

### Research interests

For full details, please visit my website. My current research interests range from formal areas in mathematics to applied areas in mathematical physics all of which centre around algebra and geometry:

- Quantum Field Theory
- Gauge Theory and Gravity
- String and M-Theory
- Fluid Dynamics

## Teaching

For full details, please visit my website. I currently teach the following modules:

- MAT1034 Linear Algebra
- MAT2047 Curves and Surfaces

I have previously taught the following modules:

- MAT2009 Operations Research and Optimisation
- MATM036 Relativity
- MATM054 Relativistic Quantum Mechanics

## Publications

Semi-classically equivalent field theories are related by a quasi-isomorphism between their underlying L∞-algebras, but such a quasi-isomorphism is not necessarily a homotopy transfer. We demonstrate that all quasi-isomorphisms can be lifted to spans of L∞-algebras in which the quasi-isomorphic L∞-algebras are obtained from a correspondence L∞-algebra by a homotopy transfer. Our construction is very useful: homotopy transfer is computationally tractable, and physically, it amounts to integrating out fields in a Feynman diagram expansion. Spans of L∞-algebras allow for a clean definition of quasi-isomorphisms of cyclic L∞-algebras. Furthermore, they appear naturally in many contexts within physics. As examples, we first consider scalar field theory with interaction vertices blown up in different ways. We then show that (non-Abelian) T-duality can be seen as a span of L∞-algebras, and we provide full details in the case of the principal chiral model. We also present the relevant span of L∞-algebras for the Penrose-Ward transform in the context of self-dual Yang-Mills theory and Bogomolny monopoles.

Colour-kinematics duality is a remarkable property of Yang-Mills theory. Its validity implies a relation between gauge theory and gravity scattering amplitudes, known as double copy. Albeit fully established at the tree level, its extension to the loop level is conjectural. Lifting the on-shell, scattering amplitudes-based description to the level of action functionals, we argue that a theory that exhibits tree-level colour-kinematics duality can be reformulated in a way such that its loop integrands manifest a generalised form of colour-kinematics duality. Moreover, we show how the structures of higher homotopy theory naturally describe this off-shell reformulation of colour-kinematics duality.

We prove that the tree-level scattering amplitudes for (super) Yang-Mills theory in arbitrary dimensions and for M2-brane models exhibit color-kinematics (CK) duality. Our proof for Yang-Mills theory substantially simplifies existing ones in that it relies on the action alone and does not involve any computation; the proof for M2-brane models establishes this result for the first time. Explicitly, we combine the facts that Chern-Simons-type theories naturally come with a kinematic Lie algebra and that both Yang-Mills theory and M2-brane models are of Chern-Simons form when formulated in pure spinor space, extending previous work on Yang-Mills currents [M. Ben-Shahar and M. Guillen, J. High Energy Phys. 12 (2021) 014]. Our formulation also provides explicit kinematic Lie algebras for the theories under consideration in the form of diffeomorphisms on pure spinor space. The pure spinor formulation of CK-duality is based on ordinary, cubic vertices, but we explain how ordinary CK-duality relates to notions of quartic-vertex 3-Lie algebra CK-duality for M2-brane models previously discussed in the literature.

We construct a simple Lorentz-invariant action for maximally supersymmetric self-dual Yang-Mills theory that manifests colour-kinematics duality. We also show that this action double copies to a known action for maximally supersymmetric self-dual gravity. Both actions live on twistor space and illustrate nicely the homotopy algebraic perspective on the double copy presented in arXiv:2307.02563. This example is particularly interesting as the involved Hopf algebra controlling the momentum dependence is non-commutative and suggests a generalisation to gauged maximally supersymmetric self-dual gravity.

We introduce a new approach to Monge–Ampère geometry based on techniques from higher symplectic geometry. Our work is motivated by the application of Monge–Ampère geometry to the Poisson equation for the pressure that arises for incompressible Navier–Stokes flows. Whilst this equation constitutes an elliptic problem for the pressure, it can also be viewed as a non-linear partial differential equation connecting the pressure, the vorticity, and the rate-of-strain. As such, it is a key diagnostic relation in the quest to understand the formation of vortices in turbulent flows. We study this equation via an associated (higher) Lagrangian submanifold in the cotangent bundle to the configuration space of the fluid. Using our definition of a (higher) Monge–Ampère structure, we study an associated metric on the cotangent bundle together with its pull-back to the (higher) Lagrangian submanifold. The signatures of these metrics are dictated by the relationship between vorticity and rate-of-strain, and their scalar curvatures can be interpreted in a physical context in terms of the accumulation of vorticity, strain, and their gradients. We show explicity, in the case of two-dimensional flows, how topological information can be derived from the Monge–Ampère geometry of the Lagrangian submanifold. We also demonstrate how certain solutions to the three-dimensional incompressible Navier–Stokes equations, such as Hill's spherical vortex and an integrable case of Arnol'd–Beltrami–Childress flow, have symmetries that facilitate a formulation of these solutions from the perspective of (higher) symplectic reduction.

We introduce a new approach to Monge-Ampere geometry based on techniques from higher symplectic geometry. Our work is motivated by the application of Monge-Ampere geometry to the Poisson equation for the pressure that arises for incompressible Navier-Stokes flows. Whilst this equation constitutes an elliptic problem for the pressure, it can also be viewed as a non-linear partial differential equation connecting the pressure, the vorticity, and the rate-of-strain. As such, it is a key diagnostic relation in the quest to understand the formation of vortices in turbulent flows. We study this equation via the (higher) Lagrangian submanifold it defines in the cotangent bundle to the configuration space of the fluid. Using our definition of a (higher) Monge-Ampere structure, we study an associated metric on the cotangent bundle together with its pull-back to the (higher) Lagrangian submanifold. The signatures of these metrics are dictated by the relationship between vorticity and rate-of-strain, and their scalar curvatures can be interpreted in a physical context in terms of the accumulation of vorticity, strain, and their gradients. We show explicity, in the case of two-dimensional flows, how topological information can be derived from the Monge-Ampere geometry of the Lagrangian submanifold. We also demonstrate how certain solutions to the three-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, such as Hill's spherical vortex and an integrable case of Arnol'd-Beltrami-Childress flow, have symmetries that facilitate a formulation of these solutions from the perspective of (higher) symplectic reduction.

We analyze theories with color-kinematics duality from an algebraic perspective and find that any such theory has an underlying BV■-algebra, extending the ideas of Reiterer [A homotopy BV algebra for Yang–Mills and color–kinematics, arXiv:1912.03110.]. Conversely, we show that any theory with a BV■-algebra features a kinematic Lie algebra that controls interaction vertices, both on shell and off shell. We explain that the archetypal example of a theory with a BV■-algebra is Chern-Simons theory, for which the resulting kinematic Lie algebra is isomorphic to the Schouten-Nijenhuis algebra on multivector fields. The BV■-algebra implies the known color-kinematics duality of Chern-Simons theory. Similarly, we show that holomorphic and Cauchy-Riemann Chern-Simons theories come with BV■-algebras and that, on the appropriate twistor spaces, these theories organize and identify kinematic Lie algebras for self-dual and full Yang-Mills theories, as well as the currents of any field theory with a twistorial description. We show that this result extends to the loop level under certain assumptions.

_{∞}‐Algebras of Classical Field Theories and the Batalin–Vilkovisky Formalism, In: Fortschritte der Physik67(7)1900025pp. 1-60 Wiley

We review in detail the Batalin–Vilkovisky formalism for Lagrangian field theories and its mathematical foundations with an emphasis on higher algebraic structures and classical field theories. In particular, we show how a field theory gives rise to an L∞‐algebra and how quasi‐isomorphisms between L∞‐algebras correspond to classical equivalences of field theories. A few experts may be familiar with parts of our discussion, however, the material is presented from the perspective of a very general notion of a gauge theory. We also make a number of new observations and present some new results. Most importantly, we discuss in great detail higher (categorified) Chern–Simons theories and give some useful shortcuts in usually rather involved computations.

We establish a Penrose-Ward transform yielding a bijection between holomorphic principal 2-bundles over a twistor space and non-Abelian self-dual tensor fields on six-dimensional flat space-time. Extending the twistor space to supertwistor space, we derive sets of manifestly N = (1,0) and N = (2,0) supersymmetric non-Abelian constraint equations containing the tensor multiplet. We also demonstrate how this construction leads to constraint equations for non-Abelian supersymmetric self-dual strings. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

We observe that the string field theory actions for the topological sigma models describe higher or categorified Chern–Simons theories. These theories yield dynamical equations for connective structures on higher principal bundles. As a special case, we consider holomorphic higher Chern–Simons theory on the ambitwistor space of four-dimensional space-time. In particular, we propose a higher ambitwistor space action functional for maximally supersymmetric Yang–Mills theory.

We derive a recursion relation for loop-level scattering amplitudes of La- grangian field theories that generalises the tree-level Berends-Giele recursion relation in Yang-Mills theory. The origin of this recursion relation is the homological perturbation lemma, which allows us to compute scattering amplitudes from minimal models of quantum homotopy algebras in a recursive way. As an application of our techniques, we give an alternative proof of the relation between non-planar and planar colour-stripped scattering amplitudes.

We develop a description of higher gauge theory with higher groupoids as gauge structure from first principles. This approach captures ordinary gauge theories and gauged sigma models as well as their categorifications on a very general class of (higher) spaces comprising presentable differentiable stacks, as e.g. orbifolds. We start off with a self-contained review on simplicial sets as models of (∞,1)-categories. We then discuss principal bundles in terms of simplicial maps and their homotopies. We explain in detail a differentiation procedure, suggested by Severa, that maps higher groupoids to L∞-algebroids. Generalising this procedure, we define connections for higher groupoid bundles. As an application, we obtain six-dimensional superconformal field theories via a Penrose-Ward transform of higher groupoid bundles over a twistor space. This construction reduces the search for non-Abelian self-dual tensor field equations in six dimensions to a search for the appropriate (higher) gauge structure. The treatment aims to be accessible to theoretical physicists.

These notes accompany an introductory lecture course on the twistor approach to supersymmetric gauge theories aimed at early stage PhD students. It was held by the author at the University of Cambridge during the Michaelmas term in 2009. The lectures assume a working knowledge of differential geometry and quantum field theory. No prior knowledge of twistor theory is required.

We consider superstring sigma models that are based on coset superspaces G/H in which H arises as the fixed point set of an order-4 automorphism of G. We show by means of twistor theory that the corresponding first-order system, consisting of the Maurer-Cartan equations and the equations of motion, arises from a dimensional reduction of some generalised self-dual Yang-Mills equations in eight dimensions. Such a relationship might help shed light on the explicit construction of solutions to the superstring equations including their hidden symmetry structures and thus on the properties of their gauge theory duals.

We establish features of so-called Yangian secret symmetries for AdS3 type IIB superstring backgrounds, thus verifying the persistence of such symmetries to this new instance of the AdS/CFT correspondence. Specifically, we find two a priori different classes of secret symmetry generators. One class of generators, anticipated from the previous literature, is more naturally embedded in the algebra governing the integrable scattering problem. The other class of generators is more elusive and somewhat closer in its form to its higher-dimensional AdS5 counterpart. All of these symmetries respect left-right crossing. In addition, by considering the interplay between left and right representations, we gain a new perspective on the AdS5 case. We also study the $R____mathcal{T}____mathcal{T}$-realisation of the Yangian in AdS3 backgrounds, thus establishing a new incarnation of the Beisert–de Leeuw construction.

Tree-level scattering amplitudes in Yang-Mills theory satisfy a recursion relation due to Berends and Giele which yields e.g., the famous Parke-Taylor formula for maximally helicity violating amplitudes. We show that the origin of this recursion relation becomes clear in the Batalin-Vilkovisky (BV) formalism, which encodes a field theory in an L∞-algebra. The recursion relation is obtained in the transition to a smallest representative in the quasi-isomorphism class of that L∞-algebra, known as a minimal model. In fact, the quasi-isomorphism contains all the information about the scattering theory. As we explain, the computation of such a minimal model is readily performed in any BV quantizable theory, which, in turn, produces recursion relations for its tree-level scattering amplitudes.

We construct manifestly superconformal field theories in six dimensions which contain a non-Abelian tensor multiplet. In particular, we show how principal 3-bundles over a suitable twistor space encode solutions to these self-dual tensor field theories via a Penrose-Ward transform. The resulting higher or categorified gauge theories significantly generalise those obtained previously from principal 2-bundles in that the so-called Peiffer identity is relaxed in a systematic fashion. This transform also exposes various unexplored structures of higher gauge theories modelled on principal 3-bundles such as the relevant gauge transformations. We thus arrive at the non-Abelian differential cohomology that describes principal 3-bundles with connective structure. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

We develop semistrict higher gauge theory from first principles. In particular, we describe the differential Deligne cohomology underlying semistrict principal 2-bundles with connective structures. Principal 2-bundles are obtained in terms of weak 2-functors from the Cech groupoid to weak Lie 2-groups. As is demonstrated, some of these Lie 2-groups can be differentiated to semistrict Lie 2-algebras by a method due to Severa. We further derive the full description of connective structures on semistrict principal 2-bundles including the non-linear gauge transformations. As an application, we use a twistor construction to derive superconformal constraint equations in six dimensions for a non-Abelian N=(2,0) tensor multiplet taking values in a semistrict Lie 2-algebra.

Color–kinematics (CK) duality is a remarkable symmetry of gluon amplitudes that is the key to the double copy which links gauge theory and gravity amplitudes. Here we show that the complete Yang–Mills action itself, including its gauge-fixing and ghost sectors required for quantization, can be recast to manifest CK duality using a series of field redefinitions and gauge choices. Crucially, the resulting loop-level integrands are automatically CK-dual, up to potential Jacobian counterterms required for unitarity. While these counterterms may break CK duality, they exist, are unique and, since the tree-level is unaffected, may be deduced from the action or the integrands. Consequently, CK duality is a symmetry of the action like any other symmetry, and it is anomalous in a controlled and mostly harmless sense. Our results apply to any theory with CK-dual tree-level amplitudes. We also show that two CK duality-manifesting parent actions may be factorized and fused into a consistent quantizable offspring, with the double copy as the prime example. This provides a direct proof of the double copy to all loop orders.

We show that the BRST Lagrangian double copy construction of N = 0 supergravity as the ‘square’ of Yang–Mills theory finds a natural interpretation in terms of homotopy algebras. We significantly expand on our previous work arguing the validity of the double copy at the loop level, and we give a detailed derivation of the double-copied Lagrangian and BRST operator. Our constructions are very general and can be applied to a vast set of examples.

We show that the double copy of gauge theory amplitudes to $\mathcal{N}=0$ supergravity amplitudes extends from tree level to loop level. We first explain that color-kinematic duality is a condition for the Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin operator and the action of a field theory with cubic interaction terms to double copy to a consistent gauge theory. We then apply this argument to Yang-Mills theory, where color-kinematic duality is known to be satisfied onshell at tree level. Finally, we show that the latter restriction can only lead to terms that can be absorbed in a sequence of field redefinitions, rendering the double copied action equivalent to $\mathcal{N}=0$ supergravity.

We analyse super non-Abelian T-duality for principal chiral models, symmetric space sigma models, and semi-symmetric space sigma models for general Lie supergroups. This includes T-duality along both bosonic and fermionic directions. Specifically, super non-Abelian T-duality exchanges the Maurer-Cartan equations with the equations of motion thus mapping integrable models into integrable models. This, in turn, allows us to construct the T-dual Lax connections. As a prime example, we analyse the OSp(1|2) principal chiral model, and whilst the target superspace of this model is a three-dimensional supergravity background, we argue that its super non-Abelian T-dual falls outside the class of such backgrounds.

The key open problem of string theory remains its non-perturbative completion to M-theory. A decisive hint to its inner workings comes from numerous appearances of higher structures in the limits of M-theory that are already understood, such as higher degree flux fields and their dualities, or the higher algebraic structures governing closed string field theory. These are all controlled by the higher homotopy theory of derived categories, generalised cohomology theories, and L∞-algebras. This is the introductory chapter to the proceedings of the LMS/EPSRC Durham Symposium on Higher Structures in M-Theory. We first review higher structures as well as their motivation in string theory and beyond. Then we list the contributions in this volume, putting them into context.

We review the homotopy algebraic perspective on perturbative quantum field theory: classical field theories correspond to homotopy algebras such as A∞- and L∞-algebras. Furthermore, their scattering amplitudes are encoded in minimal models of these homotopy algebras at tree level and their quantum relatives at loop level. The translation between Lagrangian field theories and homotopy algebras is provided by the Batalin-Vilkovisky formalism. The minimal models are computed recursively using the homological perturbation lemma, which induces useful recursion relations for the computation of scattering amplitudes. After explaining how the homolcogical perturbation lemma produces the usual Feynman diagram expansion, we use our techniques to verify an identity for the Berends-Giele currents which implies the Kleiss-Kuijf relations.

*L*

_{∞}-Algebras, the BV Formalism, and Classical Fields, In: Fortschritte der Physik - Special Issue: Proceedings of the LMS/EPSRC Durham Symposium on Higher Structures in M‐Theory (Durham University (UK) 12–18 August 2018)67(8-9) Wiley-VCH Verlag

We summarise some of our recent works on L∞‐algebras and quasi‐groups with regard to higher principal bundles and their applications in twistor theory and gauge theory. In particular, after a lightning review of L∞‐algebras, we discuss their Maurer–Cartan theory and explain that any classical field theory admitting an action can be reformulated in this context with the help of the Batalin–Vilkovisky formalism. As examples, we explore higher Chern–Simons theory and Yang–Mills theory. We also explain how these ideas can be combined with those of twistor theory to formulate maximally superconformal gauge theories in four and six dimensions by means of L∞‐quasi‐isomorphisms, and we propose a twistor space action.

### Additional publications

For full details, please visit my website.