The thesis seeks to provide a rigorous analysis of the various 'human factors' behind effective counter-terrorism, based on primary source interview data, rather than secondary source publications or open source material. Consequently the data is drawn from over 170 interviews with policing, intelligence and military specialists in seven countries: the UK, Ireland, France, Spain, Israel, Turkey and the US. Such 'human factors' can be defined as the sociological aspects associated with counter-terrorism: personal relationships, individual capabilities, effective leadership, technical interface, organisational culture and community resilience.
Technology has become increasingly important to both the function and our understanding of the justice process. Many forms of criminal behaviour are highly dependent upon technology, and crime control has become a predominantly technologically driven process - one where ‘traditional’ technological aids such as fingerprinting or blood sample analysis are supplemented by a dizzying array of tools and techniques including surveillance devices and DNA profiling. This book offers the first comprehensive and holistic overview of global research on technology, crime and justice. It is divided into five parts, each corresponding with the key stages of the offending and justice process:
© 2014 Springer Science+Business Media New York. All rights reserved.Chapter Overview: Threat assessments of cyberterrorism have so far tended to focus upon on two kinds of question. First, the extent to which such a construct really 'exists'- or at least exists in any way substantively different from other forms of terrorism. Second, its destructive potentials and the kinds of targets this might involve. This chapter considers a more basic set of questions about the cyberterrorist threat. These centre upon the very thing considered to make it a distinctive form of offending: (information) technology and its relationships with the intentions of potential terrorists. Central to this analysis is an attempt to clarify some recurring confusions about the criminogenic potentials of technology in general-in particular the extent to which it can be causally agentic or 'enables' offending. I argue that it is only by developing a more coherent understanding of contemporary socio-technic relations that a robust evaluation of the risks posed by cyberterrorism can be made.
This book responds to the claim that criminology is becoming socially and politically irrelevant despite its exponential expansion as an academic sub-discipline. It does so by addressing the question 'what is to be done' in relation to a number of major issues associated with crime and punishment. The original contributions to this volume are provided by leading international experts in a wide range of issues. They address imprisonment, drugs, gangs, cybercrime, prostitution, domestic violence, crime control, as well as white collar and corporate crime. Written in an accessible style, this collection aims to contribute to the development of a more public criminology and encourages students and researchers at all levels to engage in a form of criminology that is more socially relevant and more useful.
© 2007 Michael McGuire. All rights reserved.Hypercrime develops a new theoretical approach toward current reformulations in criminal behaviours, in particular the phenomenon of cybercrime. Emphasizing a spatialized conception of deviance, one that clarifies the continuities between crime in the traditional, physical context and developing spaces of interaction such as a 'cyberspace', this book analyzes criminal behaviours in terms of the destructions, degradations or incursions to a hierarchy of regions that define our social world. Each chapter outlines violations to the boundaries of each of these spaces - from those defined by our bodies or our property, to the more subtle borders of the local and global spaces we inhabit. By treating cybercrime as but one instance of various possible criminal virtualities, the book develops a general theoretical framework, as equally applicable to the, as yet unrealized, technologies of criminal behaviour of the next century, as it is to those which relate to contemporary computer networks. Cybercrime is thereby conceptualized as one of a variety of geometries of harm, merely the latest of many that have extended opportunities for illicit gain in the physical world. Hypercrime offers a radical critique of the narrow conceptions of cybercrime offered by current justice systems and challenges the governing presumptions about the nature of the threat posed by it.
Emphasizing a spatialized conception of deviance, one that clarifies the continuities between crime in the traditional, physical context and developing spaces of interaction such as a 'cyberspace', this book analyzes criminal behaviours in ...
This paper argues that the significance of technology for contemporary crime and control needs urgent retheorisation. In a context where communications and information technology are having such profound effects upon social interaction, important questions arise about the changing relations between spatial experience, crime and control. The paper suggests that one standard approach here – the claim that communications technology crimes are best explained by reference to them as ‘cybercrimes’ which occur in‘cyberspace’– represents one variant of the failure to properly locate technology within the social. Adopting a Simmelian perspective, the paper advocates considering technology in terms of a geometry of offending behaviours and responses to them – one defined by social interaction rather than the other way around. It is argued that an extended form of social space –a hyperspace – is now evolving, with important implications, not just for our experience and perception of crime, but the kinds of options available for managing it.
FRENCH L'apparition du profilage ADN comme outil au service de la justice penale constitue une etape nouvelle dans l'usage du corps au titre de ressource a des fins de regulation sociale. Le rôle traditionnel du corps penal – objet visible de dispensation de souffrances – a progressivement ete dilue dans des projets de regulation plus subtils et invisibles, centres sur sa structure biochimique. La transformation a ete si subtile que l'on peut avancer qu'un nouveau type de sujet de justice est ne : le citoyen biochimique. Dans cet article, je suggère que la citoyennete biologique doit etre consideree comme le resultat d'un deplacement regulatoire plus complexe, dans lequel les technologies biochimiques ne constituent qu'un element d'une matrice plus etendue de la regulation technologique. Dans ce nouvel ordre technologique (que je nomme technomie ), les fonctions de la justice penale traditionnelle et les institutions qui la portent se doivent detre rearticulees selon des modalites dont nous commencons seulement a nous rendre compte.
The current research takes a sociological approach to the study of journalism to explore the complex emotional work carried out by journalists as they report. Previous research has demonstrated various aspects of the distinct culture of journalism, including the embedded maintenance of certain ideals, such as objectivity and emotional detachment. However, detailed examination of the professional ideals of the journalists themselves reveals an area wrought with complexities and contradictions, where what is expected of journalists in their job role may be challenged by the actual emotional experiences they endure. The present research explores these complexities in order to understand how journalists might manage their emotions and how this management relates to the wider professional and organisational expectations placed upon them. To do this, it centres on journalists that reported during genocide because of the extremely emotive nature of this event. The present research therefore takes a qualitative, case study approach employing two case studies of genocide (Rwanda and Srebrenica) as a lens through which to understand the emotionality associated with reporting. Specifically, it combines interviews with journalists that reported during either genocide alongside a discourse analysis of UK news reporting of these events. Findings reveal the vital part that emotional labour played for journalists in managing their emotions both during and after their reporting. These journalists performed emotional labour in distinct, multi-faceted, and sometimes contradictory ways. In seeking to make greater sense of this emotional work, the current research elaborates a typology of the different kinds of emotional labour performed by journalists. By examining how journalists experienced the act of reporting amidst genocide specifically, it is possible to see how these complexities are amplified in extreme situations. However, this template also allows the potential for future research on the emotional experiences of journalists that may also report in other situations.