Professor Michael Riley

Professor Michael Riley

Emeritus Professor

Academic and research departments

School of Hospitality and Tourism Management.


My publications


Gao YingFei, Riley Michael (2010) Knowledge and Identity: A Review,International Journal Of Management Reviews 12 (3) pp. 317-334 Wiley/Blackwell
This paper reviews the literature in a number of areas that converge upon the theme of the role of knowledge within professional identity. Within knowledge transfer literature the individual perspective is underdeveloped, and this paper seeks to contribute by exploring the function of knowledge within an individual's professional identity, thus unfolding a theoretical connection between the literatures of knowledge and identity. Its central argument concurs with Szulanski's notion of ?internal stickiness? as a barrier to knowledge transfer but extends this hypothesis into the psychological ownership of knowledge and to the idea of ?possessiveness?. The paper argues that the value of self-categorized knowledge places the latter within the individual's cognitive structure of their identity. It offers up the idea of valued knowledge to the knowledge transfer domain and suggests that feelings of possessiveness towards knowledge may intervene in the willingness of an individual to disclose knowledge in a knowledge transfer process.
Stergiou D, Airey D, Riley Michael (2008) Making Sense of Tourism Teaching,ANN TOURISM RES 35 (3) pp. 631-649 PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
Desombre TR, Cameron D, Gore J, Riley Michael (1999) An examination of the reciprocal effects of occupation culture and organisation culture: the case of chefs in hotels,International Journal of Hospitality Management 18 (3) pp. 225-234 Pergamon
Riley Michael, Szivas E (2009) Tourism employment and poverty: revisiting the supply curve,TOURISM ECON 15 (2) pp. 297-305 I P PUBLISHING LTD

The authors argue that the theory of the downward-sloping supply curve for labour is relevant to explanations of labour market behaviour in tourism. The paper is founded on the work of Sharif (1986, 1991, 2000), who questioned the definition of subsistence and argued that, in certain conditions, the initial slope of the curve would be downwards. The authors ask whether tourism development could provide these particular conditions. An important distinction is made between the perception of management of the market being in surplus or abundance. If the downward-sloping supply curve is the case, then the distress selling of labour that it implies would have implications for the quality of tourism products and for the capacity of tourism to alleviate poverty.

Szivas E, Riley Michael, Airey D (2003) Labor mobility into tourism - Attraction and satisfaction,Annals of Tourism Research 30 (1) pp. 64-76 PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
The article reports a study of labor mobility into tourism that attempts to replicate the findings of previous research conducted in a different setting. Data was collected from an urban and a rural region of the United Kingdom on mobility patterns, orientations to tourism employment, and the impacts of the change. The study supports the findings of the previous work but found no significant differences between the rural and the urban experience of mobility. Tourism employment as a "way of life" received support from the evidence that people were prepared to surrender education-occupation compatibility in return for a more self-controlled work-life relationship.
Gao Y, Riley Michael, Sadler-Smith E (2008) The Cognitive Structure of Professional Identity,
Kelliher C, Gore J, Riley Michael (2003) Functional flexibility: implementation and outcomes,In: Zeytinoglu IU (eds.), Flexible Work Arrangements: Conceptualisation and International Experiences Studies of Employment and Public Policy Kluwer Law International
Al-Sabbahy H, Ekinci Y, Riley Michael (2004) Perceived value - the mistaken identity,An investigation of perceived value dimensions: implications for hospitality research 42 (4) pp. 426-429
Gore J, Kelliher C, Riley Michael Functional Flexibility: Implementation and Outcomes,
Willis AF, Riley Michael, Niininen O, Szivas E (2001) The Case for Process Approaches in Loyality Research in Tourism,International Journal of Tourism Research 3 (1) pp. 23-32 John Wiley & Sons Ltd (on-line)
The article reviews the literature on loyalty in consumer behaviour with particular emphasis on the difficulties of interpreting repeat purchasing in terms of loyalty. Problems of conceptual definition and measurement are examined in the context of tourism. A case is made for seeing the concept of loyalty as a process rather than as a state. In this respect two approaches related to information processing are suggested as possible research approaches. Psychological cost-benefit technique and methods associated with optimum stimulation level are discussed. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Kelliher C, Gore J, Riley Michael Re-framing Functional Flexibility,
Riley Michael, Ladkin A, Szivas E (2002) Tourism employment, Channel View Books
This book is an attempt to understand tourism employment in a holistic way.
Gore J, Riley Michael (2000) A study of the perceptions of the labour market by human resource managers in the UK hotel industry: a cognitive approach.,Tourism and Hospitality Research: the Surrey quarterly review 2 (3) pp. 232-241
The paper addresses the relationship between a tourism authority and micro-tourism businesses in terms of information access and use. The background is the commonly found dysfunction between the strategic intentions of a locality and small business performance. Information seeking is examined theoretically through its relationship to human capital. Given the evidence of entrance to the industry from outside it, it was thought that lack of tourism training would influence information seeking. The study confirmed the low levels of human capital, a modest interest in the larger picture but no evidence of the impact on decision-making. The study also raises the issue of whether the use of the Internet separates small businesses from the regional tourism strategy.
Riley Michael, Gore J, Kelliher C (2000) Economic determinism and human resource management practice in the hospitality and tourism industry,International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research 2 pp. 118-128
Héliot Y, Riley Michael (2010) A study of indicators of willingness in the knowledge transfer process,Journal of Management & Organization 16 (3) pp. 399-410 eContent Management Pty Ltd
Szivas E, Riley Michael (2002) Tourism and migration,In: Hall CM, Williams AM (eds.), Tourism and migration Springer Netherlands
This book makes an innovative contribution to understanding the relationships between two of the most significant social and economic phenomena of contemporary ...
Airey DW, Stergiou D, Riley Michael (2004) Is Tourism Teaching Higher Education?,
Niininen O, Szivas E, Riley Michael (2004) Destination loyalty and repeat behaviour: an application of optimum stimulation measurement,International Journal of Tourism Research 6 (6) pp. 437-447
This paper reports on a study of consumer loyalty in the holiday destination selection process. The study does not define loyalty, but attempts to contribute to an understanding of the concept by applying a psychological measure of variety seeking directly to patterns of holiday destination choice. The measure used is based on the optimum stimulation level (OSL) concept. The guiding proposition in this study was that tourists with a high need for variety would display a varied pattern in their vacation destination selection and this assumption is modestly supported by the empirical findings. The results suggest that further experimentation with the OSL would be fruitful when combined with attitudinal measures and with precisely defined sets of tourist behaviours. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
The paper shows an empirical approach to the problem of measuring an entity whose dimensions are unknown. The subject is the willingness/unwillingness of UK engineers (N=1050) to exchange knowledge. It assumes willingness to be a unidimensional entity and puts forward a methodology that uses indicators to measure its direction. We illustrate the direction of willingness on a reluctance- willing dimension. The conceptual basis is an exploration of the ?stickiness? that pervades knowledge disclosure process. This phenomenon could stem from the individual feeling a sense of ownership of their knowledge which then engenders reluctance behaviour. We pursue this idea theoretically through notions of possessiveness and psychological ownership; and empirically by exploring the concept of willingness to disclose.
Riley Michael, Szivas Edith M. (2009) The valuation of skill and the configuration of HRM,Tourism Economics, 15 (1) 15 (1) pp. 105-120

This paper looks at the way skills and knowledge are valued by management in tourism and hospitality firms and at how that valuation is reflected in the configuration of human resources management (HRM) and the structure of labour markets. Based on a resource view of the firm and using the concepts of human resource architecture, it is argued that tourism and hospitality are not just examples of the internal spot-market mode in which acquisition dominates employment strategy, but rather constitute a special case in which the nature of labour productivity intervenes. The authors argue that labour is, in the main, separated from quantitative concepts of productivity and adds value only in qualitative terms. This sets up a dichotomy for human resource strategy between economic imperatives and the desire for quality. The resolution of that dichotomy, it is argued, is aggravated by the way individuals value their human capital, which has the effect of segmenting a general unskilled labour market and creating rigid occupational identities. This is the background against which modern ideas of HRM, such as employment flexibility, have to contend.