Dr Sabeha Ouki
Dr. Sabèha Ouki is a Chemical Engineer with a Diplome d'Ingenieur d'Etat from l'Ecole Nationale Polytechnique, an MSc in Chemical Engineering and a PhD in Environmental Engineering from the University of Pittsburgh USA. Upon graduation she joined the Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering at Imperial College London as a research fellow where she has worked on the development of novel technologies for water pollution treatment systems. In 1995 she was appointed as a Foundation Fund Lecturer in Environmental Engineering at the University of Surrey and promoted to Reader in 2000. From 2003-2008 she was Director for Doctoral Research Studies for the School of Engineering and Director of the MSc Programmes in Water and Environmental Engineering within the Civil, Chemical and Environmental Engineering Division from 2008 to present. She is currently the Head of Water & Environmental Engineering Research Theme (2014-present).
Her research interests are mainly focussed on sustainable water and wastewater treatment and management processes for reuse; process design & optimisation techniques for anaerobic/THP digestion systems for biofuel and electricity generation; and fate/behaviour/treatment of emerging pollutants in aqueous and soil systems. Most of her research activities are funded by industry, EPSRC, UK Innovate and the EU with collaboration at national and international level. She has supervised 18 doctoral students to completion mainly as a principal supervisor and in excess of 70 MSc Projects Diissertations. To see her publications refer to (https://scholar.google.co.uk/citations?user=EdX3v5wAAAAJ&hl=en).
Shana, S. Ouki, M. Asaadi, P. Pearce, G. Mancini (2013). The impact of intermediate thermal hydrolysis on the degradation kinetics of carbohydrates in sewage sludge. Bioresource Technology, 137, 239-244. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2013.03.121.
Seyed M.K. Sadr, Tulin Onder, Devendra Saroj and Sabeha Ouki (2013).Appraisal of membrane processes for technology selection in centralised wastewater reuse scenarios. Journal of Sustainable Environment Research, Vol.29 (2).
Cubukcuoglu, B., & Ouki, S. K. (2012). Solidification/stabilisation of electric arc furnace waste usinglow grade MgO. Chemosphere 86(8), 789-796.
Shana A. D., Ouki S., Asaadi M. and Pearce P., (2012). Influence of an intermediate thermal hydrolysis process (ITHP) on the kinetics of anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge, Chemical Engineering Transactions, 29, 1267-1272.
Maryam Mohamed and Sabeha K Ouki (2011). Kinetic and removal mechanisms of ethyl-benzene from contaminated solutions by chitin and chitosan. Water, Air and Soil Pollution, Vol.220(1-4), pp131-140. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11270-010-0740-2
Maryam Mohamed and Sabeha Ouki (2011). Removal mechanisms of toluene from aqueous solutions by chitin and chitin. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research (ACS) Vol.50(16), pp9557-9563.
Gadepalle, V. P., Ouki, S. K., & Hutchings, T.(2009). Remediation of Copper and Cadmium in Contaminated Soils using Compost with Inorganic Amendments.Water Air & Soil Pollution, 196(1-4), 355-368.doi:10.1007/s11270-008-9783-z
Gadepalle, V. P., Ouki, S. K., Van Herwijnen, R., & Hutchings T. (2008). Effects of amended compost on mobility and uptake of arsenic by rye grass in contaminated soil Chemosphere, 72(7), 1056-10611061.doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2008.03.048
Gadepalle, V. P., Ouki, S. K., Van Herwijnen, R., & Hutchings, T. (2007). Immobilization of heavy metals in soil using natural and waste materials for vegetation establishment on contaminated sites. Soil & Sediment Contamination,16(2), 233-251. doi:10.1080/15320380601169441
Harbottle, M. J., Mantle, M. D., Johns, M. L., Van Herwijnen, R., Al-Tabbaa, A., Hutchings, T. R., Ouki, S. K. (2007). Magnetic resonance imaging of the effect of zeolite on lithium uptake in poplar. Environmental Science & Technology, 41(10), 3444-3448. doi:10.1021/es0623111
Al-Tabbaa, A., Hutchings, T. R., Moffat, A. J., Ouki, S. K., & Johns, M. L. (2007). The impact of waste compost-based soil amendments on the leaching behavior of a heavy metal contaminated soil. Environmental Engineering Science, 24(7), 897-904. doi:10.1089/ees.2006.0139
van Herwijnen, R., Hutchings, T. R., Ai-Tabbaa, A., Moffat, A. J., Johns, M. L., & Ouki, S. K. (2007). Remediation of metal contaminated soil with mineral-amended composts. Environmental Pollution, I50 (3), 347-354. doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2007.01.023
R.van Herwijen, T. Laverye, S.K.Ouki, A.Al-Tabbaa, M.E. Hodson, T.R Hutchings (2006). The effect of compost on the leaching properties of metals from contaminated soils, Brownfields III, Transactions on Ecology and the Environment, Vol 94, pp 99- 110.
Andrews, J. P., Asaadi, M., Clarke, B., Ouki, S. K. and Zagda, Y. (2006). Managing Dewaterability, Pathogen and Heavy Metal Content in Sewage Sludge Using Fenton's Reagent. Journal of Residuals, Science and Technology, 3(3).
Andrews, J. P., Manocher, A., & Clark, B., Ouki, S. K.(2006). Potentially toxic element release by Fenton oxidation of sewage sludge. Water Science and Technology, 54(5), 197-205. doi:10.2166/wst.2006.563
van Herwijen, R., Laverye, T., Ouki, S. K., Al-Tabbaa, A., Hodson, M. E., & Hutchings, T. R. (2006, June 1). The effect of composts on the leaching of metals from contaminated soils. WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment, 94, 10 pages. doi:10.2495/BF060101
Jiang, J., Cooper, C., & Ouki, S. (2002, May). Comparison of modified montmorillonite adsorbents: Part I: preparation, characterization and phenol adsorption. Chemosphere, 47(7), 711-716. doi:10.1016/S0045-6535(02)00011-5
Ouki, S. K., & Hills, C. D. (2002, May 1). Microstructure of Portland cement pastes containing metal nitrate salts.Waste Management, 22(2), 147-155. doi:10.1016/S0956-053X(01)00063-0.
Goodfellow, F., Ouki, S. K.& Murray, V. (2002, May 1). Permeation of organic chemicals through plastic water-supply pipes. Journal of The Chartered Institution of Water And Environmental Management , 16(2), 85-89.
Cooper, C., Jiang, J. Q. and Ouki, S. K., (2002, May). Preliminary evaluation of polymeric Fe- and Al-modified clays as adsorbents for heavy metal removal in water treatment. Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology, 77(2), 546-551. doi:10.1002/jctb.614
Gervais, C., & Ouki, S. K. (2002, July 22). Performance study of cementitious systems containing zeolite and silica fume: effects of four metal nitrates on the setting time, strength and leaching characteristics. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 93(2), 187-200. doi:10.1016/S0304-3894(02)00005-5.
Goodfellow, F., Murray, V and OuKi, S. K., (2001). Performance of Public Health Professionals in Responding to Chemical Incidents. Public Health and Medicine, 3(3), 86-95.
Goodfellow, F. J. L., Murray, V. S. G., Ouki, S. K., Iversen, A., Sparks, A., and Bartlett, T. (2001, April 1). Public health response to an incident of secondary chemical contamination at a beach in the United Kingdom. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 58(4), 232-238. doi:10.1136/oem.58.4.232
Gervais, C., & Ouki, S. K. (2000, January 1). Effects of foundry dusts on the mechanical, microstructural and leaching characteristics of a cementitious system. Waste Management Series, 1, 782-790.doi:10.1016/S0713-2743(00)80088-4
Salter, H. E., Ta, C. T., Ouki, S. K., & Williams, S. C. (2000). Three-dimensional computational fluid dynamic modelling of a facultative lagoon. Water Science and Technology, 42(10), 335-342.
Goodfellow, F., Murray, V. and Ouki, S. K., (2000). Water-related chemical incident: a national survey. Health and Hygiene, 21, 58-65.
Fowler, G. D., Sollars, C. J., Ouki, S. K., & Perry, R. (2000, February 1). Treating contaminated soil by conversion into carbonaceous adsorbents: an investigation of activation procedures. Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology, 75(2), 121-130. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-4660(200002)75:2<121::AID-JCTB185>3.0.CO;2-7.
Maynard, H. E., Ouki, S. K., & Williams, S. C. (1999, January 1). Tertiary lagoons: A review of removal mechanisms and performance. Water Research, 33(1), 1-13. doi:10.1016/S0043-1354(98)00198-5.
Scriven, R. J., Ouki, S. K., Doggart, A. S., & Bauer, M. J. (1999, January 1). The impact of physico-chemical water treatment on a novel flotation/filtration process. Water Science and Technology, 39(10-11), 211-215. doi:10.1016/S0273-1223(99)00279-6
Ouki, S. K., & Kavanagh, M. (1999, January 1). Treatment of metals-contaminated wastewaters by use of natural zeolites. Water Science and Technology, 39(10-11), 115-122. doi:10.1016/S0273-1223(99)00260-7
Salter, H. E., Boyle, L., Ouki, S. K., Quarmby, J., & Williams, S. C. (1999, December 1). The performance of tertiary lagoons in the United Kingdom: I. Water Research, 33(18), 3775-3781. doi:10.1016/S0043-1354(99)00089-5
Salter, H. E., Boyle, L., Ouki, S. K., Quarmby, J., & Williams, S. C. (1999, December 1). Tracer study and profiling of a tertiary lagoon in the United Kingdom: II. Water Research, 33(18), 3782-3788. doi:10.1016/S0043-1354(99)00090-1
Gee, I. L., Sollars, C. J., Fowler, G., Ouki, S. K., & Perry, R. (1998, August 1). Use of a liquid chemical waste to produce a clay-carbon adsorbent. Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology, 72(4),329-338. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-4660(199808)72:4 329::AID-JCTB909>3.3.CO;2-W
Ouki, S. K., & Kavannagh, M. (1997, August 1). Performance of natural zeolites for the treatment of mixed metal-contaminated effluents. Waste Management & Research, 15(4), 383-394. doi:10.1006/wmre.1996.0094
Ouki, S. K., & Neufeld, R. D. (1997, September 1). Use of activated carbon for the recovery of chromium from industrial wastewaters. Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology, 70(1), 3-8. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-4660(199709)70:1<3::AID-JCTB664>3.0.CO;2-5
Kesraoui Ouki, S., & Perry, R. (1994, February). Natural zeolite utilisation in pollution control: A review of applications to metals' effuents. Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology, 5 (2), 121-126. doi:10.1002/jctb.280590202
Fowler, G. D., Sollars, C. J., Ouki, S. K., & Perry, R. (1994, December 1). Thermal-conversion of gasworks contaminated soil into carbonaceous adsorbents. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 39(3), 281-300. doi:10.1016/0304-3894(94)00063-8
Kesraoui-Ouki, S., Cheeseman, C., & Perry, R. (1993, June 1). Effects of conditioning and treatment of chabazite and clinoptilolite prior to lead and cadmium removal. Environmental Science &Technology, 27(6), 1108-1116. doi:10.1021/es00043a009
Blackmond, D. G., & Kesraoui-Ouki, S. (1987, May 1). The Effects of Alkali Promoters on the Adsorptive Properties of Supported Rh Catlysts. Studies in Surface Science & Catalysis,38, 33-42.doi:0.1016/S0167-2991(09)60640-6
Kesraoui, S., Oukaci, R., & Blackmond, D. G. (1987, June). Adsorption and reaction of CO and H2 on K-promoted Rh/SiO2 catalysts. Journal of Catalysis, 105(2), 432-444. doi:10.1016/0021-9517(87)90071-6.
Blackmond, D. G., Williams, J. A., Kesraoui, S., & Blazewick, D. S. (1986, October). The effects of Cs promotion on Rh/Al2O3 catalysts. Journal of Catalysis, 101(2), 496-504. doi:10.1016/0021-9517(86)90276-9.
BOOKS AND CHAPTERS
Ouki, SK and Van Herwijnen, R and Harbottle, MJ and Hutchings, TR and Al Tabbaa, A and Johns, ML and Moffat, AJ (2007). Novel special-purpose composts for sustainable remediation. In: Sustainable Brownfield Regeneration: Liveable Places from Problem Spaces. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, UK, Chapter 8. ISBN 1405144033.
C.Gervais , S. K. Ouki (2002). Effects of zeolite and silica fume on the mechanical and leaching properties of a cementitious system containing metal nitrate, Innovation and Development -In: Concrete Materials and Construction, Thomas Telford Publishing, pp31-43.
C.Gervais, S.K.Ouki (2000), Effects of foundry dusts on the mechanical, microstructural and leaching characteristics of a cementitious systems, Waste Materials in Construction, Waste Management Series, pp782-790.
K. Whitehead, S.K.Ouki, N.J. Ward (1998). The Use of synthetic inorganic adsorbents for the removal/recovery of heavy metal. In: Treatment innovation for the next century -INNOVATION 2000- 7-10, Cambridge University, UK.
Kesraoui Ouki, S. and Graham, N.J. (eds) (1994) . The Role of coagulants in water and wastewater treatment. Published by SCS Publications Ltd. London, UK, 1994. ISBN 1 898800 01 4.
Kesraoui Ouki, S. and Sollars, C.J. (eds) (1993). Landfill tomorrow-bioreactors or storage. Published by SCS Publications Ltd. London, UK, 1993. ISBN 1 898800 00 6.
Kesraoui Ouki, S., and Neufeld, R.D. (1989). Interactions of hexavalent and trivalent chromium with activated carbon. Hazardous and Industrial Wastes, Edited By Cole, C.A., and Long, D.A., Technomic Publishing Co. Inc., pp.146-156.
PAPERS IN CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS
Shana, A., Ouki, S., Asaadi, M., Pearce, P., Mancini, G. (2012). Understanding the impact of thermal treatment of sewage sludge on the efficiency of anaerobic digestion process efficiency. 17th European Biosolids and Organic Resources Conference, November 19-21, Leeds, UK.
Barua, R., Lee, K., Mills, N., Ouki, S., Thorpe, R.(2012).The effects of steam explosion and hydrolysing time on the digestibility of sewage sludge in anaerobic digestion.17th European Biosolids and Organic Resources Conference, November 19-21, Leeds, UK
Shana, S. Ouki, M. Asaadi, P. Pearce (2012).Application of an innovative process for improving mesophilic anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge. World Congress on Water, Climate and Energy, Dublin, Ireland, May 13-18.
Achame D Shana, Sabeha Kesraoui Ouki, Manocher Asaadi and Pete Pearce (2012), Influence of an intermediate thermal hydrolysis process (ITHP) on the kinetics of anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge. The 20th International Congress of Chemical & Process Engineering (CHISA, 2012), May 25-29, Prague, CZ.
Maryam A. Mohamed and Sabeha K. Ouki (2011), Adsorption of a selected refinery wastewater compound -benzene- from contaminated solutions by chitin and chitosan, 8th IWA International Conference on Water Reclamation and Reuse, Barcelona 26-29 September.
Mohamed M and Ouki S (2011), Kinetics and removal mechanisms of a selected refinery wastewater compound -benzene by chitin and chitosan, 12th International Conference on Environmental Science and Technology (CEST2011). September 8 - 10, 2011, Rhodes Island, Greece.
Cubukcuoglu, B. and Ouki, S.K. (2011). Effectiveness of steel slag as a stabilised agent for the treatment of electric arc furnace slag. Eurasia Waste Management Symposium, Istanbul, Turkey - 14-16 November.
Cubukcuoglu, B. and Ouki, S.K. (2011), Use of Low Grade MgO to stabilise heavy metals in steel electric arc furnace waste. The 26th International Conference on Solid Waste Technology and Management, Philadelphia, PA U.S.A., pp523-533, p. 523-533. March 27-30. ISSN 1091-8043.
Shana1, S. Ouki, M. Asaadi, P. Pearce (2011), Application of an innovative process for improving mesophilic anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge, 16th European Organics and Biosolids Resources Conference.
Seyed M.K. Sadr, Tulin Onder, Devendra Saroj, Sabeha Ouki (2011), Urban wastewater reuse- considerations for technology selection. International Congress of Environmental Research (ICER), Surat, India, December 15-17.
V. Tyriakidis, R.K. Guganesharajah and S.K. Ouk (2009), Climate change impacts on groundwater resources in Jaffna Peninsula, Sri Lanka, 7th International Conference on Water Resources Conservation & Risk Reduction under Climatic Instability, Limasol, Cyprus, June 25-27.
Beste Cubukcuoglu, Sabèha Ouki (2009), The use of alternative materials in cement based solidification/stabilization of electric arc furnace dust (EAFD), 7th International Conference on the Environmental and Technical Implications of Construction with Aletrnative Materials, ASCON2009, Lyons, France, June 3-5.
van Herwijnen, R., Sellers, G., Sinnett, D., Moffat, A.J., Hutchings, T.R., Al-Tabbaa, A. and Ouki, S (2008). The use of compost in the regeneration of brownfield land, CL:aire subr:im bulletin, London.
S.K.Ouki (2008).Novel technique for sustainable remediation of metal contaminated soils: In Exploring Innovative Remediation Techniques for contaminated Land and groundwater, London Technology Network, London.
M. Pellizon Birelli, S.K. Ouki (2008). Cement-based stabilisation and solidification of electric arc furnace dust, International Conference on Hazardous Waste Management, October 1-3, Chania, Greece.
Vishnu Priya Gadepalle, Sabeha K Ouki, René van Herwijnen, Tony Hutchins (2007). Sustainable remediation of arsenic contaminated soils using amended compost, 10th International Conference on Environmental Science and Technology, Vol. A, pp 395-401.
J.P.Andrews, M.Assadi, B.Clarke, S.K.Ouki (2006). Advanced Oxidation Processes in Sewage Sludge Treatment, Sludge 14. -Royal Soiciety of Chemistry, pp 44-50.
V.P.Gadepalle, S.K.Ouki, T.Hutchings, R.van Herwijen (2006), Novel Technique for sustainable remediation of Arsenic contaminated soils, 21st International Conference on Solid Waste Technology and Management, Philadephia, PA, USA, March 26-29.
R.van Herwijen, V.P.Gadepalle, S.K.Ouki, T.Hutchings (2006). Testing of -two mineral amended composts for remediation of heavy metal contaminated soil: metal immobilisation performance of ryegrass, 21st International Conference on Solid Waste Technology and Management Philadephia, -PA, USA, March 26-29.
T.I. Wilkes, S.Ouki, N.Rhodes (2006). The effects of sodium silicate on the stabilisation of MSWI fly ash, The sixth International Conference on the Environmental and Technical Implications of Construction with Alternative Materials “WASCON 2006”, Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro May- June 2006.
van Herwijnen, R., Gadepalle, V.P., Hutchings, T.R., Al-Tabbaa, A., Moffat, A.J., Johns, M.L. and Ouki, S.K. (2006). How to remediate heavy metal contaminated sites with amended composts. CL:AIRE SUBR:IM Conference - Overcoming the Barriers to Brownfield Regeneratio, Imperial College London, CL:AIRE Publication, pp 49-52.
van Herwijnen, R., Laverye, T., Ouki, S.K., Al-Tabbaa, A., Hodson, M.E. and Hutchings, T.R. (2006). The effect of composts on the leaching of metals from contaminated soils. Brownfields 2006 - Third International Conference on Prevention, Assessment, Rehabilitation and Development of Brownfield Sites, Tallinn, July, pp 99-108.
R.van Herwijen, S.K.Ouki, V.P.Gadepalle , T.R. Hutchings, A.Al-Tabbaa, A.J.Moffatt, M.L. Johns (2006). Zeolite and bentonite enriched composts as soil amendments for the remediation of heavy metals contaminated sites, 21st International Conference on Solid Waste Technology, Piladelphia,USA, March 26-29.
R.van Herwijen, V.P.Gadepalle, S.K.Ouki, T.Hutchings, Novel technique for sustainable brownfield remediation of arsenic contaminated soils.” 22nd Annual International Conference on Soils, Sediments and Water, Amherst, Massachusetts, October 2006.
R.van Herwijen, S.K.Ouki, V.P.Gadepalle , T.R. Hutchings, A.Al-Tabbaa, A.J.Moffatt, M.L. Johns, Mineral enriched composts for the remediation of heavy metal contaminated sites, 22nd Annual International conference on soils, Sediments and Water. Amherst, Massachusetts, October 2006.
V.Tyriakidis, R.K. Guganesharajah, S.K.Ouki, B.J.Lloyd. A water management strategy for Salinity Control of the groundwater resources in the Jaffna Peninsula, Sri Lanka, Proceedings of 2nd international Conference on Hydrology and Watershed Management, Hyderabad, India, Vol. 1, pp 512-525, 2006.
J.P.Andrews, M.Assadi, B.Clarke, S.K.Ouki (2005). Potentially toxic elements release by Fenton oxidation of sewage Sludge, Proceeding of International Water Association- Management of Residues Emanating from Water and Wastewater Treatment- Johannesburg, South Africa, August 2005.
Marianna Gonzales, Manocher Assadi, Sabeha Ouki (2003). Effect of sludge composition on the degree of stabilisation and gas production during Mesophilic Anaerobic Digestion (MAD), The 8th European Biosolids and Organic Residuals Conference, pp 24-28.
C.Gervais , S. K. Ouki (2002). Effects of zeolite and silica fume on the mechanical and leaching properties of a cementitious system containing metal nitrate, International Congress- Challenges of Concrete Construction, University of Dundee, Septemb. 5-11.
C.Gervais , S. K. Ouki (2001). Effects of zeolite and silica fume addition on the performance study of cementitious systems. International Conference on Beneficial Re-use of Recycled Materials in Transportation Applications, Arlington, Virginia, USA, Novemeber13-15.
K. Stead, S.K Ouki, N.Ward (2000). Natural Zeolites - Remediation technology for the 21st Century, Eurosoil 2000, British Society of Soil Science,September 4-6.
C.D.Hills and S.K.Ouk (1999). Microstructure of Portland cement pastes containing metal nitrate salts, Proceedings of Waste Stabilisation and Environment 1999, Published by Societe Alpine de Publications, pp. 315-319,. ISBN 2-905015-40-3.
J.A.Stegemnann, A.J.Butcher, S.K.Ouki, A.Irabien, R.de Miguel, P.Johnston, G.Sassaroli and P.Sirini (2009). Neural Network Analysis for prediction of interactions in cement/waste systems (NNAPICS), Proceedings of Waste Stabilisation and Environment 1999, Published by Societe Alpine de =Publications, pp 225-247, ISBN 2-905015-40-3.
H. E. Salter, T. Ta, C. Sherwin, S. K. Ouki, S. C. Williams (1999). Three-dimensional computational fluid dynamic modelling of a facultative lagoon to investigate a possible method for improving performance, 4th International Association of Water Quality Specialist Conference on Waste Stabilisation Ponds, 21st-23rd April, Marrakech, Morroco.
K. Whitehead, S.K. Ouki, N.J. Ward (1998).Heavy metals pollution control by the use of inorganic adsorbents, Proceedings of Second International Conference on Advanced Wastewater Treatment, Recycling and Reuse, September 14-16,Milan, Italy.
Richard J. Scriven, Sabeha K Ouki, Andrew S Doggart and Mike Bauer (1997). The impact of physico-chemical water treatment on a novel fotation/filtration process, Chemical Process Industries and Environmental Management Proceedings, International Association on Water Quality, Cape Town, South Africa.
S.K. Ouki, and R.D. Neufeld (1996). Activated carbon adsorption for heavy metal removal, Proceedings 2nd. Specialised Conference on Pre-treatment of Industrial Wastewaters, International Association on Water Quality, Athens, October 16-18, pp.290-297.
Kesraoui Ouki, S., Cheeseman, C., and Perry, R. (1993), "Utilisation of natural zeolites for effluent and waste treatment", In Proceedings of The 1993 IChemE Research Event, Vol.2, pp.459-461, 1993.
Fowler, D.G., Gee, I., Kesaroui Ouki, S., Sollars, C.J., and Perry, R. (1993). A novel treatment of wastes arising from process activities for the production of activated carbon, In Proceedings of IchemE Series No.132 - Effluent Treatment and Waste Minimisation, pp.209-219.