Dr Sara Naderizadeh

Research Fellow

Academic and research departments

Soft Matter Group, School of Mathematics and Physics.


Ian Williams, Sara Naderizadeh, Richard P. Sear, Joseph L. Keddie (2022)Quantitative imaging and modeling of colloidal gelation in the coagulant dipping process, In: The Journal of Chemical Physics156(21)214905 American Institute of Physics

Many common elastomeric products, including nitrile gloves, are manufactured by coagulant dipping. This process involves the destabilization and gelation of a latex dispersion by an ionic coagulant. Despite widespread application, the physical chemistry governing coagulant dipping is poorly understood. It is unclear which properties of an electrolyte determine its efficacy as a coagulant and which phenomena control the growth of the gel. Here, a novel experimental protocol is developed to directly observe coagulant gelation by light microscopy. Gel growth is imaged and quantified for a variety of coagulants and compared to macroscopic dipping experiments mimicking the industrial process. When the coagulant is abundant, gels grow with a t1/2 time dependence, suggesting that this phenomenon is diffusion-dominated. When there is a finite amount of coagulant, gels grow to a limiting thickness. Both these situations are modeled as one-dimensional diffusion problems, reproducing the qualitative features of the experiments including which electrolytes cause rapid growth of thick gels. We propose that the gel thickness is limited by the amount of coagulant available, and the growth is, therefore, unbounded when the coagulant is abundant. The rate of the gel growth is controlled by a combination of a diffusion coefficient and the ratio of the critical coagulation concentration to the amount of coagulant present, which in many situations is set by the coagulant solubility. Other phenomena, including diffusiophoresis, may make a more minor contribution to the rate of gel growth.