Stefan Klus

Dr Stefan Klus (habil.)

+44 (0)1483 682269
05A AA 04

Academic and research departments

Department of Mathematics.


Research interests

My publications


Jan-Hendrik Niemann, Stefan Klus, Christof Schuette (2021)Data-driven model reduction of agent-based systems using the Koopman generator, In: PloS one16(5)e0250970 Public Library of Science

The dynamical behavior of social systems can be described by agent-based models. Although single agents follow easily explainable rules, complex time-evolving patterns emerge due to their interaction. The simulation and analysis of such agent-based models, however, is often prohibitively time-consuming if the number of agents is large. In this paper, we show how Koopman operator theory can be used to derive reduced models of agent-based systems using only simulation data. Our goal is to learn coarse-grained models and to represent the reduced dynamics by ordinary or stochastic differential equations. The new variables are, for instance, aggregated state variables of the agent-based model, modeling the collective behavior of larger groups or the entire population. Using benchmark problems with known coarse-grained models, we demonstrate that the obtained reduced systems are in good agreement with the analytical results, provided that the numbers of agents is sufficiently large.

Kateryna Melnyk, Stefan Klus, Grégoire Montavon, Tim O. F Conrad (2020)GraphKKE: graph Kernel Koopman embedding for human microbiome analysis, In: Applied Network Science596 SpringerOpen

More and more diseases have been found to be strongly correlated with disturbances in the microbiome constitution, e.g., obesity, diabetes, or some cancer types. Thanks to modern high-throughput omics technologies, it becomes possible to directly analyze human microbiome and its influence on the health status. Microbial communities are monitored over long periods of time and the associations between their members are explored. These relationships can be described by a time-evolving graph. In order to understand responses of the microbial community members to a distinct range of perturbations such as antibiotics exposure or diseases and general dynamical properties, the time-evolving graph of the human microbial communities has to be analyzed. This becomes especially challenging due to dozens of complex interactions among microbes and metastable dynamics. The key to solving this problem is the representation of the time-evolving graphs as fixed-length feature vectors preserving the original dynamics. We propose a method for learning the embedding of the time-evolving graph that is based on the spectral analysis of transfer operators and graph kernels. We demonstrate that our method can capture temporary changes in the time-evolving graph on both synthetic data and real-world data. Our experiments demonstrate the efficacy of the method. Furthermore, we show that our method can be applied to human microbiome data to study dynamic processes.

Patrick Gelß, Stefan Klus, I SCHUSTER, Christof Schütte (2021)Feature space approximation for kernel-based supervised learning, In: Knowledge-Based Systems221106935 Elsevier

We propose a method for the approximation of high- or even infinite-dimensional feature vectors, which play an important role in supervised learning. The goal is to reduce the size of the training data, resulting in lower storage consumption and computational complexity. Furthermore, the method can be regarded as a regularization technique, which improves the generalizability of learned target functions. We demonstrate significant improvements in comparison to the computation of data-driven predictions involving the full training data set. The method is applied to classification and regression problems from different application areas such as image recognition, system identification, and oceanographic time series analysis.

Antonio Navarra, Joe Tribbia, Stefan Klus (2021)Estimation of Koopman Transfer Operators for the Equatorial Pacific SST, In: Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences78(4)pp. 1227-1244 American Meteorological Society

In the last years, ensemble methods have been widely popular in atmospheric, climate, and ocean dynamics investigations and forecasts as convenient methods to obtain statistical information on these systems. In many cases, ensembles have been used as an approximation to the probability distribution that has acquired more and more a central role, as the importance of a single trajectory, or member, was recognized as less informative. This paper shows that using results from the dynamical systems and more recent results from the machine learning and AI communities, we can arrive at a direct estimation of the probability distribution evolution and also at the formulation of predictor systems based on a nonlinear formulation. The paper introduces the theory and demonstrates its application to two examples. The first is a one-dimensional system based on the Nino-3 index; the second is a multidimensional case based on time series of monthly mean SST in the Pacific. We show that we can construct the probability distribution and set up a system to forecast its evolution and derive various quantities from it. The objective of the paper is not strict realism, but the introduction of these methods and the demonstration that they can be used also in the complex, multidimensional environment typical of atmosphere and ocean applications.

Stefan Klus, Patrick Gelß, Feliks Nueske, Frank Noé (2021)Symmetric and antisymmetric kernels for machine learning problems in quantum physics and chemistry, In: Machine Learning: Science and Technology2(4)045016 IOP Publishing

We derive symmetric and antisymmetric kernels by symmetrizing and antisymmetrizing conventional kernels and analyze their properties. In particular, we compute the feature space dimensions of the resulting polynomial kernels, prove that the reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces induced by symmetric and antisymmetric Gaussian kernels are dense in the space of symmetric and antisymmetric functions, and propose a Slater determinant representation of the antisymmetric Gaussian kernel, which allows for an efficient evaluation even if the state space is high-dimensional. Furthermore, we show that by exploiting symmetries or antisymmetries the size of the training data set can be significantly reduced. The results are illustrated with guiding examples and simple quantum physics and chemistry applications.

Feliks Nüske, Patrick Gelß, Stefan Klus, C Clementi (2021)Tensor-based computation of metastable and coherent sets, In: Physica D: Nonlinear Phenomena427133018 Elsevier

Recent years have seen rapid advances in the data-driven analysis of dynamical systems based on Koopman operator theory and related approaches. On the other hand, low-rank tensor product approximations – in particular the tensor train (TT) format – have become a valuable tool for the solution of large-scale problems in a number of fields. In this work, we combine Koopman-based models and the TT format, enabling their application to high-dimensional problems in conjunction with a rich set of basis functions or features. We derive efficient algorithms to obtain a reduced matrix representation of the system’s evolution operator starting from an appropriate low-rank representation of the data. These algorithms can be applied to both stationary and non-stationary systems. We establish the infinite-data limit of these matrix representations, and demonstrate our methods’ capabilities using several benchmark data sets.

Moritz Hoffmann, Martin Scherer, Tim Hempel, Andreas Mardt, Brian de Silva, Brooke E Husic, Stefan Klus, HAO WU, N. Kutz, Frank Noé (2021)Deeptime: a Python library for machine learning dynamical models from time series data, In: Machine Learning: Science and Technology3(1)015009 IOP Publishing

Generation and analysis of time-series data is relevant to many quantitative fields ranging from economics to fluid mechanics. In the physical sciences, structures such as metastable and coherent sets, slow relaxation processes, collective variables, dominant transition pathways or manifolds and channels of probability flow can be of great importance for understanding and characterizing the kinetic, thermodynamic and mechanistic properties of the system. Deeptime is a general purpose Python library offering various tools to estimate dynamical models based on time-series data including conventional linear learning methods, such as Markov state models (MSMs), Hidden Markov Models and Koopman models, as well as kernel and deep learning approaches such as VAMPnets and deep MSMs. The library is largely compatible with scikit-learn, having a range of Estimator classes for these different models, but in contrast to scikit-learn also provides deep Model classes, e.g. in the case of an MSM, which provide a multitude of analysis methods to compute interesting thermodynamic, kinetic and dynamical quantities, such as free energies, relaxation times and transition paths. The library is designed for ease of use but also easily maintainable and extensible code. In this paper we introduce the main features and structure of the deeptime software. Deeptime can be found under

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