Although collaborative web-based tools are often used in blended environments such as education, little research has analysed the predictive power of face-to-face social connections on measurable user behaviours in online collaboration, particularly in diverse settings. In this paper, we use Social Network Analysis to compare users? pre-existing social networks with the quantity of their contributions to an online chat-based collaborative activity in a higher education classroom. In addition, we consider whether the amount of diversity present in one?s social network leads to more online contributions in an anonymous cross-cultural collaborative setting. Our findings indicate that pre-existing social connections can predict how much users contribute to online education-related collaborative activities with diverse group members, even more so than academic performance. Furthermore, our findings suggest that future Web Science research should consider how the more traditionally ?qualitative? socio-cultural influences affect user participation and use of online collaborative tools.
Gao Y, Riley M (2006) Disclosure and Identity,
Gilbert DC, Gao Y (2005) A failure of UK travel agencies to strengthen zones of tolerance, Tourism and Hospitality Research5(4)pp. 306-321 Sage
Companies in all industries face problems pertaining to the issue of retaining customers and securing satisfaction through service quality management. The repeat purchasing behaviour at an individual level is affected by the level of a customer's ?zone of tolerance?; a term not always fully understood. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationships that customer tolerance has with customer experience, brand trust and customer emotions for travel agency businesses. Customers who have had recent experience with the travel agencies were sampled from two UK travel agencies situated in London and Guildford. One hundred and twenty customers were surveyed face to face through means of a questionnaire. The results utilising Spearman Ranked Order correlation showed that there is a relationship between customer tolerance and customer experience. However, it was found there is no relationship between customer tolerance and customer emotion. In addition, the tests revealed that there is no relationship between customer tolerance and brand trust. The conclusion is that travel agencies are failing to keep in mind the importance of carefully handling customer tolerance and understanding the level of customer tolerance and its influence.
A common assumption in higher education is that international students find it
difficult to develop learning and friendship relations with host students. When students are
placed in a student-centred environment, international students from different cultural
backgrounds are ??forced?? to work together with other students, which allows students to
learn from different perspectives. However, large lecture rooms may provide fewer
opportunities for students to work together in small groups. The purpose of this article is to
understand how 191 international students from 34 cultural backgrounds and 16 host
students build learning and friendship relations in a large classroom of 207 students. We
have used an innovative mixed-method design of social network analysis in a pre- and
post-test manner combined with two sets of focus groups. Using multiple regression
quadratic assignment procedures, the results indicate that learning ties after 11 weeks were
significantly predicted by the friendship and learning ties established at the beginning of
the module, (sub)specialisation, and whether students were Chinese or not. Contrary to
previous findings, team divisions played only a marginal role in building (new) learning
relations. A substantial segregation between Confucian Asian, European international and
UK students was present. Follow-up qualitative data highlighted that international students
made a conscious effort to build friendship and learning relations primarily outside the
formal team, which for some were along co-national lines, while others were pro-actively
looking for new perspectives from multi-national students. These results indicate that the
instructional design might have a strong influence on how international and host students
work and learn together. We believe that this study is the first to provide an in-depth and
unique understanding of how international students from different cultural backgrounds build friendship and learning-relationships with other students in- and outside their
classroom over time in a large classroom of 200+ students.
Gao Y, Riley M (2005) Professional Identity: a Barrier to Knowledge Transfer?,
Gao Y, Riley M (2005) An Examination of Professional Identity in the Context of Knowledge Transfer,
Gao Y, Riley M (2008) Identity and Disclosure: A Study of the Professional Identity of UK Engineers,
Gao Y, Riley M (2008) An Ordered Category Methodology: Willingness and Knowledge,
The paper shows an empirical approach to the problem of measuring an entity whose dimensions are unknown. The subject is the willingness/unwillingness of UK engineers (N=1050) to exchange knowledge. It assumes willingness to be a unidimensional entity and puts forward a methodology that uses indicators to measure its direction. We illustrate the direction of willingness on a reluctance- willing dimension. The conceptual basis is an exploration of the ?stickiness? that pervades knowledge disclosure process. This phenomenon could stem from the individual feeling a sense of ownership of their knowledge which then engenders reluctance behaviour. We pursue this idea theoretically through notions of possessiveness and psychological ownership; and empirically by exploring the concept of willingness to disclose.
Both educators and students face challenges in successful collaborative work, particularly when students come from a diverse set of backgrounds and cultures. This is especially the case at business schools, which have some of the most diverse student populations in the UK. One explanation for this could be that culture and personality influence behaviour in group work, creating mismatched expectations. This assumption has led to current research focusing upon student reflections and perceptions of these challenges, while few studies objectively explore what influences actual student behaviours in group work. Therefore, this paper describes a learning analytics study of an activity designed to replicate a group learning experience. In a lab environment, 58 students at a UK business school were placed in small groups to work with a Harvard Business School case study using an online chat to communicate with all members of their group. Student contributions were analysed and compared using Hofstede?s Cultural Dimensions (Hofstede, Hofstede, & Minkov, 2010) and the Big Five Ten Item Personality Measure (Gosling, Rentfrom, & Swann, 2003). Our analysis suggests that cultural traits in particular influences and can predict student group work behaviours.
Heliot Y, Rienties B (2012) How does Anxiety and Willingness to share Knowledge impact Networked Learning, Proceedings of the 19th EDINEB Conference The Role of Business Education in a Chaotic Worldpp. 85-92 FEBA ERD Press
Gao Y, Riley M (2007) Professional Identity and Its Effect on Willingness to Exchange Information: a Proposed Model,
Gao Y, Riley M, Gore J (2005) Constructing Professional Identity in the Context of Knowledge Transfer,
Purpose This systematic review uses cross-disciplinary literature to examine identity conflict and complementarity between occupational and religious identities in healthcare settings and address questions such as how do the religious and occupational identities of health care staff interact? In what situations are these identity dimensions productively compatible? In what situations do they create tension and conflict for the staff member and their occupational practice? What implications do any tensions/conflict create for the well-being of the staff members, and their colleagues, the quality of service provision, and the organisations? How might these implications be best managed at individual, work team, and organisational levels? Design/Methodology We use both qualitative (expert interview N=10) and systematic review methods (search in cross-disciplinary and open grey literature) Results The results of the review concern possibilities for complementarity between these identity dimensions but also conflict where religious identity may make demands that can generate avoidance of some occupational requirements. Limitations The systematic review has included English language only as the language inclusion criteria which may have restricted its coverage. Research/Practical Implications The results have research implications for identifying current research gaps in identity conflict. It also has practical implications for well-being and practice in healthcare settings in the management of the psychological and social consequences of perceived identity incompatibility, for example, stress, anxiety, negative self-evaluation, intra-team conflict. Originality/Value We provide a comprehensive overview of cross-disciplinary literature on the relationship between religious and occupational identity, including the nature and management of identity compatibility and conflict within healthcare organisations.
Gao Y, Riley M, Sadler-Smith E (2008) The Cognitive Structure of Professional Identity,
While interdisciplinary courses are regarded as a promising method for students to learn and apply knowledge from other disciplines, there is limited empirical evidence available whether interdisciplinary courses can effectively ?create? interdisciplinary students. In this innovative quasi-experimental study amongst 377 Master?s students, in the control condition students were randomised by the teacher into groups, while in the experimental condition students were ?balanced? by the teacher into groups based upon their initial social network. Using Social Network Analysis, learning ties after eleven weeks were significantly predicted by the friendship and learning ties established at the beginning of the course, as well as (same) discipline and group allocation. The effects were generally greater than group divisions, irrespective of the two conditions, but substantially smaller than initial social networks. These results indicate that interdisciplinary learning does not occur ?automatically? in an interdisciplinary module. This study contributes to effective learning in interdisciplinary learning environments.
Purpose Legal changes in medical regulations towards End-of-Life circumstances have led doctors to experience religious and professional identity conflicts and behavioural dilemmas. Despite the detrimental consequences on doctors? well-being, medicine efficiency and society?s welfare, research on this topic and its underlying mechanisms has been overlooked in organisational studies. The purpose of this propositional paper is to address this gap by offering a new conceptual framework, grounded on Social Identity Theory (Tajfel and Turner, 1986), Identity Theory (Stryker and Serpe, 1982) and Cognitive Dissonance Theory (Festinger, 1962).
Despite its recognition as an organizational diversity issue impacting personal well-being, little research to date addresses religious identity in the workplace. We conduct a systematic review of relevant literature and develop a conceptual framework to address a critical question: How do religious and occupational identities relate to each other in the workplace and with what antecedents and consequences?? We specify key definitions and explicate the importance of the connection between religious and organizational identity to contemporary debates regarding workplace diversity. The systematic review uses a search strategy informed by an advisory panel of experts. Through a well-specified search process we conduct comprehensively screen the literature and ultimately identify 32 relevant peer-reviewed articles that form the basis of our synthesis and analysis. Findings point to three forms of religious and occupational identity relationships: compatible, incompatible and non-overlapping. Each has distinct implications for identity tension and employee well-being. Evidence suggests the benefits of expressing religious identity at work and helping employees negotiate their religious and occupational identities. Finally, we develop a theoretical framework that specifies the antecedents of the activation of religious and occupational identity in the workplace, the nature of the identity negotiation that activation triggers and its outcomes for individuals and the organization.
This paper reviews the literature in a number of areas that converge upon the theme of the role of knowledge within professional identity. Within knowledge transfer literature the individual perspective is underdeveloped, and this paper seeks to contribute by exploring the function of knowledge within an individual's professional identity, thus unfolding a theoretical connection between the literatures of knowledge and identity. Its central argument concurs with Szulanski's notion of ?internal stickiness? as a barrier to knowledge transfer but extends this hypothesis into the psychological ownership of knowledge and to the idea of ?possessiveness?. The paper argues that the value of self-categorized knowledge places the latter within the individual's cognitive structure of their identity. It offers up the idea of valued knowledge to the knowledge transfer domain and suggests that feelings of possessiveness towards knowledge may intervene in the willingness of an individual to disclose knowledge in a knowledge transfer process.
In this research, we adopt a follower-centered leadership approach, which aims at integrating both implicit leadership theories (ILTs) and implicit followership theories (IFTs). While ILTs investigate followers' subjective views of leaders; IFTs focus on the views of followers (e.g., Sy, 2010). We are interested in the joint influence of ILT and IFT fit on the leader?follower dyad. We further aim to explore the fit between the followers? and leaders? view on ideal leadership and followership respectively. We also compare the fit between actual leaders and followers from a follower?s perspective and potential consequences on the effectiveness of the leader- follower dyadic relationship.
This doctoral thesis focuses on understanding how talented employees? psychological contract was formed and changed over the period of their employment. Organisations in the oil and gas sector rely heavily on cutting-edge technologies and human capital to optimise oil production. Hence, they are keen to attract and retain talented employees in order to sustain value creation and meet their organisational goals through the immediate and potential contribution of these talented employees. The psychological contract, on the other hand, reflects the quality of the employment relationship between the talented employees and their employer. It has a number of implications on employees? attitudes and behaviour including job satisfaction, turnover, and performance. Thirty-four semi-structured interviews were conducted with talented employees across the Exploration and Production Organisations and their subsidiaries in Oman. Data was thematically analysed using a modified version of the traditional thematic analysis. Three overarching themes were discovered as most relevant and important.
The findings suggest that the formation of the psychological contract is influenced by Talented Employees' Value Proposition and Identification Mechanism. The findings also suggest that talented employees reciprocate organisations' learning and development initiatives with loyalty and discretionary performance, which could substantially improve business performance. However, the findings also indicate that talented employees do not necessarily leave or stay with perceptions of psychological contract breach and fulfilment. These talent deals are dynamic and change over the course of their career according to the quality of reciprocation from their employer. Moreover, the deals of talented employees are also influenced by contextual factors, such as oil prices and social pressure, employer brands, and the identities of said employees. Talented employees were found to pay particular attention to their future employability prospects and hence turned to their employer for challenging and rewarding tasks and projects. These aspects were at the forefront of what formed and influenced the state of their psychological contract. Future research could be conducted on different contexts and sample groups in order to further understand the nature of reciprocity and mutuality with the psychological contract. Similarly, future research could benefit from the findings of this thesis in terms of designing surveys for a large sample size in order to understand the correlation between employer brand, talented employees' identity, and the dynamics of their psychological contract.
Legal changes in medical regulations and advancements in medical technology have challenged healthcare organisations? approaches to ethical controversies and influenced healthcare professionals? clinical practice, especially in End-of-Life (EoL) situations. In such situations, healthcare professionals may experience moral identity conflicts and ethical dilemmas. Indeed, the moral code of conduct of doctors and nurses? professional identity can interact with the moral values of their other non-work identities. These ethical conflicts could significantly affect healthcare professionals? actions, patient care and quality of healthcare. Although a thorough understanding of identity conflict emergence, perception and influence would help healthcare professionals and organisations to promptly respond to such consequences, research has not exhaustively addressed these ethical conflict dynamics.
Therefore, through an interdisciplinary perspective integrating theoretical and empirical works in management/organisation studies and medical literature, this paper explores healthcare professionals? ethical identity conflicts perception and behaviour in EoL circumstances. To pursue this aim, a qualitative research methodology has been chosen. Semi-structured interviews (N=54) are conducted among healthcare professionals, implementing both theoretical sampling, to strengthen the rigour of the study, and random sampling, to ameliorate any potential selection bias. The tradition of thematic analysis is followed to analyse the data. Hence, by offering an in-depth understanding of how ethical conflicts are experienced by doctors and nurses and bringing new insights on healthcare professionals? behavioural consequences in terms of decision making and clinical practice, this paper enriches current works on ethical identity conflicts proposing findings and themes related to spiritual/religious identity, moral identity, procrastination of duties and absenteeism.
This developmental paper reports a work in progress study. It aims at investigating microand
macro-level processes related to doctors? professional/religious identity conflict in
critical situations, such as End-of-Life (EoL) circumstances, and the consequences of such
conflict on doctors? psychological well-being (PWB). It achieves this by testing in a
multilevel, moderated mediation analysis four hypotheses in a two-wave study of doctors
working in 30 NHS Trusts in England. By providing a holistic framework on identity conflict
dynamics (its emergence, unfolding and individual consequences), this developmental paper
has the potential to make two key contributions to the literature on identity and identity
conflict as experienced by doctors in EoL circumstance. First, it clarifies micro-level
conditions and mechanisms of professional/religious identity conflict in doctors and its
impact on PWB. Second, by including ?extra-individual? forces as macro-level boundary
conditions, namely organisational ethical climate, it extends identity theories with social
information processing theory.
This case study describes our experience in conducting a systematic review of the relevant literature to address the question of how religious and occupational identities relate to each other in the workplace. In so doing, we offer practical advice for the novice researcher in the steps involved in conducting a systematic literature review, highlighting the questions that need to be taken into consideration, particularly in deciding when to include or exclude a publication. We describe the practical lessons learned throughout the course of our research process.
Due to the increasing diversity and complexity of today?s society, identity conflicts represent an unpredictable challenge in workplace environments (Horton et al., 2014). Legal changes in medical regulations and advancements in medical technology have accentuated uncertainty in healthcare organisations (Karnik & Kanekar, 2016), exposing healthcare professionals to identity conflicts in the form of personal struggles and ethical dilemmas (Hurst et al., 2005). Indeed, doctors and nurses? decision-making responsibility and clinical practice influence other people?s lives, especially in End-of-Life (EoL) circumstances (Kälvemark et al., 2004).
In these ethically-charged circumstances doctors and nurses? professional identity values can interact with their other non-work identities values (Curlin et al., 2007), leading to identity conflict experience (Ashforth et al. 2008). Such identity conflicts can impact healthcare professionals? psychological outcomes (Genuis & Lipp, 2013), decision making (Hurst et al., 2005), patient care (Bedford, 2012) and quality of the healthcare system (Sulmasy, 2008). Despite these serious consequences at individual, organisational and societal levels, how such ethical identity conflicts in healthcare professionals arise, are perceived and affect their behaviour remains unclear.
As Loveday Alexander and Mike Higton point out in their penetrating and thoughtful Faithful Improvisation1, interest in leadership in the Church has grown exponentially in recent decades. The roots of this interest can be traced back at least to the early 1960s; but, driven significantly by the rise of the Church Growth Movement in the United States, leadership had become a dominant theme in ministerial discourse in the UK by the mid-1990s.2 Leadership is now one of the key criteria used to select candidates for ordination in the Church of England (C of E),3 and the highly controversial Green Report4 adds to a growing sense that secular management theory may have penetrated and perhaps colonised the organisational mind-set of the Church nationally. The focus of this study, however, lies at the other end of the C of E structure: what evidence is there, if any, of a distinctive approach to leadership in local congregations, or are secular models simply assumed and imported into day-to-day parish activity?
In this article, we suggest that competencies in working in intercultural and multidisciplinary environments are part of expected key skills in contemporary organisations. Higher educational institutions across the globe are pressured to contribute to the development of such key skills. Using social identity theory, through social network analysis of 113 postgraduate management students in one UK business school and follow-up focus group interviews (N = 16), we have identified three types of learners: Co-National Learners, Bridge-Building Learners, and Cross-National Learners. We argue that developing learning relationships in intercultural and multidisciplinary environments needs to go beyond a cultural-only approach, and the understanding of identity has an important place.
We conducted a systematic review of relevant literature to address how religious and occupational identities relate to each other in the workplace. We identified 53 relevant publications for analysis and synthesis. Studies addressed value differences associated with religion and occupation, identity tensions, unmet expectations, and the connection of religious identity to well-being and work outcomes. Key variables in the connection between religious and occupational identities included personal preferences, the fit between religious identity and job-related concerns, and the organization?s policies, practices and expectations. We highlight the personal and organizational consequences of being able to express religious identity at work and the conditions that promote high congruence between religious identity and its expression in the workplace. From these findings, we develop a research agenda and offer recommendations for management practice that focus on support for expression of religious identity at work while maintaining a broader climate of inclusion.
This paper explores the relationship between leaders and followers by investigating the level of congruence between the implicit leadership theories of leaders and followers, and the actual behavior of leaders across three hierarchical levels. By investigating religious organizations, we are able to identify contextual factors, which have not been explored in much detail. Applying a qualitative case study method, we conducted 34 semi-structured interviews in the Church of England and found gaps between perceived and actual leadership behavior which we explain by analyzing institutional, organizational (e.g., vacuums in leadership) and individual factors. We contribute to the literature of implicit leadership theory by identifying leadership attributes such as the ability to help others to flourish to be highly relevant in explaining the relationship between leaders and followers in a religious setting. Our research has substantial research and practical implications for the recruitment and training of Church leaders and followers.
Due to the increasing diversity and complexity of today?s workplaces, individuals may experience identity conflict between the multiple identities they hold. Working under pressure and high uncertainty, healthcare professionals may face identity conflict between their professional and personal identities and values, especially in challenging situations. Although such conflict can significantly affect doctors and nurses? psychological and behavioural responses and, ultimately, the quality of the healthcare system, how identity conflict emerges and unfolds remains unclear. By integrating works in organisational- management and medical literature, we thus explore healthcare professionals? identity conflict dynamics in challenging situations, such as End-of-Life circumstances. We conducted a qualitative study, using semi-structured interviews (N= 47), among healthcare professionals working for the English National Healthcare Service. We implemented both theoretical and random samplings and followed grounded theory approaches to analyse the data. Our findings show that identity conflict was perceived between different identities but also within the same identity and, surprisingly, the conflict was stimulated by perspective taking processes. Lastly, behavioural responses to identity conflict included seeking peer support and doing reflective practices, whereas its psychological consequences unexpectedly embrace identity growth and positive learning dynamics. Hence, this paper contributes to and extends newer approaches in the identity literature by, firstly, focusing on identity conflict in depth, as one of the intrapsychic relationships of multiple identities simultaneously activated; and, secondly, unravelling some of the conditions whereby identity conflict can emerge and affect healthcare professionals? psychological and behavioural responses.
This paper aims to contribute to the growing discussion about leadership in the contemporary Church of England with a particular interest in the complex interaction between social context and leadership practices. Implicit leadership theory is used to explore mutual expectations around distributed models of lay and ordained leadership as well as ?ordinary? members?? of congregation. Applying a qualitative research method, we conducted 32 semi-structured interviews in six Church of England parishes. Through the systematic analysis of relevant contextual factors at multiple levels, we identify limited congruence between ideal leadership attributes and actual behavior. We contribute to the implicit leadership theory literature by identifying ethical attributes, such as the ability to help others flourish, as particularly pertinent to the religious setting. We also identify the malleability of some leadership attributes. We further contribute to the literature on organizational studies in faith-based organizations by offering novel insights into the relationship between leadership, followership and contextual factors at local parish level which have significant practical implications for recruiting and training church leaders and followers.
In ethically-charged situations, such as End-of-Life circumstances, healthcare professionals may face identity conflict of moral nature due to incongruent values belonging to their multiple identities, e.g. professional and religious identities. Such conflict can significantly influence healthcare professionals' psychological outcomes, their practice and the overall quality of the healthcare service. However, despite these critical consequences, how identity conflict emerges, unfolds and affects doctors and nurses remains mostly unexplored. The overarching aim of this thesis is to advance the understanding of individual and socio-ethical dynamics of identity conflict. This aim is addressed through a mixed-method approach developed in three papers: a propositional paper, in which a narrative review is conducted; a qualitative paper, in which an inductive investigation based on semi-structured interviews is carried out; a quantitative paper, in which a mediated-moderation, multilevel analysis is run, implementing a two-time-lagged, questionnaire-based, design. This thesis extends the literature on identity conflict in four ways: (1) by conceptually integrating and explaining multiple individual and socio-ethical dynamics associated with identity conflict in a comprehensive and theoretically-justified model; (2) by providing an in-depth understanding of individual-level identity conflict dynamics, through the incorporation of novel ethical virtue-based decision-making approaches able to account for professional and religious values, emotions and interpersonal processes; (3) by exploring healthcare professionals' psychological and behavioural responses to identity conflict; (4) by sheding light on the extent to which individual and socio-ethical forces can affect identity conflict dynamics, thus filling a methodological gap in the identity literature regarding the implementation of multilevel approaches in identity research.
This research aims to explain, in the secular French context, the intention of managers to accommodate religious expression at work (REW) when they are not obliged to do so. This paper seeks to understand the determinants of managerial positions on REW. Building on previous studies on how organisations and managers deal with religious expression, this research seeks to extend the evidence on this important aspect of managerial behaviour in relation to accommodating REW.
The hypotheses were tested using a structural equation model based on the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) in diversity management (N = 151 French managers). This method highlights attitudinal and organisational determinants favourable to the intent to accommodate.
The present research provides new insight by identifying two main direct factors affecting managers' accommodation, namely, organisational flexibility (flexible hours, autonomy) and perceived consequences (advantages, disadvantages) and one indirect factor, religiosity. In line with the contradictions within diversity management, the perceived consequences are ambivalent and highly context dependent. One issue to explore is that managers seek to deal with religious expression by making it invisible.
In the French context, the explanatory social norm might not be ?religiosity? but rather ?perceived secularity?. The authors recommend that future studies use qualitative methods with interviews and photo elicitation to extend this first study. Indeed, the complexity of the managerial position requires an in-depth understanding of managers' attitudes and behaviours with regard to religion. How do managers apply a common ground strategy and create unity despite differences? Is the desire to make arrangements invisible with a view to inclusive neutrality specific to France, or can it be generalised to managers in other countries? Does the intention to accommodate not essentially depend on the manager-employee relationship dynamic? This research raises questions for scholars about the relationship with the other and ethical managerial conduct.
France is a secular country where a debate is emerging on cases of discrimination due to REW. The results contribute to approaches to drafting company guidelines for managers and may help organisations anticipate the risks associated with REW. The discussion of the results reveals the importance of social norms in the sense of hypernorms (religiosity) and undoubtedly of secularism, nondiscrimination and gender equality in the decision-making process on accommodation. These inclusive norms should therefore be handled with care in the various guidelines that have been developed.
REW is increasing but is a neglected dimension of diversity management. This study helps explore this new field by promoting an understanding of managers' intention to accommodate in a specific secular context.