This study investigates person?job (P?J) fit and person?organization (P?O) fit perceptions and relates these perceptions to employees? emotional labor and customer service performance. Data from a two-point, time-lagged study of 263 employees and 690 customers reveal that both P?J and P?O fit relate positively to deep acting and negatively to surface acting, in accordance with an emotional labor perspective. In addition, P?J and P?O fit are jointly associated with emotional labor, such that the positive link between P?J fit and deep acting is stronger and the negative link between P?J fit and surface acting is weaker when P?O fit is high. Emotional labor partially mediates the interactive effects of P?J and P?O fit on service interaction quality and customer satisfaction; service interaction quality relates positively to customer satisfaction. These findings have multiple theoretical and practical implications.
Chen Z, Sun H, Lam W, Hu Q, Huo Y, Zhong J-A (2012) Chinese hotel employees in the smiling masks: roles of job satisfaction, burnout, and supervisory support in relationships between emotional labor and performance, International Journal of Human Resource Management 23 (4) pp. 826-845 Routledge
Using survey data obtained from 206 frontline hotel employees (Study 1) and 111 employee?supervisor dyads (Study 2), we examined how the emotional labor of hotel employees was associated with affective and behavioral outcomes. We found that surface acting was negatively related to job satisfaction but positively related to burnout. Meanwhile, deep acting was positively related to job satisfaction but negatively related to burnout. Additionally, job satisfaction and burnout were found to mediate the relationship between emotional labor and work performance. We further found that supervisory support moderated the relationships between emotional labor and job satisfaction and burnout.
Huo Y, Lam W, Chen Z (2012) Am I the Only One This Supervisor is Laughing at? Effects of Aggressive Humor on Employee Strain and Addictive Behaviors, Personnel Psychology: the study of people at work 65 (4) pp. 859-885 Wiley
Prior literature on humor primarily documents its positive effects on employees? attitudes and behaviors, though increasing research on aggressive humor suggests some conflicting viewpoints. This article proposes a model based on social comparison and attribution theories to examine the influence of supervisors? aggressive humor on employees? strain and addictive behaviors. The tests?of the research model entailed a two-wave study with 243 frontline employees from four manufacturing companies of a group corporation in China. The results showed that supervisors? aggressive humor with employees related positively to employees? strain. This positive association became stronger when the supervisors did not use aggressive humor with the peers of the focal employees. Employees? strain mediated the interactive effects of supervisors? aggressive humor with the focal employees and those with their peers on employees? addictive behaviors (e.g., problematic use of Internet, alcohol, and tobacco). As well as having practical implications, this study offers theoretical insights for research into humor, leadership, and addictive behaviors.
From the perspective of the integrative model of organizational trust, this study proposes a multi-level model for whether, how, and when differentiated empowering leadership influences followers? trust in leaders and their work outcomes. Drawing on a sample of 372 followers from 97 teams in China, it was found that the negative effect of differentiated empowering leadership on followers? trust in leaders became salient when followers? Chinese traditionality was low. Moreover, followers? trust in leaders mediated the effect of differentiated empowering leadership and Chinese traditionality on followers? in-role performance, extra-role performance, and counterproductive work behaviors toward the organization. These findings have implications for managerial theory and practice in the domains of trust and differentiated empowering leadership.
Although a great deal of knowledge has accumulated about dyadic relationships (i.e., leader-member exchange (LMX) or team-member exchange (TMX)) within a team, employee behaviors that involve triadic relationships among focal employees, leaders, and teammates have seldom been investigated. Using Balance Theory, which describes triadic relationships from a power-dependence perspective, in the current study, we explore how the interplay of LMX, TMX, and peers? LMX jointly impact employees? feedback-seeking behavior (FSB) and subsequent job performance. By conducting a multilevel moderated polynomial regression on three-wave, multi-source data from 147 team members and their leaders (from 45 work teams), we found that the incongruence between LMX and TMX facilitates FSB when peers? LMX or task interdependence is high. We also found an asymmetrical incongruence effect concerning the way in which individuals are more likely to seek feedback when LMX is worse than TMX, compared with when LMX is better than TMX. This differential effect is stronger when peers? LMX or task interdependence is high. The interplay of LMX, TMX, peers? LMX, and task interdependence eventually has an indirect effect on job performance through FSB. The results from a follow-up study of 270 employees from 77 teams further confirm our predictions about the mechanism of Balance Theory. Specifically, the results indicate that when peers? LMX is high, the incongruence between LMX and TMX decreases employees? psychological safety.
The purpose of this study is to examine the mediating role of collective self-esteem in the relationship between employees? perceived corporate social responsibility (CSR) and their work engagement. We also explore the moderating role of employees? concern for face in the linkage between their perceived CSR and collective self-esteem. A two-wave panel data from a final sample of 217 employees in six companies in Wuhan, China, completed the questionnaire survey. Employees? perceived CSR has a direct and positive effect on their work engagement, which is partially mediated by their collective self-esteem. Furthermore, employees? concern for face moderates the relationship between their perceived CSR and collective self-esteem. CSR has a stronger effect on collective self-esteem for employees who concern more for face than for those who concern less for face. Understanding the outcomes, the mediating mechanisms, as well as the boundary conditions of perceived CSR on work engagement, help firms to better formulate their CSR strategy. First, we introduce collective self-esteem as an important mediating mechanism in the relationship between CSR and employees? work engagement. Second, we identify concern for face as an important limiting condition in the linkage between CSR and employees? collective self-esteem. Finally, previous research investigating employees? reactions to CSR has predominantly been conducted in the West. We conduct our study in the Chinese or Confucian context to provide some new and complementary insights.
This study draws on trait activation theory to examine the effects of frontline
hospitality employees? prosocial motivation on their taking charge and job
performance and how job autonomy moderates these effects. We collected data in two
stages from 185 pairs of front-line hospitality employees and their direct supervisors,
and we found a positive relationship between employees? prosocial motivation and
their taking charge. In addition, job autonomy strengthened this positive relationship,
and taking charge mediated the interactive effect of prosocial motivation and job
autonomy on job performance. These results suggest that when front-line hospitality
employees perceive their level of job autonomy to be high enough to activate their
expression of prosocial motivation, they will be more likely to engage in taking
charge, which should lead to a higher evaluation of their job performance. Theoretical
and practical implications for hospitality industry were discussed at the end of the
We develop a theoretical framework that delineates the process by which customer-oriented perspective taking contributes to employees? proactive service performance. Drawing from motivated information processing and proactivity perspectives, the model hypothesizes that employees? customer-oriented perspective taking enhances their role breadth self-efficacy (RBSE), which in turn enhances proactive customer service performance and proactive complaint-handling performance. A three-wave, time-lagged study, involving 145 frontline employees and their immediate supervisors in the Chinese hospitality industry, tests the research model. The results of structural equation modelling show taking customers? perspectives results in a high level of RBSE. This relationship grows stronger if employees exhibit a strongly proactive personality. A high level of RBSE also mediates the interactive effects of customer-oriented perspective taking and proactive personality on proactive customer service performance and proactive complaint-handling performance. These findings provide insights for research on perspective taking, RBSE, and proactive service performance.
This paper meta-analytically investigates a theoretical framework of emotional labour and its antecedents and outcomes in the hospitality and tourism literature with 57 correlation matrices from published journal papers. Adopting the psychometric meta-analytical methods and meta-structural equation modelling (meta-SEM) methods, the study finds that emotional labour is related to antecedents including personality, emotional intelligence, customer orientation, social support and display rules, as well as related to attitudinal, behavioural, and customer-related outcomes. In addition, strain mediates the relations between emotional labour and its outcomes. This paper is the first meta-analysis on the relations between emotional labour and the antecedents and outcomes in hospitality and tourism management.