Dr Ana Frankenberg-Garcia

Associate Professor of Translation Studies
PhD Applied Linguistics (Edinburgh), MSc Dip Applied Linguistics (Edinburgh), BA History (USP)
+44 (0)1483 689003
11 LC 03
Tuesdays 15:45-16:45; Thursdays 13:00-14:00 (by appointment)


Areas of specialism

Applied Linguistics; Corpus Linguistics; Translation Studies; Second Language Writing; Lexicography; English Language Teaching (ELT); English for Academic Purposes (EAP)

University roles and responsibilities

  • MA in Translation Programme Leader

    My qualifications

    PhD in Applied Linguistics
    University of Edinburgh, UK
    MSc Dip in Applied Linguistics
    University of Edinburgh, UK
    BA in History
    Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil


    Research projects

    Research collaborations

    Indicators of esteem

    • Selected invited presentations

      • Lexicom 2023, Lexicography masterclass, Cambridge, 11-15 September 2023:  From dictionaries for writing to writing assistants with integrated dictionaries.
      • ASIALEX 2022, 15th International Conference of the Asian Association for Lexicography, School of Foreign Studies at Guangxi University for Nationalities (GXUN), Nanning, China, June 17-19, 2022: Lexical tools to support international scholarly publication
      • XIX EURALEX International Congress, Online, 7-9 September 2021: Writing with dictionaries:
      • Lexicographic support for writing (Horbny Lecture plenary co-authored with Prof Robert Lew)
      • AILA, World Congress of Applied Linguistics (Data-Driven Learning Symposium), Groningen, Netherlands, 19 August 2021:  Dynamic Data-Driven Learning
      • Working with Corpora and Digital Tools in Linguistics: Practical Issues and Challenges, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain, 19 October 2020: Academic English Collocations: from corpus data to assisted writing
      • 50th anniversary of the Graduate Program in Applied Linguistics (LAEL) of the Sao Paulo Catholic University webinar, 21 May 2020. video
      • European Master in Lexicography, Institut für Deutsche Sprache & Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, webinar, 19 May 2020
      • UK-Brazil International and English Language Policies in Higher Education, British Council, London, 28 January 2020
      • Second Language Education Group, University of Cambridge, UK, 27 January 2020
      • Centre for Translation and Intercultural Studies Seminar, University of Manchester, UK, 14 November 2019
      • "Aplicações práticas de corpora de língua portuguesa". Plenary at Português Língua Global conference, Kings College London (15 June 2019)
      • "Novas ferramentas lexicográficas: um editor de textos que auxilia no emprego de colocações em textos acadêmicos". Invited seminar at Universidade de São Paulo (USP), Brazil (15 April 2019)
      • "ColloCaid: a text editor that helps writers with academic English Collocations". Invited seminar Université Paris Diderot, France (29 March 2019) 
      • "Integrating lexicographic data with text editors to improve written academic discourse". Plenary at  Specialised Discourse and Multimedia: Linguistic features and translation issues, Universita del Salento, Lecce, Italy, 14-16 February 2019
      • "Using corpora to compare the discourse of human and machine translation" Plenary at 2nd International Symposium on Parallel Corpora, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain 5-7 November 2018
      • "Corpora para ensinar, aprender e traduzir português". Plenary at A Língua Portuguesa: Recursos e Ferramentas na Prática da Tradução, Universita Roma Tre, Italy, 4 May 2018
      • "“Machine translation in translator assessment” Invited presentation at European Masters of Translation Network Meeting, European Commission DG Translation, Centre Albert Borschette, Brussels, 19-20 March 2018
      • "The use of  corpora to become acquainted with specialized terminology and phraseology in the EMT Network" Invited presentation at the Translating Europe Workshop, European Commission DG Translation, Croatian Language Department, Zagreb, Croatia, 7 December 2017
      • "Combining learner needs, lexicographic data and digital writing environment" Plenary at II TechLing, University of Bologna, Italy, 10-11 November 2017.
      • "The use of corpora in translation research"  Plenary at the International Postgraduate Conference in Translation and Interpreting Studies, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, 9-10 November 2017.
      • "Corpora for Editors" Invited presentation at the 28th Annual Conference of the Society for Proofreaders and Editors, Bedford, UK, 16-18 September 2017.
      • "How can language learners benefit from corpora (or not)". Plenary at Encontro InterNucLis do Programa Idiomas sem Fronteiras (IsF) da Região Sul, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil, 21-22 August 2017.
      • "Como usar o Sketch Engine para analisar o comportamento das palavras"  Invited presentation at IX EBRALC (Brazilian School of Computational Linguistics), UFRGS/UNISINOS, Brazil, 15-16 August 2017:
      • “Researching Terminology and Phraseology with Corpora”  Plenary at Usos y Aplicaciones de Sketch Engine a la Descripción Combinatoria del Léxico, University of Santiago de Compostela, Spain, 17-18 November 2016,
      • “Phraseology and Corpus Linguistics”. Plenary at IV Congresso Intenacional de Fraseologia e Paremiologia, State University of São Paulo, Brazil, 21-25 March 2016:
      • “Corpus & enseignement”. Invited presentation at Traduction & Qualité 2016, University of Lille, France, 4 February 2016:
      • “Revising and Editing with the Help of Corpora”. Invited presentation at the 26th annual conference of the Society for Editors and Proofreaders, University of York, 5–7 September 2015:
      • "“Corpus et Perspectives pour l’Apprenant” Invited presentation at Journée NeQ 2013, Notions en Questions en didactique des langues, University of Lorraine, France, 13 November 2013
      • "Integrating Corpora with Everyday Language (and Translation) Teaching” Invited presentation at the IntelliText workshop, University of Leeds, 11 March 2011
      • “Corpora and Language Learning”. Plenary at Authenticating Language Learning: Web collaboration Meets Pedagogic Corpora Symposium, University of Tübingen, Germany, 17-19 February 2011.
      • "Using Corpora Routinely". Plenary at TaLC 2010, 9th Teaching and Language Corpora Conference, Masaryk University, Czech Republic, 30 June-3 July 2010.
      • "Encouraging EFL Teachers to Use Corpora in the Classroom” Invited presentation at the BAAL-CUP Symposium Using Corpus Evidence in the Classroom: Working with Teachers and Learners, University of Birmingham, 24-25 June 2010:
      • "Compiling and Using a Parallel Corpus for Translation Studies" Plenary at New Trends in Corpus Linguistics for Language Teaching and Translation Studies. In Honour of John Sinclair, University of Granada, 22-24 September 2008.
      •  "Que Referências Consultam os Estudantes de Tradução?" Plenary at IV Congresso Ibero-Americano de Tradução e Interpretação, Unibero, Brazil, 14-17 May 2007.  
      • "Raising Teachers´ Awareness of Corpora" Plenary at TaLC 2006, 7th Teaching and Language Corpora Conference, Bibliothèque nationale de France, 1-4 July 2006.


      Selected Knowledge Transfer Activities

      • ITI Bulletin July-August 2023 issue: feature article on A body of words, on the role of corpora in working with specialized languages.
      • Oxford University Press, Dictionary Division: linguistic consultancy since 2011
      • Harper Collins, Dictionary Division: linguistic consultancy since 2016
      • Institute of Translation and Interpreting, UK: professional development corpus workshops, 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017, 2019
      • European Commission DG-Translation, Brussels: professional development corpus workshop, 2016
      • Society for Editors and Proofreaders, UK: guest article in the digital magazine Editing Matters: “How can corpora help editors and proofreaders?” (2018)
      • Garrigues Law firm, Portugal: corpus linguistics consultancy 2018
      • Fundação Francisco Manuel dos Santos and Rádio Televisão Portuguesa (RTP3), Portugal: corpus linguistics consultancy for Portuguese language infographics, 2018
      • Hogarth Worldwide Limited, London: presentation on using corpora in language service provision, 2018
      • Institute of Translation and Interpreting Faraday Discussion: “A corpus study comparing the discourse of human and machine translation” (2018)
      • Yorkshire Institute of Translation and Interpreting, UK: professional development corpus workshop, 2017.
      • ScotNet, UK: professional development corpus workshop.2016
      • External Translator for the European Parliament, 2006-2011


      Postgraduate research supervision

      Completed postgraduate research projects I have supervised



      Lexical Resources

      Frankenberg-Garcia, A., Lew, R., Rees, G. Roberts, J.C., Sharma, N. and Butcher, P. (2021) ColloCaid (around 30 thousand academic English collocations and examples of collocations in context curated from expert writing corpora), open access at http://www.collocaid.uk/

      López, S., Frankenberg-Garcia, A. & Newstead, H. (2015) Oxford Portuguese Dictionary. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Also available online  at  https://premium.oxforddictionaries.com/


      Frankenberg-Garcia, A. & Santos, D. (2000-2008) COMPARA, open acess, bidirectional parallel corpus of English and Portuguese fiction), online at http://www.linguateca.pt/COMPARA/


      Charles, M. & Frankenberg-Garcia, A. (2021) Corpora in ESP/EAP writing instruction: Preparation, Exploitation, Analysis Routledge Corpus Linguistics Series. 

      Frankenberg-Garcia, A., Flowerdew, L. & Aston, G. (eds.) (2011) New Trends in Corpora and Language Learning. London: Bloomsbury.  

      Frankenberg-Garcia, A., Rkibi, T., Cruz, M.R., Carvalho, R., Direito, C. & Santos-Rosa, D. (eds.) (2008) Proceedings of  TaLC 2008 - Lisbon, 8th Teaching and Language Corpora Conference, 3-6 July 2008. Lisbon: Associação de Estudos e de Investigação do ISLA-Lisboa. 

      Research Papers 

      Roberts, J. C., Butcher, P., Rees, G., Lew, R., Sharma, N. & Frankenberg-Garcia, A. (2023). "Less is more: Focused Design and Problem Framing in Visualisation – Developing the ColloCaid Collocation Editor." Proceedings of EG UK Computer Graphics & Visual Computing (2023), pp. 53-55. 

      Frankenberg-Garcia, A., Pinto, P.T., Bocorny, A.E. and Sarmento, S. (2022)Corpus-aided EAP writing workshops to support international scholarly publication”. Applied Corpus Linguistics, 2/3.

      Frankenberg-Garcia, A. (2022) "Can a corpus-driven lexical analysis of human and machine translation unveil discourse features that set them apart?" Target, 34/2: 278–308. 

      Zomer, G. & Frankenberg-Garcia, A. (2021)Beyond Grammatical Error Correction: Improving L1-influenced research writing in English using pre-trained encoder-decoder modelsFindings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2021, 2534–2540.

      Frankenberg-Garcia, A. (2021)Can a corpus-driven lexical analysis of human and machine translation unveil discourse features that set them apart?” Target. Online advance access.

      Frankenberg-Garcia, A. Rees, G. and Lew, R. (2021)Slipping through the cracks in e-Lexicography”. International Journal of Lexicography, 34-2:206-234.

      Frankenberg-Garcia, A. (2020)Combining user needs, lexicographic data and digital writing environments”. Language Teaching,  53/1:29-43.

      Frankenberg-Garcia, A. (2019) "A corpus study of splitting and joining sentences in translationCorpora, 14/1, 1-30 (pre-publication draft).

      Frankenberg-Garcia, A., Lew, R., Roberts, J., Rees, G. and Sharma, N. (2019) Developing a writing assistant to help EAP writers with collocations in real time”, ReCALL 32/2, 23-39 

      Frankenberg-Garcia, A. (2018) "Investigating the collocations available to EAP writers". Journal of English for Academic Purposes" 35, 93-104.

      Frankenberg-Garcia, A. (2015) "Training translators to use corpora hands-on: challenges and reactions by a group of 13 students at a UK university". Corpora, 10/2, 351-380 pdf by permission of (c) Edinburgh University Press.. 

      Frankenberg-Garcia, A. (2015) "Dictionaries and encoding examples to support language production". International Journal of Lexicography, 24/4, 490-512. by permission of (c) Oxford University Press.

      Frankenberg-Garcia, A. (2014) "How Language Learners Can Benefit From Corpora, Or Not". Recherches en didatique des langues et des cultures: les cahiers de l'Acedle. 

      Frankenberg-Garcia (2014) "The use of corpus examples for language comprehension and production". Special Issue on Researching Uses of Corpora for Language Teaching and Learning, ReCALL, 26, 128-146. pdf by permission of (c) Cambridge University Press.. 

      Frankenberg-Garcia (2012) "Learners' use of corpus examples".  International Journal of Lexicographyvol 25/3, 273-296. pdf by permission of (c) Oxford University Press.

      Frankenberg-Garcia, A. (2012) "Raising Teacher’s awareness of corpora". Language Teaching, 45/4, 475-489. pdf by permission of (c) Cambridge University Press. 

      Frankenberg-Garcia, A. (2011) "O léxico diferenciado da tradução". TLA, Trabalhos em Linguística Aplicada, vol. 51/2, 321-340. pdf

      Frankenberg-Garcia, A. (2011) "Beyond L1-L2 equivalents: where do users of English as a foreign language turn for help?". International Journal of Lexicography, 24/1, 97-123. pdf by permission of (c) Oxford University Press. 

      Frankenberg-Garcia, A. (2010) "Review of H.A. Welker. Panorama Geral da Lexicografia Pedagógica". International Journal of Lexicography, 23/2,  233-236. pdf by permission of (c) Oxford University Press.

      Frankenberg-Garcia (2009) "Utilização de empréstimos na tradução literária" Tradução & Comunicação – Revista Brasileira de Tradutores 18,  43-61. pdf

      Frankenberg-Garcia, A. (2009) "Compiling and using a parallel corpus for research in translation". International Journal of Translation, vol. XXI-1, 57-71.

      Frankenberg-Garcia (2008) "Suggesting rather special facts. A corpus-based study of distinctive lexical distributions in translated texts". Corpora, vol. 3.2,  195-211. pdf by permission of (c) Edinburgh University Press 

      Santos, D. & A. Frankenberg-Garcia (2007) "The corpus, its users and their needs: a user-oriented evaluation of COMPARAInternational Journal of Corpus Linguistics, 12/3,  335-374. abstract

      Frankenberg-Garcia, A. (2005) “A Peek into What Today's Language Learners as Researchers Actually Do”. International Journal of Lexicography, 18/3, pp 335-355. pdf

      Frankenberg-Garcia, A. (2005) “Pedagogical Uses of Monolingual and Parallel Concordances” ELT Journal, June 2005, 59/3, pp 189-198. pdf

      Frankenberg-Garcia, A. & Santos, D. (2001) “COMPARA, um corpus paralelo de português e inglês na Web” Cadernos de Tradução IX. Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Brazil, pp 61-79. pdf

      Frankenberg-Garcia, A. (2000) “Using a Translation Corpus to Teach English to Native Speakers of Portuguese” Op.Cit., A Journal of Anglo-American Studies vol. 3: pp 65-78. pre-publication version

      Frankenberg-Garcia, A. (1999) “Providing Student Writers with Pre-Text Feedback” ELT Journal, vol. 53/2: pp 100-106. pdf

      Frankenberg-Garcia, A., Rosário, J. and Pires, M.C. (1994) “Português Língua Estrangeira: que materiais didácticos vamos produzir?” Revista Internacional de Língua Portuguesa, 11, pp 155-164.

      Frankenberg-Garcia, A.(1990) "Do the similarities between L1 and L2 writing processes conceal important differences?" Edinburgh Working Papers in Applied Linguistics, 1, pp. 91-102. pre-publication version

      Book Chapters

      Gu, Y. & Frankenberg-Garcia, A. (2021) ZHEN: A directional parallel corpus of Chinese source texts and English translations”. In J. Lavid, C. Maíz & J.R. Zamorano (Eds.) Corpora in Translation and Contrastive Research in the Digital Age. Recent advances and explorations. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 49-73.

      Charles, M. & Frankenberg-Garcia, A. (2021) “Introduction: Dichotomies and debates in corpora and ESP/EAP writing. In Charles, M. & Frankenberg-Garcia, A. (Eds.) Corpora in ESP/EAP Writing Instruction: Preparation, Exploitation, Analysis. London: Routledge, 1-10.

      Tavares Pinto, P., Rees, G. & Frankenberg-Garcia, A. (2021) “Identifying collocation issues in English L2 research article writing”. In Charles, M. & Frankenberg-Garcia, A. (Eds.) Corpora in ESP/EAP Writing Instruction: Preparation, Exploitation, Analysis. London: Routledge, 147-170.

      Frankenberg-Garcia, A., Rees, G., Lew, R., Roberts, J., Sharma, N., & Butcher, P. (2019)ColloCaid: a tool to help academic English writers find the words they need”. In Meunier, F., J. Van de Vyver, L. Bradley & S. Thouësny (Eds), CALL and complexity – short papers from EUROCALL 2019 (pp. 1-7). Research-publishing.net.

      Frankenberg-Garcia, A. (2017) "The Lexicography of Portuguese (including Brazilian Portuguese". In P. Hanks & G-M de Schryver (eds.) International Handbook of Modern Lexis and Lexicography. Springer. pre-publication draft

      Frankenberg-Garcia, A. (2016) “A corpus study of loans in translated and non-translated texts”. In G. Corpas Pastor and M. Seghiri (eds.) Corpus-based Approaches to Translation and Interpreting: from theory to applications. Frankfurt: Peter Lang, 19-42. pre-publication draft

      Frankenberg-Garcia, A. (2016) "Corpora in the classroom". In G. Hall (ed.) Routledge Handbook of English Language Teaching. London: Routledge, 383-398. pre-publication draft

      Frankenberg-Garcia (2014) "Understanding Portuguese Translations with the Help of Corpora". In T. Sardinha and T. Ferreira (eds.) Working with Portuguese Corpora. London: Bloomsbury, 161-176. pre-publication version

      Frankenberg-Garcia (2012) “Integrating corpora with everyday language teaching”. In Thomas, J. and Boulton, A. (eds.) Input, Process and Product: developments in teaching and language corpora . Brno: Masaryk University Press, pp 36-53. pre-publication version

      Frankenberg-Garcia (2012) “Prefácio”. In T. Shepherd, T. Sardinha and M. Pinto (eds.) Caminhos da Linguística de Corpus. Campinas, Brazil: Companhia das Letras, pp 11-14.

      Frankenberg-Garcia, A. (2009) “Are translations longer than source texts? A corpus-based study of explicitation”. In Beeby, A., Rodríguez, P. & Sánchez-Gijón, P. (eds.) Corpus use and translating. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins, pp 47-58. pre-publication version

      Frankenberg-Garcia, A. (2008) “Compilação e uso de corpora paralelos". In  S. Tagnin & O. Vale (eds.) Avanços da linguística de corpus no Brasil. São Paulo: Humanitas,  pp 117-136  pre-publication version 

      Frankenberg-Garcia, A. (2007) “Lost in Parallel Concordances”. In W. Teubert (ed.) Corpus Linguistics: critical concepts in linguistics, London: Routledge, volume IV, pp 176-190 (previously published in Aston et al). pdf

      Frankenberg-Garcia, A. (2004) “Lost in Parallel Concordances”. In G. Aston, S. Bernardini and D. Stewart (eds.) Corpora and language learners. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, pp 213-229.

      Frankenberg-Garcia, A. & Santos, D. (2003) “Introducing COMPARA: the Portuguese-English Parallel Corpus”. In F. Zanettin, S. Bernardini & D. Stewart (eds.) Corpora in Translator Education. Manchester: St. Jerome, pp 71-87. pre-publication version

      Frankenberg-Garcia, A. (2002) “COMPARA, language learning and translation training”. In B. Maia, J. Haller & M. Ulrych (eds.) Training the Language Service Provider for the New Millennium. Porto: FLUP, pp 187-198. pre-publication version

      Frankenberg-Garcia, A. (2000) “Using Portuguese in the Teaching of English”. In A. Pina, J. F. Duarte & M.H. Serôdio (eds.) Do Esplendor na Relva: Elites e cultura comum de expressão inglesa. Lisboa: Cosmos, pp 425-432. pre-publication version

      Frankenberg-Garcia, A. (1995) “Reading, Revising, Editing”. In R. White (ed.), New Ways in Teaching Writing, Alexandria: TESOL, p 114.