Anita Eves

Professor Anita Eves

Professor of Hospitality Management
BSc, PhD
+44 (0)1483 686337
31 AP 02
Monday 3 - 5pm, and Friday 10 - 11am. At other times please e-mail.


University roles and responsibilities

  • Professor of Hospitality Management
  • Hospitality research lead

    My qualifications

    BSc Food Science
    University of Reading
    PhD Food Science
    University of Reading

    Previous roles

    Head of the Department of Hospitality
    University of Surrey
    Director of Postgraduate Studies
    University of Surrey
    Head of Research for Hospitality
    University of Surrey
    Senior Scientist
    Leatherhead Food International

    Affiliations and memberships

    Risk Analysis
    International Journal of Hospitality Management
    Food Quality and Preference
    Reviewer of research proposals.
    Reviewer of research proposals.
    Council for Hospitality Management Education
    Executive Officer
    Tourism Management


    Research interests

    Research projects

    Research collaborations

    Indicators of esteem

    • Member on the FSA list of experts - Social Science Committee

    • Anita was an invited member of British Nutrition Foundation-led group (FSA-funded) for improving the nutrition education of catering students.


      Postgraduate research supervision

      My teaching

      My publications


      With the internet now the primary channel of hotel bookings for many consumers, this study sets out to analyse if a consumer forms a relationship with their online booking channel, as much of extant hospitality literature analyses post-purchase or post-stay relationship satisfaction. This is a breakthrough study for two reasons: measuring the multiple Organisation-Public Relationship (OPR) dimensions simultaneously, in the new contexts of one-off, online, discretionary hotel bookings, has determined that a relationship does exist. Secondly, it provides a relationship definition specific to this study: in the context of a reintermediated hotel industry, where the consumer is the dominant party, a relationship in a technology enabled booking process exists where both the requisite levels of attachment and benefits are provided to establish satisfaction with the process, as predicted by the three key indicators of trust, reliability and commitment, thereby prompting long term usage. To analyse this relationship, a mixed-methods approach was taken. The exploratory qualitative study determined that a relationship does exist between the customer and the booking channel. Taking the Hon and Grunig (1999) OPR model as the basis for investigation, the results revealed that the dimensions of trust, commitment, control mutuality and exchange relationship are present. To measure the strength of each dimension, an online quantitative study was distributed to over 500 respondents in the UK, inclusive of both hotel website and Online Travel Agent (OTA) website users. Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modelling (PLS-SEM) was used to measure and validate the relationship dimensions present in the model. The findings were illuminating; firstly, the OPR dimensions were highly correlated in this context, prompting a redistribution of the measurement items. The resultant Hotel Booking channel Relationship model (HBR) was validated, providing the new insight that the dimensions of reliability, commitment and trust are the strongest predictors of a consumer’s satisfaction with their booking channel, which remained true for all of the moderators. This study has made the following original contributions. Methodologically it tested the OPR model in new contexts of marketing led, online hotel bookings that are a one-off discretionary spend and secondly, implemented the rigour and flexibility of the PLS-SEM analysis to generate the HBR model and moderator analysis. Theoretically the qualitative research identified the impact of the functional and emotional benefits, the quantitative developed and confirmed the new HBR and the analysis confirmed the emergence of reliability, trust, and commitment as the significant dimensions within this context. Managerially the HBR can be used by both hotels or OTAs to develop valued consumer relationships and for other tourism sectors such as destination marketing or cruise products.
      Yingying Jin (2020)Opening the black box of eating out food waste in China. University of Surrey
      Food waste is a compelling research topic due to the way in which its environmental, social, and economic impacts accumulate throughout the food supply chain. However, it is a tremendously under-researched area in the social sciences, particularly in relation to service provision. Efforts to reduce food waste, particularly at the consumption stage, are especially meaningful for people in China. This is because the country must sustain more than one-fifth of the world’s population with only limited food-related resources. Moreover, in contrast to Western countries, consumer waste in China mainly arises from restaurants as opposed to households. Therefore, to reduce food waste in service provision in China, it is worth examining the formation of food waste at the consumption stage. To overcome the theoretical dualism that exists between individualism and structuralism in the study of food consumption and waste, this research is grounded in various strands of theories of practice. It investigates both the ‘saying’ and ‘doing’ aspects of eating practices in-situ, as well as the nexuses between a collection of integrative practices through the examination of ‘practical sense’. It is also an important element established in eating practices between habitus and the field of dining-out. Ethnographic methods were employed to acquire knowledge over a four-month period in 2017 in two Chinese cities: 26 in-depth semi-structured interviews and 16 eat-along sessions. A suite of creative methods was also used to gather a range of interview data, including photographs, table-elicitation, and Play-Doh. The findings suggest that eating-out food practices are constituted of the following integrative practices: social organisation of meal occasions, judgement of aesthetic qualities, judgement of bodily capacity, and judgement of food functionality. Amongst these four practices, waste of food left on plates was attributed to its materiality, practice conventionality, and temporality. This is because it influenced participants’ perceptions regarding food edibility and waste inevitability. Key factors contributing to food waste included the perceived inevitability of social circumstances and the perceived risk of consuming leftover food, due to its perishable nature and the temporal distance to the next mealtime. Accordingly, this study indicates that food waste is associated with a set of food practices that should always be considered in the field of practice, particularly in terms of the surrounding material, social, and temporal dimensions, rather than as an isolated, discrete phenomenon.
      AHN Mak, M Lumbers, A Eves (2011)Globalisation and food consumption in tourism, In: Annals of Tourism Research
      The purpose of this research is not only to develop and test a research model to investigate the moderating role of the ubiquity attribute of the smartphone between influencing variables (that is, situational and individual factors) and behavioural changes of wellness tourists, but also to provide the related implications. So far, empirical research has not considered wellness tourists’ behaviour at their destination in particular, when using ICT (particularly, smartphone). This study conducted an analysis using the survey questionnaire method at the quantitative stage. Before conducting the main study, two preliminary studies were undertaken to: 1) select wellness activities to include in the current study, and 2) determine a ubiquity measurement in the context of travel. The findings from these preliminary studies enabled the questionnaire used for the main study to be more specific and detailed. With regard to the main study, the survey was conducted focusing on wellness tourists who had experienced a wellness trip in Jeju Island with a total of 730 questionnaire. To test the hypotheses in the research model, this study utilised Smartpls software version 3.0 to apply the partial least squares-structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) analysis. As a consequence, in terms of the ubiquity related constructs, ‘instant connectivity’ attribute emphasises the interaction with others over the network and the importance of Internet speed with regard to the behaviour change of tourists. Regarding the moderating effect, this study supports that the hypothesis (The ubiquity of the smartphone moderates the relationships between influencing factors and behavioural change of wellness tourists.) could be accepted. Consequently, this study basically adopted the measurement of actual behavioural changes rather than the behavioural intention. Hence, this study makes a meaningful contribution to the literature by demonstrating empirically the significant relationship between the role of smartphone and actual behavioural changes in wellness tourism.
      While factors affecting tourists’ revisit intention to a destination have been identified and examined through a proliferation of studies, the research on antecedents of intention to revisit a destination for culinary tourism reasons are still limited. The study advances existing studies using the extended combination of MGB and TPB to measure temporal destination revisit intentions. The short and long term revisit intention models were developed with an aim to investigate factors underlying tourists’ revisit intentions to Thailand for culinary tourism purposes. Belief-based measures of attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioural control borrowed from the TPB model was added to the original MGB in order to evaluate an influence of local Thai food experiences as a motivational base of revisiting Thailand. The study also compared differences of the models based on nationality (Japanese and British) and type of visitor (first- timers and repeaters). The study employed a mixed method approach using semi-structured interview to explore motivational factors for local Thai food consumption and for the intentions to revisit to Thailand. The questionnaire survey was performed as the second stage of the study to identify three motivational factors for consuming local Thai food and eight motivational factors for revisiting Thailand. There were two common motivators between the two contexts. The relationships between local food experiences and intentions to return over time were examined. The findings suggested moderating effects of nationality and type of visitor on the models for short and long term revisit intention. The findings of this study are considered to contribute to the theoretical development in tourist behaviour and food consumption research by increasing the body of literature regarding factors affecting tourists’ destination revisit intention for gastronomy reasons.
      Background: Air travel’s growth has generated fierce competition between airline companies, with different marketing strategies evolving. However, as airlines attempt to emulate each other worldwide, the marginal benefits of marketing strategies shrink, and airlines are forced to compete over products and services offered to passengers. One of these competing services is the in-flight meal. Therefore, a holistic understanding of the impact of in-flight meal attributes on satisfaction and loyalty in general, and in comparison to other service-quality dimensions, must be understood. Purpose: The aim of this study is to critically evaluate the relationship between in-flight meal satisfaction, overall flight satisfaction, and loyalty among long-haul business and economy passengers of Arabian Gulf full-service carriers. Methods: A sequential exploratory mixed-method approach was conducted. Purposive, snowball, and convenience sampling were used to collect data from passengers with experiences of flying long-haul with Emirates or Oman Air and travelled in economy or business class in the last 12 months. The study yielded 261 online reviews, 24 semi-structured interviews, and 419 questionnaires. Qualitative data were analyzed using content and template analyses with the aid of Nvivo 12. Conceptual model was developed and empirically tested using Partial Least Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) guided by SPSS and SmartPLS 3.2, to provide a comprehensive understanding of the factors that affect passengers’ in-flight meal satisfaction, overall fling satisfaction and loyalty. Findings: In-flight meal satisfaction was found to significantly contribute to the prediction of passengers’ flight satisfaction and loyalty, especially meal taste, preferences, and service. The strength and significance of this prediction varied according to flight details and passengers’ travel habits and individual characteristics; such as the airline company, seat class, route, trip purpose, flight duration, flying experience in general and with the airline, travel party, and passengers’ socio-demographics. Contribution: The study offers a detailed investigation, in relation to data enquiry and analysis. It is one of the very few mixed-methods studies in the field, achieving both within-methods and between-methods triangulation. It is the first study to attempt to use airline platforms to understand passenger behaviour, specifically in relation to food, and in so doing represents an important contribution. It uses a novel combination of statistical measurement techniques to simultaneously validate and assess a set of factors of different natures and integrates models from two separate disciplines; i.e. service quality and food-related behaviour. Unlike previous studies that concentrate on one travel stage alone, this study incorporates factors from both the pre- and in-flight stages. Conclusion: This study thus advances current service quality and in-flight meal models, contributing relevant practical knowledge, to not only aviation, but also to the overall service marketing and management sectors at large.
      Distribution channel plays an important role in the operation of hotel revenue management (RM), it is a key vehicle that can facilitate effective communication of the whole RM strategy, which helps hotels to accomplish their ultimate goal of revenue maximisation. However, the importance of distribution channel management in hotel revenue management has not received much attention in academic research (Ivanov and Zhechev, 2012), and there is a lack of studies relating to distribution channel selection and optimisation (Guillet and Mohammed, 2015). In addition, with the increasing popularity of the Internet and the rapid development of information technology, online distribution channels have been intensively promoted by hotel companies in the contemporary business environment, and these have been well received by customers (Masiero and Law, 2016). Accordingly, this research is aimed at investigating the functions of hotel online distribution channels (hotel’s own website and OTA websites), and to examine customers booking intention toward each of these two distribution channels. The overall results of the present study could help hotel companies to optimise the utility of their online distribution channels, thus to achieve their ultimate goal of revenue maximisation. In this research, there were three studies were conducted to fulfil the investigation. The first study was a qualitative study with hotel experts, based upon the method of semi-structured interview, which examined the functions of hotel online distribution channels from the organisational perspective. The second study was a qualitative study with hotel customers, based upon the method of focus group interview, which examined the functions of hotel online distribution channels from the customers’ perspective. Thus, the findings could verify whether the functions that were highlighted by the companies were actually approved by the customers. The third study was a quantitative study with hotel customers, based upon the method of survey questionnaire, which provided a further insight into customers’ booking intention toward hotels’ own websites and OTAs respectively. Based upon the qualitative studies with hotel experts and customers, 6 functions of hotel online distribution channels were identified: information, communication, promotion, security, relationship building, and payment. All these identified functions were verified to exist in both hotels’ own websites and online travel agent websites, but some functions might be performed better by one of the distributors than another one. For example, hotels’ own websites provide more detailed information about an individual property, but OTAs offer easy comparisons; hotels’ own websites have better performance in personal communications, while OTAs are good at mass market communications. The results of the quantitative study shown that attitude carried the most weight in explaining the intention of customers to make bookings via hotels’ own websites. Therefore, for the distribution channel of hotels’ own websites, hotel managers need to pay more attention to the factors that contribute to the generation of favourable attitude. In the OTA group of the present study, perceived behavioural control carried the most weight in explaining the intention of customers to make bookings on OTAs, which indicted that perceived behavioural control was the most important determinant that affected the customers who used OTAs to place hotel bookings, and these OTA customers felt confident and in control of using the distribution channel. This research provides the theoretical contribution to the literature. Firstly, by taking into account the issue that distribution channel has been overlooked in the literature of RM and the trend of online distribution channel, this research contributes to the knowledge of online distribution channel in hotel RM literature. Secondly, this research has adopted the perceptions of both hotel-related companies and hotel customers in generating comprehensive knowledge about the functions of hotel online distribution channels. The results of the overall study also offer important implications for hotel companies, which enable them to clearly understand the strengths and weaknesses of their own websites and OTA websites. As a result, they can set up efficient strategies to optimise the utility of both their internal and external online distribution channels, which for the purpose of maximise their total revenue.
      Paul Sowden, Anita Eves, Monique Raats (2016)A feast of creativity, In: The Journal of Creative Behavior50(3)pp. 169-170 Wiley
      This paper is part of a special issue of JCB devoted to work on creativity and food, guest edited by Dr. Paul Sowden, Dr. Anita Eves, and Professor Monique Raats, that follows on from the 2014 International Workshop on Understanding and Fostering Creativity in the Kitchen, held at the Institute of Advanced Studies, University of Surrey, UK. All articles have been peer reviewed by two reviewers.
      Mingjie Ji, IpKin Anthony Wong, Anita Eves, Caroline Scarles (2016)Food-related Personality Traits and the Moderating Role of Novelty-seeking in Food Satisfaction and Travel Outcomes, In: Tourism Management57pp. 387-396 Elsevier
      Previous research on tourist food consumption acknowledges that food-related personality traits, including neophilic and neophobic tendencies, can impede or encourage tourists to try novel food at a destination. However, the travel motivation literature advocates that tourists tend to be in a general condition of seeking novel experiences, including sampling a destination’s novel food. How food-related personality traits interact with novelty pursuits to influence tourists’ food consumption and subsequent satisfaction and travel outcomes remains unknown. The study proposes a framework of tourist food experience that leads from food-related personality traits, novel food consumption, and satisfaction to travel outcomes. While the results support the baseline model, the moderating effect of novelty seeking demonstrates that novelty seeking does not moderate the relationship between personality traits and consumption of novel food. It does, however, moderate satisfaction with food.
      A Eves, M Lumbers, M Kipps (2001)Nutrition in the news!
      A Eves, P Dervisi (2005)Experiences of the implementation and operation of hazard analysis critical control points in the food service sector, In: International Journal of Hospitality Management24(1)pp. 3-19
      This study explored experiences of implementation and operation of hazard analysis critical control points (HACCP) in the foodservice sector through in-depth interviews with seven foodservice outlets in the South East of England. Experiences highlighted a number of barriers to the successful implementation and operation of HACCP, and also perceived benefits. Barriers included difficulties identifying hazards, inadequate knowledge, time-related issues relating to monitoring and recording, excessive documentation, convincing staff of the importance of the system, and increased costs. Perceived benefits included protecting the business from otherwise unforeseen problems and providing evidence of 'due diligence'. There was, however, an attitude of compliance, rather than true recognition of the value of the system. © 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
      A Eves (2001)Book review: Eating out: social differentiation , consumption and pleasure, In: Food Service Technology1pp. 63-64
      A Eves, P Dervisi (2004)Food safety management, In: Flight cateringpp. 167-192 Butterworth-Heinemann
      In-flight catering is a central part of these strategies at all levels: be they customer satisfaction, marketing, operations or logistics.
      Background There is evidence that offenders consume diets lacking in essential nutrients and this could adversely affect their behaviour. Aims To test empirically if physiologically adequate intakes of vitamins, minerals and essential fatty acids cause a reduction in antisocial behaviour. Method Experimental, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised trial of nutritional supplements on 231 young adult prisoners, comparing disciplinary offences before and during supplementation. Results Compared with placebos, those receiving the active capsules committed an average of 26.3% (95% CI 8.3-44.33%) fewer offences (P=0.03, two-tailed). Compared to baseline, the effect on those taking active supplements for a minimum of 2 weeks (n=172) was an average 35.1% (95% CI 16.3-53.9%) reduction of offences (P < 0.001, two-tailed), whereas placebos remained within standard error. Conclusions Antisocial behaviour in prisons, including violence, are reduced by vitamins, minerals and essential fatty acids with similar implications for those eating poor diets in the community Declaration of interest The research was supported by a grant from the research charity Natural justice (see Acknowledgements) and managed from the University of Surrey Scotia Pharmaceuticals Ltd and Unigreg Ltd supplied nutritional supplements.
      YG Kim, A Eves, C Scarles (2009)Building a model of local food consumption on trips and holidays: A grounded theory approach, In: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT28(3)pp. 423-431 ELSEVIER SCI LTD
      YG Kim, BW Suh, A Eves (2010)The relationships between food-related personality traits, satisfaction, and loyalty among visitors attending food events and festivals, In: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT29(2)pp. 216-226 ELSEVIER SCI LTD
      Mingjie Ji, IA Wong, Anita Eves, AMW Leong (2017)A Multilevel Investigation of China’s Regional Economic Conditions on Co-creation of Dining Experience and Outcomes, In: International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management30(4)pp. 2132-2152 Emerald Publishing Ltd

      This study investigated how presence of other customers in restaurant social settings becomes a resource (referred to as “customer-to-customer interaction” or “C2CI”) to co-create an escape dining experience and stimulate dining outcomes, namely, food attachment and dining frequency. The relationships are further tested under the effects of regional economic conditions.


      Data were collected by using a multi-step approach. The first dataset was obtained through a personally administered survey, which included a sample of 356 Chinese tourists who dined at fine Western (i.e., Portuguese) restaurants in Macau. The second dataset concerned economic statistics and was obtained from the statistics departments of mainland China and Taiwan. A multilevel design with hierarchical linear modeling was used to test the proposed model. Multilevel mediating and moderating effects were also examined.


      Results suggest that customer escape dining experience significantly mediated the relationship between C2CI and food attachment, while food attachment fully mediated the relationship between customer escape experience and dining frequency. The multilevel effect of regional economic conditions played a significant role in moderating the C2CI–escape experience relationship in that the effect of C2CI was more salient for tourists from less economically developed regions in China. The experience–food attachment relationship was also contingent on the regional economic conditions in that the relationship was stronger for tourists from less economically developed areas. A multilevel mediating effect was also presented in the study.

      Practical implications:

      The restaurant management should realize how C2CI, as a resource beyond management control, can become a resource for customers to co-create an escape dining experience. This escape experience contributes to the frequency of consumption of a certain cuisine through attachment with the food.

      M Lumbers, A Eves, J Morgan (2004)Factors affecting consumption of organic food, In: Marketing trends for organic food in the 21st century World Scientific Pub Co Inc
      This book explories the marketing trends for organic food products through the analysis of those elements that contribute to the expansion of the organic ...
      A Eves, M Lumbers (2010)Consumers' attitude and understanding of organic food - the case of South Korea, In: Journal of foodservice business research15(1)
      Based on career construction theory, the predictors of human resource managers’ strategic competence in the Chinese context were examined. Results from a survey administered to Chinese HR managers (N = 220) showed that professional identification, career variety and organizational support for strategic human resource management positively predicted Chinese human resource managers’ strategic competence. In addition, career adaptability served as a significant mediator for the above relations. The results further showed that the effect of professional identification on career adaptability was stronger among employees who perceived a higher (vs. lower) level of organizational support for strategic human resource management. The corresponding moderated mediation model was also supported such that the indirect effect of professional identification on strategic competence was stronger among employees who perceived a higher (vs. lower) level of organizational support for strategic human resource management. These findings carry implications for career construction theory and human resource managers’ career development in China.
      AHN Mak, M Lumbers, A Eves, RCY Chang (2017)The Effects of Food-Related Personality Traits on Tourist Food Consumption Motivations, In: Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research22(1)pp. 1-20
      This study explores the motivational dimensions underlying food consumption in tourism, and to examine the effects of two food-related personality traits, namely food neophobia and variety-seeking, on these motivational dimensions. A tourist food consumption motivational scale was developed and seven motivational dimensions were identified: novelty and variety, authentic experience and prestige, interpersonal and culture, price/value and assurance, health concern, familiarity and eating habit, and sensory and contextual pleasure. Both food neophobia and variety-seeking were found to have significant effects on various motivational dimensions. The implications of the findings for practice and future research are discussed.
      MB Egan, MM Raats, SM Grubb, A Eves, ML Lumbers, MS Dean, MR Adams (2007)A review of food safety and food hygiene training studies in the commercial sector, In: Food Control18(10)pp. 1180-1190
      This review summarises the methods and results of studies conducted worldwide on the effectiveness of food safety and food hygiene training in the commercial sector of the food industry. In particular it focuses on those studies that have tried to evaluate the effectiveness of such training. Forty-six studies of food hygiene training are included which used some outcome measure to assess the effectiveness of training. The short-term nature and variety of measures used limited the majority of studies. The need for the development of evaluation criteria of effectiveness of food hygiene training is discussed. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
      P Seaman, A Eves (2008)Food hygiene training in small to medium-sized care settings, In: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH RESEARCH18(5)pp. 365-374 TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD
      Adoption of safe food handling practices is essential to effectively manage food safety. This study explores the impact of basic or foundation level food hygiene training on the attitudes and intentions of food handlers in care settings, using questionnaires based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour. Interviews were also conducted with food handlers and their managers to ascertain beliefs about the efficacy of, perceived barriers to, and relevance of food hygiene training. Most food handlers had undertaken formal food hygiene training; however, many who had not yet received training were preparing food, including high risk foods. Appropriate pre-training support and on-going supervision appeared to be lacking, thus limiting the effectiveness of training. Findings showed Subjective Norm to be the most significant influence on food handlers' intention to perform safe food handling practices, irrespective of training status, emphasising the role of important others in determining desirable behaviours.
      TR Desombre, J Hwang, A Eves (2003)Gap Analysis of patients’ meal service perceptions, In: International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance16(3)pp. 143-153 MCB Press
      M Lumbers, A Eves, G Bielby, B Egan, M Raats, M Adams Food hygiene knowledge and self-reported behaviours of UK school children
      A Eves, G Bielby, B Egan, M Lumbers, MM Raats, M Adams (2010)Food safety knowledge and behaviours of children (5-7 years), In: HEALTH EDUCATION JOURNAL69(1)pp. 21-30 SAGE PUBLICATIONS LTD
      A Eves, G Bielby, B Egan, M Lumbers, M Raats, M Adams (2006)Food hygiene knowledge and self-reported behaviours of UK school children (4-14 years), In: British Food Journal108(9)pp. 706-720
      Purpose - The purpose of this research is to show the evaluation of food hygiene knowledge and self-reported behaviours of school children, assessment of children's attitudes towards food hygiene and evaluation of barriers to the adoption of appropriate food hygiene behaviours. Design/methodology/approach - The food hygiene knowledge and self-reported behaviours of pupils (4 and 14 years; Key Stages 1-3 in the English system - or Scottish equivalent) were determined using age-appropriate knowledge quizzes completed by 2,259 pupils across England, Scotland, Northern Ireland and Wales. Attitudes towards food hygiene and barriers to performing desirable hygiene-related behaviours were established through semi-structured interviews with 82 pupils who completed knowledge tasks in South East England. Findings - Children generally had good knowledge of food hygiene. However, there were misconceptions about the nature of micro-organisms and how they affect food. In addition, a lack of reminders and practical food activities, especially at Key Stage 2 (7-11 years), coupled with poor hand-washing facilities, meant that children did not always adopt desirable behaviours. Children gave suggestions for ways to help others to remember good practice. Originality/value - The study identified areas of weakness in pupils' hygiene knowledge and understanding and has determined barriers to adoption of desirable behaviours at all times. It has also suggested ways in which food hygiene education could be made more engaging for pupils, and other methods to encourage good practice.
      AHN Mak, M Lumbers, Anita Eves, RCY Chang (2011)Factors influencing tourist food consumption, In: International Journal of Hospitality Management31(3)pp. 928-936 Elsevier
      P Seaman, A Eves (2010)Perceptions of hygiene training amongst food handlers, managers and training providers - A qualitative study, In: FOOD CONTROL21(7)pp. 1037-1041 ELSEVIER SCI LTD
      An important element in the effectiveness of food hygiene training is the support given by managers, both pre and post training, to motivate food handlers to enact the safe food handling practices learnt during training. This study explores the personal views of food handlers, their managers, and accredited training providers towards the provision and evaluation of food hygiene training in the South-West London region, exploring the pre and post training support given to food handlers, and its effects on the attitude and behaviour of food handlers to enact safe food handling practices in the workplace. In total seventy telephone interviews were conducted. Findings demonstrate that most food industry managers are aware of their responsibilities to train food handlers, but often do not provide adequate support to promote the enactment of safe food handling practices, or evaluate its effectiveness. Thus, any positive effects gained from food hygiene training programmes, are ephemeral.
      LJ Hwang, A Eves, T Desombre (2003)Gap analysis of patient meal service perceptions., In: Int J Health Care Qual Assur Inc Leadersh Health Serv16(2-3)pp. 143-153
      The provision of food and drinks to patients remains a largely unexplored, multidimensional phenomenon. In an attempt to ameliorate this lack of understanding, a survey utilising a modified SERVQUAL instrument measured on a seven-point Likert scale was carried out on-site at four NHS acute trusts for the purpose of assessing the perceptions and expectations of meal attributes and their importance in determining patient satisfaction. The results of factor analysis found three dimensions: food properties, interpersonal service, and environmental presentation, with a high reliability (Cronbach's alpha from 0.9191 to 0.7836). Path analysis further established sophisticated causal relations with patient satisfaction. The food dimension was found to be the best predictor of patient satisfaction among the three dimensions, while the interpersonal service dimension was not found to have any correlation with satisfaction. Bridging the gaps that exist between perceptions and expectations can improve the quality of meal services for the purpose of maximising patient satisfaction and ultimately aiding in patient recovery.
      G Bielby, B Egan, A Eves, M Lumbers, M Raats, M Adams (2006)Food hygiene education in UK primary schools: a nation-wide survey of teachers' views, In: British Food Journal108(9)pp. 721-731
      Purpose - The purpose of this research is to show how a nation-wide survey of teachers investigated the teaching of food hygiene in primary schools. The survey determined which information sources were known and used by those responsible for teaching food hygiene. Design/methodology/approach - Postal questionnaires were distributed to 3,806 primary schools throughout the UK (response rate 23 per cent). The questionnaire was developed based on the results of in-depth interviews with school teachers and included topics such as where teachers gained up-to-date food hygiene messages, methods used to teach food hygiene, and how key food hygiene messages are reinforced. Teachers cited most preferred resources for teaching food hygiene, influences on the choice of these resources, and limitations on use. Findings - Overall, the results indicated that food hygiene is taught in a number of subject areas, with handwashing and personal hygiene being the principal topics. Teachers use a combination of methods to teach food hygiene and to reinforce food safety messages. The principal limitations of teaching this topic were identified as a lack of suitable space and curriculum time Teachers across the UK also identified new resources that would support the teaching of food hygiene. Originality/value - The study identified how primary school teachers deliver food hygiene messages through the curriculum, daily routines and whole school initiatives. Ways in which primary school teachers could be supported when delivering food hygiene education have been suggested.
      Seoyeon Jang, Anita Eves (2019)Tourism and Tourism At Home: A Qualitative Study of Relationships between Tourism and Ethnic Restaurants, In: Journal of Tourism and Hospitality Management7(1)pp. 169-185 American Research Institute for Policy Development
      This study explores how ethnic restaurants serve their role as ‘tourism at home’, by investigating customers’ motivation to visit ethnic restaurants, especially in relation to tourism. This study adopted a grounded theory approach, using semi-structured interviews composed of two phases. The first phase of interviews was conducted with 18 British people who had experienced at least one of the four ethnic restaurants, Chinese, Japanese, Thai or Korean. The second phase of interviews was conducted with 12 British people who were actually visiting one of the origin countries of those restaurants, Korea, to see if people share the same motivation to visit ethnic restaurants as travel motivation. Six common motivational factors between visiting ethnic restaurants and travel (i.e., to change/ escape from the routine, to experience something new/ different, to experience and learn about another culture, curiosity/ desire to explore unknown, togetherness, and travelling itself) were established through findings, and the relationships between motivation to visit ethnic restaurants and tourism, and how they influence each other were identified.
      C Noble, M Corney, A Eves, M Kipps, M Lumbers (2003)Food choice and secondary school meals: The nutritional implications of choices based on preference rather than perceived healthiness, In: International Journal of Hospitality Management22(2)pp. 197-215
      Children from secondary schools in the UK selected from photographs, dishes for the meal they would be most likely to choose and the meal they perceived to be the most healthy. They gave reasons for their choices. The nutritional value of the two sets of meals was compared and the reasons for choice were analysed qualitatively. There was an inverse relationship between the foods most likely to be chosen, and those that were perceived to be the most healthy. Although the children's nutritional knowledge was sound, choices were made more on the basis of convenience and taste than on the 'healthiness' of the food. The 'preferred' meals were in most respects less healthy than the 'healthy' meals. © 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
      Kate Mingjie Ji, IpKin Anthony Wong, Anita Eves, Caroline Scarles (2020)Encountered Space and Situated Lay-Knowledge: A Mixed Methods Approach, In: Journal of Travel Research SAGE Publications
      This research draws on the geographical concept of situated lay-knowledge to highlight how the formation of tourists’ attitudes to travel destinations challenges the theoretical foundation of the theory of planned behavior (TPB). It suggests that situated lay knowledge is dynamic as opposed to static, which is the accepted basis of TPB, and subsequently, proposes a “Situated Lay-Knowledge Travel Behavior Model” (SLKTB). The model was tested in a mixed methods approach where Chinese tourists, who knew little about Portugal, encountered Portuguese culture and cuisine in Macau. The overall results demonstrate that the formation of tourists’ attitudes about travel destinations is not preexisting or static but dynamic and created from their ongoing encounters.
      YG Kim, A Eves, CE Scarles (2009)Building A Model of Local Food Consumption on Trips and Holidays: A Grounded Theory Approach, In: CAUTHE 2009 Proceedings
      C Noble, M Corney, A Eves, M Kipps, M Lumbers (2001)School meals: Primary schoolchildren's perceptions of the healthiness of foods served at school and their preferences for these foods, In: Health Education Journal60(2)pp. 102-119
      Objective To gain an understanding of children's perceptions of the healthiness of foods commonly served at school lunches and how these relate to their preferences in order to assist school caterers and those involved in nutrition education to help children to choose a nutritionally balanced meal. Design A quantitative study whereby 123 9 to 11-year-old children ranked the perceived healthiness of foods and their preference for the same foods, supplemented by qualitative descriptions of reasons for preference or perceived healthiness. Setting Interviews were carried out within the child's school. A total of 14 schools in the south-east of England took part. Method Data were collected in a one-to-one interview with each child. Photographs of foods commonly served for school lunches were used for the ranking of preference and perceived healthiness. Ranked data were analysed using Wilcoxon's Pairs Signed Rank test and qualitative data were analysed by assigning them to categories. Results Children were found to have a clear perception of the healthiness or otherwise of the foods and nutritional knowledge was generally sound except for some difficulty in identifying 'invisible' fat. Any understanding of the relationship between foods or nutrients and health was only occasionally evident, as was the idea of moderation or balance. It was also found that there was a strong inverse relationship between children's perceptions of the healthiness of foods and their preferences for them. Taste and texture were much more important influences on food choice than perceived healthiness. Conclusion Teaching about food in primary schools needs to focus on helping children of this age make balanced food choices. It was suggested that the 'tilted plate' model, adapted to use foods that children frequently eat and enjoy, could be the basis of such teaching. Such a model could also be used to help caterers plan menus and as the basis of co-operation between nutrition educators and caterers.
      YG Kim, A Eves, C Scarles (2013)Empirical verification of a conceptual model of local food consumption at a tourist destination, In: International Journal of Hospitality Management33(1)pp. 484-489
      This study empirically tests a conceptual model of local food consumption proposed by Kim et al. (2009) and examines relationships among the key factors found in the model. This study quantitatively identified factors affecting local food consumption: five motivations (cultural experience, interpersonal relationship, excitement, health concern, and sensory appeal); food-related personality traits (food neophobia and food involvement); and 'demographic factors' (i.e., gender, age, and annual income) and their relationships. This study showed that demographic variables (gender and age) were related to some motivational factors and significant differences in the FNG associated with gender, age and income. © 2012.
      TR Desombre, L Hwang, A Eves (1997)Healthy Eating in Canadian Hotels - Nutritional Knowledge of Catering Personnel and the Place of Nutrition in Menu Planning, In: Hygiene and Nutrition in Foodservice and Catering1pp. 259-280 AB Academic Publishers
      Anita Eves (2019)The role of Optimistic Bias in safe food handling behaviours in the food service sector, In: Food Research International108732 Elsevier
      This study evaluates the influences on food handlers’ intention to conduct safe handling behaviours in food service settings in Brazil and the United Kingdom, focusing on Optimistic bias (OB). Although OB has been identified in food handlers in other studies, this is the first study evaluating the role of OB in determining behavioural intention. Three hundred participants, from the United Kingdom (n=150) and Brazil (n=150), completed a Theory of Planned Behaviour – based questionnaire, including additional questions about OB. For Brazilian food handlers, Attitude had a significant influence on Behavioural Intention followed by Subjective Norm, while Perceived Behavioural Control and OB did not significantly influence Behavioural Intention. For the United Kingdom, Perceived Behavioural Control had the largest influence, followed by Attitude, and then OB. Results suggest that cultural differences may influence predictors of behavioural intention, and that OB can contribute to predicting engagement in safe handling behaviours. Results contribute to a better understanding of the influences on food safety related behaviours.
      The common presumption in food tourism that tourists are neophilic (seek novel taste), due to being ‘attracted’ to new food at destination, or neophobic (fear of unknown food), based on food as an ‘impediment’ (Cohen and Aveili, 2004), has recently been challenged, and it is suggested that tourists eating behaviour in uncertainty can be flexible and adaptive (Falconer, 2013). In an attempt to capture tourists’ variety seeking behaviour (VSB) in uncertainty, this study aims to explore the role of emotion and impact on Western tourists’ VSB with unfamiliar food in Malaysia. Additionally, elicitation factors of emotion are also examined. The study adopts ‘culture confusion’ and ‘affect-heurist’ theoretical constructs and extend them into a tourist food consumption framework. Semi-structured interviews incorporating Critical Incident Technique (CIT) were carried out with fourty-four independent British and German tourists (N=44) to provide experiential patterns as a linkage to explore their emotions and variety seeking experiences. The data were collected between July and August 2014 and analysed through content analysis. The findings indicated that despite tourists’ neophilic/ neophobic tendency, emotion plays a key role in directing tourists’ variety seeking behaviour with unfamiliar food. Also, impact of emotion on VSB changes across time, transforming tourists’ VSB dynamically. The findings indicate negative emotions affected perceived control negatively, which reduced VSB. Positive emotion increases perceived control, which heightened VSB. Four key factors that elicited emotions including ‘food attributes’, ‘intercultural service encounter’, ‘bodily interference’ and ‘environment and social eating’ were found. The study suggests that fast and rapid emotional affect influences Western tourists’ VSB, in their effort to reduce perceived risk and increase perceived control. Finally a conceptual model was developed to illustrate the role and impact of emotion in the transformation of Western tourists’ VSB into dynamic and fluid behaviour.
      The gradually increasing numbers of international students known as “sojourners” who stayed for a short period in the host country have received growing interest from academics, practitioners, and policymaker around the world. This was majorly due to the contribution from international students’ fees and spending, and from the unique and subsequent changes in the culture and practice of this student group. However, for the international students, migration became a turning point for their independent life in the new country. The experience was more challenging because it required a personal commitment especially on food provisioning responsibilities and the development of a new food choice system alongside the stressful academic roles and responsibilities. Therefore, the context of international students’ food adjustment experience or food acculturation received dedicated attention through this study. Furthermore, this study aimed to explore the food acculturation process of new international students during the early phase of transition in the UK based on the life course perspective. The life course perspective takes into consideration the transition phase which is a very important turning point that influenced the food acculturation of the international students. Three objectives has been established for this study to explore the exposure, experience, and perception of new food choice in the UK; to identify the influences of life course perspective over food choice decision; and to examine the food acculturation process when adjusting and managing food provisioning practice at the early stage of transition. Based on an interpretivist view, a series of qualitative approach was employed during the preliminary study and main data collection. The purpose was to allow access to the lived experiences of the students’ new food choice process. The preliminary study adopted was focus group discussions using a sample of ten existing international students and the study was conducted from December 2012 until January 2013. The themes developed from the preliminary findings and the key issues generated from relevant literature were applied to develop the observation and interview protocol for the main study. Next, two qualitative inquiries of observed accompanied shop and in-depth interviews were applied for the main study using a sample of twenty new international students who just recently arrived at the UK. The main data collection began in October 2013 when the students first arrived and ended early of March 2014. The timeline allowed the occurrence of more food exposure and experience of new food choice, allowing patterns and changes of food acculturation to emerge over time. The major themes identified from the preliminary study were the influence of life course perspective influences of new food choice, the food adjustment experiences, challenges and strategy, and food acculturation process during transition. The main findings concluded three main themes from the observed accompanied shop and in-depth interviews in accordance to this study’s objectives: (1) the exposure, experience and perception on the new food choice in the UK, (2) the Life Course influences on food choice decisions, and (3) the food acculturation process of international students. The main findings showed that (1) migration was a turning point, which contributed towards the diverse representations of the international students’ exposure, experience, and perception of new food choice; (2) the reliance and support system of the new food choice decision from co-national friends and online friendship network; (3) the diverse challenges in managing new roles and responsibilities of food provisioning practice, including grocery shopping, food preparation and cooking, and consumption practices, (4) the importance of self-efficacy and acquiring of food provisioning skills and competencies for a positive food adjustment experience, (5) the influence of Life Course elements of personal and social factors, cultural ideals, resources, and current context and trends in the in the food choice decision process, (6) the transformation of food choice process, which implicated a food acculturation process that includes integration, assimilation, separation, marginalisation, and a repertoire of strategies based on situational factors. The key findings indicated that the adjustment experience in the early phase of transition greatly influenced the food choice decisions of the new international students. The main contribution of this study relies on the application of the life course Perspective in the study of food acculturation because of the consideration of migration as a turning point in the transition of food choices. In contrast to other studies on international students’ food choice and dietary acculturation, this study provides a valuable lens that includes the food choice process at the point of grocery shopping, preparation and consumption, which gave a wider context on the stages in food decision-making process. This study contributes towards the body of knowledge on international students’ adjustment studies, the Life Course experience influence on food choice, and the food acculturation field. The results from this study can provide a better understanding on new food choice decision among the international students during their transition in the new country. Universities and other stakeholders such as local authorities and the public health provider may use these findings to support and develop strategies to improve the adjustment experience, which in turn, may attract more international students. Food providers such as restaurants, food manufacturers, food suppliers, retailers and specialty (ethnic) supermarkets can also benefit by understanding the challenges in food choice, accessibility to available food towards improving, strategising and incorporating plans that are personalised to the international students’ needs.
      Background: One of the major health, social and economic problems in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is the rising prevalence of overweight and obesity amongst young people and the implications this has for the future burden of chronic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes. Nearly 10% of the Saudi population are now diagnosed with diabetes at a cost to the nation in 2010 estimated at $0.9 billion. Aim: To investigate factors influencing choice of healthy food items by students in a university cafeteria in Saudi Arabia. Theoretical framework: Psychological theories of how individual factors affect behaviours and concepts from the emerging field of behavioural economics underpinned the studies. Methods: Three empirical studies involving students at the University of Ha’il, central Saudi Arabia: 1. Questionnaire gathering background information about students’ health-related behaviours and knowledge of behavioural risk factors for type 2 diabetes, 2. Investigation of student purchasing patterns and intentions through a) a questionnaire probing willingness-to-buy fruit (a healthier option) if available in the campus cafeteria, b) a controlled experiment manipulating menu choices, 3. Analysis of actual purchasing decisions when fruit was introduced to the campus cafeteria. Impacts of price variation and health messages were explored in Studies II and III. Results: 1. Students report poor health-related behaviours (dietary and physical activity); knowledge of the link between lifestyle and type 2 diabetes is patchy. 2a. Over 50% of cafeteria users said they would buy fruit if available. 2b. Choice of healthy items was responsive to price manipulation. 3. When fruit was available, it was purchased by less than 10%. Health messages had no effect on healthy item choices. Conclusions: Pricing strategies may be effective to stimulate healthier choices. Additional health education targeting individual psychological determinants of behaviour change may also be required.