Seaman P, Eves A (2008) Food hygiene training in small to medium-sized care settings, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH RESEARCH 18 (5) pp. 365-374 TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD
Seaman P, Eves A (2010) Perceptions of hygiene training amongst food handlers, managers and training providers - A qualitative study, FOOD CONTROL 21 (7) pp. 1037-1041 ELSEVIER SCI LTD
An important element in the effectiveness of food hygiene training is the support given by managers, both pre and post training, to motivate food handlers to enact the safe food handling practices learnt during training. This study explores the personal views of food handlers, their managers, and accredited training providers towards the provision and evaluation of food hygiene training in the South-West London region, exploring the pre and post training support given to food handlers, and its effects on the attitude and behaviour of food handlers to enact safe food handling practices in the workplace. In total seventy telephone interviews were conducted.
Findings demonstrate that most food industry managers are aware of their responsibilities to train food handlers, but often do not provide adequate support to promote the enactment of safe food handling practices, or evaluate its effectiveness. Thus, any positive effects gained from food hygiene training programmes, are ephemeral.
The purposes of this study were to examine the measurement equivalency of motivation
to consume local food between British and Korean groups, and to extend the use of the
multiple-group technique of measurement equivalence analysis by demonstrating formal
tests that identify whether a measurement instrument shows similar relations among
groups. Although multigroup confirmatory factor analyses revealed that measurement
equivalence was fully equivalent among groups, this study proved metric and scalar
invariance, and partial error invariance was equivalent. The results revealed that the
observed variables and their underlying constructs were equivalent among groups.
Implications and application of the study findings are discussed.
Noble C, Corney M, Eves A, Kipps M, Lumbers M (2003) Food choice and secondary school meals: The nutritional implications of choices based on preference rather than perceived healthiness, International Journal of Hospitality Management 22 (2) pp. 197-215
Children from secondary schools in the UK selected from photographs, dishes for the meal they would be most likely to choose and the meal they perceived to be the most healthy. They gave reasons for their choices. The nutritional value of the two sets of meals was compared and the reasons for choice were analysed qualitatively. There was an inverse relationship between the foods most likely to be chosen, and those that were perceived to be the most healthy. Although the children's nutritional knowledge was sound, choices were made more on the basis of convenience and taste than on the 'healthiness' of the food. The 'preferred' meals were in most respects less healthy than the 'healthy' meals. © 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
This study empirically tests a conceptual model of local food consumption proposed by Kim et al. (2009) and examines relationships among the key factors found in the model. This study quantitatively identified factors affecting local food consumption: five motivations (cultural experience, interpersonal relationship, excitement, health concern, and sensory appeal); food-related personality traits (food neophobia and food involvement); and 'demographic factors' (i.e., gender, age, and annual income) and their relationships. This study showed that demographic variables (gender and age) were related to some motivational factors and significant differences in the FNG associated with gender, age and income. © 2012.
Kim YG, Eves A (2012) Construction and validation of a scale to measure tourist motivation to consume local food, Tourism Management 33 (6) pp. 1458-1467
Eves A, Bielby G, Egan B, Lumbers M, Raats M, Adams M (2006) Food hygiene knowledge and self-reported behaviours of UK school children (4-14 years), BRITISH FOOD JOURNAL 108 (9) pp. 706-720 EMERALD GROUP PUBLISHING LIMITED
Eves A, Gesch B (2003) Food provision and the nutritional implications of food choices made by young adult males, in a young offenders' institution., J Hum Nutr Diet 16 (3) pp. 167-179
The nutritional adequacy of diets provided by a prison was assessed by analysis of the kitchen menu for 1 week of a 4-week cycle. Dietary intakes were determined using a predefined 7-day diet diary in which prisoners indicated what they had eaten, and how much. A total of 159 prisoners took part in the study. The food provided by the prison kitchen was broadly in line with current dietary recommendations. Vitamin content exceeded recommendations, with the exception of niacin in the vegetarian menu (12.6 mg compared with the reference nutrient intake of 16.8 mg). Selenium content was low in all menus, but particularly in the vegetarian menu in 1997 where it equalled the lower reference nutrient intake (LRNI) (39.5 microg). Food choices made by prisoners resulted in a wide variation in dietary intakes. Fat intake (as a proportion of energy) exceeded the recommended 35% in 82% of diets in 1996, and 64% of diets in 1997. In 1996, 34% of prisoners had intakes above 40% energy as fat. High fat intakes were largely the result of consuming items from the prison shop. Vitamin D intakes were low (3.4 and 3.3 microg in 1996 and 1997, respectively) compared with the recommendation (10 microg) for those with limited exposure to sunlight. Intakes of a number of minerals fell below recommendations, with some prisoners barely meeting the LRNI. This was particularly notable for selenium where 35% of prisoners in 1996, and 60% of prisoners in 1997 had intakes below the LRNI.
Eves A, Lumbers M, Kipps M (2001) Perception of relationships between diet and cancer and reported dietary changes over the previous 5 years,
Seaman P, Eves A (2006) The management of food safety-the role of food hygiene training in the UK service sector, International Journal of Hospitality Management 25 (2) pp. 278-296
This paper reviews the literature pertaining to the role of food hygiene training in a strategy to manage food safety. Traditional assumptions that the provision of knowledge alone will lead to changes in attitudes and thus performance has been shown to be ill founded. A multitude of factors relating to the course itself, and events pre- and post-training have been shown to mitigate the effectiveness of training in bringing about desired changes in behaviour. Effective and relevant food hygiene training delivered with the support of the organisation, adequate resources and the peer support of colleagues will have a greater effect on intention and actual behaviour of the food handler, increasing the likelihood that safe working practices are carried out at all times. Such approaches are necessary if hygiene training is to have an impact on food safety management. Further investigation into the motivational factors and beliefs of the food handler in relation to food hygiene training, its relevance in their working environment and its effectiveness are needed to aide the development and delivery of more effective food hygiene training methods. © 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lumbers M, Eves A, Jaafar SN (2008) Does food really matter in the ?eating out? experience in restaurants?,
Guan Y, Yang W, Zhou X, Tian Z, Eves A (2016) Predicting Chinese human resource managers' strategic competence: Roles of identity, career variety, organizational support and career adaptability, JOURNAL OF VOCATIONAL BEHAVIOR 92 pp. 116-124 ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE
Scarles CE, Kim YG, Eves A (2008) Travel Motivations and Local Choice: Local Food and Beverages,
Noble C, Corney M, Eves A, Kipps M, Lumbers M (2001) School meals: Primary schoolchildren's perceptions of the healthiness of foods served at school and their preferences for these foods, Health Education Journal 60 (2) pp. 102-119
Objective To gain an understanding of children's perceptions of the healthiness of foods commonly served at school lunches and how these relate to their preferences in order to assist school caterers and those involved in nutrition education to help children to choose a nutritionally balanced meal. Design A quantitative study whereby 123 9 to 11-year-old children ranked the perceived healthiness of foods and their preference for the same foods, supplemented by qualitative descriptions of reasons for preference or perceived healthiness. Setting Interviews were carried out within the child's school. A total of 14 schools in the south-east of England took part. Method Data were collected in a one-to-one interview with each child. Photographs of foods commonly served for school lunches were used for the ranking of preference and perceived healthiness. Ranked data were analysed using Wilcoxon's Pairs Signed Rank test and qualitative data were analysed by assigning them to categories. Results Children were found to have a clear perception of the healthiness or otherwise of the foods and nutritional knowledge was generally sound except for some difficulty in identifying 'invisible' fat. Any understanding of the relationship between foods or nutrients and health was only occasionally evident, as was the idea of moderation or balance. It was also found that there was a strong inverse relationship between children's perceptions of the healthiness of foods and their preferences for them. Taste and texture were much more important influences on food choice than perceived healthiness. Conclusion Teaching about food in primary schools needs to focus on helping children of this age make balanced food choices. It was suggested that the 'tilted plate' model, adapted to use foods that children frequently eat and enjoy, could be the basis of such teaching. Such a model could also be used to help caterers plan menus and as the basis of co-operation between nutrition educators and caterers.
Lumbers M, Eves A, Morgan J (2004) Factors affecting consumption of organic food, In: Baourakis G (eds.), Marketing trends for organic food in the 21st century World Scientific Pub Co Inc
This book explories the marketing trends for organic food products through the analysis of those elements that contribute to the expansion of the organic ...
Lumbers M, Eves A, Jafaar S (2007) Customer satisfaction in restaurants: Full Service and Fast Food,
Hwang LJ, Eves A, Desombre T (2003) Gap analysis of patient meal service perceptions., Int J Health Care Qual Assur Inc Leadersh Health Serv 16 (2-3) pp. 143-153
The provision of food and drinks to patients remains a largely unexplored, multidimensional phenomenon. In an attempt to ameliorate this lack of understanding, a survey utilising a modified SERVQUAL instrument measured on a seven-point Likert scale was carried out on-site at four NHS acute trusts for the purpose of assessing the perceptions and expectations of meal attributes and their importance in determining patient satisfaction. The results of factor analysis found three dimensions: food properties, interpersonal service, and environmental presentation, with a high reliability (Cronbach's alpha from 0.9191 to 0.7836). Path analysis further established sophisticated causal relations with patient satisfaction. The food dimension was found to be the best predictor of patient satisfaction among the three dimensions, while the interpersonal service dimension was not found to have any correlation with satisfaction. Bridging the gaps that exist between perceptions and expectations can improve the quality of meal services for the purpose of maximising patient satisfaction and ultimately aiding in patient recovery.
Eves A, Dervisi P (2004) Food safety management, In: Jones P (eds.), Flight catering pp. 167-192 Butterworth-Heinemann
In-flight catering is a central part of these strategies at all levels: be they customer satisfaction, marketing, operations or logistics.
Eves A, Dervisi P (2005) Experiences of the implementation and operation of hazard analysis critical control points in the food service sector, International Journal of Hospitality Management 24 (1) pp. 3-19
This study explored experiences of implementation and operation of hazard analysis critical control points (HACCP) in the foodservice sector through in-depth interviews with seven foodservice outlets in the South East of England. Experiences highlighted a number of barriers to the successful implementation and operation of HACCP, and also perceived benefits. Barriers included difficulties identifying hazards, inadequate knowledge, time-related issues relating to monitoring and recording, excessive documentation, convincing staff of the importance of the system, and increased costs. Perceived benefits included protecting the business from otherwise unforeseen problems and providing evidence of 'due diligence'. There was, however, an attitude of compliance, rather than true recognition of the value of the system. © 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lumbers M, Eves A, Suh BW (2009) South Korean consumers? purchasing intention and realised purchasing behaviour of organic food,
Eves A, Bielby G, Egan B, Lumbers M, Raats M, Adams M (2010) Food safety knowledge and behaviours of children (5-7 years), HEALTH EDUCATION JOURNAL 69 (1) pp. 21-30 SAGE PUBLICATIONS LTD
Kim YG, Suh BW, Eves A (2010) The relationships between food-related personality traits, satisfaction, and loyalty among visitors attending food events and festivals, International Journal of Hospitality Management 29 (2) pp. 216-226
This study applies the concept of food-related personality traits to hospitality and tourism and identifies relationships between personality, satisfaction, and loyalty. An on-site survey was carried out with 335 visitors attending the Gwangju Kimchi (local food) Festival in South Korea between 15th and 19th of October, 2008. The relationships between 4 latent constructs (food neophobia, food involvement satisfaction, and loyalty) and 16 indicators were measured using structural equation modelling. The findings showed that food neophobia had a negative effect on satisfaction and loyalty, food involvement had a positive relationship with loyalty, and satisfaction and loyalty showed a significant positive relationship. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Desombre TR, Hwang L, Eves A (1997) Healthy Eating in Canadian Hotels - Nutritional Knowledge of Catering Personnel and the Place of Nutrition in Menu Planning, Hygiene and Nutrition in Foodservice and Catering 1 pp. 259-280 AB Academic Publishers
Eves A (2010) Efficacy of the theory of planned behaviour model in predicting safe food handling behaviour, Food Control 21 (7) pp. 983-987 ELSEVIER
Kim YG, Eves A, Scarles CE (2009) Building A Model of Local Food Consumption on Trips and Holidays: A Grounded Theory Approach,
Suh BW, Eves A, Lumbers M (2015) DEVELOPING A MODEL OF ORGANIC FOOD CHOICE BEHAVIOR, SOCIAL BEHAVIOR AND PERSONALITY 43 (2) pp. 217-230 SOC PERSONALITY RES INC
Jones PLM, Afify M, Eves A (2009) Implementing statistical process control in a foodservice chain: an action research study,
Bielby G, Egan B, Eves A, Lumbers M, Raats M, Adams M (2006) Food hygiene education in UK primary schools: a nation-wide survey of teachers' views, BRITISH FOOD JOURNAL 108 (9) pp. 721-731 EMERALD GROUP PUBLISHING LIMITED
Eves A, Lumbers M (2010) Consumers' attitude and understanding of organic food - the case of South Korea, Journal of foodservice business research 15 (1)
Lumbers M, Eves A, Suh BW (2009) Predicting purchasing intention of organic food in South Korea: implication for the hospitality sector,
Gesch CB, Hammond SM, Hampson SE, Eves A, Crowder MJ (2002) Influence of supplementary vitamins, minerals and essential fatty acids on the antisocial behaviour of young adult prisoners - Randomised, placebo-controlled trial, British Journal of Psychiatry 181 pp. 22-28
Background There is evidence that offenders consume diets lacking in essential nutrients and this could adversely affect their behaviour. Aims To test empirically if physiologically adequate intakes of vitamins, minerals and essential fatty acids cause a reduction in antisocial behaviour. Method Experimental, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised trial of nutritional supplements on 231 young adult prisoners, comparing disciplinary offences before and during supplementation. Results Compared with placebos, those receiving the active capsules committed an average of 26.3% (95% CI 8.3-44.33%) fewer offences (P=0.03, two-tailed). Compared to baseline, the effect on those taking active supplements for a minimum of 2 weeks (n=172) was an average 35.1% (95% CI 16.3-53.9%) reduction of offences (P
Desombre TR, Hwang J, Eves A (2003) Gap Analysis of patients? meal service perceptions, International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance 16 (3) pp. 143-153 MCB Press
Lumbers M, Eves A, Bielby G, Egan B, Raats M, Adams M (2007) Teaching Food Hygiene in UK Primary Schools: A nationwide survey of teachers? views,
Lumbers M, Eves A, Suh BW (2008) Consumers? perceptions and Purchasing Intentions of Organic Food in Korea,
Eves A, Lumbers M, Skourtas G (2003) Comparison of consumer perceptions of food-related hazards between Greece and the UK,
In this paper, the common perception of globalisation as a threat to local gastronomic identities is contrasted by its other facet, as an impetus that opens up new opportunities for reinvention of local gastronomic products and identities. Relevant perspectives and theories of globalisation are reviewed to provide a theoretical framework for the study. Key dimensions underlying food consumption in tourism are elucidated, and the impacts of globalisation on the culinary supply and tourist food consumption are discussed. A conceptual model is developed in an attempt to illustrate the influence of globalisation on food consumption in tourism. This study concludes that from the world culture theory perspective, globalisation can be an impetus to reconstruct or reinvent local gastronomic traditions and particularities. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.
Eves A, Kipps M, Johnston A (2003) Healthy eating choices in households with adolescent children,
Eves A (2001) Book review: Eating out: social differentiation , consumption and pleasure, Food Service Technology 1 pp. 63-64
Egan MB, Raats MM, Grubb SM, Eves A, Lumbers ML, Dean MS, Adams MR (2007) A review of food safety and food hygiene training studies in the commercial sector, FOOD CONTROL 18 (10) pp. 1180-1190 ELSEVIER SCI LTD
Lumbers M, Eves A, Bielby G, Egan B, Raats M, Adams M (2007) Food hygiene knowledge and self-reported behaviours of UK school children,
Previous research on tourist food consumption acknowledges that food-related personality traits, including neophilic and neophobic tendencies, can impede or encourage tourists to try novel food at a destination. However, the travel motivation literature advocates that tourists tend to be in a general condition of seeking novel experiences, including sampling a destination?s novel food. How food-related personality traits interact with novelty pursuits to influence tourists? food consumption and subsequent satisfaction and travel outcomes remains unknown. The study proposes a framework of tourist food experience that leads from food-related personality traits, novel food consumption, and satisfaction to travel outcomes. While the results support the baseline model, the moderating effect of novelty seeking demonstrates that novelty seeking does not moderate the relationship between personality traits and consumption of novel food. It does, however, moderate satisfaction with food.
Eves A, Nimsakul S (2003) Investigating factors affecting food choice in university students resident in Thailand and the UK,
Eves A, Lumbers M, Kipps M (2001) Nutrition in the news!,
Eves A, Cheng L (2007) Cross?cultural evaluation of factors driving intention to purchase new food products ? Beijing, China and South-east England, International Journal of Consumer Studies 31 (4) pp. 410-417 Wiley-Blackwell
Egan MB, Bielby G, Eves A, Lumbers ML, Raats MM, Adams MR (2008) Food hygiene education in UK secondary schools: A nationwide survey of teachers' views, HEALTH EDUCATION JOURNAL 67 (2) pp. 110-120 SAGE PUBLICATIONS LTD
Kim YG, Eves A, Scarles C (2009) Building a model of local food consumption on trips and holidays: A grounded theory approach, International Journal of Hospitality Management 28 (3) pp. 423-431
This study examines the factors influencing consumption of local food and beverages in destinations. The study used grounded theory to obtain insight into the local food experiences though interviews with 20 individuals and used these data to propose a model of local food consumption. The model constitutes three categories: 'motivational factors' (i.e. exciting experience, escape from routine, health concern, learning knowledge, authentic experience, togetherness, prestige, sensory appeal, and physical environment); 'demographic factors' (i.e. gender, age, and education); and 'physiological factors' (i.e. food neophilia and food neophobia). This study established an in-depth understanding of consumption of local food in destinations. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Eves A, Lumbers M, Skourtas G (2003) Comparison of consumer perceptions of food-related hazards between Greece and the UK,
Eves A, Lumbers M, Morgan J (2003) Factors influencing intention to consume organic fruits and vegetables,
This study investigated how presence of other customers in restaurant social settings becomes a resource (referred to as ?customer-to-customer interaction? or ?C2CI?) to co-create an escape dining experience and stimulate dining outcomes, namely, food attachment and dining frequency. The relationships are further tested under the effects of regional economic conditions.
Data were collected by using a multi-step approach. The first dataset was obtained through a personally administered survey, which included a sample of 356 Chinese tourists who dined at fine Western (i.e., Portuguese) restaurants in Macau. The second dataset concerned economic statistics and was obtained from the statistics departments of mainland China and Taiwan. A multilevel design with hierarchical linear modeling was used to test the proposed model. Multilevel mediating and moderating effects were also examined.
Results suggest that customer escape dining experience significantly mediated the relationship between C2CI and food attachment, while food attachment fully mediated the relationship between customer escape experience and dining frequency. The multilevel effect of regional economic conditions played a significant role in moderating the C2CI?escape experience relationship in that the effect of C2CI was more salient for tourists from less economically developed regions in China. The experience?food attachment relationship was also contingent on the regional economic conditions in that the relationship was stronger for tourists from less economically developed areas. A multilevel mediating effect was also presented in the study.
The restaurant management should realize how C2CI, as a resource beyond management control, can become a resource for customers to co-create an escape dining experience. This escape experience contributes to the frequency of consumption of a certain cuisine through attachment with the food.
Sowden P, Eves A, Raats M (2016) A feast of creativity, The Journal of Creative Behavior 50 (3) pp. 169-170
This paper is part of a special issue of JCB devoted to work on creativity and food, guest edited by Dr. Paul Sowden, Dr. Anita Eves, and Professor Monique Raats, that follows on from the 2014 International Workshop on Understanding and Fostering Creativity in the Kitchen, held at the Institute of Advanced Studies, University of Surrey, UK. All articles have been peer reviewed by two reviewers.
The common presumption in food tourism that tourists are neophilic (seek novel taste), due to being ?attracted? to new food at destination, or neophobic (fear of unknown food), based on food as an ?impediment? (Cohen and Aveili, 2004), has recently been challenged, and it is suggested that tourists eating behaviour in uncertainty can be flexible and adaptive (Falconer, 2013). In an attempt to capture tourists? variety seeking behaviour (VSB) in uncertainty, this study aims to explore the role of emotion and impact on Western tourists? VSB with unfamiliar food in Malaysia. Additionally, elicitation factors of emotion are also examined. The study adopts ?culture confusion? and ?affect-heurist? theoretical constructs and extend them into a tourist food consumption framework.
Semi-structured interviews incorporating Critical Incident Technique (CIT) were carried out with fourty-four independent British and German tourists (N=44) to provide experiential patterns as a linkage to explore their emotions and variety seeking experiences. The data were collected between July and August 2014 and analysed through content analysis. The findings indicated that despite tourists? neophilic/ neophobic tendency, emotion plays a key role in directing tourists? variety seeking behaviour with unfamiliar food. Also, impact of emotion on VSB changes across time, transforming tourists? VSB dynamically. The findings indicate negative emotions affected perceived control negatively, which reduced VSB. Positive emotion increases perceived control, which heightened VSB. Four key factors that elicited emotions including ?food attributes?, ?intercultural service encounter?, ?bodily interference? and ?environment and social eating? were found. The study suggests that fast and rapid emotional affect influences Western tourists? VSB, in their effort to reduce perceived risk and increase perceived control. Finally a conceptual model was developed to illustrate the role and impact of emotion in the transformation of Western tourists? VSB into dynamic and fluid behaviour.
The gradually increasing numbers of international students known as ?sojourners? who stayed for a short period in the host country have received growing interest from academics, practitioners, and policymaker around the world. This was majorly due to the contribution from international students? fees and spending, and from the unique and subsequent changes in the culture and practice of this student group. However, for the international students, migration became a turning point for their independent life in the new country. The experience was more challenging because it required a personal commitment especially on food provisioning responsibilities and the development of a new food choice system alongside the stressful academic roles and responsibilities. Therefore, the context of international students? food adjustment experience or food acculturation received dedicated attention through this study.
Furthermore, this study aimed to explore the food acculturation process of new international students during the early phase of transition in the UK based on the life course perspective. The life course perspective takes into consideration the transition phase which is a very important turning point that influenced the food acculturation of the international students. Three objectives has been established for this study to explore the exposure, experience, and perception of new food choice in the UK; to identify the influences of life course perspective over food choice decision; and to examine the food acculturation process when adjusting and managing food provisioning practice at the early stage of transition.
Based on an interpretivist view, a series of qualitative approach was employed during the preliminary study and main data collection. The purpose was to allow access to the lived experiences of the students? new food choice process. The preliminary study adopted was focus group discussions using a sample of ten existing international students and the study was conducted from December 2012 until January 2013. The themes developed from the preliminary findings and the key issues generated from relevant literature were applied to develop the observation and interview protocol for the main study. Next, two qualitative inquiries of observed accompanied shop and in-depth interviews were applied for the main study using a sample of twenty new international students who just recently arrived at the UK. The main data collection began in October 2013 when the students first arrived and ended early of March 2014. The timeline allowed the occurrence of more food exposure and experience of new food choice, allowing patterns and changes of food acculturation to emerge over time.
The major themes identified from the preliminary study were the influence of life course perspective influences of new food choice, the food adjustment experiences, challenges and strategy, and food acculturation process during transition. The main findings concluded three main themes from the observed accompanied shop and in-depth interviews in accordance to this study?s objectives: (1) the exposure, experience and perception on the new food choice in the UK, (2) the Life Course influences on food choice decisions, and (3) the food acculturation process of international students.
The main findings showed that (1) migration was a turning point, which contributed towards the diverse representations of the international students? exposure, experience, and perception of new food choice; (2) the reliance and support system of the new food choice decision from co-national friends and online friendship network; (3) the diverse challenges in managing new roles and responsibilities of food provisioning practice, including grocery shopping, food preparation and cooking, and consumption practices, (4) the importance of self-efficacy and acquiring of food provisioning skills and competencies for a positive food adjustment experience, (5) the influence of Life Course
This study explores how ethnic restaurants serve their role as ?tourism at home?, by investigating customers? motivation to visit ethnic restaurants, especially in relation to tourism. This study adopted a grounded theory approach, using semi-structured interviews composed of two phases. The first phase of interviews was conducted with 18 British people who had experienced at least one of the four ethnic restaurants, Chinese, Japanese, Thai or Korean. The second phase of interviews was conducted with 12 British people who were actually visiting one of the origin countries of those restaurants, Korea, to see if people share the same motivation to visit ethnic restaurants as travel motivation. Six common motivational factors between visiting ethnic restaurants and travel (i.e., to change/ escape from the routine, to experience something new/ different, to experience and learn about another culture, curiosity/ desire to explore unknown, togetherness, and travelling itself) were established through findings, and the relationships between motivation to visit ethnic restaurants and tourism, and how they influence each other were identified.
This study evaluates the influences on food handlers? intention to conduct safe handling behaviours in food service settings in Brazil and the United Kingdom, focusing on Optimistic bias (OB). Although OB has been identified in food handlers in other studies, this is the first study evaluating the role of OB in determining behavioural intention. Three hundred participants, from the United Kingdom (n=150) and Brazil (n=150), completed a Theory of Planned Behaviour ? based questionnaire, including additional questions about OB. For Brazilian food handlers, Attitude had a significant influence on Behavioural Intention followed by Subjective Norm, while Perceived Behavioural Control and OB did not significantly influence Behavioural Intention. For the United Kingdom, Perceived Behavioural Control had the largest influence, followed by Attitude, and then OB. Results suggest that cultural differences may influence predictors of behavioural intention, and that OB can contribute to predicting engagement in safe handling behaviours. Results contribute to a better understanding of the influences on food safety related behaviours.