Chris France

Professor Chris France

CTA Director
+44 (0)1483 686683
16 BA 02

Academic and research departments

Centre for Environment and Sustainability.


My publications


Lee J, LLoyd S, Elghali L, Clifton A, France C (2011) Ecodesign through environmental risk management: A focus on critical materials, Proceedings of Ecodesign 2011: 7th International Symposium on environmentally conscious design and inverse manufacturing pp. 374-379
Wehrmeyer WCH, Nayar GA, Phillips CA, Crankshaw N, Marsh N, France C (2015) The efficacy of Safety Data Sheets in informing risk based decision making: A review of the aerospace sector, Journal of Chemical Health and Safety 23 (3) pp. 19-29 Elsevier
Safety Data Sheets are the primary source of hazard information on chemical substances and mixtures and are used to inform risk assessments. It is imperative to ascertain the quality of this primary source of information in informing risk based decision making. The content of Safety Data Sheets (SDS) is governed by regulatory requirements outlined under the Globally Harmonised System for the Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS). However, regulation in itself does not provide assurance of the quality of the content of the SDS. This study assesses and creates an awareness of the quality of Safety Data Sheets and establishes the criteria for ranking the quality of various sections in the SDS. 200 Safety Data Sheets have been selected from the aerospace sector and assessed for their quality. A review of the 200 SDS has identified significant statistical differences between the various sections of the SDS and the quality of information between hazardous and non-hazardous chemicals. The data analysis suggests a limited impact of GHS and REACH, Annex II Regulations on the overall quality of content of the Safety Data Sheets.
France C, Wehrmeyer W, Leitner A (2010) The impact of regulation and policy on radical eco-innovation: The need for a new understanding, Management Research Review 33 (11)
Webb A, Mayers K, France C, Koomey J (2013) Estimating the energy use of high definition games consoles, ENERGY POLICY 61 pp. 1412-1421 ELSEVIER SCI LTD
Geldermann J, Schollenberger H, Rentz O, Huppes G, van Oers L, France C, Nebel B, Clift R, Lipkova A, Saetta S, Desideri U, May T (2007) An integrated scenario analysis for the metal coating sector in Europe, TECHNOLOGICAL FORECASTING AND SOCIAL CHANGE 74 (8) pp. 1482-1507 ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC
Lloyd S, Lee J, Clifton A, Elghali L, France C (2012) Recommendations for assessing materials criticality, Proceedings of Institution of Civil Engineers: Waste and Resource Management 165 (4) pp. 191-200
This paper provides recommendations for assessing the criticality of materials (metals and non-fuel minerals), including the need for context-dependent assessment methods, providing a framework for conducting criticality assessments. Materials criticality captures concerns over the accessibility of materials, as the product of assessing a material's 'supply risk' and the impact of a supply restriction. Through a review of selected studies, problems with criticality assessments are discussed, highlighting how these become particularly important when the results of assessments are used in decision making. Considering how the results of criticality assessments are used in decision making highlights how criticality exhibits some of the characteristics of a 'complex context'. Building on predefined attributes of effective decision support in complex contexts, recommendations are made on how these problems can be addressed to better assess criticality in the future. These also include building on metric-based assessment methods by developing scenarios of future material supply and demand.
Atkinson G, Doick K, Burningham K, France C (2014) Brownfield regeneration to greenspace: Delivery of project objectives for social and environmental gain, URBAN FORESTRY & URBAN GREENING 13 (3) pp. 586-594 ELSEVIER GMBH, URBAN & FISCHER VERLAG
Clift R, France C (2006) Extended Producer Responsibility in the EU - A visible march of folly, JOURNAL OF INDUSTRIAL ECOLOGY 10 (4) pp. 5-7 M I T PRESS
Lloyd S, Clifton A, Lee J, Elghali L, France C (2012) A framework for environmental risk management, AERONAUTICAL JOURNAL 116 (1183) pp. 941-961 ROYAL AERONAUTICAL SOC
Williams D, Elghali L, Wheeler R, France C (2012) Climate change influence on building lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions: Case study of a UK mixed-use development, ENERGY AND BUILDINGS 48 pp. 112-126 ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA
Peagam R, McIntyre K, Basson L, France C (2013) Business-to-Business Information Technology User Practices at End of Life in the United Kingdom, Germany, and France, JOURNAL OF INDUSTRIAL ECOLOGY 17 (2) pp. 224-237 WILEY-BLACKWELL
Carter DT, Stansfield N, Mantle RJ, France CM, Smith PA (2008) An investigation of epoxidised linseed oil as an alternative to PVC in flooring applications, INDUSTRIAL CROPS AND PRODUCTS 28 (3) pp. 309-319 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Sealy I, Wehrmeyer W, France C, Leach M (2010) Sustainable development management systems in global business organizations, Management Research Review 33 (11) pp. 1083-1096
Mayers K, Peagam R, France C, Basson L, Clift R (2011) Redesigning the Camel The European WEEE Directive, JOURNAL OF INDUSTRIAL ECOLOGY 15 (1) pp. 4-8 WILEY-BLACKWELL
Mayers K, Koomey J, Hall R, Bauer M, France C, Webb A (2015) The Carbon Footprint of Games Distribution, JOURNAL OF INDUSTRIAL ECOLOGY 19 (3) pp. 402-415 WILEY-BLACKWELL
Clift R, Sim S, King H, Chenoweth JL, Christie IP, Clavreul J, Mueller C, Posthuma L, Boulay A, Chaplin-Kramer R, Chatterton J, DeClerck F, Druckman A, France CM, Franco A, Gerten D, Goedkoop M, Hauschild M, Huijbregts M, Koellner T, Lambin E, Lee J, Mair SJ, Marshall S, McLachlan M, Milà i Canals L, Mitchell C, Price E, Rockström J, Suckling JR, Murphy RJ (2017) The Challenges of Applying Planetary Boundaries as a Basis for Strategic Decision-Making in Companies with Global Supply Chains, Sustainability 9 (2) MDPI
The Planetary Boundaries (PB) framework represents a significant advance in specifying the ecological constraints on human development. However, to enable decision-makers in business and public policy to respect these constraints in strategic planning, the PB framework needs to be developed to generate practical tools. With this objective in mind, we analyse the recent literature and highlight three major scientific and technical challenges in operationalizing the PB approach in decision-making: first, identification of thresholds or boundaries with associated metrics for different geographical scales; second, the need to frame approaches to allocate fair shares in the ?safe operating space? bounded by the PBs across the value chain and; third, the need for international bodies to co-ordinate the implementation of the measures needed to respect the Planetary Boundaries. For the first two of these challenges, we consider how they might be addressed for four PBs: climate change, freshwater use, biosphere integrity and chemical pollution and other novel entities. Four key opportunities are identified: (1) development of a common system of metrics that can be applied consistently at and across different scales; (2) setting ?distance from boundary? measures that can be applied at different scales; (3) development of global, preferably open-source, databases and models; and (4) advancing understanding of the interactions between the different PBs. Addressing the scientific and technical challenges in operationalizing the planetary boundaries needs be complemented with progress in addressing the equity and ethical issues in allocating the safe operating space between companies and sectors.
Aslan Joshua, Mayers K, Koomey JG, France Christopher (2017) Electricity Intensity of Internet Data Transmission: Untangling the Estimates, Journal of Industrial Ecology 22 (4) pp. 785-798 Wiley
In order to understand the electricity use of Internet services, it is important to have accurate estimates for the average electricity intensity of transmitting data through the Internet (measured as kilowatt-hours per gigabyte [kWh/GB]). This study identifies representative estimates for the average electricity intensity of fixed-line Internet transmission networks over time and suggests criteria for making accurate estimates in the future. Differences in system boundary, assumptions used, and year to which the data apply significantly affect such estimates. Surprisingly, methodology used is not a major source of error, as has been suggested in the past. This article derives criteria to identify accurate estimates over time and provides a new estimate of 0.06 kWh/GB for 2015. By retroactively applying our criteria to existing studies, we were able to determine that the electricity intensity of data transmission (core and fixed-line access networks) has decreased by half approximately every 2 years since 2000 (for developed countries), a rate of change comparable to that found in the efficiency of computing more generally.

Additional publications