Dr Dan Jackson

Senior Research Fellow in Health Economics (part time)
+44 (0)1483 682947


My qualifications

BSc (Hons) Economics
University of York
MSc in Health Economics
University of Yrok
PhD in Health Economics
University of Surrey



Siya Lodhia, Victoria Pegna, Ruth Abrams, Daniel Jackson, Timothy A Rockall, Chantelle Rizan (2024)Improving environmental sustainability of operating theatres: a systematic review of staff attitudes, barriers, and enablers

Objective To understand views of staff in relation to attitudes, enablers, and barriers to implementation of environmentally sustainable surgery in operating theatres. This will ultimately help in the goal of successfully implementing more sustainable theatres. Summary Background Global healthcare sectors are responsible for 4.4% of greenhouse gas emissions. Surgical operating theatres are resource intensive areas and improvements will be important to meet Net-Zero carbon emissions within healthcare. Methods Three databases were searched (Web of Science, Ovid and PubMed), last check January 2024. We included original manuscripts evaluating staff views regarding sustainable operating theatres. The Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool was used for quality appraisal and data analysed using thematic synthesis. Results 2933 articles were screened and 14 fulfilled inclusion criteria, using qualitative (1), quantitative (2), and mixed methods (11). Studies were undertaken in a variety of clinical (Department of Anaesthesia, Surgery, Otolaryngology, Obstetrics & Gynaecology and Ophthalmology) and geographical settings (Australia, Canada, France, Germany, New Zealand, USA, UK & Ireland,). Across studies there was a lack of evidence exploring enablers to implementation, but barriers mainly related to the following themes: education and awareness, leadership, resistance to change, facilities and equipment, time, and incentive. Conclusion This systematic review identified attitudes and barriers perceived by clinicians towards improving environmental sustainability within operating theatres, which may inform future strategy towards sustainable surgery. Most studies used a survey-design, whereas use of interviews may provide deeper insights. Future work should be extended to wider stakeholders influencing operating theatres. Additionally, implementation studies should be carried out to examine whether barriers do change in practice.

Nicola Walsh, Serena Halls, Rachel Thomas, Alice Berry, Cathy Liddiard, Margaret Elizabeth Cupples, Heather Gage, Dan Jackson, Fiona Cramp, Hannah Stott, Paula Kersten, Justin Jagosh, Dave Foster, Peter Williams (2024)First Contact Physiotherapy: An evaluation of clinical effectiveness and costs, In: British Journal of General Practice Royal College of General Practitioners

Background: First Contact Physiotherapy Practitioners (FCPPs) are embedded within general practice, providing expert assessment, diagnosis and management plans for patients with musculoskeletal disorders (MSKDs), without the prior need for GP consultation. Aim: To determine the clinical effectiveness and costs of FCPP-led compared to GP-led models of care. Design and Setting: Multiple site case study design. UK GP practices. Method: General Practice sites were recruited representing three models: 1. GP-led care; 2. FCPPs who could not prescribe/inject (Standard (St)); 3. FCPPs who could prescribe/inject (Additional Qualifications (AQ)). Patient participants from each site completed clinical outcome data at baseline, 3 and 6 months. The primary outcome was the SF-36v.2 Physical Component Score (PCS). Healthcare usage was collected for 6 months. Results: N=426 adults were recruited from 46 practices across the UK. Non-inferiority analysis showed no significant difference in physical function (SF36-PCS) across all three arms at 6 months (p=0.999). At 3 months a significant difference in numbers improving was seen between arms: 54.7% GP consultees; 72.4% FCPP-St, 66.4% FCPP-AQ; (p=0.037). No safety issues were identified. Following initial consultation, a greater proportion of patients received medication (including opioids) in the GP-led arm (44.7%) compared with FCPP-St (17.5%) and FCPP-AQ (22.8%); (p

Jo Widdicombe, Maria-Gloria Basanez, Mahbod Entezami, Daniel Jackson, Edmundo Larrieu, Joaquin M. Prada (2022)The economic evaluation of Cystic echinococcosis control strategies focused on zoonotic hosts: A scoping review, In: PLoS neglected tropical diseases16(7)pp. e0010568-e0010568 Public Library Science

Background Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a zoonotic neglected tropical disease (zNTD) which imposes considerable financial burden to endemic countries. The 2021-2030 World Health Organization's roadmap on NTDs has proposed that intensified control be achieved in hyperendemic areas of 17 countries by 2030. Successful interventions for disease control, and the scale-up of programmes applying such interventions, rely on understanding the associated costs and relative return for investment. We conducted a scoping review of existing peerreviewed literature on economic evaluations of CE control strategies focused on Echinococcus granulosus zoonotic hosts. Methodology/Principal findings Database searches of Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science, CABI Direct and JSTOR were conducted and comprehensively reviewed in March 2022, using predefined search criteria with no date, field or language restrictions. A total of 100 papers were initially identified and assessed for eligibility against strict inclusion and exclusion criteria, following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR) guidelines. Bibliography review of included manuscripts was used to identify additional literature. Full review of the final manuscript selection (n = 9) was performed and cost data for control interventions were extracted. Conclusions/Significance There are very little published data pertaining to the cost and cost effectiveness of CE control interventions targeting its zoonotic hosts. Data given for costs are often incomplete, thus we were unable to perform an economic analysis and cost effectiveness study, highlighting a pressing need for this information. There is much scope for future work in this area. More detailed information and disaggregated costings need to be collected and made available. This would increase the accuracy of any cost-effective analyses to be performed and allow for a greater understanding of the opportunity cost of healthcare decisions and resource allocation by stakeholders and policy makers for effective and cost-effective CE control. Author summary Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a zoonotic neglected tropical disease which predominantly affects poor pastoral communities globally. The parasite cycles between farm dogs and livestock, and is associated with livestock farming and feeding of infected offal to dogs. Although no noticeable clinical signs are seen in livestock, some production losses, such as reduced milk yield and live weight gain may be observed, and offal condemnation at slaughter is common. The disease can also affect people, due to accidental ingestion of parasite eggs on contaminated food and contact with dogs. Human morbidity and mortality occur due to cyst formation in body organs, exerting a substantial health and financial burden to the health sector of affected countries. Control interventions to reduce CE transmission include sheep vaccination and dog deworming. Long-term control programmes are often expensive, and the true costs of such programmes poorly documented. This scoping review aims to examine published literature on the costs of CE control in zoonotic hosts and report detailed costs of individual elements of a control programme, thereby furthering our understanding of the true economic cost of CE control.

D Jackson, J Moshinsky, AJ Begg (2009)Addressing shortfalls in TIA care in the UK: An economic perspective, In: Journal of Medical Economics12(4)pp. 331-338
H Cheng, F Rupprecht, DL Jackson, T Berg, MH Seelig (2007)Decision analysis model of incisional hernia after open abdominal surgery, In: Hernia : the journal of hernias and abdominal wall surgery11(2)pp. 129-137 Springer-Verlag

Background The incidence rate of incisional hernias after open surgery has been reported to be higher than that of port site hernias after laparoscopic surgery. No studies have compared the costs for the health care system in treating those two types of hernia. Methods A systematic review was conducted to obtain the baseline data, and a decision analysis model was created to simulate the occurrence and recurrence of incisional and port site hernias. Results The overall risk of having incisional hernias was eight-times higher than that of having port site hernias (7.4% vs 0.9%). A cost savings of £93 per patient can be generated for the health care system in the UK. Similar results were obtained for Germany, Italy and France. Conclusions The additional treatment costs for incisional hernia should be taken into account when the costs of a surgery performed by open approach are compared with by laparoscopy.

H Dowson, Heather Gage, DL Jackson, Y Qiao, P Williams, T Rockall (2012)Laparoscopic and Open Colorectal Surgery: A Prospective Cost Analysis, In: Colorectal Disease

H. Dowson, H. Gage, D. Jackson Y. Qiao, P. Williams, T. Rockall

J Jordan, H Dowson, Heather Gage, Daniel Jackson, T Rockall (2014)Laparoscopic versus open colorectal resection for cancer and polyps: a cost-effectiveness study., In: Clinicoecon Outcomes Res6pp. 415-422 Dove Medical Press

BACKGROUND: Available evidence that compares outcomes from laparoscopic and open surgery for colorectal cancer shows no difference in disease free or survival time, or in health-related quality of life outcomes, but does not capture the short term benefits of laparoscopic methods in the early postoperative period. AIM: To explore the cost-effectiveness of laparoscopic colorectal surgery, compared to open methods, using quality of life data gathered in the first 6 weeks after surgery. METHODS: Participants were recruited in 2006-2007 in a district general hospital in the south of England; those with a diagnosis of cancer or polyps were included in the analysis. Quality of life data were collected using EQ-5D, on alternate days after surgery for 4 weeks. Costs per patient, from a National Health Service perspective (in British pounds, 2006) comprised the sum of operative, hospital, and community costs. Missing data were filled using multiple imputation methods. The difference in mean quality adjusted life years and costs between surgery groups were estimated simultaneously using a multivariate regression model applied to 20 imputed datasets. The probability that laparoscopic surgery is cost-effective compared to open surgery for a given societal willingness-to-pay threshold is illustrated using a cost-effectiveness acceptability curve. RESULTS: The sample comprised 68 laparoscopic and 27 open surgery patients. At 28 days, the incremental cost per quality adjusted life year gained from laparoscopic surgery was £12,375. At a societal willingness-to-pay of £30,000, the probability that laparoscopic surgery is cost-effective, exceeds 65% (at £20,000 ≈60%). In sensitivity analyses, laparoscopic surgery remained cost-effective compared to open surgery, provided it results in a saving ≥£699 in hospital bed days and takes no more than 8 minutes longer to perform. CONCLUSION: The study provides formal evidence of the cost-effectiveness of laparoscopic approaches and supports current guidelines that promote use of laparoscopy where suitably trained surgeons are available.

Y Zhang, M Plested, A-M Chapman, D Jackson, F Purroy (2012)The incidence, prevalence, and mortality of stroke in France, Germany, Italy, Spain, the UK, and the US: A literature review, In: Stroke Research and Treatment

Background. Although the burden of stroke in terms of mortality and disability has been well documented in previous years, data after 2000 are limited. Therefore, the aim of this paper was to identify the epidemiology of stroke in the US and EU5 nations from data published in 2000 and later. Methods. Data from literature databases and online sources were collated to identify information relating to the incidence, prevalence, and mortality of stroke from the year 2000 onwards. Results and Conclusions. Twenty-three data sources were identified. The incidence of and mortality due to stroke both increase with age and are greater in males compared to females. Stroke is a common problem and likely to worsen in the US and EU5 as their populations age. However, pre-2000 trends of decreasing stroke mortality over time have continued after 2000, reflecting a consistent improvement in the treatment and care of patients with stroke. Copyright 2012 Younan Zhang et al.

F Carones, MC Knorz, D Jackson, A Samiian (2014)Influence of co-payment levels on patient and surgeon acceptance of advanced technology intraocular lenses., In: J Refract Surg30(4)pp. 278-281

PURPOSE: To investigate patients' willingness to pay for advanced technology intraocular lenses and surgeons' willingness to recommend them. METHODS: In this study, 370 cataract surgeons and 700 patients undergoing cataract surgery from seven countries underwent online interviews in which they were shown unbranded profiles of three advanced technology intraocular lenses (ie, biconvex toric aspheric optic, symmetric biconvex diffractive optic, and biconvex diffractive aspheric toric) and asked to indicate their willingness to accept (for patients) or suggest (for surgeons) each lens. Acceptance was assessed assuming there was either no co-payment or co-payments of €500 to €1,500 +15%. RESULTS: All three lenses were widely accepted by patients, with 68% to 99% indicating acceptance when there was no co-payment. In contrast, surgeons' willingness to suggest them was markedly lower (20% to 43%). Both patients' acceptance of the lenses and surgeons' willingness to suggest them decreased with increasing co-payment levels to 19% to 74% (patients) and 5% to 31% (surgeons) at the highest co-payment levels. CONCLUSIONS: There is a marked discrepancy between patients' acceptance of the three lenses and surgeons' willingness to suggest them. Although patients' acceptance is high, it decreases with increasing out-of-pocket expenditure. Manufacturers should communicate the relative benefits and costs of their lenses to both surgeons and patients.

A Jäkel, M Plested, A-M Chapman, D Jackson, F Purroy (2012)Management of patients with transient ischemic attack: Insight from real-life clinical practice in Europe and the United States, In: Current Medical Research and Opinion28(3)pp. 429-437
DL Jackson, CW Proudfoot, KF Cann, TS Walsh (2009)The incidence of sub-optimal sedation in the ICU: a systematic review., In: Crit Care13(6)pp. R204-R204 BioMed Central

Patients in intensive care units (ICUs) are generally sedated for prolonged periods. Over-sedation and under-sedation both have negative effects on patient safety and resource use. We conducted a systematic review of the literature in order to establish the incidence of sub-optimal sedation (both over- and under-sedation) in ICUs.

HM Dowson, TA Rockall, K Ballard, H Gage, D Jackson, P Williams (2013)Quality of life in the first 6 weeks following laparoscopic and open colorectal surgery, In: Value in Health16(2)pp. 367-372

Objectives: Evidence of how health-related quality of life (HRQOL) changes following laparoscopic and open colorectal surgery in the first 6 weeks of postoperative recovery is needed to inform cost-effectiveness evaluations. Methods: Pragmatic prospective cohort study design. Consecutive patients requiring elective colorectal surgery were allocated to either laparoscopic or open surgery by administrative staff in a district general hospital in England, 2006-2007. Patients completed two validated, generic measures of HRQOL at baseline (preoperatively) and on multiple occasions in the first 6 weeks postsurgery using diaries (EuroQol five-dimensional [EQ-5D] questionnaire: 16 times; short-form 36 health survey [SF-36]: 4 times; HRQOL was compared between groups at each time point, and overall using repeated-measures analysis. Results: Of 201 consecutive patients recruited, 32 (15.1%) were unable to complete diaries. Of the remaining 169 patients, 120 (71%) returned completed diaries at 28 days and 105 (62.1%) at 42 days. There was no difference in preoperative HRQOL scores between surgical groups, but the postoperative EQ-5D questionnaire and SF-36 scores were significantly higher in the laparoscopic group (EQ-5D questionnaire P = 0.005, SF-36 P = 0.007). Subgroup analysis showed that patients with a stoma have worse HRQOL than those without. HRQOL did not differ between the laparoscopic and open stoma patients. Conclusions: This study presents unique prospective data demonstrating that laparoscopic surgery confers HRQOL benefits for patients in the early recovery period following colorectal surgery, compared with open surgery. Consideration of these data in the context of a cost-effectiveness analysis will be reported separately. © 2013 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR).

PURPOSE: To evaluate uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA) as well as uncorrected near visual acuity (UNVA) as outcomes in treating presbyopic cataract patients to assist clinicians and ophthalmologists in their decision-making process regarding available interventions. METHODS: Medline, Embase, and Evidence Based Medicine Reviews were systematically reviewed to identify studies reporting changes in UDVA and UNVA after cataract surgery in presbyopic patients. Strict inclusion/exclusion criteria were used to exclude any studies not reporting uncorrected visual acuity in a presbyopic population with cataracts implanted with multifocal intraocular lenses (IOLs). Relevant outcomes (UDVA and UNVA) were identified from the studies retrieved through the systematic review process. RESULTS: Twenty-nine studies were identified that reported uncorrected visual acuities, including one study that reported uncorrected intermediate visual acuity. Nine brands of multifocal IOLs were identified in the search. All studies identified in the literature search reported improvements in UDVA and UNVA following multifocal IOL implantation. The largest improvements in visual acuity were reported using the Rayner M-Flex lens (Rayner Intraocular Lenses Ltd) (UDVA, binocular: 1.05 logMAR, monocular: 0.92 logMAR; UNVA, binocular and monocular: 0.83 logMAR) and the smallest improvements were reported using the Acri.LISA lens (Carl Zeiss Meditec) (UDVA, 0.21 decimal; UNVA, 0.51 decimal). CONCLUSIONS: The results of this systematic review show the aggregate of studies reporting a beneficial increase in UDVA and UNVA with the use of multifocal IOLs in cataract patients with presbyopia, hence providing evidence to support the hypothesis that multifocal IOLs increase UDVA and UNVA in cataract patients.

D Jackson, SR Earnshaw, R Farkouh, L Schwamm (2010)Cost-effectiveness of CT perfusion for selecting patients for intravenous thrombolysis: A US hospital perspective, In: American Journal of Neuroradiology31(9)pp. 1669-1674
Wei Yang, Heather Gage, Daniel Jackson, Monique Raats (2017)The effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of plant sterol or stanol-enriched functional foods as a primary prevention strategy for people with cardiovascular disease risk in England: a modeling study, In: The European Journal of Health Economics19pp. 909-922 Springer Verlag

This study appraises the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of consumption of plant sterol-enriched margarine-type spreads for the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in people with hypercholesterolemia in England, compared to a normal diet. A nested Markov model was employed using the perspective of the British National Health Service (NHS). Effectiveness outcomes were the 10-year CVD risk of individuals with mild (4–6 mmol/l) and high (above 6 mmol/l) cholesterol by gender and age groups (45–54, 55–64, 65–74, 75–85 years); CVD events avoided and QALY gains over 20 years. This study found that daily consumption of enriched spread reduces CVD risks more for men and older age groups. Assuming 50% compliance, 69 CVD events per 10,000 men and 40 CVD events per 10,000 women would be saved over 20 years. If the NHS pays the excess cost of enriched spreads, for the high-cholesterol group, the probability of enriched spreads being cost-effective is 100% for men aged over 64 years and women over 74, at £20,000/QALY threshold. Probabilities of cost-effectiveness are lower at younger ages, with mildly elevated cholesterol and over a 10-year time horizon. If consumers bear the full cost of enriched spreads, NHS savings arise from reduced CVD events.

DL Jackson, CW Proudfoot, KF Cann, T Walsh (2010)A systematic review of the impact of sedation practice in the ICU on resource use, costs and patient safety., In: Crit Care14(2)pp. R59-?

Patients in intensive care units (ICUs) often receive sedation for prolonged periods. In order to better understand the impact of sub-optimal sedation practice on outcomes, we performed a systematic review, including observational studies and controlled trials which were conducted in sedated patients in the ICU and which compared the impact of changes in or different protocols for sedation management on economic and patient safety outcomes.

Background: Cataracts are a common and significant cause of visual impairment globally. We aimed to evaluate uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA) as an outcome in treating astigmatic cataract patients to assist clinicians or ophthalmologists in their decision making process regarding available interventions. Methods. Medline, Embase and Evidence Based Reviews were systematically reviewed to identify relevant studies reporting changes in UDVA, UIVA and UNVA after cataract surgery in presbyopic patients. Strict inclusion/exclusion criteria were used to exclude any non-relevant studies. Relevant outcomes (UDVA, UIVA and UNVA) were identified from the studies retrieved through the systematic review process. Results: The systematic review identified 11 studies which reported UCVA. All 11 studies reported UDVA. Four brands of toric intraocular lenses (IOLs) were reported in these studies. All studies identified in the literature search reported improvements in UDVA following surgical implant of a toric IOL. The largest improvements in VA were reported using the Human Optics MicroSil toric IOL (0.74 LogMAR, UDVA) and the smallest improvements were also reported using the Human Optics MicroSil toric IOL (0.23 LogMAR, UDVA) in a different study. Conclusions: The results of this systematic review showed the aggregate of studies reporting a beneficial increase in UDVA with the use of toric IOLs in cataract patients with astigmatism. © 2012Agresta et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

D Cunningham, S Falk, DL Jackson (2002)Clinical and economic benefits of irinotecan in combination with 5-fluorouracil and folinic acid as first line treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer, In: British Journal of Cancer86(11)pp. 1677-1683 Nature Publishing Group

The combination of irinotecan plus 5-fluorouracil and folinic acid has clinical and survival benefits over 5-fluorouracil and folinic acid alone in the setting of first line treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer. The aim of this cost-effectiveness analysis was to compare the economic implications, from a UK health commissioner perspective, of the two treatment arms (de Gramont regimen) in this setting. Resource utilisation data collected prospectively during the study were used as a basis for estimating cumulative drug dosage, chemotherapy admistration, and treatment of complications during first line therapy. Resource utilisation associated with further chemotherapy in patients who had progressed during the study was derived from a retrospective case note review. Drug acquisition costs were derived from the British National Formulary (September, 2001) and unit costs for clinical consultation and services were taken from the latest relevant cost database. Cumulative costs per patient associated with further chemotherapy were lower in the irinotecan plus 5-fluorouracil and folinic acid treatment arm. Based on incremental costs per life-year gained of £14794, the combination of irinotecan plus 5-fluorouracil and folinic acid can be considered cost-effective by commonly accepted criteria compared with 5-fluorouracil and folinic acid alone. Thus, clinical and economic data demonstrate that irinotecan, either in combination with irinotecan plus 5-fluorouracil and folinic acid in the first line setting or as monotherapy in the second line setting, has a major role in the management of metastatic colorectal cancer.

K Laughlan, DG Jayne, DL Jackson, F Rupprecht, G Ribaric (2009)Stapled haemorrhoidopexy compared to Milligan–Morgan and Ferguson haemorrhoidectomy: a systematic review, In: International Journal of Colorectal Disease: clinical and molecular gastroenterology and surgery24(3)pp. 335-344 Springer-Verlag

Purpose The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of the short- and long-term outcomes of stapled haemorrhoidopexy.Methods A literature search identified randomised controlled trials comparing stapled haemorrhoidopexy with Milligan–Morgan/Ferguson haemorrhoidectomy. Data were extracted independently for each study and differences analysed with fixed and random effects models.Results Thirty-four randomised trials and two systematic reviews were identified, and 29 trials included. Stapled haemorrhoidopexy was statistically superior for hospital stay (p 

K Laughlan, DG Jayne, DL Jackson, F Rupprecht, G Ribaric (2009)Staplerhämorrhoidopexie im Vergleich zur Milligan-Morgan-und Ferguson-Hämorrhoidektomie: ein systematisches Review, In: Coloproctology31pp. 81-92 Urban and Vogel

Fragestellung: Ziel dieser Studie war, ein systematisches Review und eine Metaanalyse der Kurz- und Langzeitergebnisse der Staplerhämorrhoidopexie durchzuführen. Patienten und Methodik: Mit einer Literatursuche wurden randomisierte, kontrollierte Studien zum Vergleich von Staplerhämorrhoidopexie und Milligan-Morgan-/ Ferguson-Hämorrhoidektomie abgefragt. Die Daten wurden für jede Studie einzeln entnommen und die Unterschiede mit Fixed- und Random-Effects-Modellen analysiert. Ergebnisse: Es wurden 34 randomisierte Studien und zwei systematische Reviews gefunden; hiervon wurden 29 Studien eingeschlossen. Die Staplerhämorrhoidopexie erwies sich in Bezug auf den Klinikaufenthalt (p < 0,001) als statistisch signifikant überlegen und hinsichtlich der postoperativen Schmerzen (perioperativ und früh-postoperativ), der Operationsdauer sowie der Blutungen (postoperativ und spät-postoperativ) als numerisch überlegen. Nach der Staplerhämorrhoidopexie waren Prolapsrezidive und wiederholte Eingriffe aufgrund von Rezidiven häufiger. Bei den Komplikationsraten wurden keine Unterschiede beobachtet. Schlussfolgerung: Die Staplerhämorrhoidopexie reduziert die Dauer des Krankenhausaufenthalts und könnte einen Vorteil im Sinne einer kürzeren Operationsdauer, weniger postoperativer Schmerzen und geringerer Blutungen bieten, ist jedoch mit einer erhöhten Rate von Prolapsrezidiven assoziiert.

SR Earnshaw, C McDade, AM Chapman, D Jackson, L Schwamm (2012)Economic impact of using additional diagnostic tests to better select patients with stroke for intravenous thrombolysis in the United Kingdom., In: Clin Ther34(7)pp. 1544-1558

BACKGROUND: Eligibility for thrombolysis as an acute stroke treatment is determined through the use of unenhanced noncontrast computed tomography (CT), time since stroke onset, and patient history. Assessing penumbral patterns, which can be examined only through the use of diagnostic technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and perfusion CT (CTP), may be able to better select patients for thrombolysis. However, trade-offs in terms of administration time and cost may affect the value of using these diagnostic studies. OBJECTIVE: We examined the trade-offs among patient selection via usual care with CT, usual care plus MRI using diffusion-weighted and perfusion imaging, and usual care plus CTP for their effect on costs and outcomes when diagnosing stroke and selecting candidates for thrombolysis in the United Kingdom. METHODS: A decision-analytic model was developed. Efficacy and utilities were obtained from published studies. Costs were obtained from standard UK costing sources and were supplemented with data from the published literature. Outcomes included a favorable outcome (modified Rankin Scale score

M Harris, G Taylor, D Jackson (2014)Clinical Evidence Made Easy Scion Pub Limited

Clinical Evidence Made Easy will give those working in healthcare the tools to understand the information available to them from clinical data sources, which can otherwise be hard to decipher.

D Jackson (2012)Health Economics Made Easy Scion

If you are left bemused by terms such as QALY, health utility analysis and cost minimisation analysis, then this is the book for you!

G Tran, AD Burrell, DL Jackson (2000)Costs of failure of 1st line chemotherapy for advanced breast cancer in the UK, In: BRITISH JOURNAL OF CANCER83pp. 49-49 CHURCHILL LIVINGSTONE